ARTICLE Download: 7| View: 10| Comments: 1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Hydrostatic; Blade guides; Bandsaw; Diamond blade; Natural stone; Sawing
Online: 24 February 2020 (12:23:56 CET)
In a bandsaw machine the blade guides provide additional stiffness and help to align the blade near the cutting region. Typically these are either in form of blocks made of carbide or ceramics or as sealed bearings. Abrasive particles, generated while cutting hard and brittle materials like natural stones, settle between the contact surfaces of the guides and the blade causing wear and premature failure. The hydrostatic guide system as presented in this work, is a contactless blade guiding method that uses force of several pressurized water jets to align the blade to the direction of the cut. For this investigation, cutting tests were performed on a marble block using a galvanic diamond coated bandsaw blade with the upper roller guides replaced by hydrostatic guides. The results show that the hydrostatic guides help to reduce the passive force while cutting to a constant near zero in contrast to the traditional guides. This also resulted in reduced surface roughness of the stone plates that were cut indicating a reduction in lateral vibration of the band. Additionally, it has also been shown that using hydrostatic guides the bandsaw blade can be tilted to counter the bandsaw drift opening opportunities for further research in active alignment control. This original research work has shown that the hydrostatic guide systems are capable of replacing and in fact perform better than state of the art bearing or block guides particularly for stone cutting applications.
ARTICLE Download: 5| View: 10| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0344.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: flow regime transition; finite volume methods; numerical oscillations; numerical viscosity; Preissmann slot model
Online: 24 February 2020 (03:38:08 CET)
Transition between free-surface and pressurized flows is an crucial phenomenon in many hydraulic systems, including water distribution systems, urban drainage systems, etc. During the transition, the force exerted on the structures changes drastically, thus it is meaningful to simulate this process. However, severe numerical oscillations are widely observed behind filling-bores, causing unphysical pressure variations and even computation failure. In this paper, some oscillation-suppressing approaches are reviewed and evaluated on a benchmark model. Then a new oscillation-suppressing approach is proposed to admit numerical viscosity when the water surface is at proximity of conduct roof which has first order accuracy. This approach adds numerical viscosity when water surface is at the proximity of conduct roof. It can sufficiently suppress numerical oscillations under an acoustic wave speed of 1000m/s and is simple to apply. In comparison with two experiments, the simulation results of this method show good agreement and little numerical oscillations. The results in this paper can help readers to choose an appropriate oscillation-suppressing method to improve the robustness and accuracy of flow regime transition simulations.
Sun, 23 February 2020
ARTICLE Download: 18| View: 22| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0330.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: distributed generation; energy resource management; optimization; mixed-binary linear programming; smart buildings
Online: 23 February 2020 (15:30:01 CET)
Efficient alternatives in energy production and consumption are constantly investigated by increasingly strict policies. In this way, the pollutant emissions that contribute to the greenhouse effect reduce and sustainability of the electricity sector increase. With more than a third of the world's energy consumption, buildings have great potential to contribute these sustainability goals. Additionally, with growing incentives in the Distributed Generation (DG) and Electric Vehicle (EV) industry, it is believed that Smart Buildings (SBs) can be a key in the field of residential energy sustainability in the future. In this work, an energy management system in SBs are developed to reduce the power demanded of a residential building. In order to balance the demand and power provided by the grid, microgrids such as Battery Energy Storage System (BESS), EVs and Photovoltaic Generation panels (PV) are used. Here, a Mixed Binary Linear Programming formulation (MBLP) is proposed to optimize the charge and discharge scheduling of EVs and also BESS. In order to show the efficiency of the model, a case study involving three scenarios and an economic analysis is considered. The results point a 65% reduction in peak load consumption supplied by grid and a 28.4% reduction in electricity consumption costs.
ARTICLE Download: 14| View: 43| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0314.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: phase load balancing; smart meters; dynamic optimization; on-line implementation; low voltage electric distribution networks
Online: 23 February 2020 (10:14:51 CET)
In the electric distribution systems, the “Smart Grid” concept is implemented to encourage energy savings and integration of the innovative technologies, helping the Distribution Network Operators (DNOs) in choosing the investment plans which to lead the optimal operation of the networks and increasing the energy efficiency. In this context, a new phase load balancing algorithm was proposed to be implemented in the low voltage distribution networks with hybrid structures of the consumption points (switchable and non-switchable consumers). It can work in both operation modes (on-line and off-line), uploading information from different databases of the DNO which contain: the consumers’ characteristics, the real loads of the consumers integrated into the Smart Metering System (SMS), and the typical load profiles for the consumers non-integrated in the SMS. The algorithm was tested in a real network, having a hybrid structure of the consumption points, on a time interval by 24 hours. The obtained results were analyzed and compared with other algorithms from the heuristic (Minimum Count of Loads Adjustment algorithm) and the metaheuristic (Particle Swarm Optimization and Genetic Algorithms) categories. The best performances were provided by the proposed algorithm, such that the unbalance coefficient resulted in the smallest value (1.0017). The phase load balancing led to the following technical effects: decreasing the average current in the neutral conductor with 94% and for the energy losses with 61.75 %, and increasing the minimum value of the phase voltage at the farthest pillar with the 7.14 %, compared to the unbalanced case.
ARTICLE Download: 8| View: 22| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0312.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: recycling; concrete waste; wooden waste; heating compaction; bending strength
Online: 23 February 2020 (09:28:21 CET)
A large amount of concrete waste is generated around the world and its recycling is an urgent issue. In this research, a new approach to recycle concrete waste with wooden waste was studied. Concrete and wooden wastes were crushed, mixed, and heat compacted to produce plates with different water contents and mix proportions at various temperatures, pressures, and durations of compaction. The bending strength of the plates was measured after compaction. The result indicated that with an increase in the percentage of wooden waste in the mixture, pressure, or temperature improved the bending strength. The increase in water content reduced the bending strength. Most of the products exhibited higher bending strength than that of ordinary concrete.
Fri, 21 February 2020
ARTICLE Download: 9| View: 30| Comments: 0
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: KPIs; offshore structural integrity; Bowtie; FAHP
Online: 21 February 2020 (07:42:14 CET)
Leading and lagging Key performance indicators (KPIs) provide a means for assurance that risk control systems, to prevent or limit major hazards. The relative importance degree of KPIs provides a theorical guidance for monitoring, inspection and maintenance of structural integrity. In this paper, structural integrity KPIs are classified into leading and lagging KPIs based on Bowtie methodology and the importance degree of the KPIs are evaluated by weight calculation on the basis of Fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP).
ESSAY Download: 21| View: 57| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0298.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: photovoltaics; solar energy; Father Verspieren; solar energy in Africa; solar economy; solar pump
Online: 21 February 2020 (02:29:52 CET)
Almost fifty years after the first installations, I identify the main lessons learned from fighting drought and poverty in Africa with direct solar-powered pumps thanks to Father Bernard Verspieren and Mali Aqua Viva. Six main findings and three main recommendations emerge from the present analysis which are of direct relevance to all Africa’s countries whose population has gone from 438 million in 1977 to 1308 million in 2019, with about 600 million still having no access to electricity. In place of “awareness campaigns”, I recommend to organize practice-oriented workshops on solar-powered irrigation and rainwater harvesting held by professional educators of newly established solar energy national institutes. In agreement with today’s expanded approach to education in solar energy, and with the key adult learning principle of motivation to learn, said education will include the economic and social aspects of distributed “generation” of energy and water from sunlight and rainfall.
Thu, 20 February 2020
ARTICLE Download: 43| View: 51| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0295.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: cyber-power network; distribution system reliability; FMEA; reliability assessment; risk priority number (RPN); Smart Grid
Online: 20 February 2020 (08:33:27 CET)
Reliability assessment in traditional power distribution systems has played a key role in power system planning, design, and operation. Recently, new information and communication technologies have been introduced in power systems automation and asset management, making the distribution network even more complex. In order to achieve efficient energy management, the distribution grid has to adopt a new configuration and operational conditions that are changing the paradigm of the actual electrical system. Therefore, the emergence of the cyber-physical systems concept to face future energetic needs requires alternative approaches for evaluating the reliability of modern distribution systems, especially in the smart grids environment. In this paper, a reliability approach that makes use of failure modes of power and cyber network main components is proposed to evaluate risk analysis in smart electrical distribution systems. We introduce the application of Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) method in future smart grid systems in order to establish the impact of different failure modes on their performance. A smart grid test system is defined and failure modes and their effects for both power and the cyber components are presented. Preventive maintenance tasks are proposed and systematized to minimize the impact of high-risk failures and increase reliability.
ARTICLE Download: 19| View: 25| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0294.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: bitmap indexing; processing in memory; memory wall; Big Data; Internet Of Things
Online: 20 February 2020 (08:24:48 CET)
To live in the information society means to be surrounded by billions of electronic devices full of sensors that constantly acquire data. This enormous amount of data must be processed and classified. A solution commonly adopted is to send these data to server farms to be remotely elaborated. The drawback is a huge battery drain due to high amount of information that must be exchanged. To compensate this problem data must be processed locally, near the sensor itself. But this solution requires huge computational capabilities. While microprocessors, even mobile ones, nowadays have enough computational power, their performance are severely limited by the Memory Wall problem. Memories are too slow, so microprocessors cannot fetch enough data from them, greatly limiting their performance. A solution is the Processing-In-Memory (PIM) approach. New memories are designed that are able to elaborate data inside them eliminating the Memory Wall problem. In this work we present an example of such system, using as a case of study the Bitmap Indexing algorithm. Such algorithm is used to classify data coming from many sources in parallel. We propose an hardware accelerator designed around the Processing-In-Memory approach, that is capable of implementing this algorithm and that can also be reconfigured to do other tasks or to work as standard memory. The architecture has been synthesized using CMOS technology. The results that we have obtained highlights that, not only it is possible to process and classify huge amount of data locally, but also that it is possible to obtain this result with a very low power consumption.
ARTICLE Download: 16| View: 21| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0292.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: sliding mode control; position tracking; reference signal generator; telescope mount; motion control; electrical drive
Online: 20 February 2020 (07:54:14 CET)
Precise and fast position tracking is essential for the correct operation of many industrial robots and CNC machine tools. This subject is also important in the control of the mount of the astronomical telescope, especially for the tracking of artificial satellites. As system parameters can change, a control method that is robust to changes in parameters must be used. Such a method is the sliding control, which, however, ensures the robustness only after reaching the sliding surface. Therefore, a new method was proposed in the paper, which eliminates the phase of reaching the sliding surface. The method consists of using a reference trajectory generator and determining the generalized error in relation to this trajectory. The procedure for designing the control system is presented. Next, the proposed method was verified on the laboratory stand. The described control method provides a robust system operation and can be easily implemented in the control system.
ARTICLE Download: 18| View: 26| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0291.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: paper based sensor; whole virus; Zika; aptamer
Online: 20 February 2020 (07:24:39 CET)
Paper-based sensors, microfluidic platforms and electronic devices have attracted attention in the past couple of decades because they are flexible, can be recycled easily, environmentally friendly, and inexpensive. Here we report a paper aptamer-based potentiometric sensor to detect the whole Zika virus for the first time with a minimum sensitivity of 2.6 nV/Zika and the minimum detectable signal (MDS) of 1.2x106 Zika. Our paper sensor works very similar to a P-N junction where a junction is formed between two different wet regions with different electrochemical potentials near each other on the paper. These two regions with slightly different ionic contents, ionic species and concentrations, produce a potential difference given by the Nernst equation. Our paper sensor consisted of a 2-3 mm x 10 mm segments of a paper with a conducting silver paint contact patches on its two ends. The paper is soaked in a buffer solution containing aptamers designed to bind to the capsid proteins on Zika. Atomic force microscopy studies were carried out to show both the aptamer and Zika become immobilized in the paper. We then added the Zika (in its own buffer) to the region close to one of the silver-paint contacts. The Zika virus (40 nm diameter with 43 kDa or 7.1x10-20 gm weight), became immobilized in the paper’s pores and bonded with the resident aptamers creating a concentration gradient. The potential measured between the two silver paint contacts reproducibly became more negative as upon adding the Zika. We also showed that an LCD powered by the sensor, can be used to detect the sensor output.
ARTICLE Download: 16| View: 14| Comments: 0
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: biosensor; optical fiber sensor; two-mode fiber; sensitivity
Online: 20 February 2020 (05:33:03 CET)
Conventional method for monitoring the IgG levels suffered from some apparent problems such as long assay time, multistep processing, and high overall cost. An effective and suitable optical platform for label-free biosensing has been investigated by the implementation of antibody/antigen immunoassays. Thus, the ultrasensitive detection of IgG levels can be achieved by exploiting the dispersion turning point (DTP) existed in the tapered two-mode fibers (TTMFs) due to the sensitivity will reach ±∞ on either side of the DTP. Tracking the resonant wavelength shift it was found that the fabricated TTMF device exhibited limits of detection (LOD) down up to concentrations of 10 fg/mL of IgG in PBS solution. Such immunosensors based on the DTP have great significance on trace detection of IgG due to simple detection scheme, quick response time, and miniaturation.
Wed, 19 February 2020
ARTICLE Download: 19| View: 23| Comments: 0
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA); Carbon Footprint (CFP); Tourism
Online: 19 February 2020 (10:28:55 CET)
The importance of the contribution from tourism to climate change was pointed out by the International Tourism Organization (UNWTO). By combining process-based Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Input-output analysis, several researches have tried to evaluate the impacts of the tourism industry as well as its products and services. Indeed, the tourism sector has a wide range of industries including travel and tour, transportation, accommodation, food and beverage, amusement, souvenirs etc. However, the existing cases did not show a breakdown of the impact on climate change. In this paper, the carbon footprint (CFP) of the Japanese tourism industry was calculated based on tourist consumption, using the Japanese Input-output table and the Japanese tourism industry. It was shown that the total emissions were approximately 136 million t-CO2 per year. The contribution ratio of each stage is as follows: Transport 56.3%, Souvenirs 23.2%, Petrol (direct emissions) 16.9%, Accommodation 9.8%, Food and Beverage 7.5%, Activities 3.0%. Then, in the breakdown, the impact is high in the following order Air transport 24.7%, Petrol (direct emissions) 16.9%,Accommodation 9.8%, Food and Beverage 7.5%, Petrol 6.1%, Textile products 5.3%, Food items 4.9%, Confectionery 4.8%, Rail transport 3.9%, Cosmetics 1.9%, Footwear 1.8%, etc. In addition to transportation, this research also highlighted especially the contribution from souvenirs, accommodation, food and beverages.
Tue, 18 February 2020
ARTICLE Download: 32| View: 76| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0262.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: CCM; CINR; Cost per Gbps in orbit; Multibeam Satellite Communications; System Optimization; VCM; VHTS
Online: 18 February 2020 (08:53:14 CET)
The concept of geostationary VHTS (Very High Throughput Satellites) is based on multibeam coverage with intensive frequency and polarization reuse in addition to the use of larger bandwidths in the feeder links, in order to provide high capacity satellite links at a reduced cost per Gbps in orbit. The dimensioning and design of satellite networks based on VHTS imposes the analysis of multiple trade-offs to achieve an optimal solution in terms of cost, capacity and figure of merit of the user terminal. In this paper, we propose a new method for sizing VHTS satellite networks based on an analytical expression of the forward link CINR (Carrier-to-Interference-plus-Noise Ratio) that is used to evaluate the trade-off of different combinations of system parameters. The proposed method considers both technical and commercial requirements as inputs including the constraints to achieve the optimum solution in terms of the user G/T, the number of beams and the system cost. The cost model includes both satellite and ground segments. Exemplary results are presented with feeder links using Q/V bands, DVB-S2X and transmission methods based on CCM and VCM (Constant and Variable Coding and Modulation, respectively) in two scenarios with different service areas.
Mon, 17 February 2020
ARTICLE Download: 53| View: 53| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0237.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: Colombia; Colombian Caribbean; marine climate; Mallorquín Lagoon; Puerto Colombia; Wave Watch III; wave; wind
Online: 17 February 2020 (03:32:48 CET)
This work presents an application called APPMAR 1.0 based on Python ® environment, built to perform the downloading, treatment and analysis of meteorological and marine information. This application is composed of two main modules: the first module allows the downloading of information from the database (NOAA - WW3); the second module uses the principles of statistical mathematics for the treatment of waves and wind. The importance of this simple application is based on the free and agile access to meteorological and marine information for a coastal project. The determination of representative conditions of sea states ultimately will govern the process of design of coastal and oceanic infrastructure. The analysis of historical time series of local waves and winds allows the evaluation of average regimes or operational design, the ultimate limit states or extreme design, and the storms or design by persistence. In spite that the former analysis is a common task for coastal engineers, the codes generated are seldom shared for public use. In summary, for operational purposes is useful to have a freeware that can assist in the data processing for decision making and forcing of the mathematical models that are part of the common practice of coastal, oceanic and offshore engineering. This application has been tested in the Caribbean area of Colombia where meteorological and marine information are scarce.
ARTICLE Download: 33| View: 42| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0232.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: electromagnetic properties of viruses; terahertz sensors; label-free detection of viruses; nanotechnologies
Online: 17 February 2020 (01:56:06 CET)
Our main objective in this work was to examine the possibility of non-intrusive, label-free, detection of whole Zika viruses using terahertz signals with or without a targeting/binding oligonucleotide (aptamers). We report for the first time the use of terahertz electromagnetic waves (0.75 THz – 1.1 THz) to detect Zika viruses. The Zika/aptamer complexes showed a reproducible terahertz reflection coefficient minimum at 1.064 THz while the Zika virus’s reflection minimum was at 1.073 THz. Of different substrates we examined, the polyester petri dish provided a very low loss and excellent terahertz transmission. To increase the interaction between the terahertz signal and the sample we also used polyester microbeads coated with aptamers. We then measured the terahertz reflection from the microbeads as a function of Zika concentration. The resulting terahertz Zika sensor had sensitivity of 63 Hz/Zika and minimum detectable signal of ~ 16x103 Zika. Other substrates such as Graphene on polyethylene terephthalate (PET), 50 nm-thick gold film on polycarbonate, thin (30 um-thick) glass slide and Teflon were also examined. Graphene substrate enabled direct detection of the Zika without any aptamers.
ARTICLE Download: 16| View: 35| Comments: 0
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: IPMC (Ionic Polymer Metal Composites); Reduced Order Controller; LabVIEW; Back-Relaxation
Online: 17 February 2020 (01:07:56 CET)
In this work, NPP (Nernst-Planck-Poisson) model is chosen to be the base model for the IPMC back-relaxation behavior modeling. Based on experimental data, a new model was created. Then, a reduced order control system is designed and verified using MATLAB & Simulink tools. The simulation shows that the developed model can be used to model the system without loss of accuracy. Next, using the I/O capabilities of the NI-ELVIS II development board and its hardware compatibility with NI LabVIEW 2018, a controller was designed and built, and then verified under different excitation input signals. The controller showed excellent tracking performance with tracking error as small as 5%. The controller can be
Sun, 16 February 2020
ARTICLE Download: 45| View: 34| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0225.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: selective laser melting; 316L stainless steel; multi-objective optimization; relative density; surface roughness
Online: 16 February 2020 (15:52:05 CET)
Although the concept of additive manufacturing has been proposed for several decades, momentum of selective laser melting (SLM) is finally starting to build. In SLM, density and surface roughness, as the important quality indexes of SLMed parts, are dependent on the processing parameters. However, there are few studies on their collaborative optimization in SLM to obtain high relative density and low surface roughness simultaneously in the previous literature. In this work, the response surface method was adopted to study the influences of different processing parameters (laser power, scanning speed and hatch space) on density and surface roughness of 316L stainless steel parts fabricated by SLM. The statistical relationship model between processing parameters and manufacturing quality is established. A multi-objective collaborative optimization strategy considering both density and surface roughness is proposed. The experimental results show that the main effects of processing parameters on the density and surface roughness are similar. It is noted that the effects of the laser power and scanning speed on the above objective quality show highly significant, while hatch space behaves an insignificant impact. Based on the above optimization, 316L stainless steel parts with excellent surface roughness and relative density can be obtained by SLM with optimized processing parameters.
ARTICLE Download: 36| View: 33| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0210.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: non-linear static (Pushover) analysis; modal pushover; non-linear time-history analysis; incremental analysis; bridges; assessment of bridges; seismic response of bridges
Online: 16 February 2020 (04:34:37 CET)
A large number of bridges are designed and built without considering seismic actions and, differently from buildings, there are currently no comprehensive guidelines to evaluate existing bridges without performing, as in the well known incremental dynamic analysis (IDA), complex non linear dynamic analyses (RHA). Bridges are structurally very different from building but, at the same time, are sensitive to higher modes as well as many multi-storey buildings that inspired innovative pushover procedures such as the well known modal pushover analysis (MPA). In the present study the incremental modal pushover analysis (IMPA), a pushover based approach already proposed and applied on buildings by the same authors, is revised and proposed for bridges (IMPAβ). IMPAβ accounts for the effects of higher modes in order to accurately estimate the seismic response of bridges; the effect of higher modes is considered by introducing a suitable number of modes to ensure the participation of a predefined total effective modal mass. The efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated by conducting a study on two bridges, one regular and one irregular, and the IDA analysis is employed as reference solution. Numerical results indicate good accuracy of the proposed method in assessing the seismic response and a very good accuracy if compared to other available pushover procedures available in the literature.
Fri, 14 February 2020
ARTICLE Download: 27| View: 32| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0189.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: network monitoring; spectrum sharing; Wi-Fi tethering; sensing of misbehavior
Online: 14 February 2020 (04:54:35 CET)
Wi-Fi tethering using a mobile device (e.g., a smartphone or a tablet) as a hotspot for other devices has become a common practice. Despite the potential benefits of Wi-Fi tethering, the open source nature of mobile operating systems (e.g., Google Android) can be abused by a selfish device to manipulate channel-access parameters to gain an unfair advantage in throughput performance. This can cause serious performance problems within a well-planned Wi-Fi network due to an unauthorized selfish or misconfigured tethering device interfering with nearby well-planned access points (APs). In this paper, we demonstrate that the selfish behavior of a tethering node that adjusts the clear channel assessment (CCA) threshold has strong adverse effects in a multi-AP network, while providing the selfish node a high throughput gain. To mitigate this problem, we present a passive online detection scheme that identifies the network condition and detects selfish tethering nodes with high accuracy by exploiting the packet loss information of on-going transmissions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first research to consider the problem of detecting a selfish tethering node in managed Wi-Fi networks.
Thu, 13 February 2020
ARTICLE Download: 35| View: 84| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0174.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: IEEE 802.15.4g; Smart Utility Networks; Low-Power; Wireless; Communications; Dependable; Predictable; Reliable; Available; Industrial; Dataset
Online: 13 February 2020 (14:01:05 CET)
In this article we present a deployment of 11 nodes using the three different SUN (Smart Utility Network) modulation schemes, as defined in the IEEE 802.15.4-2015 standard. The nodes were deployed in a 110.044 m2 warehouse for 99 days, and the resulting dataset contains a total of 10.710.868 measurements with RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator), CCA (Clear Channel Assessment) and PDR (Packet Delivery Ratio) values. The analyzed results show a high variability in average RSSI (i.e., between -82.1 dBm and -101.7 dBm) and CCA (i.e., between -111.2 dBm and -119.9 dBm) values, which are caused by the effects of multi-path propagation and external interference. Despite being above the sensitivity limit for each modulation, this values result in poor average PDR values (i.e., from 65.9% to 87.4%), indicating that additional schemes are required for low-power wireless communications to meet the dependability requirements of industrial applications. For that purpose, we also introduce the concept of modulation diversity, which can be combined with packet repetition to meet such requirements (i.e., PDR>99%) while minimizing the energy expenditure of nodes and meeting regulatory constraints.
ARTICLE Download: 23| View: 29| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0172.v1
Online: 13 February 2020 (12:54:49 CET)
The quality and shelf-life of NCS (Non-centrifugal sugar) mainly depend on the moisture content present in it. NCS formed by the current practice of open sun drying contains moisture substantially greater than the acceptable level of 3%. This paper presents the work taken up to design a tunnel dryer to attain require moisture content in granular NCS for various load conditions. Initially, an experimental investigation had been carried out on a laboratory scale dryer to achieve required moisture content (< 3%) for various load conditions. This experimental data was used for validating two drying models and found that one of the models is best suitable for designing an industrial-scale dryer. For various load conditions on each tray and dryer exit temperature, nine different cases were arrived at. The number of trucks, trays, drying time and energy requirements were computed using the suitable theoretical model. Tunnel dryer with a length of 18 m, a height of 1.2 m, a width of 1 m, number of trucks of 18 and 24 number of trays on each truck was found to be the suitable dryer to dry 1 tone of NCS based on the minimum energy requirement of 176.49 MJ, and a minimum drying time of 68 minutes.
Wed, 12 February 2020
REVIEW Download: 19| View: 29| Comments: 1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: escherichia coli; e. coli; indicator; fecal coliform bacteria; water; bacteriological analysis; fcb; classification
Online: 12 February 2020 (12:12:00 CET)
Escherichia coli or E. coli is a member of the fecal coliform group and is a more specific indicator of fecal contamination than other fecal coliform species, its presence indicate possibly presence of harmful bacteria which will cause diseases and it also suggests the extent as well as the nature of the contaminants. E. coli bacteria able to survive in water for 4 – 12 weeks and at present, it appears as an indicator to provide the accurate bacterial contamination of fecal matter in drinking water, because of the availability of simple, affordable, fast, sensitive and exact detection techniques. According to the laboratory experiment based techniques, 24 - 48 hours are required for the bacterial concentration to be reported. So, there is a necessity for continuous monitoring. Techniques for detection of many pathogenic bacterial strains are not yet available, sometimes days to weeks are required to get the results. To overcome the difficulties, expensive and time-consuming techniques are required to detect, count and identify the presence of specific bacterial strain. Public health relies on online monitoring of water quality that depends majorly on examination of fecal indicator bacteria, thus protection of health requires fecal pollution indicator so that it is not required to analyze drinking water to overcome the problems associated with waterborne diseases. This paper will brief the classification, sources, survival of E. coli bacteria and its correlation with basic water quality parameters in water sources.```
Tue, 11 February 2020
ARTICLE Download: 32| View: 33| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0149.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Water Demand; Water Supply; Performance; Hydraulic Modeling; Water GEMSV8i
Online: 11 February 2020 (14:52:17 CET)
This study was conducted generally by aiming assessment of the hydraulic performance of water distribution systems of Addis Ababa Science and Technology University (AASTU). In line with the main objective, this study addressed, (1) pinpointing problems of existing water supply versus demand deficit (2) evaluating the hydraulic performance of water distribution system using water GEMS and (3) recommended alternative methods for improving water demand scenarios. The University’s water supply distribution network layout was a looped system and the flow of water derived by both gravity and pressurized system. The gravity flow served for the academic and administrative staffs whereas the pressurized system of the network fed the students dormitories, cafeteria’s etc. The study revealed the existence of unmet minimum pressure requirement around the student dormitories which accounts 25.64% below the country’s building code standard during the peak hour consumption. The result of the water demand projection showed an increment of 2.5 liter per capita demand (LPCD) in every five years. Hence, first, the university’s water demand was projected and then hydraulic parameters such as; pressure, head loss and velocity were modeled for both the existing and the improved water supply distribution. The finding of the study was recommended to the university’s water supply project and institutional development offices for its future modification and rehabilitation works.
ARTICLE Download: 20| View: 59| Comments: 1 | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0144.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: undersea project; measuring the two pipelines; rotating shaft; magnetic coupling; assisted rope winch
Online: 11 February 2020 (11:40:30 CET)
In order to solve the problem of measuring the distance and position between the flanges of two pipelines on the seabed, a measuring device for pulling rope in seawater was designed. Aiming at the sealing problem of the key equipment that is the rotating shaft of the rope winch, this paper used the principle of the magnetic coupling to transfer the driving moment, and adopted the method of converting the dynamic seal into the static seal structure to realize the reliable sealing of the motor. Through the experiment of measuring two pipelines with underwater rope pulling device, it was verified that the measuring accuracy of the device meets the design requirements, and the feasibility of the application of magnetic coupling technology in winch is also verified.
ARTICLE Download: 52| View: 44| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0135.v1
Online: 11 February 2020 (09:08:08 CET)
In this paper a low profile antenna is presented for wideband communication applications. The presented design is consists of an I-shape driven strip and a rectangular ground strip with an open slot in the middle and steeped lower portion. Measured result demonstrates that the achieved operating band of the proposed antenna has the potential to cover Global Star Satellite Phones (1.61-1.63 GHz, uplink), Advanced Wireless Systems (1.71-1.76 GHz, 2.11-2.17 GHz), DCS (1710-1880 MHz), GSM (1800MHz), DCP (1.88-1.90 GHz), DCS-1900/PCS/PHS (1850-1990MHz), WCDMA/IMT-2000 (1920-2170MHz), UMTS (1920-2170 MHz), LTE bands (FDD LTE bands 1-4, 9-10, 15-16, 23-25, 33-37, 39). The designed antenna possessed a very small size of 0.35λ0 × 0.027λ0 at the lowest frequency (S11 ≤ -10dB) and achieved good gain, exhibits stable radiation patterns which make it suitable for handheld communication devices.
Mon, 10 February 2020
ARTICLE Download: 26| View: 43| Comments: 1 | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0014.v3
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Discrete Element Method (DEM); Cell Method (CM); multiscale modeling; periodic composite materials; nonlocality
Online: 10 February 2020 (10:09:46 CET)
This paper presents a new numerical method for multiscale modeling of composite materials. The new numerical model, called DECM, consists in a DEM (Discrete Element Method) approach of the Cell Method (CM) and combines the main features of both the DEM and the CM. In particular, it offers the same degree of detail as the CM, on the microscale, and manages the discrete elements individually such as the DEM—allowing finite displacements and rotations—on the macroscale. Moreover, the DECM is able to activate crack propagation until complete detachment and automatically recognizes new contacts. Unlike other DEM approaches for modeling failure mechanisms in continuous media, the DECM does not require prior knowledge of the failure position. Furthermore, the DECM solves the problems in the space domain directly. Therefore, it does not require any dynamic relaxation techniques to obtain the static solution. For the sake of example, the paper shows the results offered by the DECM for axial and shear loading of a composite two-dimensional domain with periodic round inclusions. The paper also offers some insights into how the inclusions modify the stress field in composite continua.
Sat, 8 February 2020
ARTICLE Download: 59| View: 62| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0101.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: accessibility; food service facilities; grocery retailers; city logistics; last-mile delivery
Online: 8 February 2020 (05:48:17 CET)
Access to food systems is essential to sustain urban life. In this paper, we discuss the differences concerning accessibility levels to food systems among potential consumers in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The goal was to characterize spatial mismatches regarding food opportunities and identify suitable areas for sustainable food mile solutions, such as non-motorized home delivery and purchase trips. For this, we have spatially related: (i) the population concentration; (ii) the income of households; and (iii) accessibility measures considering both the spatial structure of food retailers and the distance between households and stores, considering the food mile. We have then used spatial statistics and spatial analysis methods to determine the spatial pattern of variables and the cumulative opportunity measure for households. There is great spatial differentiation regarding the accessibility levels of food retailers and the results can be considered to support the development of policy and land use regulation that can stimulate non-motorized and collaborative delivery as an effective last-mile solution.
ARTICLE Download: 64| View: 65| Comments: 0
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: hydrogen supply; renewable energy import; global energy infrastructure; hydrogen trade
Online: 8 February 2020 (05:36:14 CET)
The threats of climate change and the sustainable supply of clean energy are global challenges that require an international approach to the energy supply. Utilizing the wind and solar energy potential of regions where these renewable sources are especially viable to produce hydrogen by means of water electrolysis represents an attractive option to counter the above-mentioned challenges. Within the scope of this techno economic analysis of a worldwide hydrogen supply infrastructure based on renewable energy, selected regions are assessed on the basis of their wind or solar energy potential. In contrast to established analyses of hydrogen infrastructures, this paper introduces a worldwide allocation approach to the supply hydrogen from strong wind and solar regions to different demand regions on the premise of a global supply cost minimum. The allocation results show a significant dependence of hydrogen export volumes and the oversea transport distances of potential trading partners. Hence, the transnational trading flows of hydrogen derived from wind and solar energy are concentrated in continental regions.
Fri, 7 February 2020
ARTICLE Download: 234| View: 190| Comments: 0
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Protein structure and dynamics; Molecular structure and modeling; Protein and macromolecules; Computational methods and bioinformatics; Computer-based teaching tools; Learning materials and teaching tools; Multimedia teaching tools
Online: 7 February 2020 (11:42:09 CET)
Biomolecular structure drives function, and computational capabilities have progressed such that the prediction and computational design of biomolecular structures is increasingly feasible. Because computational biophysics attracts students from many different backgrounds and with different levels of resources, teaching the subject can be challenging. One strategy to teach diverse learners is with interactive multimedia material that promotes self-paced, active learning. We have created a hands-on education strategy with a set of fifteen modules that teach topics in biomolecular structure and design, from fundamentals of conformational sampling and energy evaluation to applications like protein docking, antibody design, and RNA structure prediction. Our modules are based on PyRosetta, a Python library that encapsulates all computational modules and methods in the Rosetta software package. The workshop-style modules are implemented as Jupyter Notebooks that can be executed in the Google Colaboratory, allowing learners access with just a web browser. The digital format of Jupyter Notebooks allows us to embed images, molecular visualization movies, and interactive coding exercises. This multimodal approach may better reach students from different disciplines and experience levels as well as attract more researchers from smaller labs and cognate backgrounds to leverage PyRosetta in their science and engineering research. All materials are freely available at https://github.com/RosettaCommons/PyRosetta.notebooks.
ARTICLE Download: 32| View: 31| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0094.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Pyrolysis; hardwood chips; heat transfer; physical parameters; kinetics parameters
Online: 7 February 2020 (09:31:24 CET)
This paper emphasises on the analogous modelling of hardwood (Acacia) pyrolysis. The effect of physical characteristics of hardwood chips on the pyrolysis is examined through the conservation of solid mass fraction of biomass. The chip size of G30 and G50 are used in the pyrolysis reactor. In the analogous situation, the fixed bed is assumed to be a wooden slab with a porosity equivalent to the voidage of bed. The bulk density, the length of the bed and the porosity are some of the physical attributes of a fixed bed used to determine the variation of solid mass of the hardwood across the fixed bed. The four-temperature sensors separated from each other by 80 mm are used to determine the temperature along the length of the pyrolysis unit. The heating element of 2 kWe is used to initiate the pyrolysis of biomass. The experiments are conducted in three different stages. The ONORM standard chips, G30 and G50, and the combination of them are separately pyrolysis to determine the validity of a model for different sizes of chips. The proposed model is also used to establish the relationship between the kinetics of pyrolysis and decomposition of the hardwood.
ARTICLE Download: 60| View: 69| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0089.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: accelerometers; lamness; grazing; behavior
Online: 7 February 2020 (03:05:28 CET)
Development of accelerometer-based lameness (mobility) detection has focused on cow behaviors such as lying and walking. Several studies, usually small, have reported levels of accuracy up to 91%. However, there has been limited independent replication of these results. In this study, behavior measures previously identified as being associated with lameness such as lying bouts and walking time are examined in relation to mobility score. On a research farm and a commercial farm, four trials were completed with 65 grazing cows. The cows had differing mobility scores ranging from perfect mobility to impaired mobility. Behavior was monitored using leg worn accelerometers. In general, behavior and mobility associations identified in previous studies were not found. Behavior monitoring with accelerometers as a basis to classify impaired mobility in pasture-based contexts thus remains challenging.
Thu, 6 February 2020
ARTICLE Download: 28| View: 38| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0086.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Buildings; earthquake safety assessment; extreme events; urban sustainability; seismic 16 assessment; rapid visual screening; reinforced concrete buildings
Online: 6 February 2020 (10:50:33 CET)
Earthquake is among the most devastating natural disasters causing severe economic, environmental, and social destruction. Earthquake safety assessment and building hazard monitoring can highly contribute to urban sustainable development through identification and insight into optimum materials and structures. While the vulnerability of structures mainly depends on the structural resistance, the safety assessment of buildings can be highly challenging. In this paper, we consider Rapid Visual Screening (RVS) method which is a qualitative procedure for estimating structural scores for buildings suitable for medium- to high-seismic cases. This paper presents an overview of the common RVS methods, i.e., FEMA P-154, IITK-GGSDMA, and EMPI. To examine the accuracy and validation, a practical comparison is performed between their assessment and observed damage of reinforced concrete buildings from a street survey in the Bingöl region, Turkey, after the 11 May 2003 earthquake. The results demonstrate that the application of RVS methods for preliminary damage estimation is a vital tool. Furthermore, the comparative analysis showed that FEMA P-154 creates an assessment that overestimates damage states and is not economically viable while EMPI and IITK-GGSDMA provide for more accurate and practical estimation, respectively.
ARTICLE Download: 26| View: 52| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0085.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: water use efficiency; economic development; comprehensive evaluation; coupling coordination; Jinan City
Online: 6 February 2020 (10:48:09 CET)
In order to realize the sustainable utilization of water resources and the sustainable development of economy, the evaluation index system of water use efficiency system and economic development system was constructed. Entropy weight method and comprehensive evaluation method were adopted to determine the index weights and conduct comprehensive evaluation for the two systems. The coupling coordination model was used to calculate the coupling degree, coordination degree and coupling coordination degree of the two systems. The annual coupling stage and coupling coordination intensity of the two systems were analyzed and determined. The results showed that the comprehensive evaluation values of both water use efficiency system and economic development system in Jinan City increased greatly from 2008 to 2017, and showed a changing trend of ups and downs. The two systems were in the antagonistic stage, and were gradually approaching the running-in stage, indicating that they were in the state of common development. The coupling coordination degree of the two systems gradually increased in waves, progressed from the moderately to the highly coordinated coupling. In the future, if the water control path appropriate to Jinan City can be explored actively, the water-saving kinetic energy of economic development can be increased constantly, and the linkage effect between economic development and water resources utilization can be given full play to, the two systems will be in the orbit with the benign interaction and healthy harmonious development.
REVIEW Download: 27| View: 34| Comments: 1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (CITS); Vehicle to Pedestrian (V2P); Vulnerable 15 Road Users (VRU); GPS; smartphones; Inertial Measurement Units sensors
Online: 6 February 2020 (03:44:08 CET)
The field of Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems and more specifically Pedestrians to Vehicles could be characterized as quite challenging, since there is a broad research area to be studied, with direct positive results to society. Pedestrians to Vehicles is a type of Cooperative Intelligent Transport System, within the group of Early Warning Collision/Safety System. In this article, we examine the research and applications carried out so far within the field of Pedestrians to Vehicles Cooperative Transport Systems by leveraging the information coming from Vulnerable Road Users’, smartphones. Moreover, an extensive literature review has been carried out in the fields of Vulnerable Road Users Outdoor Localisation via smartphones and Vulnerable Road Users Next Step/Movement Prediction, which are closely related to Pedestrian to Vehicle applications and research. We identify gaps that exist in these fields that could be improved/extended/enhanced or newly developed, while we address future research objectives and methodologies that could support the improvement/development of those identified gaps.
Wed, 5 February 2020
ARTICLE Download: 35| View: 41| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0065.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Pile design; Fiber Reinforced Polymer; GFRP; FRP; Composite Piles; Bridge design
Online: 5 February 2020 (11:42:09 CET)
This paper deals with analyzing the structural responses of glass-fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) tubes filled with recycled and concrete material for developing composite piles, as an alternative to traditional steel reinforced piles in bridge foundations. The Full-scale GFRP composite piles included three inner and outer layers, using a fiber-oriented material that was inclined longitudinally, almost 40 degrees from the horizontal axis of the pile. The segment between these two layers was inclined 80 degrees from the longitudinal axis of the tube. The behavior of the filled GFRP tubes was semi-linear, and resulted in increasing the total ductility and strength of the piles. Adjusting the material’s properties, such as the EAxial, EHoop, and Poisson ratios optimized the results. The lateral strength of the GFRP composite pile and pre-stressed piles are comparable in both axial and lateral loading conditions.
ARTICLE Download: 42| View: 34| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0059.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: EEG; Transition; 2D to 3D; Anaglyph; Feature extraction; Classification; Hybrid
Online: 5 February 2020 (10:48:51 CET)
Despite the long and extensive history of 3D technology, it has recently attracted the attention of researchers. This technology has become the center of interest of young people because of the real feelings and sensations it creates. People see their environment as 3D because of their eye structure. In this study, it is hypothesized that people lose their perception of depth during sleepy moments and that there is a sudden transition from 3D vision to 2D vision. Regarding these transitions, the EEG signal analysis method was used for deep and comprehensive analysis of 2D and 3D brain signals. In this study, a single-stream anaglyph video of random 2D and 3D segments was prepared. After watching this single video, the obtained EEG recordings were considered for two different analyses: the part involving the critical transition (transition-state) and the state analysis of only the 2D versus 3D or 3D versus 2D parts (steady-state). The main objective of this study is to see the behavioral changes of brain signals in 2D and 3D transitions. To clarify the impacts of the human brain’s power spectral density (PSD) in 2D-to-3D (2D_3D) and 3D-to-2D (3D_2D) transitions of anaglyph video, 9 visual healthy individuals were prepared for testing in this pioneering study. Spectrogram graphs based on Short Time Fourier transform (STFT) were considered to evaluate the power spectrum analysis in each EEG channel of transition or steady-state. Thus, in 2D and 3D transition scenarios, important channels representing EEG frequency bands and brain lobes will be identified. To classify the 2D and 3D transitions, the dominant bands and time intervals representing the maximum difference of PSD were selected. Afterward, effective features were selected by applying statistical methods such as standard deviation (SD), maximum (max), and Hjorth parameters to epochs indicating transition intervals. Ultimately, k-Nearest Neighbors (k-NN), Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) algorithms were applied to classify 2D_3D and 3D_2D transitions. The frontal, temporal, and partially parietal lobes show 2D_3D and 3D_2D transitions with a good classification success rate. Overall, it was found that Hjorth parameters and LDA algorithms have 71.11% and 77.78% classification success rates for transition and steady-state, respectively.
ARTICLE Download: 29| View: 28| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0055.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: Green campus; Sunlight hour; Solar radiation; Building reconfiguration
Online: 5 February 2020 (10:27:13 CET)
Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM) is implementing the concept of green campus by various means including through elements in its sustainable campus development plan. With regards to several factors related to Energy and Climate Change indicators set by UI GreenMetric, this research examined the existing condition of the area of UGM which belongs to academic zone in order to construct a proposal based on a building mass reconfiguration. This proposal was aimed to improve the implementation of energy-specific green campus concept within the Forestry cluster area as a sample case study. This selection was based on the average value of the Building Coverage Ratio (BCR) values in all of the clusters; thus, the scenario was relevant for generalization and could be replicated in other clusters in the university. The study was done in three stages of simulation, and was based on a series of digital simulation of sunlight hour and solar radiation run in Grasshopper using Lady Bug environmental analysis plug-in for a period of five summer months during the building office hours. Following the reconfiguration, results had shown a similar downtrend between the amount of sunlight hour and solar radiation in the area (up to 49% and 45% respectively on building envelopes, and up to 44% and 42% respectively on landscaping surfaces). This reduction indicated a potential of energy efficiency by applying selective building mass reconfiguration as a passive design strategy that goes hand in hand with the campus’s development policy to optimize the use of BCR for a greener UGM campus through its many undergoing and upcoming redevelopment projects.
Tue, 4 February 2020
ARTICLE Download: 34| View: 34| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0045.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Broadband power equalizer; coaxial; MPM; TWT; X-band
Online: 4 February 2020 (10:45:44 CET)
Microwave Power Modules (MPM) are high power devices largely used for radar applications. An MPM is a hybrid combination of a Solid-State Power Amplifier (SSPA) as a driver and a Traveling wave tube amplifier (TWT) as the final high power stage. Power equalizer is often used to flat the TWT output power gain owing to its big gain fluctuations in the operating frequency range. This paper deals with an optimal design and development of a fully-coaxial easy-tunable power equalizer for an X-band MPM. The structure utilizes a coaxial waveguide as the main transmission line and a coaxial cavity loaded with absorbing material as the resonant unit. A sensitivity analysis of the coaxial cavity length, the thickness of the absorbing disc and inserted depth of the probe on the attenuation amplitude and resonant frequency is carried out. The transmission characteristic curves and the voltage standing wave ratio curves show a good compromise in terms of transferred power and adaptive matching impedance at the input and output ports. The measured results show that the equalization curve meets the requirements well and prove that this structure is practical and effective.
ARTICLE Download: 40| View: 31| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0043.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: qlity of the environment; spatial location conditions; air pollution research; the problem of city ventilation; spending of EU funds to improve the quality of the environment
Online: 4 February 2020 (10:34:01 CET)
The article discusses determinants of living environment in Central and Eastern Europe. As an example, the city of Radzionkow was chosen, with 16 thousand inhabitants, located in the Silesia agglomeration in southern Poland, in the area where hard coal has been mined for almost two hundred years, which largely serves as a source of heating for houses and flats. 360 buildings in 6 groups of 60 buildings were examined in the selected city, which allowed to distinguish 3 different areas in terms of the quality of the living environment depending on the technical condition of buildings, the method of heating and location. To a large extent, determinants are the existing spatial and geophysical conditions of a given location. Many research and reports on the living environment do not take into account the factors mentioned, focusing only on the statistical data of pollution, excluding spatial factors. In the research presented, the author, taking into account location variables, shows differences in the measurements of air pollution in relation to the designated location zones depending on the morphological structure of the building, the degree of its modernization and the types of heating used in buildings.
Mon, 3 February 2020
ARTICLE Download: 22| View: 43| Comments: 6
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: low permeable oil reservoir; air injection; EOR; dynamic experiments; formulae
Online: 3 February 2020 (04:57:42 CET)
The Oil reservoirs with low permeability account for a large proportion in the world, they surpass half of the total number of the oil reservoirs in China, it is important to exploit this kind of reservoir effectively. The exploitive results of these reservoir using normal water flooding methods are very poor because of the thine pores, bad connections and so on. However, these problems can be well solved by applying gas injection techniques. In this paper, the effects on the recovery effects exerted by the injection parameters such as the oxygen content in the injected air, the injection speed etc. were studied by several experiments using independently designed equipments aiming at one low permeable sandstone reservoir in China. Several conclusions were made from the experiment results: the best recovery effects can be achieved by injecting the oxygen reduced air with 8% of oxygen at the speed of 0.3ml/min (7.41×10-4PV/min) using the methods of injecting the air slugs and the foaming agent slugs alternately; the best oxidation time of the oil was 168 hours and the final oil recovery could be enhanced by 26.5% in this method. It was also showed by the experiments that the larger the permeability ratio is, the larger the recovery factor will be increased. At last, several equations about relationships between the EOR and the air injection parameters were revealed according to the results of the experiments which may offer some references to the LTO process mechanisms study in the similar oil reservoir.
ARTICLE Download: 39| View: 51| Comments: 0
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Bismuth; Chitosan; pressure; thermoelectric; composite film
Online: 3 February 2020 (04:52:51 CET)
The main aim of this work is to report an alternative energy efficient technique of fabricating flexible thermoelectric generators (TEGs) using printable ink. In this process, we have fabricated thermoelectric (TE) composite thick film and we are experimenting several ways to overcome the challenges of conventional and additive manufacturing methods. Two different mesh sizes of n-type bismuth particle, various binder to thermoelectric (TE) material weight ratio, and two different pressure (200 MPa and 300 MPa) were employed for optimizing the thermoelectric properties of TE composite films. We are also exploring naturally occurring chitosan as a binder. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) dissolved chitosan was used for the binder and less than 0.2 wt% of chitosan was sufficient for the fabrication of TE inks and composite films. Low energy intensive curing process was employed to evaporate the solvent from the drop casted inks. External uniaxial pressure not only eliminated high energy intensive curing processes but also increased the packing density of the film by removing pores and voids in the chitosan-bismuth composite film. The microstructure analysis reveals that bulk-like structure, which rarely has voids, pores and grain boundaries, was observed in the composite films pressed at sufficiently high pressures. The highest performing composite film was obtained with the conditions of 1:2000 binder to bismuth weight ratio, 100 mesh of particle size, and 300 MPa of pressure. The best performing bismuth chitosan composite film pressed at 300 MPa had the power factor as 4009 ± 391 μW/m·K2 with high electrical conductivity value of 7337 ± 522 S/cm. The measured thermal conductivity of the best performing chitosan-bismuth composite film was 4.4 ± 0.7 W/m·K and the figure of merit calculated from the thermal conductivity was 0.27 at room temperature.
ARTICLE Download: 36| View: 31| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0008.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: ceramic membrane; combination process; microfiltration; optimization; recovery efficiency
Online: 3 February 2020 (03:58:04 CET)
The aim of this study is to evaluate the optimal conditions of membrane filtration process. Both laboratory test and pilot-scale test were conducted to examine a treated water on blending water. The water sample were prepared by blending a raw water and the effluent water filtered through an organic membrane. The optimal efficiency in the treatment of water quality at the lab-scale test was generated under conditions of flux at 2.0 m3/m2∙day, the blending ratio of 4:1, and the optimal dosage of coagulant at 20 ppm. The pilot-scale test resulted in that the optimal efficiency was obtained under conditions of flux at 2.0 m3/m2∙day and the blending ratio of 6.0:1. However, the different results between lab-scale and pilot-scale tests on the optimal dosage of coagulant implied that it is difficult to achieve the stable condition of process operation at the low level of coagulant. In summary, the results indicated that, in the combination process of organic membrane and ceramic membrane, the recovery efficiency was achieved above the level of 98.4 %. Compared to 92.1 % in a single organic membrane process, the combination process is 6.3 % more efficient than the single one. This combination process of water treatment lead to stable recovery rates by the optimal input of dosage, less pollution load to water, and a stabilized filtration system.
ARTICLE Download: 42| View: 48| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0002.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: construction; rainwater harvesting; solar; spray foam; finger-jointed studs
Online: 3 February 2020 (03:04:44 CET)
The question of building sustainable in a geographical locality is inexorably linked to cost. In 2011, one of the authors built a sustainable house that was (at the time) the highest certified sustainable home based on the National Association of Home Builder’s standards for sustainable construction. This Texas house has been used for residential and research purposes for the past decade. In this case study, the authors evaluate components of the construction and their effectiveness as well as unseen secondary and tertiary effects. Some of the specific components discussed are home site placement; rainwater harvesting (100% of residential requirements); aerobic septic system; grid-tied solar array power; electric car charging; geothermal heating and cooling; reclaimed wood framing; spray foam installation; selection of windows, fixtures, and appliances; on-demand electric water heaters for guest areas; generator backups; and use of local items. Electric bills and water system improvements are discussed in detail, as improvements were made as part of residential and research requirements. This case study suggests that the financial outlay is worth the extra up-front costs if residents in this geographical area and climate will occupy the residence 7 years.
Fri, 31 January 2020
ARTICLE Download: 46| View: 50| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0387.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: forecasting; clustering; energy systems; classification
Online: 31 January 2020 (13:28:01 CET)
This paper proposes an ARIMA approach to battery health forecasting with accuracy improvement by K shape-based clustered predictors. The health prediction of the battery pack is an important function of a battery management system in data centers. Accurate forecasting of battery life turns out to be very difficult without failure data to train a good forecasting model in real life. The conventional ARIMA model is compared with total and clustered predictors for battery health forecasting. Results show that the forecasting accuracy of the ARIMA model significantly improved by utilizing the results of the clustered predictors for 40 batteries in a real data center. One year of actual historical data of 40 batteries of large scale datacenter is presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.
Thu, 30 January 2020
ARTICLE Download: 40| View: 65| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0361.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Additive manufacturing; FFF technology; Laser amplified ultrasonography; Tensile testing
Online: 30 January 2020 (11:05:28 CET)
The paper is focused on the examination of the internal quality of joints created in a multi-material - additive manufacturing process. The main part of the work focuses on experimental production and non-destructive testing of restrained joints of modified PLA (polylactic acid) and ABS (Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) 3Dprinted on RepRap 3D device that works on the "open source" principle. The article presents the outcomes of non-destructive materials test in the form of the data from the Laser Amplified Ultrasonography, microscopic observations of the joints area and tensile tests of the specially designed samples. The samples with designed joints were additively manufactured of two materials: specially blended PLA (Market name – PLA Tough) and conventionally made ABS. The tests are mainly focused on the determination of the quality of material connection in the joints area. Based on the results obtained, the samples made of two materials were compared in the end to establish which produced material joint is stronger and have a lower amount of defects.
ARTICLE Download: 22| View: 44| Comments: 1 | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0140.v2
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: propeller; wageningen b-screw series; open-water characteristics; propeller efficiency map; danckwardt diagram; optimum propeller
Online: 30 January 2020 (10:59:59 CET)
Undoubtedly the Wageningen B-screw Series is the most widely used systematic propeller series. It is very popular to preselect propeller dimensions during the preliminary design stage before performing a more thorough optimization, but in the smaller end of the market it is often used to merely select the final propeller. Over time the originally measured data sets were faired and scaled to a uniform Reynolds number of 2·106 to increase the reliability of the series. With the advent of the computer, polynomials for the thrust and torque values were calculated based on the available data sets. The measured data are typically presented in the well-known open-water curves of thrust and torque coefficients KT and KQ versus the advance coefficient J. Changing the presentation from these diagrams to efficiency maps reveals some unsuspected and surprising behaviours, such as multiple optima when optimizing for efficiency or even no optimum at all for certain conditions. These artefacts get more pronounced at higher pitch to diameter ratios and low blade numbers. The present work builds upon the paper presented by the author at the AMT’17 and smp’19 conferences and now includes the extended efficiency maps, as suggested by Danckwardt, for all propellers of the Wageningen B-screw Series.
Wed, 29 January 2020
ARTICLE Download: 40| View: 188| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0356.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Dictionary Learning; recursive least squares; sparse signal representation; EEG
Online: 29 January 2020 (14:22:32 CET)
In tele-monitoring, wireless body area networks (WBANs), sleep analysis and other applications involving electroencephalogram (EEG) signal, due to the high number of EEG recording channels, long recording time and several repetition of recordings to reach the highest signal-to-noise ratio, the amount of acquired data by the sensors is too large, demanding use of some compression procedure. Compressed sensing can be considered as one of the most effective compression methods in terms of compression ratio, which needs the underlying signal be sparse or have sparse representation in an appropriate domain. EEG signal is not sparse in time domain, therefore, in this paper correlation based weighted recursive least squares dictionary learning algorithm (CBW-RLS) is proposed that uses between-channel correlations to sparsify EEG signals. Due to the low-rank structure of EEG signals, exploiting between-channel correlations increase the sparsity level of the model while reducing the computational cost of dictionary learning procedure. This is done by merely updating the dictionary atoms which are involved in the sparse model of the previous data, reducing the total number of data used at each iteration and speeding up the dictionary learning algorithm. The simulation results show that the proposed method has better performance in terms of both quality of the EEG reconstruction and the computational cost compared to the other methods.
Tue, 28 January 2020
ARTICLE Download: 54| View: 74| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0340.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: thermal drilling; material; visual evaluation; macrostructure; microstructure
Online: 28 January 2020 (10:52:21 CET)
The contribution deals with the joining of various types of materials by technology of thermal drilling. In various branches of industries, also in the automotive industry must be joining operations, service, repairing, substitution or protection workpieces, components with various types of materials. Equally, the important role as joint, is also used material, and a product preparation by assembly and disassembly operations. By utilization of new friction hybrid joining technologies we can shortage the production time, provide automation in operations, increase the quality of joints, spare of economical expenses and also we can protect the environment. In this paper authors have investigated the effect of friction drilling on the tested material, aluminium alloy AlMgSi, which was used for material testing. The created joints were evaluated visually and by microscopy methods. The errors of tested joining were documented and described, too. This contribution was made with cooperation of Technical University of Kosice and with U. S. Steel Kosice, s.r.o.
ARTICLE Download: 49| View: 64| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0337.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: slag; basicity; hydrogen plasma; smelting reduction; iron oxide; plasma arc; hydrogen utilisation; degree of reduction; hematite
Online: 28 January 2020 (10:33:33 CET)
Replacing carbon by hydrogen is a huge step towards reducing CO2 emissions in the iron- and steel-making industry. The reduction of iron oxides using hydrogen plasma smelting reduction as an alternative to conventional steel-making routes has been studied at Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Austria. The aim of this work was to study the slag formation during the reduction process and the reduction behaviour of iron oxides. Furthermore, the reduction behaviour of iron ore during continuous feeding was assessed. Mixtures of iron ore and calcined lime with a basicity of 0, 0.8, 1.6, 2.3, and 2.9 were melted and reduced by hydrogen. The off-gas composition was measured during the operations to calculate the process parameters. The reduction parameters, namely the degree of reduction, degree of hydrogen utilisation, produced iron, and slag, are presented. The results of the batch-charged experiments showed that at the beginning of the reduction process, the degree of hydrogen utilisation was high, and then, it decreased over the operation time. In contrast, during the continuous-feeding experiment, the degree of hydrogen utilisation could be kept approximately constant. The highest degrees of reduction and hydrogen utilisation were obtained upon the application of a slag with a basicity of 2.3. The experiment showed that upon the continuous feeding of iron ore, the best conditions for the reduction process using hydrogen could be applied.
ARTICLE Download: 77| View: 75| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0334.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Russia; solar power; hydrogen energy; electric vehicle; lithium battery
Online: 28 January 2020 (05:47:34 CET)
With a relatively small population, Russia accesses huge oil, natural gas, coal and uranium resources, and hosts advanced nuclear energy, oil and natural gas industries. However, the combined effect of today’s low cost electricity generation via photovoltaic modules, water and wind turbines and similarly low cost storage in Li-ion battery and solar hydrogen obtained via water electrolysis will have a profound impact on Russia’s energy and automotive industries.
ARTICLE Download: 27| View: 70| Comments: 1 | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0014.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Discrete Element Method (DEM); Cell Method (CM); multiscale modeling; periodic composite materials; nonlocality
Online: 28 January 2020 (05:42:54 CET)
This paper presents a new numerical method for multiscale modeling of composite materials. The new numerical model, called DECM, consists in a DEM (Discrete Element Method) approach of the Cell Method (CM) and combines the main features of both the DEM and the CM. In particular, it offers the same degree of detail as the CM, on the microscale, and manages the discrete elements individually such as the DEM—allowing finite displacements and rotations—on the macroscale. Moreover, the DECM is able to activate crack propagation until complete detachment and automatically recognizes new contacts. Unlike other DEM approaches for modeling failure mechanisms in continuous media, the DECM does not require prior knowledge of the failure position. Furthermore, the DECM solves the problems in the space domain directly. Therefore, it does not require any dynamic relaxation techniques to obtain the static solution. For the sake of example, the paper shows the results offered by the DECM for axial and shear loading of a composite two-dimensional domain with periodic round inclusions. The paper also offers some insights into how the inclusions modify the stress field into composite continua.
ARTICLE Download: 29| View: 32| Comments: 0
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: spray dispersion tower; flue gas desulfurization; numerical investigation; two-phase flow; structural optimization
Online: 28 January 2020 (05:29:03 CET)
The desulfurization efficiency of a novel spray dispersion tower is determined by its operation conditions and structure design. Since there are spray section, bubble section inside the spray dispersion tower, and their multiphase flow patterns are difference, the twin sections were simulated separately. The multiphase flow and SO2 absorption performance in the two sections were obtained, based on the two-membrane theory, together with a series of suitable models and different tracking methods. Then, the prediction results were in good agreement with measured figures to validate the dependability of the simulation model. As for working condition, the desulfurization rate ratio of spray and bubble section in the original structure was 1.41, in which the spray section showed better SO2 absorption efficiency. The recommended tubes immersion depth and liquid-to-gas ratio were 0.14m~0.16m and 3.03L/Nm3~3.6L/Nm3 to attain higher energy and economical saving respectively. As for structure design, the flue gas streamline path was more homogeneous distributed in dual entrance spray section than single spray. While in bubble section, there is stronger back-mixing of slurry in optimized circular type than the original one. Also, the steeper descend of average temperature and average SO2 mass fraction along the vertical, together with lower SO2 mass fraction in circular type can be observed. Finally, the SO2 removal efficiency in twin entrance spray section was 3% higher than that of single entrance spray section. While in bubble section, the circular type was 8% higher than square type, with higher efficient to reach quasi-static state.The achieved results lay a solid basis to provide an insight into design, simulation, optimization and upscale of a spray dispersion tower.
ARTICLE Download: 34| View: 70| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0058.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: slate; crown; random fill; compaction quality control; wheel-tracking test; topographic settlement
Online: 28 January 2020 (05:22:56 CET)
Particle size can pose a challenge to random embankment compaction control methods, where practical techniques have hardly been developed and procedural control is used instead. In order to develop new quality control procedures for slate random fill, the necessary fieldwork and laboratory tests were carried out. This involved the revision of certain methods such as the wheel-tracking or topographic settlement tests. More than six hundred in-situ density and moisture content measurements were carried out for this research. In addition, more three hundred topographic settlements and three hundred wheel-tracking carriage tests were performed. The quality control processes were completed with more than thirty plate bearing tests. Possible evidence of statistical correlations between compaction control tests were identified. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed. When testing proved relationships between them, the replacement of one of them by the other was assessed by deduction. Finally, the study suggests new procedures for compaction quality control of random slate fill used in crown area.
Mon, 27 January 2020
ARTICLE Download: 46| View: 57| Comments: 1 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0264.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Activation; Catalyst; Catalytic pyrolysis; Fuel oil; Hydrocarbon fuel; Municipal wastes; Plastics wastes; Polyethylene; Pyrolysis; Thermal pyrolysis
Online: 27 January 2020 (10:13:24 CET)
Plastics have become an indispensable part of modern life today. The global production of plastics has gone up to 299million tones in 2013, which is believed to be increasing in the near future. The utilization of plastics and its final disposal pose a tremendous negative significance impacts on the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the thermal and catalytic pyrolysis for production of fuel oil from the polyethene plastic wastes. Catalysts used in the experiment were acid activated clay mineral and aluminum chlorides on activated carbon. The clay mineral was activated by refluxing it with 6M Sulphuric acid for 3hours. The experiment was conducted in three different phases: the first phase of the experiment was done without a catalyst where 88mL oil was obtained at a maximum temperature of 39 and heating rates of 12.5, reaction time of 4hours. The second phase involves the use of acid activated clay mineral where 100mL of oil was obtained and heating rates of 12.5 and reaction time of 3hours 30minutes. The third phase was done using aluminium chlorides on activated carbon and 105ml oil was obtained at a maximum temperature of 400 and heating rates of 15.5 reaction time of 3hours 10minutes. From the results, catalytic pyrolysis is more efficient than purely thermal pyrolysis and homogenous catalysis (aluminum chlorides) shows a better result than solid acid catalyst (activated clay minerals) hence saving the energy needed for pyrolysis and making the process more economically feasible.
Sun, 26 January 2020
ARTICLE Download: 52| View: 57| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0314.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: kidney tumor; renal tumor; Unet3D; Unet+ResNet; Unet++ segmentation
Online: 26 January 2020 (08:04:01 CET)
Worldwide, hundreds of thousands of people are diagnosed with kidney cancer and this disease is more common in developed and industrialized countries. Previously, kidney cancer was known as an elderly disease and was seen in people over a certain age; nowadays it is also seen in younger individuals and it is easier to diagnose thanks to new radiological diagnostic methods. A kidney tumor is a type of cancer that is extremely aggressive and needs surgical treatment rapidly. Today, approximately 30% of patients diagnosed with kidney cancer are unfortunately noticed at the stage of metastatic disease (spread to distant organs). The biggest factor that pushes us to this study is that kidney tumors progress unlike other cancer types with little or no symptoms. Therefore, conducting such studies is extremely important for early diagnosis. In this study, we compare the Unet3D models in order to help people who are dealing with difficulties in the diagnosis of kidney cancer. Unet, Unet+ResNet and Unet++ models were compared for image segmentation.
ARTICLE Download: 52| View: 58| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0313.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: discharge coefficient; soft computing; machine learning; Weir; sensitivity analysis; nonlinear regression
Online: 26 January 2020 (07:55:15 CET)
This paper proposes a model based on gene expression programming for predicting discharge coefficient of triangular labyrinth weirs. The parameters influencing discharge coefficient prediction were first examined and presented as crest height ratio to the head over the crest of the weir (p/y), crest length of water to channel width (L/W), crest length of water to the head over the crest of the weir (L/y), Froude number (F=V/√(gy)) and vertex angle () dimensionless parameters. Different models were then presented using sensitivity analysis in order to examine each of the dimensionless parameters presented in this study. In addition, an equation was presented through the use of nonlinear regression (NLR) for the purpose of comparison with GEP. The results of the studies conducted by using different statistical indexes indicated that GEP is more capable than NLR. This is to the extent that GEP predicts the discharge coefficient with an average relative error of approximately 2.5% in such a manner that the predicted values have less than 5% relative error in the worst model.
TECHNICAL NOTE Download: 27| View: 39| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0311.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: vessel cargo holds; tank washing; gas-freeing; aerating; atmosphere composition; assessment of safe atmosphere
Online: 26 January 2020 (07:43:21 CET)
Paper discussed the problem of proper process of gas-freeing and ventilation of vessel cargo tank after washing process in aim to the entrance into the tank and its inspection. Correct assessment of atmosphere composition into the cargo tank is a basic condition of safe entrance and work of a crew. It should be done following actions: assessment of flammability hazard, the presence of other toxic gases for human and oxygen concentration. In the aim ship-owner should prepare adequate procedures: before entrance, during work and on emergency situations. On a vessel the assessment performs responsibility (entitled) officer whose decisions are crucial for the safety of prosecuting operations. The one of primary problem is proper (adequate) assessment of oxygen concentration in the air into the tank (enclosed spaces) after the measurement which should be properly interpreted. It concerns basically such situations when the oxygen concentration into the tank after measure leads the value over 22% or below 20.6% of volume (mole) contribution (v/v).
Sat, 25 January 2020
ARTICLE Download: 36| View: 60| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0298.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Probability; Hypothesis Testing; Outlier Detection; Monte Carlo; Quality Control; Control System; Reliability; Sensitivity; Random Number Generators
Online: 25 January 2020 (16:40:16 CET)
An iterative outlier elimination procedure based on hypothesis testing, commonly known as Iterative Data Snooping (IDS) among geodesists, is often used for the quality control of the modern measurement systems in geodesy and surveying. The test statistic associated with IDS is the extreme normalised least-squares residual. It is well-known in the literature that critical values (quantile values) of such a test statistic cannot be derived from well-known test distributions, but must be computed numerically by means of Monte Carlo. This paper provides the first results about Monte Carlo-based critical value inserted to different scenarios of correlation between the outlier statistics. From the Monte Carlo evaluation, we compute the probabilities of correct identification, missed detection, wrong exclusion, overidentifications and statistical overlap associated with IDS in the presence of a single outlier. Based on such probability levels we obtain the Minimal Detectable Bias (MDB) and Minimal Identifiable Bias (MIB) for the case where IDS is in play. MDB and MIB are sensitivity indicators for outlier detection and identification, respectively. The results show that there are circumstances that the larger the Type I decision error (smaller critical value), the higher the rates of outlier detection, but the lower the rates of outlier identification. For that case, the larger the Type I Error, the larger the ratio between MIB and MDB. We also highlight that an outlier becomes identifiable when the contribution of the measures to the wrong exclusion rate decline simultaneously. In that case, we verify that the effect of the correlation between the outlier statistics on the wrong exclusion rates becomes insignificant from a certain outlier magnitude, which increases the probability of identification.
REVIEW Download: 61| View: 66| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0296.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: stem cells; organoids; hepatocytes; pancreatic islets; cholangiocytes; organoid morphogenesis; organoid imaging
Online: 25 January 2020 (15:32:27 CET)
Organoid engineering promises to revolutionize medicine with wide ranging applications of scientific, engineering, and clinical interest, including precision and personalized medicine, gene editing, drug development, disease modeling, cellular therapy, and a basic understanding of human development. Organoids are a three-dimensional (3D), miniature, caricature of a target organ, are initiated with stem/progenitor cells, and are extremely promising tools to model organ function. The biological basis for organoids is that they foster stem cell-self renewal, differentiation, and self-organization, recapitulating tissue structure or function better than 2D systems. In this review, we first discuss the importance of epithelial organs and the general properties of epithelial cells to provide context for the liver, pancreas, and gall bladder and rationale for organoid cultures. Next, we develop a general framework to understand self-organization, tissue hierarchy, and organoid cultivation. For each of these areas, we provide historical context, and review both a wide range of biological and/or biophysical/mathematic perspectives that enhances understanding of organoids. Next, we review existing techniques and progress in hepatobiliary and pancreatic organoid engineering. To do this, we review organoids from both primary tissues, cell lines, and stem cells, and introduce engineering studies when applicable. Noninvasive assessment of 1 organoids can reveal underlying biology and enable improved assays for growth, metabolism, and function. Applications of organoid for cell therapy are also discussed. Taken together, we establish a broad strong scientific foundation for organoids and provide an in-depth review of hepatic, biliary and pancreatic organoids.
Fri, 24 January 2020
ARTICLE Download: 53| View: 64| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0289.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: tunnel entrance; crosswind; wind–train–track coupling dynamic model; transient response of aerodynamic load; sudden wind effect; traffic safety
Online: 24 January 2020 (15:07:07 CET)
Sudden variation of aerodynamic loads is the potential source of safety accidents of high-speed train (HST). As a follow-up investigation on the aerodynamic response of a HST that enters a tunnel under crosswind environment, this paper focuses on the transient response of a HST’s safety indices based on the train–track coupling interaction model. Firstly, a wind–train–track coupling dynamic model is proposed by introducing transient aerodynamic loads into the vehicle–track system. Secondly, the temporal evolution of safety coefficients indicates that the train’s safety risk increases during tunnel entry with crosswind. Results show that the derailment coefficients and wheel load reduction rate during tunnel entry are not only larger than those in open air but also those inside the tunnel due to the sudden disappearance of wind excitation at the tunnel entrance. In addition, the characteristic wind curve, which is the wind velocity against the train speed, is presented for application based on the current specification of the safety criteria threshold. The investigation will be useful in assessing the safety risk of a running train subjected to other aerodynamic attacks, such as the coupling effect of infrastructure scenario and crosswind in windy area.
ARTICLE Download: 43| View: 47| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0287.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: wheelchair; hybrid manual-electric drives; drives supporting the movement
Online: 24 January 2020 (15:00:13 CET)
Overcoming terrain obstacles presents a major problem for people with disabilities or with limited mobility who are dependent on wheelchairs. An engineering solution designed to facilitate the use of wheelchairs are assisted propulsion systems. The objective of the research described in this article is to analyse the impact of the hybrid manual-electric wheelchair propulsion system on the kinematics of the anthropotechnical system when climbing hills. The tests were carried out on a wheelchair ramp with an incline degree of 4°, using a prototype wheelchair with a hybrid manual-electric propulsion system in accordance with the patent application P.427855. The test subjects were three people whose task was to propel the wheelchair in two assistance modes supporting manual propulsion. The first mode is hill climbing assistance, while the second one is assistance with propulsion torque in the propulsive phase. During the tests, a number of kinematic parameters of the wheelchair were monitored. An in-depth analysis was performed for the amplitude of speed during a hill climb and the number of propulsive cycles performed on a hill. The tests performed showed that when propelling the wheelchair only using the hand rims, the subject needed an average of 13 pushes on the uphill slope, and their speed amplitude was 1.8 km/h with an average speed of 1.73 km/h. The climbing assistance mode reduced the speed amplitude to 0.76 km/h, while the torque assisted mode in the propulsive phase reduced the number of cycles required to climb the hill from 13 to 6. The tests were carried out at various values of assistance and assistance amplification coefficient, and the most optimally selected parameters of this coefficient were presented in the results. The tests proved that electric propulsion assistance has a beneficial and significant impact on the kinematics of manual wheelchair propulsion when compared to a classic manual propulsion system when overcoming hills. In addition, assistance and assistance amplification coefficient were proved to be correlated to operating conditions and the user's individual characteristics.
ARTICLE Download: 35| View: 61| Comments: 0
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Resistive sensor array; measurement error; zero potential methods; liquid metal; flexible electrical skin
Online: 24 January 2020 (14:49:03 CET)
Liquid metal alloy, incorporated with microfluidic manipulation, has become a promising candidate for flexible resistive sensor array (RSA) that can imitate the functions of human skin. One advantage of RSA with shared rows and shared columns is to reduce the number of wires from M × N to M + N (rows: M and columns: N) and hence to greatly lessen the complexity and burden on the electrical system. The associated drawback is the crosstalk effect between adjacent elements during measurement. Although many literatures have reported several methods to resolve this limitation, almost all of them focus only on the high resistance value (≥100 Ω) RSA. There is a lack of detailed experimental data that addresses low resistance RSA with sensing elements below 100 Ω. Here, we aim to fill the gap of this field. We established two common RSA readout systems, i.e. zero potential methods (ZPM) (setting non-scanned-sampling-electrode zero potential (S-NSSE-ZP) and setting non-scanned-sampling-electrode zero potential with amplifier (S-NSSE-ZP-A)) and to compare their performances in low resistance value (≤100 Ω) RSA. For ideal resistor RSA, the measurement results show that S-NSSE-ZP has at least one time higher error than S-NSSE-ZP-A.
REVIEW Download: 190| View: 77| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0282.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Systems Engineering; Complex networks; Multiagent systems; Optimisation; Processes Systems Engineering
Online: 24 January 2020 (14:27:32 CET)
Systems Engineering is an ubiquitous discipline of Engineering overlapping industrial, chemical, mechanical, manufacturing, control, software, electrical, and civil engineering. It provides tools for dealing with the complexity and dynamics related to the optimisation of physical, natural, and virtual systems management. This paper presents a review of how multi-agent systems and complex networks theory are brought together to address Systems Engineering and management problems. The review also encompasses current and future research directions both for theoretical fundamentals and applications in Industry. This is made by considering trends such as mesoscale, multiscale, and multilayer networks; along with the state-of-art analysis on network dynamics and intelligent networks. Critical and smart infrastructure, manufacturing processes, and supply chain networks are instances of research topics for which this literature review is highly relevant.
Thu, 23 January 2020
ARTICLE Download: 63| View: 78| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0268.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: residual stress prediction; maraging steel 350; experimental measurement of residual stress
Online: 23 January 2020 (16:12:51 CET)
Rapid and accurate prediction of residual stress in metal additive manufacturing processes is of great importance to guarantee the quality of the fabricated part to be used in a mission-critical application in the aerospace and automotive industries. Experimentation and numerical modeling are valuable tools for measuring and predicting the residual stress; however, to-date conducting experimentation and numerical modeling is expensive and time-consuming. Thus, herein, a physics-based thermomechanical analytical model is proposed to predict the residual stress of the additively manufactured part rapidly and accurately. A moving point heat source approach is used to predict the temperature field by considering the effects of scan strategies, heat loss, and energy needed for solid-state phase transformation. Due to the high temperature gradient in this process, part experiences a high amount of thermal stress following solidification which may exceed the yield strength of the material. The thermal stress is obtained using Green’s function of stresses due to the point body load. The Johnson-Cook flow stress model is used to predict the yield surface of the part under repeated heating and cooling. As a result of the cyclic heating and cooling and the fact that the material is yielded, the residual stress build-up is predicted based on incremental plasticity and kinematic hardening behavior of the metal according to the property of volume invariance in plastic deformation in coupling with the equilibrium and compatibility conditions. The computational methodology is realized with the laser powder fusion of maraging steel 350 as a material of example. The validation of the predictive models has been presented in terms of the comparison of predicted and measured scan-direction and build-direction residual stress distributions along depth of build under various process parameter combinations. Moreover, for the first time, the Jonson-Cook parameters of maraging steel 350 are predicted using analytical modeling of machining forces and non-linear optimization techniques.
ARTICLE Download: 38| View: 51| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0266.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: rubble-mound; zero-freeboard; porous-media; immersed-boundary; level-set; Smagorinsky subgrid scale model; wave reflection; wave transmission; wave overtopping; wave setup
Online: 23 January 2020 (14:43:47 CET)
A numerical study for the effect of crest width, breaking parameter and trunk permeability on hydrodynamics and flow behavior in the vicinity of rubble-mound, permeable, zero-freeboard breakwaters (ZFBs) is presented. The modified two dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for two-phase flows in porous media with a Smagorinsky model for the subgrid scale stresses were solved numerically. An immersed-boundary/level-set method was used. The numerical model was validated for the cases of wave propagation over a submerged impermeable trapezoidal bar and over a low-crested permeable breakwater. Five cases of breakwaters were examined, and the main results are: (a) The size of the crest width, B, does not notably affect the wave reflection, vorticity and currents in the seaward region of ZFBs, while wave transmission, currents in the leeward side, and mean overtopping discharge, all decrease with increasing B. A non-monotonic behavior of the wave setup is also observed. (b) As the breaking parameter decreases, wave reflection, transmission, currents, mean overtopping discharge, and wave setup decrease. This observation is also verified by relevant empirical formulas. (c) As the ZFB trunk permeability decreases, an increase of the wave reflection, currents, wave setup, and a decrease of wave transmission and mean overtopping discharge is observed.
ARTICLE Download: 40| View: 50| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0264.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: plastics wastes; pyrolysis; catalyst; activation; hydrocarbon fuel; polyethylene
Online: 23 January 2020 (10:05:57 CET)
Plastics have become an indispensable part of modern life today. The global production of plastics has gone up to 299million tones in 2013, which is believed to be increasing in the near future. The utilization of plastics and its final disposal pose a tremendous negative significance impacts on the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the thermal and catalytic pyrolysis for production of hydrocarbon fuel from the polyethene plastic wastes. Catalysts used in the experiment were acid activated clay mineral and aluminum chlorides on activated carbon. The clay mineral was activated by refluxing it with 6M Sulphuric acid for 3hours. The experiment was conducted in three different phases: the first phase of the experiment was done without a catalyst where 88mL oil was obtained at a maximum temperature of 39 and heating rates of 12.5, reaction time of 4hours. The second phase involves the use of acid activated clay mineral where 100mL of oil was obtained and heating rates of 12.5 and reaction time of 3hours 30minutes. The third phase was done using aluminum chlorides on activated carbon and 105ml oil was obtained at a maximum temperature of 400 and heating rates of 15.5 reaction time of 3hours 10minutes. From the results, catalytic pyrolysis is more efficient than purely thermal pyrolysis and homogenous catalysis (aluminum chlorides) shows a better result than solid acid catalyst (activated clay minerals) hence saving the energy needed for pyrolysis and making the process more economically feasible.
Wed, 22 January 2020
ARTICLE Download: 37| View: 59| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0257.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Hydrostatic; Blade guides; Bandsaw; Diamond blade; Natural stone; Sawing
Online: 22 January 2020 (09:32:18 CET)
Bandsaws either use fibre or ceramic block or sealed bearings as blade guides. This works well for cutting metals, wood and plastics. However, highly abrasive particles generated while cutting stones, settle between the contacts of the blade and the guides causing wear and premature failure. Hydrostatic guide system as presented in this work, is a contactless blade guiding method that uses force of several pressurized water jets to keep the blade cutting in a straight line. For this investigation, cutting tests were performed on a marble block using a galvanic diamond coated bandsaw blade with the upper roller guides replaced by hydrostatic guides. The results show that the hydrostatic guides help to reduce the passive force to a constant near zero in contrast to the bearing guides. This also resulted in reduced surface roughness of the stone plates that were cut. Additionally, it has also been shown that using hydrostatic guides the bandsaw blade can be tilted to counter the bandsaw drift. This original research work has shown that the hydrostatic guide systems are capable of replacing and in fact perform better than the state of the art bearing or block guides specially for stone cutting applications.
ARTICLE Download: 54| View: 95| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0253.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: structural health monitoring; sensor fusion; adaptive Kalman Filter; displacement estimation; reference-free displacement
Online: 22 January 2020 (03:08:35 CET)
Structural displacement is an important metric for assessing structural conditions because it has a direct relationship with the structural stiffness. Many bridge displacement measurement techniques have been developed, but most methods require fixed reference points in the vicinity of the target structure which limits field implementations. A promising alternative is to use reference-free measurement techniques that indirectly estimate the displacement by using measurements such as acceleration, and strain. This paper proposes novel reference-free bridge displacement estimation by the fusion of single acceleration with pseudo-static displacement derived from co-located strain measurements. First, we propose a conversion of the strain at the center of a beam into displacement based on the geometric relationship between strain and deflection curves with reference-free calibration. Second, an adaptive Kalman filter is proposed to fuse the displacement generated by strain with acceleration by recursively estimate the noise covariance of displacement from strain measurements which is vulnerable to measurement condition. Both numerical and experimental validations are presented to demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the proposed approach.
ARTICLE Download: 40| View: 34| Comments: 0
Online: 22 January 2020 (02:33:51 CET)
Plastics are naturally hydrophobic materials so, in order to employ flotation for the separation of plastic mixtures, the use of appropriate wetting agents is mandatory. In this work, the effect of pretreatment with alkaline solutions of sodium hydroxide on the floatability of four plastics (PET, PS, PMMA and PVC) was studied. The influence of NaOH concentration, treatment time and temperature of the alkaline solution, and influence of particle size was analyzed. Results showed that alkaline treatment had a strong effect on PET floatability, some effect on floatability of PMMA and PVC and no effect on floatability of PS. Plastics floatability decreased with the increase of NaOH concentration, temperature and treatment time of the alkaline solution. Based on flotation behavior of simple plastics, flotation separation after alkaline treatment of bi-component mixtures of PET with PS and PVC was achieved efficiently. The best separation was obtained for PET/PS mixture, a floated with a grade of 98% in PS and a sunk with a grade of 100% in PET. PET/PMMA mixture led to the worst separation. For PET/PMMA and PET/PVC mixtures, flotation separation improved with the decrease of the particles size.
Tue, 21 January 2020
ARTICLE Download: 46| View: 56| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0246.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Cell Method (CM); Discrete Element Method (DEM); multiscale modeling; periodic composite continua
Online: 21 January 2020 (11:53:52 CET)
This paper addresses the study of the stress field in composites continua with the multiscale approach of the DECM (Discrete Element modeling with the Cell Method). The analysis focuses on composites consisting of a matrix with inclusions of various shapes, to investigate whether and how the shape of the inclusions changes the stress field. The purpose is to provide a numerical explanation for some of the main failure mechanisms of concrete, which is precisely a composite consisting of a cement-based matrix and aggregates of various shapes. Actually, while extensive experimental campaigns detailed the shape effect of concrete aggregates in the past, so far it has not been possible to model the stress field within the inclusions and on the interfaces accurately. The reason for this lies in the limits of the differential formulation, which is the basis of the most commonly used numerical methods. The Cell Method (CM), on the contrary, is an algebraic method that provides descriptions up to the micro-scale, independently of the presence of rheological discontinuities or concentrated sources. This makes the CM useful for describing the shape effect of the inclusions, on the micro-scale. When used together with a multiscale approach, it also models the macro-scale behavior of periodic composite continua, without losing accuracy on the micro-scale. The DECM uses discrete elements precisely to provide the CM with a multiscale approach.
ARTICLE Download: 48| View: 50| Comments: 0
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: renewable systems; storage; dispatch; optimization; energy markets; machine learning
Online: 21 January 2020 (10:20:43 CET)
Environmental and economic needs drive the increased penetration of intermittent renewable energy in electricity grids, enhancing uncertainty in market conditions prediction and network constraints. Thereafter, the importance of energy systems with flexible dispatch is reinforced, ensuring energy storage as an essential asset for these systems to be able to balance production and demand. In order to do so, such systems should participate in whole-sale energy markets, enabling competition among all players, including conventional power plants. Consequently, an effective dispatch schedule considering market and resource uncertainties is crucial. In this context, an innovative dispatch optimization strategy for schedule planning of renewable systems with storage is presented. Based on an optimization algorithm combined with a machine learning approach, the proposed method develops a financial optimum schedule with the incorporation of uncertainty information. Simulations performed with a concentrated solar power plant model following the proposed optimization strategy demonstrate promising financial improvement with a dynamic and intuitive dispatch planning method, emphasizing the importance of uncertainty treatment on the enhanced quality of renewable systems scheduling.
Mon, 20 January 2020
ARTICLE Download: 54| View: 63| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0224.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: electric vehicles; sector coupling; energy system optimization; renewable energy integration; REMix; charging behavior; marginal values
Online: 20 January 2020 (10:08:13 CET)
Battery electric vehicles provide an opportunity to balance supply and demand in future power systems with high shares of fluctuating renewable energy. Compared to other storage systems such as pumped-storage hydroelectricity, electric vehicle energy demand is highly dependent on charging and connection choices of vehicle users. We present a model framework of a utility-based stock and flow model, a utility-based microsimulation of charging decisions, and an energy system model including respective interfaces to assess how the representation of battery electric vehicle charging affects energy system optimization results. We then apply the framework to a scenario study for controlled charging of nine million electric vehicles in Germany in 2030. Assuming a respective fleet power demand of 27 TWh, we analyze the difference between power-system-based and vehicle user-based charging decisions in two respective scenarios. Our results show that taking into account vehicle users’ charging and connection decisions significantly decreases the load shifting potential of controlled charging. The analysis of marginal values of equations and variables of the optimization problem yields valuable insights on the importance of specific constraints and optimization variables. In particular, state-of-charge assumptions and representing fast charging drive curtailment of renewable energy feed-in and required gas power plant flexibility. A detailed representation of fleet charge connection is less important. Peak load can be significantly reduced by 5% and 3% in both scenarios, respectively. Shifted load is very robust across sensitivity analyses while other model results such as curtailment are more sensitive to factors such as underlying data years. Analyzing the importance of increased BEV fleet battery availability for power systems with different weather and electricity demand characteristics should be further scrutinized.
ARTICLE Download: 25| View: 33| Comments: 0
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: optical fibers; spectral filter; modes coupling; dispersion characteristics; composite waveguide; linear polarized modes
Online: 20 January 2020 (09:46:33 CET)
In this paper, design of optical spectral filters based on mode coupling of optical fibers is presented. The finite difference method is applied to find the dispersion characteristics of optical fiber coupler constructing from two fibers as a composite multi-dielectric waveguide with different cores but the same cladding. Also, the field distribution for both fibers as a separate and as a composite waveguide. The spectral characteristics of the filters are investigated depending on the coupling of two linear polarized modes LP01 and LP11. The dependence of the transmission coefficient on operating wavelengths is illustrated. Finally, the spectral bandwidth of filter as a function of the distance between the two cores is addressed.
Sat, 18 January 2020
ARTICLE Download: 60| View: 62| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0198.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: transplanter; hydraulic oil; temperature; viscosity; proportional valve
Online: 18 January 2020 (09:24:36 CET)
This study was conducted to develop a PID control algorithm considering viscosity for the planting depth control system of a rice transplanter using various hydraulic oils at different temperatures and to evaluate the performance of the control algorithm, and compare the performance of the PID control algorithm without considering viscosity and considering viscosity. In this study, the simulation model of the planting depth control system and a PID control algorithm were developed based on the power flow of the rice transplanter (ERP60DS). The primary PID coefficients were determined using the Ziegler–Nichols (Z–N) second method. Routh’s stability criteria were applied to optimize the coefficients. The pole and double zero points of the PID controller were also applied to minimize the sustained oscillations of the responses. The performance of the PID control algorithm was evaluated for three ISO (The International Organization for Standardization) standard viscosity grade (VG) hydraulic oils (VG 32, 46, and 68). The results show that the control algorithm considering viscosity is able to control the pressure of the proportional valve, which is associated with the actuator displacement for various types of hydraulic oils. It was noticed that the maximum pressure was 15.405 bars at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 ℃ for all of the hydraulic oils. The settling time and steady-state errors were 0.45 s at 100 ℃ for VG 32, and 0% for all of the conditions. The maximum overshoots were found to be 17.50% at 100 ℃ for VG 32. On the other hand, the PID control algorithm without considering viscosity could not control the planting depth, because the response was slow and did not satisfy the boundary conditions. The PID control algorithm considering viscosity could sufficiently compensate for the nonlinearity of the hydraulic system and was able to perform for any of temperature-dependent viscosity of the hydraulic oils. In addition, the rice transplanter requires a faster response for accurately controlling and maintaining the planting depth. Planting depth is highly associated with actuator displacement. Finally, this control algorithm considering viscosity could be helpful in minimizing the tilting of the seedlings planted using the rice transplanter. Ultimately, it would improve the transplanter performance.
Fri, 17 January 2020
ARTICLE Download: 68| View: 75| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0194.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Internet of Things; IoT; Wireless Sensor Networks; ContikiMAC; Energy Efficiency; Duty-Cycles; Clear Channel Assessments; Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI)
Online: 17 January 2020 (12:49:13 CET)
The radio operation in wireless sensor networks (WSN) in the Internet of Things (IoT) applications are the most common source for power consumption. However, recognizing and controlling the factors affecting radio operation can be valuable for managing the node power consumption. ContikiMAC is a low-power Radio Duty-Cycle protocol in Contiki OS used in WakeUp mode, which is a clear channel assessment (CCA) to check radio status periodically. The time spent to check the radio is of utmost importance for monitoring power consumption. It can lead to false WakeUp or idle listening in Radio Duty-Cycles and ContikiMAC. This paper presents a detailed analysis of radio WakeUp time factors of ContikiMAC. Then, we propose lightweight CCA (LW-CCA) as an extension to ContikiMAC to reduce the percentage of Radio Duty-Cycles in false WakeUps and idle listenings by using dynamic received signal strength indicators (RSSI) status check time. The simulation results in the Cooja simulator show that LW-CCA reduces about 8% energy consumption in nodes while maintaining up to 99% of the packet delivery rate (PDR).
REVIEW Download: 38| View: 92| Comments: 1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: bioelectrochemical systems; in situ treatment; groundwater remediation; bioelectroremediation; denitrification; microbial electrochemical technologies
Online: 17 January 2020 (11:08:18 CET)
Groundwater contamination is an ever-growing environmental issue that has attracted much and undiminished attention for the past half century. Groundwater contamination may originate from both anthropogenic (e.g., hydrocarbons) and natural compounds (e.g., nitrate and arsenic); to tackle the removal of these contaminants, different technologies have been developed and implemented. Recently, bioelectrochemical systems (BES) have emerged as a potential treatment for groundwater contamination, with reported in situ applications that showed promising results. Nitrate and hydrocarbons (toluene, phenanthrene, benzene, BTEX and light PAHs) have been successfully removed, due to the interaction of microbial metabolism with poised electrodes, in addition to physical migration due to the electric field generated in a BES. The selection of proper BESs relies on several factors and problems, such as the complexity of groundwater and subsoil environment, scale-up issues, and energy requirements that need to be accounted for. Modeling efforts could help predict case scenarios and select a proper design and approach, while BES-based biosensing could help monitoring remediation processes. In this review, we critically analyze in situ BES applications for groundwater remediation, focusing in particular on different proposed setups, and we identify and discuss the existing research gaps in the field.
ARTICLE Download: 52| View: 53| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0190.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: Port State Control; AHP; Paris MOU; GIS; Maritime Regulations
Online: 17 January 2020 (10:27:40 CET)
Merchant marine fleet is under inspections by several parties to ensure maritime regulation compliance. One of the major effects on implementation of regulations by International Maritime Organization (IMO) is indeed Port State Control. This article aims to analyze Paris Memoranda of Understanding (MOU) all detention remarks from 2013 to 2019 for EU15 countries (except Luxemburg and Austria) through an approach based on Analytical Hierarchy Process and demonstrate the results on Geographic Information System (GIS) to guide marine industry on detainable Port State Control remarks and country risk profile. While Analytical Hierarchy Process Approach has been used to indicate the ranking of basic maritime regulations from the perspective of the port state control , GIS help us to demonstrate the regional dispersion amongst EU15. The data of the detained vessel taken from the public website of Paris MOU and each report considered as a professional judgement that causes detention. It has been shown that almost all countries top priorities for regulation are Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) and Fire Safety Systems (FSS). Consequently, the results of the study can assist Port State Officers, ship crew, ship owners and managers presenting the facts of their inspection and able to improve themselves. The spatial analysis also expected to guide ship owners and managers to focus their vessel’s deficiencies to prevent sub-standardization.
ARTICLE Download: 46| View: 48| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0187.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: antiterrorism; underwater GNSS; underwater GPS; spoofer; antispoofing; spoofing detection; underwater transport safety
Online: 17 January 2020 (10:13:32 CET)
The purpose of the work is an underwater positioning safety study that used the GNSS-like underwater navigation systems. In the process of research, we used the methods of software modeling of underwater spoofing processes. The spoofing problem consists of three stages: design of spoofers, design of spoofing detection systems, and design of anti-spoofing systems. This article discusses some methods of spoofing detection. We briefly describe the known methods of underwater positioning systems. Unlike GNSS, currently only LNSS (Local Navigation Satellite System) can be considered in this case. Spoofing detection systems with one hydrophone are of great practical importance, as they allow for use of standard hydroacoustic equipment. However, detection of spoofing is not possible in static mode, which is with underwater vehicle at rest. In case of two hydrophones the detection of spoofing in static mode is possible. We discuss the navigation based on the use of an acoustically passive receiver. The receiver “listens” to the buoys and solves the problem of finding its own position using the coordinates of the buoys (such systems are called GNSS-like Underwater Positioning Systems or GNSS-like UPS). Depending on the scale of system service area, GNSS-like UPS-es are divided into global, regional, zonal and local systems. In this article, we take into account only the local class of GNSS-like UPS. The acoustic signal generator transmits a simulation of several buoy signals. If the level of the simulated signal exceeds the signal strength of actual buoys, the UPS receiver will “lock onto” the fake signal and then calculate a false position basing on it. The development of further research should be focused on the creation of hardware and software systems for conducting physical experiments at depths up to 400 m.
ARTICLE Download: 37| View: 57| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0186.v1
Online: 17 January 2020 (10:07:46 CET)
The high volume of water in molasses has made this study serious. The reason is that using molasses as a partial replacement without treatment significantly affects the rheological properties of the neat bitumen and increases the likelihood of moisture susceptibility of the hot-mix asphalt (HMA) pavement structure and create fractures of aggregate particles. Therefore, to use molasses as a partial replacement without affecting the structural integrity of the pavement, this study proposed a treatment method before blending it with petroleum-based bitumen. A series of experiment was conducted to accomplish the objective of this paper, including convectional tests, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) test, amplitude and frequency sweep test, performance grade (PG) determination test, and multiple stress creep recovery (MSCR) tests. The IR spectra show that carbonyl index decreased with increasing molasses percent. There was PG improvement from the control grade to PG64 and PG70 when the base binder modified with 5-20% molasses and aged with rollingl thin film oven (RTFO) respectively. At the temperature 58oC nonrecoverable creep compliance at 3.2 kPa (Jnr3.2kPa) was decreased for each percent replacement. This led to improving the rutting potential. As well, at a temperature of 64oC the Jnr value was decreased only for 5% replacement, and then the Jnr value was gradually increased for the remaining percent replacement. Overall, this study revealed that treated molasses can be used as a partial replacement to enhance the rheological properties of the base bitumen and thus it can potentially be used to produce a sustainable bio-asphalt binder.
ARTICLE Download: 52| View: 72| Comments: 1 | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0195.v2
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: holographic 3D display; computer generated holography; light field image rendering; pinhole array
Online: 17 January 2020 (06:46:23 CET)
A fast calculation method for the full parallax high-resolution hologram is proposed based on the elemental light field image (EI) rendering. A 3D object located near the holographic plane is firstly rendered as multiple EIs with a pinhole array. Each EI is interpolated and multiplied by a divergent sphere wave and interfered with a reference wave to form a hogel. Parallel acceleration is used to calculate the high-resolution hologram because calculation of each hogel is independent. A high-resolution hologram with the resolution of 20,0000×20,0000 pixels is calculated only within 8 minutes. Full parallax high-resolution 3D displays are realized by optical reconstructions.
Thu, 16 January 2020
ARTICLE Download: 53| View: 77| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0170.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: internet of things; smart grids; protocol communication; interoperability; CoAP; OSGP
Online: 16 January 2020 (11:41:25 CET)
The evolution and miniaturization of the technologies for processing, storage, and communication have enabled computer systems to process a high volume of information and make decisions without human intervention. Within this context, several systems architectures and models have gained prominences, such as the Internet of Things (IoT) and Smart Grids (SGs). SGs use communication protocols to exchange information, among which the Open Smart Grid Protocol (OSGP) stands out. In contrast, this protocol does not have integration support with IoT systems that use some already consolidated communication protocols, such as the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP). Thus, this work develops the integration of the protocols OSGP and CoAP to allow the communication between conventional IoT systems and systems dedicated to SGs. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of this integration, with the minimum impact on the flow of commands and data, making possible the use of the developed CoAP-OSGP Interface for Internet of Things (COIIoT).
ARTICLE Download: 35| View: 71| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0169.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: residual compressive strength; steel; finite element analysis; short tubular steel column; local corrosion
Online: 16 January 2020 (11:17:19 CET)
Corrosion is considered as one of the main factors in the structural performance deterioration of steel members. In this study, experimental and numerical methods were used to assess the reduction in compressive strength of short tubular steel columns with local corrosion damage. The corrosion damage was varied with different depths (0, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 4.5, and 6 mm), height (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, and 180 mm), circumference (0, 90, 180, 270, and 360°), and location along the column. A parametric numerical study was performed to establish a correlation between the residual compressive strength and the severity of corrosion damage. The results showed that as the corrosion depth, height and circumference increased, the compressive strength decreased linearly. As for the corrosion height, the residual compressive strength became constant after decreasing linearly when the corrosion height was greater than the half-wavelength of buckling of the short columns. An equation is presented to evaluate the residual compressive strength of short columns with local corrosion wherein the volume of the corrosion damage was used as a reduction factor in calculating the compressive strength. The percentage error using the presented equation was found to be within 11.4%.
ARTICLE Download: 57| View: 55| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0165.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Electrical motors; Slot Filling factor; Optimization Algorithm; Windings; Magnetic Wire; Filling Factor Optimization
Online: 16 January 2020 (10:54:48 CET)
The continuous development in the field of industrial automation and electric mobility has led to the need for more efficient electrical machines with high power density. The improvement of electrical machines slot filling factors is one of the measures to satisfy these requirements. In recent years, this topic has aroused greater interest in the industrial sector, since the evolution of the winding technological manufacturing processes allows an economically sustainable realization of ordered winding arrangements, rather than random ones. Moreover, the manufacture of electrical machines windings must be preceded by an accurate design phase in which it is possible to evaluate the maximum slot filling factor obtainable for a given wire shape and for its dimensions. For this purpose, this paper presents an algorithmic approach for the evaluation of maximum slot filling factors in electrical machines under ideal geometric premise. In particular, this algorithm has a greater degree of flexibility with respect to the algorithm approaches found in the literature, since the study has been extended to round, rectangular and hexagonal wire sections. Furthermore, the slot filling factor calculation was carried out both for standard and non-standard slots. The algorithmic approach proposed can be considered as an additional useful tool for the fast design of electrical machine windings.
ARTICLE Download: 39| View: 81| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0158.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; 3D printing; fused filament fabrication; Young's module; tensile strength; Timberfill; PLA; wood-PLA composite
Online: 16 January 2020 (07:38:26 CET)
The present study evaluates the manufacturing parameters effects on the tensile properties of material composed by polylactic acid (PLA) with wood fibers known as Timberfill. The specimens were built through fused filament fabrication (FFF). The influence of four printing parameters (Layer height, Fill density, Printing velocity, and Orientation) are considered through a L27 Taguchi orthogonal array in order to reduce experimental runs. Tensile test is applied to obtain the response variable used as output results to perform the ANOVA calculations. Fill density is the most influential parameter on the tensile strength, followed by building orientation and layer height, whereas the printing velocity shows no significant influence. The optimal set of parameters and levels is found, being 75% fill density, 0○Z-axis orientation, 0.4 mm layer height, and 40 mm/s velocity as the best combination. Applying this combination showed 9.37 MPa in maximum tension. Lastly, five solid Timberfill specimens manufactured via injection molding technology were also tested and the results compared to the printed samples. The values of the elastic modulus, elastic limit, and maximum tension of the injected samples were almost twofold of those were obtained for the FFF samples, but the maximum elongation of injected specimens was fell sharply.
Wed, 15 January 2020
ARTICLE Download: 39| View: 79| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0146.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: child seats; car accidents; car crash analyses; children safety
Online: 15 January 2020 (07:30:38 CET)
The study presents a comparison of the common Child Restraint Systems (CRS) which reduces the value of dynamic loads affecting the child's body during car accidents. The analyzed systems were: child seats, Combi Booster Seats, and straps adjusting vehicle seat belts to children's sizes. The effectiveness of the analyzed devices was assessed on the basis of experimental tests carried out in the accredited laboratory approving the Child Restraint Systems. The tests were carried out accordingly to the new Regulation No. 129 UN / ECE. Whether the tested devices meet the guidelines of the new Regulations No. 129 despite approval in accordance with Regulation No. 44. Based on the research result, better safety parameters of some new solutions dedicated to children’s safety could be observed. The final results show that there is still space for improving the safety of young vehicle passengers.
ARTICLE Download: 40| View: 74| Comments: 1 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0083.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: evapotranspiration; green infrastructure; HYDRUS; leaf water potential; low impact development; optimization; overdesign; stomatal conductance; simulated runoff test; static sizing; stormwater control measure; tree trench
Online: 15 January 2020 (07:28:40 CET)
Green infrastructure systems are often overdesigned. This may be a byproduct of static sizing (e.g., accounting for a design storm’s runoff volume but not exfiltration rates) or may be deliberate (e.g., buffering against performance loss through time). Regardless, overdesign may compromise plants’ access to water in systems where soil pits are embedded in infiltration beds. It could raise the storm size required for water to reach soil pits, reducing water availability between storms, which could ultimately induce plant physiological stress. This study investigated the hydrological dynamics and water relations of a tree trench system suspected to have been overbuilt and identified factors contributing to, compounding, and mitigating the risk of plant stress. Results provided strong evidence that the abovementioned processes played out. Water in the infiltration bed reached soil pits only once in three years, with that event occurring during a hydrant release. Moreover, minimal water was retained in the soil pit during the event due to the hydraulic properties of the soil media. Through a growing season, one of the two tree types frequently experienced water stress, while the other did so only rarely. These contrasting responses can likely be attributed to roots either being largely confined to the soil pits or reaching a deeper water source. Implications of these results for green infrastructure design are considered.
ARTICLE Download: 157| View: 315| Comments: 1 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0018.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: photovoltaic; EV; PHV; standardization; car-roof; flexible PV; performance modeling; rating
Online: 15 January 2020 (07:19:23 CET)
The energy yield of the Vehicle-integrated photovoltaic (VIPV) differs from that of the standard photovoltaics (PV). It is mainly by the difference of the solar irradiance onto the car-roof and car-bodies as well as its curved-shape. Both meaningful and practical modeling and measurement of the solar irradiance for VIPV are needed to be newly established, not the extension of the current technologies. The solar irradiance was modeled by a random distribution of the shading objects and car-orientation with the correction of the curved surface of the PV modules. The measurement of the solar irradiance onto the car-roof and car-body was done using five pyranometers in five local axes on the car for one year. The measured dynamic solar irradiance onto the car-body and car-roof was used for validation of the solar irradiance model in the car.
Sun, 12 January 2020
ARTICLE Download: 56| View: 95| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0124.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: affinity propagation; agglomerative spectral clustering; social network analysis; recommendations system; clustering performance evaluation
Online: 12 January 2020 (15:23:56 CET)
This research aims to determine the similarities in groups of people to build a film recommender system for users. Users often have difficulty in finding suitable movies due to the increasing amount of movie information. The recommender system is very useful for helping customers choose a preferred movie with the existing features. In this study, the recommender system development is established by using several algorithms to obtain groupings, such as the K-Means algorithm, birch algorithm, mini-batch K-Means algorithm, mean-shift algorithm, affinity propagation algorithm, agglomerative clustering algorithm, and spectral clustering algorithm. We propose methods optimizing K so that each cluster may not significantly increase variance. We are limited to using groupings based on Genre and, Tags for movies. This research can discover better methods for evaluating clustering algorithms. To verify the quality of the recommender system, we adopted the mean square error (MSE), such as the Dunn Matrix and Cluster Validity Indices, and social network analysis (SNA), such as Degree Centrality, Closeness Centrality, and Betweenness Centrality. We also used Average Similarity, Computational Time, Association Rule with Apriori algorithm, and Clustering Performance Evaluation as evaluation measures to compare method performance of recommender systems using Silhouette Coefficient, Calinski-Harabaz Index, and Davies-Bouldin Index.
REVIEW Download: 74| View: 72| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0115.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: electrical heating; heavy oil; visocsity; energy efficiency
Online: 12 January 2020 (13:25:53 CET)
This paper presents a review of the electrical heating method for heavy oil recovery based on past, current, and future prospects of electrical heating. Heavy oil is one of the potential crude oil used as a link to reduce the crisis of light oil used today. The obstacle of heavy oil is a high viscosity and density in which thermal injection is a method for heavy oil recovery, but it results in economic and environmental issues. Electrical heating is one of the thermal methods by transferring heat into the reservoir. The basic process of electrical heating is to increase the mobility of the oil. Because the temperature rises, it can reduce oil viscosity and makes it easier for heavy oil to flow. The past and current developments have been carried out to fill up the gap of electrical heating projects. The future prospects must meet energy efficiency, and the excessive heat will damage formation that must be tackled in the future prospect. the works adopt several electrical heating projects and applications in the world where the works give a brief future prospect of electrical heating.
Sat, 11 January 2020
ARTICLE Download: 57| View: 96| Comments: 0
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: airborne wind energy; kite system; system identification; adaptive algorithms; pole placement
Online: 11 January 2020 (14:32:48 CET)
This paper presents a comparison between a kite model with a constant-length tether and a model based on a system identification algorithm. The concept of system identification is applied to predict the uncertainties related to the variation of the wind speed and the shape deformation of the tethered membrane wing during flight. A pole-placement controller is used to ensure that the kite follows the planned flight path. Thus, we can determine the required locations of the closed loop poles, and then enforce them by changing the controller's gains in real-time. The capability of the system identification algorithm to recognize sudden changes in the dynamic model, and the ability of the controller to stabilize the system in the presence of such changes are confirmed. Furthermore, the system identification algorithm is applied to determine the parameters of a kite with variable-length tether used in a flight test of the 20 kW kite power system of TU Delft. Experimental data of this test were compared with the system identification results in real-time and significant changes were observed in the parameters of the dynamic model which heavily affect the resulting response.
ARTICLE Download: 54| View: 65| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0108.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: shear stress distribution; entropy; uncertainty; Shannon; Shannon PL; Tsallis; Renyi
Online: 11 January 2020 (11:33:47 CET)
The entropy models have been recently adopted in many studies to evaluate the distribution of the shear stress in circular channels. However, the uncertainty in their predictions and their reliability remains an open question. We present a novel method to evaluate the uncertainty of four popular entropy models, including Shannon, Shannon-Power Low (PL), Tsallis, and Renyi, in shear stress estimation in circular channels. The Bayesian Monte-Carlo (BMC) uncertainty method is simplified considering a 95% Confidence Bound (CB). We developed a new statistic index called as FREEopt-based OCB (FOCB) using the statistical indices Forecasting Range of Error Estimation (FREE) and the percentage of observed data in the CB (Nin), which integrates their combined effect. The Shannon and Shannon PL entropies had close values of the FOCB equal to 8.781 and 9.808, respectively, had the highest certainty in the calculation of shear stress values in circular channels followed by traditional uniform flow shear stress and Tsallis models with close values of 14.491 and 14.895, respectively. However, Renyi entropy with much higher values of FOCB equal to 57.726 has less certainty in the estimation of shear stress than other models. Using the presented results in this study, the amount of confidence in entropy methods in the calculation of shear stress to design and implement different types of open channels and their stability is determined.
Fri, 10 January 2020
REVIEW Download: 58| View: 66| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0094.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: concrete setting time; Coca-cola; silica fume; fly ash; Plastocrete® RT6 Plus
Online: 10 January 2020 (06:55:02 CET)
During the casting in a warmer tropical temperature, a setting time delay is required to maintain the workability of the concrete, commonly achieved by the addition of admixtures i.e. silica fume (SF), fly ash (FA), and Plastrocrete®. However, high sugar content Coca-Cola in niche conditions is proposed as an ingredient for delaying concrete setting time in combination with conventional admixtures. This research aims to compare the setting time of admixtures from Coca-Cola and Plastocrete® RT6 plus in concrete mixing with control data of concrete mixed with SF or FA. The second aim is to measure the compression strengths between combinations of Coca-Cola and Plastocrete® RT6 plus. Concretes were produced with admixtures of SF, FA, Plastocrete® RT6plus, or Coca-Cola. The concrete used to control was f'c20 and f'c 25, while other concrete mixes were produced with the addition of Coca-Cola at 0.15% from the weight of cement at variation of moisture treatments. The first method to produce concrete (f'c20+Plas0.23%+Cola0.15% and f'c25+Plas0.23%+Cola0.15%) did not employ water reduction. The second concrete productions (f'c25+Plas0.46%+Cola0.15% and f'c25+Plas0.46%+Cola0.15%) reduced the addition of water at 8.8% (v/w). The first concrete production method had a setting time 44% longer than control. The reduced water concrete in the second productions had a setting time 34% longer than control. Meanwhile, the Plastocrete® RT6 Plus admixture with the reduced water delayed the concrete setting time by 26% longer than control. The delayed setting time of Plastocrete® RT6 Plus admixture with reduction of water was shorter than in the treatment with Coca-Cola. The combination of the addition of Coca-Cola with Plastocrete® RT6 plus by reducing the amount of adding Coca-Cola to 0.10% with Plastocrete® RT6 plus can delay concrete setting time by 51% longer than normal concrete and increase concrete compressive strength by 13% higher than normal concrete. Mixing Coca-Cola with Plastocrete® RT6 plus not only provided an optimal delay effect on setting time but also significantly increase the compressive strength that was desired during the casting in warm tropical weather applied in building construction of Mulawarman University, Samarinda, Indonesia.
ARTICLE Download: 53| View: 90| Comments: 1 | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0324.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: energy system planning; energy system simulation; optimal sizing; risk analysis; Monte Carlo simulation; distributed energy systems; local energy markets
Online: 10 January 2020 (04:32:59 CET)
The planning and decision-making for a distributed energy supply concept in complex actor structures like in districts calls for the approach to be highly structured. Here, a strategy with strong use of energetic simulations is developed, the core elements are presented and research gaps are identified. The exemplary implementation is shown using the case study of a new district on the former Oldenburg airbase in northwestern Germany. The process is divided into four consecutive phases, which are carried out with different stakeholder participation and use of different simulation tools. Based on a common objective, a superstructure of the applicable technologies is developed. Detailed planning is then carried out with the help of a multi-objective optimal sizing algorithm and Monte Carlo based risk assessment. The process ends with the operating phase, which is to guarantee a further optimal and dynamic mode of operation. The main objective of this publication is present the core elements of the planning processes and decision-making framework based on the case study and to find and identify research gaps that will have to be addressed in the future.
Thu, 9 January 2020
ARTICLE Download: 57| View: 63| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0088.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: human reliability analysis; safety; FRAM; resilience engineering; performance variability; emergency
Online: 9 January 2020 (13:22:43 CET)
Technological innovation has led to the development of increasingly efficient and complex industrial plants. To manage this complexity, it is necessary to define an integrated vision of the socio-technological system that includes: technological, human and organizational component. Petrochemicals can be considered one of the most complex socio-technical systems that deserve special attention to high risk management, especially during the emergency conditions. Traditional safety management models only consider static systems, while new resilience engineering models evaluate the performance variability developed between different actions. One of the recent development methods is the Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM) that identifies the pairs between the functions. FRAM unfortunately is a qualitative model, this research integrates this model with the Performance Shaping Factors (PSFs) and with the Bayesian approach to identify the performance variability of the system. The analysis aims to develop a system that improves safety analysis. The proposed model is applied in a case study of an emergency in a petrochemical company.
ARTICLE Download: 70| View: 87| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0080.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: shale gas; MRST; embedded discrete fracture model; open-source implementation
Online: 9 January 2020 (09:59:37 CET)
We present a generic and open-source framework for the numerical modeling of the expected transport and storage mechanisms in unconventional gas reservoirs. These unconventional reservoirs typically contain natural fractures at multiple scales. Considering the importance of these fractures in shale gas production, we perform a rigorous study on the accuracy of different fracture models. The framework is validated against an industrial simulator and is used to perform a history-matching study on the Barnett shale. This work presents an open-source code that leverages cutting-edge numerical modeling capabilities like automatic differentiation, stochastic fracture modeling, multi-continuum modeling and other explicit and discrete fracture models. We modified the conventional mass balance equation to account for the physical mechanisms that are unique to organic-rich source rocks. Some of these include the use of an adsorption isotherm, a dynamic permeability-correction function, and an embedded discrete fracture model (EDFM) with fracture-well connectivity. We explore the accuracy of the EDFM for modeling hydraulically-fractured shale-gas wells, which could be connected to natural fractures of finite or infinite conductivity, and could deform during production. Simulation results indicates that although the EDFM provides a computationally efficient model for describing flow in natural and hydraulic fractures, it could be inaccurate under these three conditions: 1. when the fracture conductivity is very low. 2. when the fractures are not orthogonal to the underlying Cartesian grid blocks, and 3. when sharp pressure drops occur in large grid blocks with insufficient mesh refinement. Each of these results are very significant considering that most of the fluids in these ultra-low matrix permeability reservoirs get produced through the interconnected natural fractures, which are expected to have very low fracture conductivities. We also expect sharp pressure drops near the fractures in these shale gas reservoirs, and it is very unrealistic to expect the hydraulic fractures or complex fracture networks to be orthogonal to any structured grid. In conclusion, this paper presents an open-source numerical framework to facilitate the modeling of the expected physical mechanisms in shale-gas reservoirs. The code was validated against published results and a commercial simulator. We also performed a history-matching study on a naturally-fractured Barnett shale-gas well considering adsorption, gas slippage & diffusion and fracture closure as well as proppant embedment, using the framework presented. This work provides the first open-source code that can be used to facilitate the modeling and optimization of fractured shale-gas reservoirs. To provide the numerical flexibility to accurately model stochastic natural fractures that are connected to hydraulically-fractured wells, it is built atop other related open-source codes. We also present the first rigorous study on the accuracy of using EDFM to model both hydraulic fractures and natural fractures that may or may not be interconnected.
REVIEW Download: 78| View: 107| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0079.v1
Online: 9 January 2020 (09:44:35 CET)
Implementation of waterflood is with injected pressured water to reservoir to escalation oil production. Produced water is the dominated result from oil and gas mechanism in this world meanwhile 65% of water is injected back to the well for pressure maintenance, 30% for discharge aquifier condition and surface. For shaly sand, produced water usually bring coarse and suspended sand to the surface. Therefore, this sand level is needed to declining to avoid plugging in injection well until certain economic condition.
REVIEW Download: 72| View: 110| Comments: 1 | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0048.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: thermal desalination; reverse osmosis; advanced heat transfer fluids; sustainable desalination practices; integrated solar thermal nanofluids based desalination
Online: 9 January 2020 (08:39:19 CET)
Desalination accounts for 1% of the total global water consumption and is an energy-intensive process, with the majority of operational expenses attributed to energy consumption. Moreover, at present, a significant portion of the power comes from traditional fossil fuel-fired power plants and the greenhouse gas emissions associated with power production along with concentrated brine discharge from the process, pose a severe threat to the environment. Due to the dramatic impact of climate change, there is a major opportunity to develop sustainable desalination processes to combat the issues of brine discharge, greenhouse gas emissions along with a reduction in energy consumption per unit of freshwater produced. Nanotechnology can play a vital role to achieve specific energy consumption reduction as nanofluids application increases the overall heat transfer coefficient enabling the production of more water for the same size desalination plant. Furthermore, concentrated brine discharge harms the marine ecosystems, and hence, this problem must also be solved to support the objective of sustainable desalination. Several studies have been carried out in the past several years in the field of nanotechnology applications for desalination, brine treatment and the role of renewable energy in desalination. This paper aims to review the major advances in this field of nanotechnology for desalination. Furthermore, a hypothesis for developing an integrated solar thermal and nanofluid sustainable desalination system, based on the cyclic economy model is proposed.
ARTICLE Download: 86| View: 133| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0072.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: solar energy; Compound Parabolic Concentrators (CPC); high vacuum insulated solar collectors
Online: 9 January 2020 (05:31:26 CET)
A new frontier in solar thermal panel technology can be a high vacuum collector, thick enough to be equipped with solar concentrators based on non-imaging optics, such as the Compound Parabolic Concentrators (CPC). The high vacuum technology guarantees higher operating temperatures thanks to the enhanced thermal insulation, which leads to pay particular attention to the absorber radiative emission. In this paper by means of numerical simulations we compare the efficiency of a flat selective solar absorber under high vacuum to the efficiency of a CPC under high-vacuum collector.
ARTICLE Download: 59| View: 72| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0071.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: aero-fuel centrifugal pump; combination impeller; flow loss; flow characteristics; head and efficiency
Online: 9 January 2020 (05:22:18 CET)
Aero-fuel centrifugal pumps are important power plants in aero-engines. Unlike most of the existing centrifugal pumps, a combination impeller is integrated with the pump to improve its performance. First, the critical geometrical parameters of combination impeller and volute are given. Then, the effects of combination impeller on flow characteristics inside the impeller and volute are clarified by comparing simulation results with that of the conventional impeller, where the effectiveness of selected numerical method is validated by an acceptable agreement between simulation and experiment. Finally, the experiment is performed to test the external performance of studied pump. A significant feature of this study is that the flow characteristics are significantly ameliorated by reducing the flow losses emerged in impeller inlet, impeller outlet and volute tongue. Correspondingly, the head and efficiency of combination impeller are higher with comparison to conventional impeller. Consequently, it is a promising approach in ameliorating flow field and improving external performance by applying a combination impeller to an aero-fuel centrifugal pump.