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ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0367.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: Aerial base station; Multiple drones; Circular polarization; Two-ray model; Antennas
Online: 6 June 2023 (03:46:35 CEST)
In recent years, drones have been used in a wide range of fields such as agriculture, transportation of goods, and security. Drones equipped with communication facilities are expected to play an active role as base stations in areas where ground base stations are unavailable, such as disaster areas. In addition, asynchronous operation is being considered for local 5G in order to support all kinds of use cases. In asynchronous operation, cross-link interference between base stations is an issue. This paper attempts to reduce the interference caused by the drone network by introducing circularly polarized antennas. Numerical analyses are conducted to validate the effectiveness of the proposed system, where SIRs (Signal-to-Interference Ratio) are shown to be improved significantly as the numerical evaluation results.
Mon, 5 June 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0343.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: IoT; OpenHAB; Sensors; Wireless communication; Energy efficiency; Occupant comfort; Smart building; Data analysis
Online: 5 June 2023 (16:04:07 CEST)
This paper presents the design and implementation of a versatile IoT testbed utilizing the openHab platform along with various wireless interfaces, including Z-Wave, ZigBee, WiFi, 4G-LTE, and IR, and an array of sensors for motion, temperature, luminance, humidity, vibration, UV, and energy consumption. First, the testbed architecture, setup, basic testing, and collected data results are described. Then, by showcasing a typical day in the laboratory, we illustrate the testbed's potential through the collection and analysis of data from multiple sensors. The study also explores the capabilities of the openHab platform, including its robust persistence layer, event management, real-time monitoring, and customization. The significance of the testbed in enhancing data-collection methodologies for energy assets and unlocking new possibilities in the realm of IoT technologies is particularly highlighted.
Fri, 2 June 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0144.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: cell-free; massive MIMO; scalable FDD; angular reciprocity; dynamic cooperation clustering
Online: 2 June 2023 (07:11:23 CEST)
Cell-free massive multiple input multiple output (MIMO) has the potential of providing joint services including joint initial access, efficient clustering of access points (APs) and pilot allocation to user equipments (UEs) over large coverage area with reduced interference. In cell-free massive MIMO, large coverage area corresponds to provision and maintenance of scalable quality of service requirements for infinitely large number of UEs. The research in cell free massive MIMO is mostly focused on time division duplex mode due to availability of channel reciprocity which aids in avoiding feedback overhead. However, frequency division duplex (FDD) protocol still dominates the current wireless standards and the provision of angle reciprocity aids in reducing this overhead. The challenge of providing a scalable cell-free massive MIMO system in FDD setting is also prevalent, since computational complexity regarding signal processing tasks such as channel estimation, precoding/combining and power allocation, becomes prohibitively high with increase in number of UEs. In this work, we consider an FDD based scalable cell-free network with angular reciprocity and dynamic cooperation clustering approach. We have proposed scalability for our FDD cell-free and perform comparative analysis with reference to channel estimation, power allocation and precoding/combining techniques. We present expressions for scalable spectral efficiency, angle based precoding/combining schemes and provide comparison of overhead between conventional and scalable angle based estimation as well as combining schemes. Simulations confirm that the proposed scalable cell-free network based on FDD scheme outperforms the conventional matched filtering scheme based on non-scalable precoding/combiming schemes. The angle based LP-MMSE in FDD cell-free network provides 14.3% improvement in spectral efficiency and 11.11% improvement in energy efficiency compared to non-scalable MF scheme.
Thu, 25 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1814.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: hollow ring core fiber; twisted microstructured optical fiber; chirality; silica GeO2-doped supporting elements; laser beam profile; laser-based few-mode optical signal transmission
Online: 25 May 2023 (14:56:07 CEST)
This work presents first time successfully fabricated silica few-mode microstructured optical fiber (MOF) with hollow GeO2-doped ring core and strongly induced twisting up to 790 revolutions per meter. Some technological issues for manufacturing of GeO2-doped supporting elements for large hollow cores as well as described above complicated spun MOFs are discussed. We introduce some results of tests, performed for pilot samples of designed and manufactured described above untwisted and twisted MOFs with outer diameter 65 µm and hollow ring core inner diameter 30.5 µm under wall thickness 1.7 µm and refractive index difference n=0.030, including their geometrical parameters, basic transmission characteristics and measurements of far-field laser beam profile patterns.
Wed, 24 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1700.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: visible light communication; heterogeneous networking; ACO-OFDM; communication blind area; horizontal-vertical collaborative handover
Online: 24 May 2023 (05:19:55 CEST)
For the traditional indoor visible light communication heterogeneous network switching algorithm is only concerned with the research of vertical switching algorithm, however, the research of horizontal vertical collaborative switching combined with multi-carrier modulation technology is seldom mentioned, based on the above, this paper proposes a horizontal-vertical collaborative switching strategy based on the residency time of the communication blind area. Firstly, we use asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM (ACO-OFDM) for signal processing to reduce the bit error rate (BER) of the system by reducing the multipath interference generated during signal transmission.Secondly, the BER is used to determine the communication blind area and to calculate its dwell time. Finally, the threshold time is set as the channel interruption time in the communication blind zone, and the horizontal-vertical cooperative switching is performed by comparing with the dwell time. The simulation results show that the average network throughput is 195.28Mbps, and the average number of handovers is 1.35. Compared with instant vertical handover (IVHO) scheme and dwell vertical handover (DVHO) scheme, the average network throughput is improved by 37.21% and 28.45%, respectively, and the average switching times are reduced by 28.05% and 5.27%, respectively.
Tue, 23 May 2023
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1656.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: picosecond laser; graphene; LIG; antenna
Online: 23 May 2023 (12:28:55 CEST)
Laser-induced graphene (LIG) has gained considerable attention recently due to its unique properties and potential applications. In this study, we investigate using LIG in polyimide (PI) as a material for antenna applications. The LIG-PI composite material was prepared by a facile picosecond laser (1064 nm) irradiation process, which resulted in a conductive graphene network within the PI matrix. Furthermore, LIG formation was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy and sheet resistance measurements. Finally, a patch antenna from LIG for 2.45 GHz microwaves was simulated, produced and tested. These findings suggest that LIG-PI composites have great potential for use in high-frequency electronic devices and can provide a new avenue for the development of flexible and wearable electronics.
Mon, 15 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0980.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: Mobile OTT service; wireless D2D caching networks; mobile communication technology; OTT content delivery; the analytic hierarchy process (AHP)
Online: 15 May 2023 (05:32:34 CEST)
As most Korean OTT subscribers use mobile devices as their primary medium for watching OTT video content, mobile network traffic is soaring. However, the existing build-out of mobile communication technology – such as deploying more base stations or expanding the network bandwidth – is struggling to keep pace with the enormous increased demands of mobile network traffic. Accordingly, wireless device-to-device (D2D) caching networks are considered one of the most reliable alternatives for reducing the overload from mobile network traffic caused by streaming video content online. However, wireless D2D caching networks have pros and cons, like any other technology. Thus, this study aims to examine the practical decision-making process of mobile OTT service users in response to the application of wireless D2D caching networks on their mobile devices. An online survey of 94 respondents was conducted in South Korea during 19–23 May 2022; the data obtained were analyzed using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) approach. The study finds that it was the risks, rather than the situational conditions and benefits, that mostly affected mobile OTT service users’ behavioral intentions and strategies. Streaming video content using mobile data or Wi-Fi was perceived as the most viable option. Mobile OTT service users were also willing to take the leap of shifts towards downloading video content in advance rather than adopting wireless D2D caching networks on a mobile device. However, mobile OTT service users’ decisions are heavily dependent on situational conditions related to use of mobile OTT services that make the quality of service consumption different. As one of the first to examine the responses of mobile OTT service users, this study provides meaningful implications for a timely and sensitive issue.
Wed, 10 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0689.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: RIS; HetNet; Spectral Efficiency; Cross-tier Interference; Optimization; MIMO
Online: 10 May 2023 (04:54:27 CEST)
This study investigates the applications of reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RIS) in heterogeneous downlink networks (HetNet). Due to the network densification, the small cell base station (SBS) interferes with the macrocell users (MUE). In this paper, we utilize RIS to mitigate cross-tier interference in an HetNet via directional beamforming by adjusting the phase shift of the RIS. We consider an RIS-assisted HetNet consisting of multiple SBS nodes and MUEs that utilize both direct paths and reflected paths. Therefore, the aim of this study is to maximize the sum rate of all MUEs by jointly optimizing the transmit beamforming of the macrocell base station (MBS) and the phase shift of the RIS. An efficient RIS reflecting coefficients-based optimization (RCO) is proposed based on a successive convex approximation approach. Simulation results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in terms of its sum rate in comparison with the scheme HetNet without RIS and the scheme HetNet with RIS but with random phase shifts.
Mon, 8 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0514.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: Circular Polarization; CubeSat; Multi-band Antenna; Antenna on Structure
Online: 8 May 2023 (10:26:45 CEST)
This article presents a wide-band antenna designed for the Cube Satellite (CubeSat). Based on a quadrifilar structure, the antenna provides circular polarization radiation, which is suitable for satellite communication. Moreover, the antenna is designed and fabricated using two 1.6 mm thickness FR4-Epoxy boards that connect together by the metal pins. In order to improve the robustness, a ceramic spacer is placed in the centerboard, and four screws at the corners are added to fix the antenna with the CubeSat structure. These additional parts reduce antenna damage caused by vibrations in the launch vehicle lift-off stage. The proposal has a dimension of 77mm x 77mm x 10mm and covers the LoRa frequency bands of 868 MHz, 915 MHz, and 923 MHz. According to the measurements in an anechoic chamber, antenna gains are obtained with the values of 2.3 dBiC and 1.1 dBiC for the 870 MHz and 920 MHz, respectively. Finally, the antenna is integrated into a 3U CubeSat that was launched by a Soyuz launch vehicle. The terrestrial-to-space communication link was measured, and the antenna performance was confirmed in the real-life scenario.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0470.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: fiber sensor; fiber Bragg grating; monitoring; road surface; temperature; deformation
Online: 8 May 2023 (08:33:44 CEST)
Road infrastructure is a key public asset because it benefits the social and economic development of any country. It plays an important role for the development of the industrial complex, the production sector and the road surfaces of transport roads should be of high quality, have a long service life. Road infrastructure, as well as all infrastructure, requires preservation, maintenance and repair. There are special requirements for the roadway that must be observed during construction or repair. This article is devoted to a detailed study of the use of fiber optics sensors (FOS) based on the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) for road surface monitoring. Such a fiber sensor consisting of a fiber Bragg grid and a pair of grids can offer the possibility of simultaneous measurement of deformation and temperature for monitoring the pavement. Temperature and deformation measurements were carried out by installing a sensor on the surface of a made asphalt sample. The built-in fiber sensor based on FBG provides important information about how the pavement structure can withstand the load, subsidence of soil, timely implement road safety and stability measures evaluate and predict the service life of the pavement. The results of the study showed that the synchronicity, repeatability and linearity of the characteristics of the fiber sensor are excellent. The difference between the experimental and theoretical results is about 7%. Thus, based on the results of the obtained data, the fiber sensor on the FBG can be used for monitoring, designing road surfaces and in general transport infrastructure.
Sun, 23 April 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0751.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: 5G-enabled IoT; Sound Quality Metrics; Psycho-acoustic Annoyance; JND
Online: 23 April 2023 (03:46:56 CEST)
Next Generation IoT systems will allow sustainable performance in long-term monitoring systems. This sustainability concept is applicable to soundscape description, as it allows monitoring in urban environments. In this work, the implementation of psycho-acoustic annoyance models in a 5G-enabled IoT system is proposed applying two Edge Computing approaches. A modified Zwicker’s model is adopted in this research, introducing a term that takes into account the tonal component of the captured sound. These implementations have been validated in a measurement campaign where several IoT devices have been deployed to evaluate different sound environments of a University Campus. Then, the analysis of the sound quality metrics is done in different location showing that if tonality is present in a noisy environment, it results in greater subjective annoyance. Moreover, the Just Noticeable Difference of these results are derived for the Zwicker’s psycho-acoustic annoyance to establish a limitation for this metric.
Fri, 21 April 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0657.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: Intelligent reflecting surface; Cognitive radio; Physical layer security; Transmit beamforming; Artificial noise
Online: 21 April 2023 (02:27:26 CEST)
Abstract- Cognitive radio (CR) play an important role in improving spectral efficiency (SE) of wireless communication, meanwhile, intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) is an effective technology to improve the secrecy performance of wireless communication system by adjusting the phase shift and amplitude of channel. Thus, we consider an IRS-aided multiple-input single-output (MISO) CR systems to enhance secrecy rate, which is consists of a single eavesdropping link, a primary network containing the primary receiver (PR), and secondary network including secondary receiver (SR) and the SR transmitter (SR-TX). Specifically, we minimize the transmit power of SR subject to secrecy capacity constraint and interference temperature (IT) constraint on PR, by jointly optimizing the beamforming vector and artificial noise (AN) constraints matrix at SR-TX as well as the phase shift matrix of IRS. Numerical results show that the different values of transmit antennas at the SR-TX and the number of IRS elements can significantly decrease the transmit power under the condition of ensuring secure communication.
Tue, 18 April 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0474.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: Animal monitoring; IoT; Alarm systems; Satellite communications
Online: 18 April 2023 (03:54:40 CEST)
The use of electronic means to support tasks such as pastoralism is a way of intelligently optimizing that activity. As any autonomous system, it requires human intervention in case of failure, and therefore it needs an autonomous mechanism that draws the attention of the human operator whenever the system or the animals evolve to undesired conditions. The present work progresses an existing alarm system, used in the SheepIT gateway, which can monitor the behavior of animals and equipment, warning human supervisors of the occurrence of unwanted events and the need for intervention. Concretely, given the lack of coverage of Internet access in rural areas, the system was integrated with a satellite interface to guarantee communication and the timely delivery of alarm messages. The paper compares the overall networking performance of the satellite link, against a Wi-Fi laboratorial baseline.
Mon, 17 April 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0443.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: Direction of Arrival (DoA) Estimation; Multipath Environment; Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO); Low Earth Orbit (LEO); and Spatial Correlation
Online: 17 April 2023 (10:21:49 CEST)
The Direction-of-Arrival (DoA) estimation methods are highly versatile and find extensive applications in satellite communication. The DoA methods are employed across a range of orbits, from Low Earth Orbits (LEO) to Geostationary Earth Orbits (GEO). They serve multiple applications, including altitude determination, geolocation and estimation accuracy, target localization, and relative and collaborative positioning. This paper presents a novel approach for modeling the DoA angle using a closed-form expression, incorporating the boresight angle and satellite and Earth station position data. The method uses the geographic coordinate system in the satellite communication system, precisely the latitude and longitude of the Earth station and altitude parameters of the satellite stations, to calculate the Earth station’s elevation angle and accurately model the DoA angle. Furthermore, this paper performs a comprehensive comparative analysis of various DoA methods to gain deeper insights into the performance of DoA estimation in multi-antenna systems operating under spatially correlated channels. Accordingly, this paper evaluates DoA estimation performance using root-mean-square-error (RMSE) statistics for uplink and downlink conditions through extensive Monte Carlo simulations. The simulation’s effectiveness is validated against the Cramer-Rao Bound (CRB) performance metric for the Additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) case. (i.e., thermal noise). The simulation results demonstrate improved RMSE performance in satellite systems by incorporating spatial correlation into the system model.
Tue, 11 April 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0176.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: Annular leaky-wave antenna; conical and broadside beams; circular polarization
Online: 11 April 2023 (03:13:27 CEST)
In order to properly cover different scenarios, radiation patterns of antennas should be accordingly adjusted before fabrication. However, most antennas are unable to provide both broadside beam and designable conical beam which are usually-used radiation patterns for radio coverage. In this paper, a planar Circular Polarized (CP) annular Leaky-Wave Antenna (LWA) with conical beam is proposed, which is realized on annular Substrate-Integrated Waveguide (SIW). Broadside beam or conical beam could be easily obtained by fabricating the LWA with modified structural parameters. The central operating band is 5.8 GHz. The LWA allows only the -1th spatial harmonic to radiate, while the fundamental wave and other spatial harmonics are suppressed in slow wave mode. In order to validate the design effectiveness, two examples for broadside beam and conical beam radiation are fabricated and measured. The measurement results show good agreement with the simulation results. The proposed LWA presents a promising radiation performance and is a good candidate for wireless communication applications.
Wed, 2 November 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0040.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: EMF exposure; conditional generative adversarial network; optimization
Online: 2 November 2022 (03:43:14 CET)
With the ongoing fifth-generation cellular network (5G) deployment, electromagnetic field exposure has become a critical concern. However, measurements are scarce, and accurate electromagnetic field reconstruction in a geographic region remains challenging. This work proposes a conditional Generative Adversarial Network to address this issue. The main objective is to reconstruct the electromagnetic field exposure map accurately according to the environment’s topology from a few sensors located in an outdoor urban environment. The model is trained to learn and estimate the propagation characteristics of the electromagnetic field according to the topology of a given environment. In addition, the conditional Generative Adversarial Network based electromagnetic field mapping is compared with simple kriging. Results show that the proposed method produces accurate estimates and is a promising solution for exposure map reconstruction.
Wed, 24 February 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0550.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: microcombs; data transmission; filters; high bandwidth; optical
Online: 24 February 2021 (12:59:47 CET)
We report world record high data transmission over standard optical fiber from a single optical source. We achieve a line rate of 44.2 Terabits per second (Tb/s) employing only the C-band at 1550nm, resulting in a spectral efficiency of 10.4 bits/s/Hz. We use a new and powerful class of micro-comb called soliton crystals that exhibit robust operation and stable generation as well as a high intrinsic efficiency that, together with an extremely low spacing of 48.9 GHz enables a very high coherent data modulation format of 64 QAM. We achieve error free transmission across 75 km of standard optical fiber in the lab and over a field trial with a metropolitan optical fiber network. This work demonstrates the ability of optical micro-combs to exceed other approaches in performance for the most demanding practical optical communications applications.
Fri, 12 June 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2020044
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: telescopes; lightweight telescope mirrors; adaptive optics; better resolution; increased accuracy; more bandwidth; cluster of satellites; innovative platform; more capabilities into smaller packages; far-shorter time from click to customer
Online: 12 June 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
The use of Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (i.e., LASERs or lasers) by the U.S. Department of Defense is not new and includes laser weapons guidance, laser-aided measurements, even lasers as weapons (e.g., Airborne Laser). Lasers in support of telecommunications is also not new. The use of laser light in fiber optics shattered thoughts on communications bandwidth and throughput. Even the use of lasers in space is no longer new. Lasers are being used for satellite-to-satellite crosslinking. Laser communication can transmit orders-of-magnitude more data using orders-of-magnitude less power and can do so with minimal risk of exposure to the sending and receiving terminals. What is new is using lasers as the uplink and downlink between the terrestrial segment and the space segment of satellite systems. More so, the use of lasers to transmit and receive data between moving terrestrial segments (e.g., ships at sea, airplanes in flight) and geosynchronous satellites is burgeoning. This manuscript examines the technological maturation of employing lasers as the signal carrier for satellite communications linking terrestrial and space systems. The purpose of the manuscript is to develop key performance parameters (KPPs) to inform U.S. Department of Defense initial capabilities documents (ICDs) for near-future satellite acquisition and development. By appreciating the history and technological challenges of employing lasers rather than traditional radio frequency sources for satellite uplink and downlink signal carrier, this manuscript recommends ways for the U.S. Department of Defense to employ lasers to transmit and receive high bandwidth, large-throughput data from moving platforms that need to retain low probabilities of detection, intercept, and exploitation (e.g., carrier battle group transiting to a hostile area of operations, unmanned aerial vehicle collecting over adversary areas). The manuscript also intends to identify commercial sector early-adopter fields and those fields likely to adapt to laser employment for transmission and receipt.
Wed, 18 March 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2010016
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: telescopes; lightweight telescope mirrors; adaptive optics; better resolution; increased accuracy; more bandwidth; cluster of satellites; innovative platform; more capabilities into smaller packages; far-shorter time from click to customer
Online: 18 March 2020 (00:00:00 CET)
The use of Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (i.e., LASERs or lasers) by the U.S. Department of Defense is not new and includes laser weapons guidance, laser-aided measurements, even lasers as weapons (e.g., Airborne Laser). Lasers in support of telecommunications is also not new. The use of laser light in fiber optics shattered thoughts on communications bandwidth and throughput. Even the use of lasers in space is no longer new. Lasers are being used for satellite-to-satellite crosslinking. Laser communication can transmit orders-of-magnitude more data using orders-of-magnitude less power and can do so with minimal risk of exposure to the sending and receiving terminals. What is new is using lasers as the uplink and downlink between the terrestrial segment and the space segment of satellite systems. More so, the use of lasers to transmit and receive data between moving terrestrial segments (e.g., ships at sea, airplanes in flight) and geosynchronous satellites is burgeoning. This manuscript examines the technological maturation of employing lasers as the signal carrier for satellite communications linking terrestrial and space systems. The purpose of the manuscript is to develop key performance parameters (KPPs) to inform U.S. Department of Defense initial capabilities documents (ICDs) for near-future satellite acquisition and development. By appreciating the history and technological challenges of employing lasers rather than traditional radio frequency sources for satellite uplink and downlink signal carriers, this manuscript recommends ways for the U.S. Department of Defense to employ lasers to transmit and receive high bandwidth, large-throughput data from moving platforms that need to retain low probabilities of detection, intercept, and exploitation (e.g., carrier battle group transiting to a hostile area of operations, unmanned aerial vehicle collecting over adversary areas). The manuscript also intends to identify commercial sector early-adopter fields and those fields likely to adapt to laser employment for transmission and receipt.
Fri, 16 August 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0173.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: massive MIMO; multi-cell; pilot contamination; channel estimation
Online: 16 August 2019 (07:16:53 CEST)
Accurate channel estimation is of utmost importance for massive MIMO systems that allow providing significant improvements in spectral and energy efficiency. In this work, we investigate the spectral efficiency performance and present a channel estimator for multi-cell massive MIMO systems subjected to pilot-contamination. The proposed channel estimator performs well under moderate to aggressive pilot contamination scenarios without prior knowledge of the inter-cell large-scale channel coefficients and noise power. The estimator approximates the performance of a linear Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) as the number of antennas increases. Following, we derive a lower bound closed-form spectral efficiency of the Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC) detector in the proposed channel estimator. The simulation results highlight that the proposed estimator performance approaches the linear minimum mean square error (LMMSE) channel estimator asymptotically.
Thu, 15 August 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0169.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: massive MIMO; multi-cell; pilot-contamination; channel estimation
Online: 15 August 2019 (14:59:58 CEST)
Accurate channel estimation is of utmost importance for massive MIMO systems to provide significant improvements in spectral and energy efficiency. In this work, we present a study on the distribution of a simple but yet effective and practical channel estimator for multi-cell massive MIMO systems suffering from pilot-contamination. The proposed channel estimator performs well under moderate to aggressive pilot contamination scenarios without previous knowledge of the inter-cell large-scale channel coefficients and noise power, asymptotically approximating the performance of the linear MMSE estimator as the number of antennas increases. We prove that the distribution of the proposed channel estimator can be accurately approximated by the circularly-symmetric complex normal distribution, when the number of antennas, M, deployed at the base station is greater than 10.
Wed, 14 August 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0165.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: massive MIMO; pilot contamination; deep learning; machine learning
Online: 14 August 2019 (16:01:48 CEST)
In this brief letter we report our initial results on the application of deep-learning to the massive MIMO channel estimation challenge. We show that it is possible to estimate wireless channels and that the possibility of mitigating pilot-contamination with deep-learning is possible given that the leaning model underwent an extensive training-phase and that it has been presented with a large number of different channel conditions.
Mon, 22 July 2019
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0239.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: ad hoc networks; classification; dynamic; mobility; opportunistic routing; performance improvement; review; survey
Online: 22 July 2019 (09:54:10 CEST)
Opportunistic routing is the latest technique that uses the broadcasting nature of the wireless medium to increase the number of potential forwarding nodes in the network. This, in turn improves the delivery rate and reliability of data transmission in the network. Compared to all previous classes of routing protocols, opportunistic routing offers numerous advantages which is exploited by the latest applications for efficient communication and resource sharing in dynamic ad hoc networks. These applications provide dynamic communication in disaster recovery environments. The objective of this research work is to review and classify all the major opportunistic routing protocols proposed for dynamic ad hoc networks. Further the issues and challenges with each of these existing protocol is discussed and future research directions are put forward
Mon, 1 July 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0011.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: LTE, LTE-A, 4G, PRACH, NCO, time-domain frequency shift, FPGA
Online: 1 July 2019 (11:52:58 CEST)
The Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) plays an important role in LTE and LTE-A systems. It is through the PRACH channel that the user equipment (UE), based on eNodeB's timing estimates, aligns its uplink transmissions to the eNodeB's uplink and gain access to the network. One of the initial operations executed by the PRACH receiver at eNodeB side is the translation of the PRACH signal back to base band, $i.e.$, center the PRACH signal around DC. This operation is a necessary step for preamble detection and can be carried out through a time-domain frequency shift operation. Therefore, in this paper we present the hardware architecture and implementation details of a configurable and optimized FPGA-based time-domain frequency shifter. It is a hardware-efficient and accurate architecture for converting the relevant received PRACH signal into base band before further signal processing. The architecture is manly based on a customized Numerically Controlled Oscillator (NCO), which is used for generating complex exponentials employing only adders, a Look-Up Table (LUT) and plain logic resources. The main advantage of the proposed hardware architecture is that it completely eliminates the need for storing a large number of long complex exponential sequences by employing a single LUT and exploiting quarter wave symmetry of the basis waveform. Our simulation results show that the proposed customized NCO architecture provides high Spurious Free Dynamic Range (SFDR) signals using a minimal amount of FPGA resources. Moreover, the proposed architecture exhibits spur-suppression ranging from 62.13 to 153.58 dB without using Taylor Series correction.
Tue, 25 June 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0247.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: massive MIMO; pilot contamination; scrambling
Online: 25 June 2019 (08:43:15 CEST)
In this letter, we advocate that it is possible to mitigate Pilot Contamination in Massive MIMO systems by scrambling the pilot sequences with a Base Station (BS) scrambling sequence. It is possible if a set of sequences is carefully designed to meet the orthogonality property defined in this letter. Each BS possesses its own scrambling sequence that can be reused the same way frequency reuse is applied to cell deployment. The main advantage of the prosed pilot generation scheme is that the frequency reuse factor can be set to 1, the most aggressive one, while the scrambling sequences can be reused with much less aggressive reuse factors (e.g. 4, 7, 9, 12, etc.), which in consequence results in pilot contamination mitigation and increased system's performance.
Fri, 15 June 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0263.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: Multi-tier hybrid caching networks; stochastic geometry; millimeter wave; average successful delivery probability; performance analysis
Online: 15 June 2018 (15:24:27 CEST)
In the fifth generation communication system, millimeter wave (mmWave) networks will coexist with traditional micro wave (μWave) networks, which allows for higher data transmission rate and better user experience. In this paper, we give a comprehensive framework of mathematical models and analytical methods for multi-tier mmWave and μWave hybrid caching networks based on stochastic geometry. We propose an association strategy by assuming average biased-received power association and Rayleigh fading. Accordingly, by using a D-ball approximating blockage model of mmWave networks, expressions of the cell association probability and the coverage probability of the hybrid networks are derived. Also, we use the average successful delivery probability as the performance metric to analyze the existing caching placement strategies. Simulation results validate the accuracy of our analytical conclusions.
Thu, 14 June 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0234.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: high-frequency ultrasound transducer; intravascular ultrasound; tissue harmonic imaging; dual-frequency IVUS transducer; dual-element IVUS transducer
Online: 14 June 2018 (11:46:44 CEST)
The superharmonic imaging of tissue has the potential for high spatial and contrast resolutions, compared to the fundamental and second harmonic imaging. For this technique, the spectral bandwidth of an ultrasound transducer is divided for transmission of ultrasound and reception of its superharmonics (i.e., higher than the second harmonic). Due to the spectral division for the transmission and reception, transmitted ultrasound energy is not sufficient to induce superharmonics in media without using contrast agents, and it is difficult that a transducer has a -6-dB fractional bandwidth of higher than 100%. For the superharmonic imaging of tissue, thus, multi-frequency array transducers are the best choice if available; transmit and receive elements are separate and have different center frequencies. However, the construction of a multi-frequency transducer for intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging is particularly demanding because of its small size of less than 1 mm. Here, we report a recently developed dual-element focused IVUS transducer for the third harmonic imaging of tissue, which consists of a 35-MHz element for ultrasound transmission and a 105-MHz element for third harmonic reception. For high quality third harmonic imaging, both elements were fabricated to have the same focus at 2.5 mm. The results of tissue mimicking phantom tests demonstrated that the third harmonic images produced by the developed transducer had higher spatial resolution and deeper imaging depth than the fundamental images.
Fri, 14 July 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0034.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: localization; internet of things; low power wide area networks; Wi-Fi; sigfox; fingerprinting
Online: 14 July 2017 (11:30:28 CEST)
Supply chain management requires regular updates of the location of assets, which can be enabled by low power wide area networks, such as Sigfox. While it is useful to localize a device simply by its communication signals, this is very difficult to do with Sigfox because of wide area and ultra narrowband nature. On the other hand, installing a satellite localization element on the device greatly increases its power consumption. We investigated using information about nearby Wi-Fi access points as a way to localize the asset over the Sigfox network, so without connecting to those Wi-Fi networks. This paper reports the location error that can be achieved by this type of outdoor localization. By using a combination of two databases, we could localize the device on all 36 test locations with a median location error of 39 m. This shows that the localization accuracy of this method is promising enough to warrant further study, most specifically the minimal power consumption.