Mining and Mineral Processing
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ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1429.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mining And Mineral Processing Keywords: UAV; 3D; modelling; photogrammetric; image processing; underground; tunnel
Online: 19 May 2023 (10:22:51 CEST)
UAV has become powerful devices for both practitioners and researchers. In recent years, there has been a substantial growth in the usage of UAV for a wide range of applications in research and engineering. UAV are mostly utilized for image capturing techniques due to their time savings, low cost, minimum field work, and high precision. The purpose of this study is to generate an accurate and reliable 3D modelling process using UAVs photogrammetric technology; hence this study allows the techniques to evaluate the practicability of modelling and mapping inaccessible tunnels using images recorded by UAVs and photogrammetry. As a result, the approach was always employed to depict the true state of the place. This research incorporates three experiments. The first experiment is to build a 3D model using only one-directional light source and evaluate the accuracy of 3D photogrammetric model and conducted at the concrete tunnel. The second one is to build a 3D model of underground sewer tunnel using different light sources one-directional and omni-directional. The last experiment was to build 3D model using an UAV system which is developed based on first and second experiment’s result, evaluate an accuracy of 3D photogrammetric model and conducted at the tunnel named in the research as a “pedestrian tunnel. There is certain limitation in this study such as Adding a payload to a drone changed its weight distribution, which affected its stability. If the payload was not properly balanced, it caused the drone to fly unevenly, making it more difficult to control.
Wed, 10 May 2023
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0725.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mining And Mineral Processing Keywords: slurry rheology; froth rheology; grinding; flotation; fine particle
Online: 10 May 2023 (09:55:32 CEST)
These years have witnessed growing research on applying rheology in grinding and flotation treatment of finely disseminated ores. The slurry rheology has long been identified as the comprehensive effect of inter-particle interactions, including their aggregation (coagulation and flocculation) and dispersion states in slurry, which are more impactive under the fine-particle effect. In this regard, rheology has the potential to play a significant role in interpreting the flowing and deforming phenomenon of inter-particle aggregates, particle-bubble aggregates, and flotation froth. Though much attention has been paid to the rheological effect in industrial suspension, this has not been the case for mineral grinding and flotation for fine particles. The influential mechanism of rheology on the sub-processes of mineral processing has not been systemically concluded and revealed thoroughly, without which the underpinning mechanism for enhancing the processing efficiency has been difficult to discover. This paper reviews the current application and importance of rheology in the fine mineral processing, and the potential research direction in the field is proposed.
Mon, 8 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0516.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mining And Mineral Processing Keywords: context-based synthesis of unmeasurable signal; line-scan dual-energy X-ray transmission; vertical and horizontal anisotropy; difference of synthesis; real-time
Online: 8 May 2023 (10:28:04 CEST)
Material identification based on R_value (transparency natural logarithm ratio of low-energy to high-energy) of line-scan dual-energy X-ray transmission (DE-XRT) has a good prospect for industrial application. Unfortunately, the DE-XRT signals before attenuation cannot be directly measured, whereas their precision is very important to R_value. Therefore, a context-based signal synthesis method which takes the filtered signals that remove high-frequency noises and retain low-frequency actual fluctuations as the reference value, and takes into account the vertical (forward/column) direction and horizontal (scanning/row) direction anisotropy of line-scan images was proposed. The vertical is a time series with continuity of signal trend; the horizontal is a spatial characteristic with the fluctuation synchronization within the same row signals. The special synthesis evaluations of curve synthesis difference and surface synthesis difference were also proposed. Experimental results show that the tow evaluations are both only about 0.0007, and it only takes 35 ms to complete the surface synthesis of 119×119 pixels on the CPU with 3.4 GHz main frequency. The presented method can achieve high signal synthesis precision and calculation real-time, so as to facilitate DE-XRT material identification. It can be extended to improve the precision of numerical synthesis in other line-scan uncomplete signals.
Mon, 24 April 2023
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0811.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mining And Mineral Processing Keywords: Grinding media, ball mill, comminution, Ball size distribution, wear, alloy, cast iron
Online: 24 April 2023 (03:37:13 CEST)
Comminution is a very important and result-determining step in mineral processing. This is because further downstream processes in the beneficiation chain depend entirely on it. Comminution includes the blasting, crushing, and grinding of ore to liberate valuable mineral particles. It consumes most of the energy used in mineral processing plants with grinding using up to 50% of the provided energy. Tumbling mills are an old technology that is still commonly used for grinding. One of the most used tumbling mills is the ball mill. This paper reviews different types of grinding media that have been developed and improved over the years and their properties. Also reviewed are the effects of grinding media on various aspects such as energy consumption, mill efficiency, minerals liberation and grinding rate. A comparison of the grinding media is given together with the knowledge gaps that still need to be bridged to improve the quality and performance of grinding media used in ball mills. Despite various research conducted on ball mills, the grinding process is still a very energy inefficient process. This creates a great opportunity for further research to improve the process because just a slight improvement in the process efficiency significantly reduces the production costs and provides a lot of environmental benefits.
Fri, 6 January 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0119.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mining And Mineral Processing Keywords: sphalerite; first principle; indium enrichment mechanism; copper; silver
Online: 6 January 2023 (06:54:27 CET)
Sphalerite has been recognized as the most important carrier of critical metal of Indium (In) due to that In mainly exists in the sphalerite lattice by isomorphic substitution. There are two significant replacing schemes for In entry into sphalerite, these are, Ag++In3+→2Zn2+ and Cu++In3+→2Zn2+. In order to understand the reaction process and constraints of the two substitution schemes, this paper uses first-principles methods to calculate In and Ag, Cu replacing Zn in sphalerite. According to the substitution schemes of Ag++In3+→2Zn2+ and Cu++In3+→2Zn2+, two doped sphalerite systems of Zn30InAgS32 and Zn30InCuS32 were constructed using 2×2×2 supercell model of sphalerite. Firstly, the pressure is controlled to 30MPa, and the temperature is set from 20-40MPa to simulate the response of the two doped sphalerite systems to temperature; Then, the control temperature was unchanged to 600K, and the pressure was set from 20-40MPa to investigate the pressure control of the two doped sphalerite systems. The lattice parameters, substitution energy, electronic structure, and population analysis of the designed models before and after replacement have been critically compared. The main conclusions can be drawn that it is more stable for In to enter sphalerite via the coupled substitution scheme Cu++In3+→2Zn2+, and the conditions that the two substitution schemes most likely to occur are 650K and 40MPa. This study not only reveals the physical and chemical properties of In-rich sphalerite formed by the two reaction processes of Ag++In3+→2Zn2+ and Cu++In3+→2Zn2+, but also has a certain enlightenment effect on the search for indium in sphalerite, and promotes the application of first principles in mineralization analysis.
Thu, 5 November 2020
Subject: Engineering, Mining And Mineral Processing Keywords: clay; mica; biotite; muscovite; origin of life; abiogenesis; mechanical energy; work; wet-dry
Online: 5 November 2020 (10:43:44 CET)
This paper presents a hypothesis about the origins of life in a clay mineral, starting with the earliest molecules, continuing through the increasing complexity of the development, in neighboring clay niches, of “Metabolism First,” “RNA World,” and other necessary components of life, to the encapsulation by membranes of the components in the niches, to the interaction and fusion of these membrane-bound protocells, resulting finally in a living cell, capable of reproduction and evolution. Biotite (black mica) in micaceous clay is the proposed site for this origin of life. Mechanical energy of moving biotite sheets provides one endless source of energy. Potassium ions between biotite sheets would be the source of the high intracellular potassium ion concentrations in all living cells.
Tue, 9 October 2018
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0183.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mining And Mineral Processing Keywords: Mars; minerals; biomarkers; catalysis; preservation; ionizing radiations
Online: 9 October 2018 (10:01:26 CEST)
Minerals might have played critical roles for the origin and evolution of possible life forms on Mars. The study of the interactions between “building blocks of life” and minerals relevant to Mars mineralogy under conditions mimicking the harsh Martian environment may provide key insight into possible prebiotic processes. Therefore, this contribution aims at reviewing the most important investigations carried out so far about the catalytic/protective properties of Martian minerals toward molecular biosignatures under Martian-like conditions. Overall, it turns out that the fate of molecular biosignatures on Mars depends on a delicate balance between multiple preservation and degradation mechanisms often regulated by minerals, which may take place simultaneously. Such a complexity requires more efforts in simulating realistically the Martian environment in order to better inspect plausible prebiotic pathways and shed light on the nature of the organic compounds detected both in meteorites and on the surface of Mars through in situ analysis.
Tue, 27 February 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0173.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mining And Mineral Processing Keywords: flooded chalk; Raman spectroscopy; enhanced oil recovery; carbonates; calcite; magnesite
Online: 27 February 2018 (04:59:33 CET)
Understanding the chalk-fluid interactions and the associated mineralogical and mechanical alteration at sub-micron scale are major goals in Enhanced Oil Recovery. Mechanical strength, porosity, and permeability of chalk are linked to mineral dissolution that occurs during brine injections, and affect the reservoir potential. This paper presents a novel "single grain" methodology to recognize the varieties of carbonates in rocks and loose sediments: Raman spectroscopy is a non-destructive, quick, and user-friendly technique representing a powerful tool to identify minerals down to 1 µm. An innovative working technique for oil exploration is proposed, as the mineralogy of micron-sized crystals grown in two flooded chalk samples (Liége, Belgium) was successfully investigated by Raman spectroscopy. The drilled chalk cores were flooded with MgCl2 for c. 1.5 (Long Term Test) and 3 years (Ultra Long Term Test) under North Sea reservoir conditions (Long Term Test: 130°C, 1 PV/day, 9.3 MPa effective stress; Ultra Long Term Test: 130°C, varying between 1-3 PV/day, 10.4 MPa effective stress). Raman spectroscopy was able to identify the presence of recrystallized magnesite along the core of the Long Term Test up to 4 cm from the injection surface, down to the crystal size of 1-2 µm. In the Ultra Long Term Test core the growth of MgCO3 affected nearly the entire core (7 cm). In both samples, no dolomite or high-magnesium calcite secondary growth could be detected when analysing 557 and 90 Raman spectra on the Long and Ultra Long Term Test, respectively. This study can offer Raman spectroscopy as a breakthrough tool in petroleum exploration of unconventional reservoirs, due to its quickness, spatial resolution, and non-destructive acquisition of data. These characteristics would encourage its use coupled with electron microscopes and energy dispersive systems or even electron microprobe studies.
Tue, 28 November 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0179.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mining And Mineral Processing Keywords: methane; desorption; water injection; thermal
Online: 28 November 2017 (06:51:19 CET)
Moisture and thermal are the key factors for influencing methane desorption during CBM exploitation. Using high pressure water injection technology into coalbed, new fractures and pathways are formed to methane transport. It is existed a phenomenon of water inhibiting gas flow. This study is focused on various water pressures impacted on gas adsorbed coal samples, then the desorption capacity could be revealed under different conditions. And the results are shown that methane desorption capacity was decreased with water pressure increased at room temperature and the downtrend would be steady until water pressure was large enough. Heating could promote gas desorption capacity effectively, with the increasing of water injection pressures, the promotion of thermal on desorption became more obvious. There are the others effects on methane desorption capacity influenced by water injection and thermal.
Wed, 25 January 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0083.v3
Subject: Engineering, Mining And Mineral Processing Keywords: air waves; falling rock; semi-empirical model; uniform motion phase; acceleration movement phase
Online: 25 January 2017 (03:46:33 CET)
In this paper, a semi-empirical model of air waves induced by falling rock is described. The model is composed of a uniform motion phase (velocity close to 0 m·s-1) and an acceleration movement phase. The uniform motion phase was determined based on experimentally and the acceleration movement phase was derived by theoretical analysis. A series of experiments were performed to verify the semi-empirical model and elucidated the law of the uniform motion phase. The acceleration movement phase accounted for a larger portion with a greater height of the falling rock. Experimental results of different falling heights of the goaf showed close agreement with theoretical analysis values. The semi-empirical model could accurately and conveniently estimate the velocity of air wave induced by falling rock. Thus, the semi-empirical model can provide a reference and basis for estimating the speed of air waves and designing protective measures in mines.
Mon, 24 October 2016
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0098.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mining And Mineral Processing Keywords: quasicrystals; aperiodic mineral structures; crystal and quasicrystal morphologies; quasicrystalline minerals; skutterudite; cobaltine
Online: 24 October 2016 (04:59:48 CEST)
In this article, we first present and discuss eighteenth-century descriptions of minerals that contributed decisively to the development of crystallography. Remarkably, these old crystallographic descriptions included morphologies with symmetries incompatible with an internal periodic order of atoms, which, however, have been recognised to be characteristics of quasicrystals. Moreover, we also review a number of studies of minerals with aperiodic crystal structures, including recently reported natural quasicrystals of extra-terrestrial origin. Finally, we discuss the current investigations addressing the search for new quasicrystalline minerals in nature.