Zhu, T.; Min, H.; Yu, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Xu, T.; Chen, Y.; Li, X.; Zhang, C. An Optimized Energy Management Strategy for Preheating Vehicle-Mounted Li-ion Batteries at Subzero Temperatures. Energies2017, 10, 243.
Zhu, T.; Min, H.; Yu, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Xu, T.; Chen, Y.; Li, X.; Zhang, C. An Optimized Energy Management Strategy for Preheating Vehicle-Mounted Li-ion Batteries at Subzero Temperatures. Energies 2017, 10, 243.
This paper presents an optimized energy management strategy for Li-ion power batteries used on electric vehicles (EVs) at low temperatures. Under low-temperature environments, EVs suffer a sharp driving range loss resulted from the energy and power capability reduction of the battery. Simultaneously, because of Li plating, battery degradation becomes an increasing concern as temperature drops. All these factors could greatly increase the total vehicle operation cost. Prior to battery charging and vehicle operating, preheating battery to a battery-friendly temperature is an approach to promote energy utilization and reduce total cost. Based on the proposed LiFePO4 battery model, the total vehicle operation cost under certain driving cycles is quantified in the present paper. Then given a certain ambient temperature, a target temperature of preheating is optimized under the principle of minimizing total cost. As for the preheating method, a liquid heating system is also implemented on an electric bus. Simulation results show that the preheating process becomes increasingly necessary with a decreasing ambient temperature; however, the preheating demand declines as driving range grows. Vehicle tests verify that the preheating management strategy proposed in this paper is able to save total vehicle operation cost.
electric vehicle; battery heat generation; battery degradation; vehicle operation cost; preheating target temperature; heating system
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.