Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
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ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0410.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: fatigue life; mean square error; statistical modeling; stress – life modeling; Weibull distribution function
Online: 6 June 2023 (08:14:05 CEST)
It has been known for nearly over 150 years that fatigue life data exhibits a considerable amount of variability. Furthermore, statistically modeling fatigue life adequately is challenging. Different empirical approaches have been used, each of which has merit; however, none is appropriate universally. Even when a sufficiently robust database exists, the scatter in the fatigue lives may be extremely large and difficult to characterize. The complications in empirical modeling are exacerbated for long life estimation when experimental observations are rare. The purpose of this work is to review traditional and more modern empirically based methodologies for estimating the cumulative distribution functions for fatigue life, given an applied load. To assess the applicability of the methods confidence bounds will be estimated. The analyses will be performed on an historic set of data for annealed aluminum wire tested in reverse torsion fatigue. These data are available in publications. It is recommended that a time dependent distribution function that is an based on principles of reliability that can be generalized for a variety of modeling applications should be considered for fatigue life estimation.
Fri, 2 June 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0218.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: digital twin; UXO; unexploded ordnance; training data set; magnetic field; FEM; magnetometer; Finite element method; AUV
Online: 2 June 2023 (15:45:46 CEST)
Scanning underwater areas, using magnetometers, in search of unexploded ordnance is a difficult challenge, where machine learning methods can find a significant application. However, this requires the creation of a set enabling the training of prediction models. Such a task is difficult and costly due to the limited availability of relevant data. To meet this challenge in the article, we propose the use of numerical modeling to solve this task. The conducted experiments allow us to conclude that it is possible to obtain high compliance of the numerical model with the results of physical tests. In addition, the paper discusses the methodology of simplifying the computational model, allowing for almost three times reduction of the calculation time. In addition, in the work we present the methodology of creating an appropriate data set, enabling the generation of any number of training samples.
Tue, 30 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2108.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: set-pair analysis; extension theory; lining structure; durability evaluation; G1 method; simple correlation function method
Online: 30 May 2023 (10:18:38 CEST)
A series of water diversion projects to address the uneven distribution of water resources in China involve the construction of a large number of hydraulic tunnels. As the lining structure that maintains the stability and durability of the tunnels, it is prone to durability damage during the operation process, which in turn affects the water transmission safety and water supply capacity. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the durability of hydraulic tunnel lining structure. Considering the randomness and fuzziness of the factors affecting the durability of hydraulic tunnel lining structure, this paper proposes a comprehensive evaluation model based on the coupling of set-pair analysis and extension. The G1 method and the simple correlation function method are used to determine the subjective and objective weights of the evaluation indexes respectively, and the combination weight is assigned based on the principle of minimum entropy; the set-pair analysis principle is used to establish the linkage affiliation function, calculate the comprehensive linkage affiliation of the object to be evaluated, and the maximum affiliation principle is used to judge the durability level of the hydraulic tunnel lining structure. Finally, taking a section of hydraulic tunnel as an example, the model proposed in this paper is used to calculate its durability grade as Class III, with the set-pair potential SHI(H) = 7.5856, which is consistent with the actual engineering practice, and a comparative study is done in combination with the AHP-Extenics method. It is verified that the evaluation model can scientifically and reasonably evaluate the durability of hydraulic tunnel lining structure, providing a basis for subsequent maintenance and reinforcement.
Thu, 25 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1777.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: fire probabilistic risk; fire safety factor; fire checklist; analytic hierarchy process
Online: 25 May 2023 (08:54:03 CEST)
Fires are the leading cause of death, serious injury and property damage. In the past, schools, temples and government offices had more frequent fires than they should. Statistics showed that the number of fires between 2017 to 2022 amounted 13,593 cases which mostly occurred in the school, temple and government offices (40.0% of all buildings). Moreover, it causes more damage among disabled especially the blinds who has a limited vision. Therefore, this cross-sectional purpose of this study was to assess fire risk including management model in school for the blind. The fire checklists, brainstorming and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) were applied to estimate the fire risk in school for the blind building. The findings revealed an inherent fire hazard factors with a risk score equal to 3.2830 and evacuation factors with a risk score equal to 3.3178 were acceptable risk except the fire control factors with a risk score equal to 1.4320 was unacceptable risk may cause an impact on life, health, property and public communities. Eventually, efforts should be made to supervise those risk factors by designing suitable activities to reduce undesirable conditions in school for the blind.
Tue, 23 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1647.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: Cross-term; Fourier transform; Frequency shifting; Time-frequency method; Natural frequency
Online: 23 May 2023 (10:55:32 CEST)
The natural frequency of buildings decreases during a strong-motion earthquake, and the structure loses its stiffness. As a result, understanding the damaging process in the structure owing to changes in structural properties is critical during a seismic excitation. The time-frequency technique can detect the damaged building’s time-varying frequency contents. Wigner distributions (WD), Wigner-Ville distributions (WVD), pseudo-Wigner-Ville distributions (PWVD), smoothed pseudo-Wigner-Ville distributions (SPWVD), and synchrosqueezing transforms (SST) have all become popular in recent years for a variety of earthquake engineering applications, including building damage detection. This study proposes the local maximum synchrosqueezing transform (LMSST) for detecting frequency shifts in buildings during strong earthquakes. The data presented in the research show that the suggested method outperforms as compared to the conventional time-frequency methods for detecting frequency shifting in earthquake-damaged structures.
Mon, 22 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1462.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: Pedestrian safety; Traffic characteristics, City of Kigali; Binary logistic regression
Online: 22 May 2023 (04:56:22 CEST)
The safety of a pedestrian crossing may depend on infrastructure, vehicular and pedestrian traffic characteristics. This research portrayed the safety challenges caused by vehicles on crosswalk in the City of Kigali. Through observing the stopping of drivers in pedestrian crossing events, the study aimed to evaluate driver’s behaviors against traffic flow parameters. 10 collection sites were finally selected purposively and randomly to suit observations for data recording. A total of 10,259 crossing events were recorded within 280 hours. Statistical analysis, tests and Binary logistic regression model were used to evaluate the behaviors. Sadly,82.4% drivers violated crosswalks, endangering crossing. Motorcyclists exhibit the most aggressive behavior. Car drivers are relatively less aggressive,60% managed to brake in the events. Buses and bicycles share a negligible collective of 2%, being aggressive and would not stop. Cars are 10.389 times more likely to stop compared to bicycles. Having more vehicles in a row was safer to cross, for each unit increase on the vehicle density scale, there were 1.956 more chances that every driver would stop.13% to 21% of traffic variables predicted the variance in stopping behaviors model. Further research is needed to find other parameters that influence a driver to stop.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1456.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: Navigation System display; Distraction; Visual Search Behavior; Fixation; Dwell; Eye-tracking; Young Drivers; Night Driving; Driving Safety
Online: 22 May 2023 (03:38:37 CEST)
Navigation systems are considered as a fast and efficient source of road information to drivers. However, they can distract drivers with more potential accidents on the road. This study examined the effect of navigation systems on driver distraction and visual search while driving in different driving conditions. An eye-tracking system was used to collect visual search data from twenty young drivers while using a driving simulator. Several factors were investigated, including the driving environment (urban and rural), the illumination level (day and night), and the display of the navigation system (large and small) as well as their interactions. Several measures related to eye movements were used in this experiment, including percentage of total Global Positioning System (GPS) fixation duration, average duration of GPS fixation, GPS fixation frequency, the percentage of total dwell duration for the road ahead, the frequency of dwelling on the mirrors and driver’s right and left side windows, and the percentage of dwellings on the mirrors and driver’s right and left side windows. Statistical analysis of the collected data was performed with repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). The experiment revealed that the small GPS display creates more distraction in terms of average gaze duration and total gaze duration. Moreover, daytime driving conditions increase distraction. Regarding the driver’s visual search, the study showed that the visual search area is wider and more spread out during the day, which leads to better driving performance. This study will compare small and large navigation displays to determine which one is more effective in reducing driver distractions, and contribute to understanding driver distraction and visual search while using the navigation system display.
Fri, 19 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1427.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: chemical enterprises; safety regulation; evolutionary game; evolutionary stable strategy
Online: 19 May 2023 (10:16:29 CEST)
Chemical safety is related to public health, safety and environmental concerns, and the dangerous chemicals safety problem is becoming the one that people commonly pay attention to. Strengthening chemical safety supervision not only involves safe production, but also is an important link to maintain social safety. Most related studies focus on chemical safety under normal regulation, this paper addresses the perspective of ‘special rectification’ and ‘normal regulation’, and establishes an evolutionary game model between chemical enterprises and government supervision departments under different supervision modes. Based on the evolutionary game theory, this paper studies the evolution process of the two game players' strategy choices, and compares and analyzes the evolution, stability and equilibrium between the chemical safety and the behavior strategies of government regulatory departments. The model is effectively analyzed based on numerical simulation, and the results show that: Under the ‘special rectification’ mode, the strategic choice of chemical enterprises engaging in safety without investment depends on the difference between the benefits and costs of safety without investment; In the ‘normal regulation’ mode, the choice of its safety non-investment strategy depends on the difference between the cost of engaging in safety investment and the cost of safety non-investment; Increasing the government's punishment will encourage chemical enterprises to take safety investment behavior under the two supervision modes. Increasing the punishment has a significant impact on the safety investment behavior of chemical enterprises under the ‘normal regulation’ mode, but it has no significant impact on the behavior of chemical enterprises under the ‘special rectification’ mode. At the same time, increasing the punishment will inhibit the strict supervision behavior of the government. The research conclusion provides important decision support for government departments to effectively supervise the safety production of chemical enterprises.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1419.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: innovations; safety; front braking light; disparities; road transport
Online: 19 May 2023 (09:44:36 CEST)
The aim of innovations in road safety is to contribute to better protection of road users and to minimize damage to their property. The main objective of the article is to identify disparities in the perception of an innovation element in road safety by road users based on their type of employment and the number of kilometers driven per year. The research will evaluate the attitudes of selected groups of road users based on the number of kilometers driven in a calendar year and whether driving a motor vehicle is their main job duty. The analysis involved 239 respondents using a paper questionnaire. Disparities in the perception of innovations in road safety were evaluated using contingency tables, chi-square tests, non-parametric tests, and Cramer's V. Road users feel much safer with a front braking light when crossing traffic of vehicles and pedestrians (71%); at pedestrian crossings (74%); when turning left (63.4%); as well as when crossing traffic of multiple vehicles (62.5%). Disparities among respondents based on the type of employment of the road user were not confirmed. Conversely, road users with a higher number of kilometers driven per year have a more positive perception of the innovation element at pedestrian crossings.
Thu, 11 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0852.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: sugarcane pulp lunch-box; microparticles; quantitative analysis; particle size; food safety
Online: 11 May 2023 (12:26:10 CEST)
In current study, the production of microparticles from fifteen commercial sugarcane pulp (SCP) lunch-boxes into different types of food under different conditions was investigated, where we used DI water, 4% HAc, and 95% EtOH to simulate aqueous, acidic, and fatty foods. Results showed that compared with DI water and 95% EtOH, 4% HAc caused the degradation of sugarcane fibers, resulting in the highest number of microparticles released, which was significantly greater than the specified limit value. It was estimated that consumers might intake a total number of 36,400 ~ 231,700 items per meal per lunch-box, of which the proportion of microparticles with particle size between 100 ~ 500 μm was the largest, with a number of 12,376 ~ 130,795 items. Moreover, of all SCP lunch-box except S-11, Al and Fe are the main metals, ranging between 35.16 ~ 1244.04 and 44.71 ~ 398.52 mg/kg, respectively, followed by Pb, Ti, and Sr. Interestingly, unlike other lunch-boxes, the content of Pb in S-11 was the highest, with a number of 136 mg/kg. This study provides important information that the safeness including both the production of microparticles and the metallic elements should be considered for SCP lunch-boxes when in contact with food.
Thu, 4 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0189.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: DNS; DNS over HTTPS; DoH; Privacy; Institutional Privacy
Online: 4 May 2023 (04:28:03 CEST)
DNS is a necessary infrastructure for accessing the Internet. Until now, privacy protection in domain name resolution has mainly focused on end user privacy (communication encryption between clients and DNS full-service resolver). For this reason, communication between DNS full-service resolver and authoritative DNS servers is still done in plaintext. A DNS request from a DNS full-service resolver to an authoritative DNS server does not pose a privacy issue because the source IP address that comes from is the DNS full-service resolver. However, in recent years, there have been reports of specific techniques for identifying the privacy of previously unknown institutions by analyzing the logs of authoritative DNS servers. In order to further strengthen privacy in DNS communication, we proposed an architecture to encrypt all DNS communication in DoH, created a prototype environment, and investigated performance evaluation. The main contributions of this paper are threefold. First, we proposed the Full-DoH DNS architecture. This is a domain name resolution framework designed specifically for institutional privacy. Second, we evaluated the proposed architecture through a prototype implementation. Finally, we discussed related issues to the proposed architecture.
Tue, 2 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0065.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: oil and gas well; tubing; casing; pipe string design
Online: 2 May 2023 (07:22:27 CEST)
In the increasingly complex environment of downhole working conditions such as frequent opening and closing of oil and gas wells, acidification/multi-stage fracturing, steam huff and puff, and strong injection and production, the traditional casing string design method standards based on strength design have gradually highlighted their limitations. It is necessary to formulate string design method standards that consider the full life cycle of wells such as drilling and completion, fracturing, and production operations. Starting from the analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of traditional casing string design methods, this paper presents the characteristics of the strain design methods and seal design methods that have been formulated for the life cycle of the string. The strain design method breaks through the traditional design concept and allows the design concept of controllable deformation of the pipe string. The sealing design method is currently the only standard method for the design of tubing strings. At the same time, it further proposes to consider the trend of pipe strength deterioration and establish a time dimension-based life cycle pipe string design method standard, which effectively solves the safety problem of pipe string design in production and operation.
Fri, 28 April 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1140.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: Aircraft fault diagnosis; knowledge graph; deep learning; fault knowledge extraction; question-answering system
Online: 28 April 2023 (08:00:31 CEST)
When an aircraft malfunctions, quickly and accurately identifying the faulty unit is essential for ensuring normal operation. Unfortunately, maintenance engineers often struggle to acquire the necessary fault-related knowledge due to poor management and utilization of aircraft fault documents. To address this issue, we introduce knowledge graph technology into the field of aircraft fault diagnosis, exploring its construction and application for effective knowledge management. Our work starts by analyzing the critical knowledge elements required for aircraft fault diagnosis and designing a schema layer for fault knowledge graphs. We then we then combine deep learning and heuristic rules to extract fault knowledge from both structured and unstructured data, enabling the construction of aircraft fault knowledge graphs. Finally, we develop a fault question-answering system based on fault knowledge graphs that can accurately give solutions to questions posed by maintenance engineers. Our practice demonstrates that knowledge graphs provide an effective means of managing aircraft fault knowledge, assisting engineers in locating fault reasons accurately and quickly.
Thu, 27 April 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1080.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: chemistry laboratory accident; risk factor analysis; laboratory accident system; manual accident database; quantitative prediction risk
Online: 27 April 2023 (13:08:49 CEST)
With the growing of university chemistry experiment projects, scientific research personnel, specialized equipment, laboratory accident is increasing yearly. And accident data lacks a safety platform to store related information and cannot be guaranteed for efficient conditional sharing. To solve these problems, we designed a laboratory accident system to store, share related data and predict risk level. In this paper, we manually collected chemistry laboratory accidents by python software and class assignments, then analyses risk factor variables using Spsspro, finally established a prediction model using Stata. We intended to register laboratory related data into proposed chemistry accident system based on data ownership safety architecture. The chemistry accident system can break data barriers using confirmation and authorization key technology to trace non-tampered data source in real time when emergency accident happens. Meanwhile, our proposed system can use our designed accident risk model to predict risk level of any experiment project. It can also recommend appropriate safety education models.
Thu, 20 April 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0642.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: gearbox; compound fault; attention mechanism; capsule network
Online: 20 April 2023 (09:58:25 CEST)
To realize the diagnosis of compound faults in gearboxes at different speeds, an "end-to-end" intelligent diagnosis method based on a deep neural network is proposed, named efficiency channel attention-capsule network (ECA-CN). First, the process uses a deep convolutional neural network to extract fault features from the collected raw vibration signals, then embeds the efficient channel attention module to filter important fault features, then uses the capsule network to vectorize the feature space information, and finally calculates the correlation between different levels of capsules by the dynamic routing algorithm to achieve accurate gearbox compound fault diagnosis. The effectiveness of the proposed ECA-CN fault diagnosis method was verified by the composite fault dataset of the 2009 PHM Challenge gearbox, with an average accuracy of 99.63% and a standard deviation of 0.22%. In the comparison experiments with the traditional fault diagnosis method, the average accuracy of the ECA-CN method was improved by 4.62%, and the standard deviation was reduced by 0.58%. The experimental results show that ECA-CN has a more competitive diagnostic performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0641.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: acoustic emission; tensile test; structural steel; metal; monitoring; non-destructive testing; damage evaluation; crack propagation.
Online: 20 April 2023 (09:48:46 CEST)
This research is aimed to develop the method for damage degree evaluation in metals and alloys during their deformation and destruction based on acoustic emission (AE) technique. Experimental studies were carried out on tensile specimens of high-strength steel with simultaneous registration of AE signals in tested material. It was shown that the time-dependent AE primary parameters, such as the AE signal maximum amplitudes and AE activity, do not have a clear relationship with the material damage degree. This fact makes it difficult to use standard methods for assessing the damage degree of acoustic signal sources, including defects. It was proposed to use the Kolmogorov-Smirnov criterion to differ the processes of metal plastic deformation and crack propagation during the rupture. The possibility of estimating the material damage degree by high-energy AE hits share was shown. Besides, a particular expression was obtained for evaluating the damage degree for the material under study.
Wed, 28 December 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0537.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: fire factor; residential buildings; fire accidents
Online: 28 December 2022 (09:57:37 CET)
The purpose of this paper is to develop an index system for measuring the compliance of high-rise residential buildings with fire requirements and also to develop an index system for measuring the fire response efficiency, which is linked to the index of compliance with fire requirements. The higher the compliance rate, the greater the chance of a successful response. The two systems de-pend on the automation of the firefighting system management processes using the techniques of the fourth industrial revolution and developed based on the consultation of subject matter experts in the field. The main elements of the indexes were identified, which were based mainly on several variables, including the fire administrative system, the firefighting system, the residents, the loca-tion of the high-rise residential buildings from the fire extinguishing station, and the height of the high-rise residential building. The two systems can contribute to improving emergency prepared-ness in high-rise residential buildings in the Emirate of Sharjah and are also considered as a measurement index for compliance with fire requirements in the Emirate of Sharjah.
Wed, 7 December 2022
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: palm oil industry; palm oil milling; process safety; leadership; culture
Online: 7 December 2022 (08:58:35 CET)
Several studies have highlighted the importance and evolution of process safety leadership and culture in various industries. However, none has focused on the palm oil milling industry yet. This paper critically reviews the latest developments in the palm oil milling process and unit operations leading to process safety concerns. It also discusses the Principle of 3C that is applied to explain repeat accidents and the four-level safety culture in the palm oil milling industry. For this purpose, the author presents case studies of two key palm oil companies in Malaysia. Overall, this paper offers guidelines to leaders in the palm oil milling industry about the required process safety leadership and culture to be understood in order to improve their safety outcomes.
Mon, 26 April 2021
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: water mist, fire suppression mechanisms, application areas
Online: 26 April 2021 (16:49:28 CEST)
Water mist fire suppression technology has attracted an increasing interest from the field of fire protection services such as fire safety for buildings, ships, spacecraft, libraries and museums due to its non-toxic and high efficiency in the suppression of a wide variety of fires. To support the technological development of water mist fire suppression system and its application areas, this review introduces the concept of water mist system and discusses its suppression mechanisms in comparison with other fire protection systems. The recent application areas of water mist system are surveyed for class A fires involving combustible solid materials such as wood, paper and textiles; class B fires involving flammable liquids such as petrol, oils, lubricants, paints and waxes; class C fires involving flammable gasses such as natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas; fires involving electrical (class E) equipment such as computers and information technology facilities; and the class F fires involving flammable cooking oils and fats. Finally, the paper concludes the review by identifying the current research trends, and providing the future direction for water mist technology and applications.
Mon, 4 January 2021
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0053.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: climate; disasters; interpretability; relief; satellite imagery
Online: 4 January 2021 (15:58:21 CET)
Natural disasters ravage the world's cities, valleys, and shores on a monthly basis. Having precise and efficient mechanisms for assessing infrastructure damage is essential to channel resources and minimize the loss of life. Using a dataset that includes labeled pre- and post- disaster satellite imagery, we train multiple convolutional neural networks to assess building damage on a per-building basis. In order to investigate how to best classify building damage, we present a highly interpretable deep-learning methodology that seeks to explicitly convey the most useful information required to train an accurate classification model. We also delve into which loss functions best optimize these models. Our findings include that ordinal-cross entropy loss is the most optimal loss function to use and that including the type of disaster that caused the damage in combination with a pre- and post-disaster image best predicts the level of damage caused. Our research seeks to computationally contribute to aiding in this ongoing and growing humanitarian crisis, heightened by climate change.
Wed, 16 December 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0394.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: Mitigation system modelling; Remote impoundment; Consequence analysis
Online: 16 December 2020 (08:32:01 CET)
After the occurrence of a hydrogen fluoride leakage accident that triggered massive losses in Gumi, South Korea in 2012, the government and companies have been interested in installing mitigation systems to minimize the loss of a leakage accident. What lacks in previous researches studying mitigation systems is an evaluation of how much a mitigation system can reduce the impact of accidents. Therefore, modeling-based simulations of mitigation systems should be urgently developed to analysis of the performance of a mitigation system. This study aims to design a mitigation system to handle a leakage accident of a storage tank and determine its design specifications through the use of modeling. The basic concept is that when leakage occurs, leakage material in a dike is drained to a remote impoundment installed under the ground, while the material in the storage vessel is transferred to a reserve tank by a pump at the same time. To evaluate the efficacy of this system. hydrogen fluoride and benzene storage vessels are tested. The simulation results indicate that the proposed mitigation system can contribute to the reduction in the dispersion area for the materials as well as a large reduction in the leakage material.
Tue, 11 December 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0133.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: Radiation risk analysis, GIS based model, thermal power plant, surface radiation, remedial measures
Online: 11 December 2018 (13:57:09 CET)
Coal combustion in thermal power plants releases ash. Ash is reported to cause different adverse health hazards in humans and other organisms. Owing to the presence of radionuclides, it is also considered as a potential radiation hazard. In this study, based on the surface radiation measurements and relevant ancillary data, expected radiation risk zones were identified with regard to the human population residing near the Thermal Power Plant. With population density as the risk determining criteria, about 20% of the study area was at ‘High’ risk and another 20% of the study area was at ‘Low’ risk zone. The remaining 60% was under medium risk zone. Based on the findings remedial measures which may be adopted have been suggested.
Tue, 24 April 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0312.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: natural hazards; weather disasters; hydrometeorological fatalities; flooding; tornadoes; extreme temperatures
Online: 24 April 2018 (08:51:45 CEST)
Texas ranks first in number of natural hazard fatalities in the United States (U.S.). Based on data culled from the National Climatic Data Center databases from 1959 to 2016, the number of hydrometeorological fatalities in Texas have increased over the 58-year study period, but the per capita fatalities have significantly decreased. Spatial review found that flooding is the predominant hydrometeorological disaster in a majority of the Texas counties located in “Flash Flood Alley” and accounts for 43% of all hydrometeorological fatalities in the state. Flooding fatalities are highest on “Transportation Routes” followed by heat fatalities in “Permanent Residences”. Seasonal and monthly stratification identifies Spring and Summer as the deadliest seasons, with the month of May registering the highest number of total fatalities dominated by flooding and tornado fatalities. Demographic trends of hydrometeorological disaster fatalities indicated that approximately twice as many male fatalities occurred during the study period than female fatalities, but with decreasing gender disparity over time. Adults are the highest fatality risk group overall, children most at risk to die in flooding, and the elderly at greatest risk of heat-related death.
Tue, 21 November 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0138.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: sensitive analysis; variable fuzzy method; mutual entropy; stepwise regression analysis; mountain flash flood risk
Online: 21 November 2017 (09:28:07 CET)
Flash flood is one of the most significant natural disasters in China, particularly in mountainous area, causing heavy economic damage and casualties of life. Accurate risk assessment is critical to an efficient flash flood management. There are more than 530,000 small watersheds in 2058 counties in China where flash flood should be prevented. In practice, with limited fund and different risk levels, the priorities of each small watershed for flash flood prevention and control are also needed for an efficient flash flood management. This paper, take Licheng county in China as an example, aims to give out these priorities for management. First, sensitive indexes are identified among index system, which includes 9 indexes based on underlying surface characteristics of small watershed in hilly region. Second, the range of each index and the rank division of each index for evaluation are determined. Based on the rank divisions for evaluation, the flash flood risk grade eigenvalue (H) is calculated by Variable Fuzzy Method (VFM ) using 1000 samplings generated by Latin hypercube sampling method. Third, the key sensitivity factors that affect flash flood risk grade eigenvalue (H) are assessed by two different global sensitivity analysis methods -- stepwise regression analysis and mutual entropy. Both results indicate that watershed slope (S) is the most sensitive factor; the second is antecedent precipitation index (CN); while other factors are slightly different sensitive in sequence. This study shows that stepwise regression analysis and mutual information analysis are appropriate for the sensitivity analysis of mountain flash flood risk. Finally, based on watershed slope (S), the priorities of flash flood prevention and control of 119 small watersheds in Licheng county are given out.