REVIEW Download: 8986| View: 1177| Comments: 1 | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0095.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: aerofoil; CFD; lift and drag force; pressure and velocity contour
Online: 22 October 2016 (11:08:56 CEST)
NACA 0015 and NACA 4415 aerofoil are most common four digits and broadly used aerodynamic shape. Both of the shapes are extensively used for various kind of applications including turbine blade, aircraft wing and so on. NACA 0015 is symmetrical and NACA 4415 is unsymmetrical in shape. Consequently, they have big one-of-a-kind in aerodynamic traits at the side of widespread differences of their utility and performance. Both of them undergo the same fluid principle while applied in any fluid medium giving dissimilar outcomes in aerodynamics behavior. On this work, experimental and numerical investigation of each NACA 0015 and NACA 4415 is done to decide their performance. For this purpose, aerofoil section is tested for a prevalence range attack of angle (AOA). The study addresses the performance of NACA 0015 and NACA 4415 and evaluates the dynamics of flow separation, lift, drag, pressure and velocity contour and so on. This additionally enables to layout new optimistic aerofoil, which is critical to enhance the efficiency and performance of an aircraft in terms of lift enhancement and drag reduction.
Tue, 2 August 2016
ARTICLE Download: 8557| View: 1135| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0008.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: horizontal axis tidal turbine; Computational Fluid Dynamics; mesh independency; NACA 0018
Online: 2 August 2016 (04:45:13 CEST)
This paper numerically investigates a 3D mesh independency study of a straight blade horizontal axis tidal turbine modelled using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The solution was produced by employing two turbulence models, the standard k-ε model and Shear Stress Transport (SST) in ANSYS CFX. Three parameters were investigated: mesh resolution, turbulence model, and power coefficient in the initial CFD, analysis. It was found that the mesh resolution and the turbulence model affect the power coefficient results. The power coefficients obtained from the standard k-ε model are 15% to 20% lower than the accuracy of the SST model. It can also be demonstrated that the torque coefficient increases with the increasing Tip Speed Ratio (TSR), but drops drastically after TSR = 5 and k-ε model failing to capture the non-linearity in the torque coefficient with the increasing TSR.
Sun, 26 November 2017
ARTICLE Download: 5843| View: 496| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0166.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: high-rise buildings; architecture; structural solutions; interaction; SWOT analysis
Online: 26 November 2017 (12:45:01 CET)
The article reveals distinctive features of the interaction between architectural and structural solutions for the design of tall buildings as well as spotlights the most distinctive cases of expression. In the contemporary world, interaction is turning into the antithesis of the formerly dominant utilitarian attitude and standardization of tall buildings architectural solutions. Meanwhile, the search for rational structural solutions leads to new possibilities of architectural expression. This necessitates the transformation of a structural solution and its adaptation to the need of a modern architect to be exceptional and noticed. Interaction covers the current as well as retrospective and perspective periods. SWOT analysis was used by the authors of the article to assess the interaction between architectural and structural solutions in tall buildings design, select the most important criteria that could be used searching for rational architectural and structural solutions in future by applying multi-criteria decision making methods.
Wed, 10 May 2017
REVIEW Download: 4214| View: 695| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0090.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Electric Vehicle; internal combustion engine; greenhouse gas; optimization techniques; Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV); Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV); Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV); Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV).
Online: 10 May 2017 (17:44:51 CEST)
Electric vehicles (EV) are getting more commonplace in the transportation sector in recent times. As the present trend suggests, this mode of transport is likely to replace the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in near future. Each of the main EV components has a number of technologies that are currently in use or can become prominent in the future. EVs can cause significant impacts on the environment, power system, and other related sectors. The present power system can face huge instabilities with enough EV penetration; but with proper management and coordination, EVs can be turned into a major contributor to the successful implementation of smart grid. There are possibilities of immense environmental benefits as well, as the EVs can extensively reduce the greenhouse gas emission from the transportation sector. However, there are some major obstacles for EVs to overcome before replacing the ICE vehicles totally. This paper is focused on reviewing all the useful data available on EV configurations, energy sources, motors, charging techniques, optimization techniques, impacts, trends, and possible directions of future developments. Its objective is to provide an overall picture of the current EV technology and ways of future development to assist in future researches in this sector.
Tue, 8 August 2017
ARTICLE Download: 4128| View: 791| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0033.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: petroleum sludge; characterization; total organic carbon; metal concentration
Online: 8 August 2017 (13:24:39 CEST)
Thermal plasma technique is becoming prominent in the treatment of variety of waste ranging from municipal solid waste, incinerator residue, hospital waste, electronics waste and industrial sludge. Application of the new treatment technology to petroleum sludge requires information on the nature and characteristics of the sludge that will be use to optimize the treatment system. In this investigation, petroleum sludge obtained from Petronas Melaka was characterized for its physical and chemical features. Proximate and ultimate analysis as well as determination of elemental composition were carried out. The sludge was found to contain high moisture (78.91%), low ash (5.06%), low volatiles (5.52%) and high fixed carbon (10.51%). The sludge has a TOC of 54.48% and HHV of 23.599MJ/kg. Despite the high moisture content, the higher heating value (HHV) is high when compared to literature values. The high value of HHV may be associated with the high fixed carbon, low ash content and high value of TOC. The apparent density of the sludge is slightly lower. Fourteen heavy metals are detected in significant quantities. Proper waste management that will safely dispose the sludge is required. The waste disposal technique should take into cognizant the possibility of leaching of heavy metals into ground water on one hand and the gasification of lighter ones on the other.
Thu, 15 March 2018
ARTICLE Download: 3958| View: 18186| Comments: 26 | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0122.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: electric vehicle; Nissan Leaf; lithium-ion battery; capacity loss; battery degradation
Online: 15 March 2018 (07:19:52 CET)
Analysis of 1382 measures of battery State of Health (SoH) from 283 Nissan Leafs (“Leaf/s”), manufactured between 2011 and 2017, has detected a faster rate of decline in this measure of energy-holding capacity for 30 kWh variants. At two years of age, the mean rate of decline of SoH of 30 kWh Leafs was 9.9% per annum (95% uncertainty interval of 8.7% to 11.1%; n = 82). This was around three times the rate of decline of 24 kWh Leafs which at two years averaged 3.1% per annum (95% uncertainty interval of 2.9% to 3.3%; n = 201). For both variants there was evidence for an increasing rate of decline as they aged, although this was much more pronounced in the 30 kWh Leafs. Higher use of rapid DC charging was associated with a small decrease in SoH. Additionally, while 24 kWh cars with greater distances travelled showed a higher SoH, in 30 kWh cars there was a reduction in SoH observed in cars that had travelled further. The 30 kWh Leafs sourced from United Kingdom showed slower initial decline than those from Japan, but the rate of decline was similar at two years of age. Improvements in the battery health diagnostics, continuous monitoring of battery temperatures and state of charge, and verification of a fundamental model of battery health are needed before causes and remedies for the observed decline can be pinpointed. If the high rate of decline in battery capacity that we observed in the first 2.3 years of a 30 kWh Leaf’s lifetime were to continue, the financial and environmental benefits of this model may be significantly eroded. Despite 30 kWh Leafs accounting for only 14% of all light battery electric vehicles registered for use on New Zealand roads at the end of February 2018, there is also the potential for the relatively poor performance of this specific model to undermine electric vehicle uptake more generally unless remedies can be found.
Mon, 2 October 2017
ARTICLE Download: 3452| View: 393| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0008.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: : microstrip antenna, vertical slots , adaptive network-based fuzzy Inference system , resonant frequency, artificial neural networks
Online: 2 October 2017 (09:16:02 CEST)
This paper attempts at applying adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for analysis of the resonant frequency of a microstrip rectangular patch antenna with two equal size slots which are placed on the patch vertically. The resonant frequency is calculated as the position of slots is shifted to the right and left sides on the patch. As a result , the antenna resonates at more than one frequency . Commonly, machine algorithms based on artificial neural networks are employed to recognize the whole resonant frequencies. However ,they fail to estimate the resonant frequencies correctly as in some cases variations are not very sensible and the resonant frequencies overlap each other . It can be concluded that artificial neural networks could be replaced in such designs by the adaptive network-based fuzzy Inference system due to its high approximation capability and much faster convergence rate.
Tue, 14 March 2017
ARTICLE Download: 3296| View: 1420| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0086.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: image enhancement; image fusion; color space; edge detector; underwater image
Online: 14 March 2017 (17:52:48 CET)
In order to improve contrast and restore color for underwater image captured by camera sensors without suffering from insufficient details and color cast, a fusion algorithm for image enhancement in different color spaces based on contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) is proposed in this article. The original color image is first converted from RGB color space to two different special color spaces: YIQ and HSI. The color space conversion from RGB to YIQ is a linear transformation, while the RGB to HSI conversion is nonlinear. Then, the algorithm separately operates CLAHE in YIQ and HSI color spaces to obtain two different enhancement images. The luminance component (Y) in the YIQ color space and the intensity component (I) in the HSI color space are enhanced with CLAHE algorithm. The CLAHE has two key parameters: Block Size and Clip Limit, which mainly control the quality of CLAHE enhancement image. After that, the YIQ and HSI enhancement images are respectively converted backward to RGB color. When the three components of red, green, and blue are not coherent in the YIQ-RGB or HSI-RGB images, the three components will have to be harmonized with the CLAHE algorithm in RGB space. Finally, with 4 direction Sobel edge detector in the bounded general logarithm ratio operation, a self-adaptive weight selection nonlinear image enhancement is carried out to fuse YIQ-RGB and HSI-RGB images together to achieve the final fused image. The enhancement fusion algorithm has two key factors: average of Sobel edge detector and fusion coefficient, and these two factors determine the effects of enhancement fusion algorithm. A series of evaluate metrics such as mean, contrast, entropy, colorfulness metric (CM), mean square error (MSE) and peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) are used to assess the proposed enhancement algorithm. The experiments results showed that the proposed algorithm provides more detail enhancement and higher values of colorfulness restoration as compared to other existing image enhancement algorithms. The proposed algorithm can suppress effectively noise interference, improve the image quality for underwater image availably.
Sat, 13 August 2016
ARTICLE Download: 2956| View: 959| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0136.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: vertical axis wind turbine; CST parameterization; NSGA-II; airfoil; optimization; multiple streamtube model
Online: 13 August 2016 (09:15:42 CEST)
Optimizing the NACA0015 airfoil which is widely applied in small-scale vertical axis wind turbine to make it has a better aerodynamic performance. In the optimization process, using CST parameterization method to perturb the airfoil geometry, the thickness and camber of the airfoil are selected as the constraint, and the value of the maximum tangential force coefficient is chosen as the objective function, the genetic algorithm based on non-dominated sorting (NSGA-II)is selected as an optimization method, calculates the aerodynamic performance of the airfoil by applying the approach of combining XFOIL program and Viterna-Corrigan post-stall mode ,and establishes the optimizing process by the optimization software modefrontier for NACA0015 airfoil’s muti-point optimization, validate the airfoil’s performance with CFD finally. The result illustrates that, by comparing with the NACA0015 airfoil, the optimized airfoil’s lift to drag ratio is improved over a wide range of attack angles, the stall performance is more gentle. The maximum lift coefficient, the maximum lift-drag ratio and the maximum tangential force coefficient are increased by 7.5%,9 and 8.87%, respectively. The optimized airfoil has a wide variable condition performance, more suitable for the operating conditions of a vertical axis wind turbine. Finally, predict the rotor efficiency with optimized airfoil and NACA0015 airfoil for different tip speed ratios and different solidities with multiple streamtube model, the result shows the rotor with optimized airfoil has a higher efficiency.
Fri, 24 August 2018
REVIEW Download: 2575| View: 497| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0433.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: fermentation; bioreactor; heat transfer; mass transfer
Online: 24 August 2018 (11:34:14 CEST)
Fermenter is a vessel that maintains optimum environment for the development of significant microorganism used in large scale fermentation process and the commercial production of products like Alcoholic beverages, Enzymes, Antibiotics, Organic acids etc. The fermenter aims to produce biological product like vaccines and hormones, it is necessary to monitor and control the different parameters like external and internal mass transfer, heat transfer, fluid velocity, shear stress, agitation speed, aeration rate, cooling rate or heating intensity, and the feeding rate, nutrients, base or acid valve. Fermentation in the fermenter are accomplished in several configuration and these simple configurations are batch, fed-batch and continuous fermentation process. Fermentation process is carried out in small or large size fermenter depending on product quantity. The selection of the suitable process depends on the fermentation kinetics, type of microorganism used and process economic aspects. Improved modelling tools, reactor operation and reactor design in bioreactor is because of mass transfer behavior and it is important for reaction rate maximizing, throughput rates optimization and cost minimizing. The fermenter design, fermentation process, types of the fermenter that are used in industries and heat and mass transfer in fermenter is discussed.
Sat, 23 July 2016
ARTICLE Download: 2187| View: 1105| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0071.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: phased array radar; embedded computing; serial RapidIO, MPAR
Online: 23 July 2016 (10:43:50 CEST)
This paper investigates the feasibility of a backend design for real-time, multiple-channel processing digital phased array system, particularly for high-performance embedded computing platforms constructed of using general purpose digital signal processors. Frist, we obtained the lab-scale backend performance benchmark from simulating beamforming, pulse compression, and Doppler filtering based on MicroTCA chassis using Serial RapidIO protocol in backplane communication. Next, a field-scale demonstrator of a multifunctional phased array radar is emulated by using the similar configuration. Interestingly, the performance of a barebone design is compared to that of emerging tools that systematically take advantage of parallelism and multicore capabilities, including Open Computing Language.
Fri, 5 May 2017
ARTICLE Download: 2168| View: 1159| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0045.v1
Online: 5 May 2017 (05:29:10 CEST)
Dump design and scheduling are critical elements to effective mine planning, especially if several of them are required in large-scale open pit mines. Infrastructure capital and transportation costs are considerable from an early stage in the mining project, and through the life-of-mine as these dumps gradually become immense structures. Delivered mining rates, as well as certain spatial and physical constraints, provide a set of parameters of mathematical and economic relationship that creates opportunities for modelling and thus facilitates the measuring and optimization of ultimate dump design by using programming and empirical techniques while achieving economic objectives. This paper presents a methodology to model and optimize the design of a mine dump by minimizing the total haulage costs. The proposed methodology consists on: (i) Formulation of a dump model based on a system of equations relying on multiple relevant parameters; (ii) Solves by minimizing the total cost using linear programming and determines a ‘preliminary’ dump design; (iii) Through a series of iterations, modifies the ‘preliminary’ footprint by projecting it to the topography and creates the ultimate dump design. Finally, an example application for a waste rock dump illustrates this methodology.
Thu, 3 November 2016
ARTICLE Download: 2150| View: 930| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0022.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: mixing time; LIF; CFD; SPH; stirred tank
Online: 3 November 2016 (09:22:18 CET)
Performing optimisation and scale-up studies of crystallisation systems requires accurate and computationally efficient mathematical models. The assumption of the ideal mixing conditions in batch reactors typically produce inaccurate results while the computational expense of CFD models is still prohibitively high. Therefore, in this work, a new intermediary approach is proposed that takes into account the non-ideal mixing conditions in the reactor and requires less computational resources than full CFD simulations. Starting with the Danckwerts concept of the intensity of segregation, an analogy between its application to chemical reactions and the kinetics of the crystallisation phenomena (such as nucleation and growth) has been made. As a result, the modified kinetics expressions have been derived which incorporate the effect of non-idealities present in stirred reactors. This way, based on the experimental measurements of the mixing time using the Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique, computationally more efficient mathematical models can be developed in two ways: (1) the accurate semi-empirical correlations are available for standard mixing configurations with the most often used types of impellers, (2) CFD simulations can be utilised for estimation of the mixing time; in this case it is necessary to simulate only the mixing process. The benefits offered by the LIF experimental technique have been demonstrated and some frequent problems in its application analysed. The mixing time results for configurations with and without baffles for three types of impellers and four different rotational speeds have been presented. The false shorter mixing times in the non-baffled configurations have been observed and this phenomena explained by the existence of two segregated zones in the reactor and confirmed by additional experiments. The precise measurements in these cases have been shown as difficult using the LIF technique, particularly for higher rpms. The experimental data has been compared to the preliminary simulation results obtained from the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method and the standard k-ε turbulence model with the modest success. The shortcomings of the SPH model have been recognized and the directions for the future work discussed.
Wed, 19 October 2016
ARTICLE Download: 2098| View: 964| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0077.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: energy saving; PAT; Urban Hydraulic Network; numerical modeling
Online: 19 October 2016 (10:17:33 CEST)
Small and micro hydropower represents an attractive solution for electricity generation, with low cost and low environmental impact. The pump-as-turbine (PAT) approach has promise in this application owing to its low purchase and maintenance costs. In this paper, a new method to predict the inverse characteristic of industrial centrifugal pumps is presented. This method is based on results of simulations performed with commercial three-dimensional CFD software. Model results have been first validated in pumping mode using data supplied by pump manufacturers. Then, results have been compared to experimental data for a pump running in reverse condition. Experimentation has been performed on a dedicated test bench installed in the Department of Civil Construction and Environmental Engineering of the University of Naples Federico II. Three different pumps, with different specific speeds, have been analyzed. Using the model results, the inverse characteristic and the best efficiency point have been evaluated. Finally, results of this methodology have been compared to prediction methods available in the literature.
Sun, 18 September 2016
ARTICLE Download: 2069| View: 1032| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0053.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: electricity markets; price forecasting; multi-output models; random forests; conditional inference trees
Online: 18 September 2016 (06:16:19 CEST)
Predicting electricity prices is a very important issue in modern society, because the associated decision process under uncertainty requires accurate forecasts for the economic agents involved. In this paper, we apply the decision tree extension of Random Forests to the prediction of electricity prices in Spain, but with the novelty of modeling prices jointly with demand, with the purpose of achieving greater accuracy than with univariate response Random Forests, particularly in price prediction, as well as understanding the effect of the input variables (lagged values of price and demand, current production levels of available energy sources) on the joint of the two outputs. The results are very encouraging, providing significant increase in price prediction accuracy. Also, interesting methodological challenges appear as far as the appropriate choice of the relative weights of price and demand in the joint modeling is concerned and a new procedure to provide the importance variable ranking is proposed. The partykit (package of R software) library allowing for multivariate Random Forests has been used.
Fri, 13 January 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1991| View: 837| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0070.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: permanent magnet-assisted synchronous reluctance machine; power factor; torque ripple; efficiency; demagnetization; finite element analysis
Online: 13 January 2017 (11:04:02 CET)
In this paper, a novel permanent magnet-assisted synchronous reluctance machine (PMASynRM) with rare-earth PMs and ferrite magnets is proposed. The performance of PMASynRM is discussed with respected to the different magnet ratio of rare-earth PMs and ferrite magnets. Some characteristics including the flux density, output torque, cogging torque, output power, power factor, torque ripple, loss, efficiency, and demagnetization are calculated by 2-D finite element analysis (FEA). The analysis results show that the excellent performance can be obtained by using hybrid magnet of rare-earth PMs and ferrite magnets with the suitable magnet ratio, and provide some desirable cost-performance trade-off.
Fri, 5 August 2016
REVIEW Download: 1982| View: 1048| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0045.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: railway infrastructure; high-speed rail; tracks; risk; management and monitoring; climate change; global warming; adaptation; operational readiness
Online: 5 August 2016 (05:11:02 CEST)
Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and many of the observed changes are unprecedented over five decades to millennia. Globally the atmosphere and ocean is increasingly getting warmer, the amount of ice on the earth is decreasing over the oceans, and the sea level has risen. According to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the total increasing temperature globally averaged combined land and surface between the average of the 1850-1900 period and the 2003 to 2012 period is 0.78 °C (0.72 to 0.85). But should we prepare for such the relatively small change? The importance is not the mean of the warming but the considerable likelihood of climate change that could trigger extreme natural hazards. The impact and the risk of climate change associated with railway infrastructure have not been fully addressed in the literature due to the difference in local environmental parameters. On the other hand, the current railway network in Malaysia, over the last decade, has been significantly affected by severe weather conditions such as rainfall, lightning, wind and very high temperatures. Our research findings point out the extremes that can lead to asset system failure, degraded operation and ultimately, delays to train services. During the period of flood, the embankment of the track can be swept away and bridge can be demolished, while during drought, the embankment of the track can suffer from soil desiccation and embankment deterioration, high temperature increases the risk of track buckling and high winds can result in vegetation or foreign object incursion on to the infrastructure as well as additional quasi-static burden exerted. This review is of significant importance for planning and design of the newly proposed high speed rail link between Malaysia and Singapore.
Wed, 19 April 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1965| View: 908| Comments: 2 | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0124.v1
Online: 19 April 2017 (11:53:38 CEST)
A fluid flowing over an object has a tendency to drag the object along it’s flow direction. An object passing through a fluid which is stationary there is a tendency to slow the object down. For a stationary object in a fluid which is flowing there is a tendency to move the object in the fluid flowing direction .These tendencies of flowing fluid is known as drag. While moving through air airplanes also subjected to several drags. Airplanes subjected to pressure drag or form drag due to flow separation which is based on the pressure difference between the upstream and downstream surfaces of the object. Airplanes also subjected to Skin friction drag which results from the viscous shear of the fluid flowing over the object surface. In order to overcome these drags airplane wings cross section airfoils are designed very carefully. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, or NACA, developed and tested "families" of airfoils. Some of the most successful of these were the NACA four-digit and five-digit series. The necessary coordinates for designing NACA airfoil profiles are available in online. UIUC also provide coordinates for designing NACA airfoil profiles. But the present work describes the way of designing NACA four digit airfoils without taking any coordinates from available sources like google or any other search engines. Using C programming with the help of NACA provided equations a generalized source code is designed .Which will provide coordinates for designing any NACA four digit airfoil profiles .With the help of this obtained profile the wing model is also constructed using solid works. Using solid works model the real model was constructed using wood. The chord of regular surface airfoil is 21 cm and the span is also 21 cm. The airfoil profile taken for the model construction is NACA-4415 which is a four digit cambered airfoil.The present work also show some figures of an airfoil by applying certain surface modifications in form of dimples.
Thu, 1 June 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1954| View: 644| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0007.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: pipeline modeling; leak detection; transient-based method; pipeline system
Online: 1 June 2017 (08:20:31 CEST)
This paper shows a method for pipeline leak detection using a transient-based method with MATLAB® functions. The simulation of a pipeline systems in the time domain are very complex. In the case of the dissipative model, transfer functions are hyperbolic Bessel functions. Simulating a pipeline system in the frequency domain using a dissipative model we could find an approximate transfer function with equal frequency domain response to in order get the pipeline system's time domain response. The method described in this paper can be used to detect, by comparison, to detect a leak in a pipeline system model.
Tue, 2 August 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1919| View: 1070| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0019.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: redox flow battery; techno-economic analysis; materials; cost
Online: 2 August 2016 (11:41:32 CEST)
A techno-economic model was developed to investigate the influence of components on the system costs of redox flow batteries. Sensitivity analyses were carried out based on a example of a 10 kW/120 kWh vanadium redox flow battery system and the costs of the individual components were analyzed. Particular consideration was given to the influence of material costs and resistances of bipolar plates and energy storage media as well as voltages and electric currents. Based on the developed model it was possible to formulate statements about the targeted optimization of existing battery systems and general aspects for future developments of redox flow batteries.
Wed, 3 August 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1835| View: 1039| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0029.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: CFD simulation; industrial furnace; heat flux; forging industry; thermal analysis
Online: 3 August 2016 (08:47:21 CEST)
Industries, which are mainly responsible for high energy consumptions, need to invest in research projects in order to develop new managing systems for rational energy use and to tackle the devastating effects of climate change caused by human behavior. The study reported in this paper concerns the forging industry, where the production processes generally start with the heating of the steel in furnaces and continue with other processes, such as heat treatments and mechanical machining. One of the most critical operations, in terms of energy loss, is the opening of the furnace doors for the insertion and extraction operations. During this time, the temperature of the furnaces decreases by hundreds of degrees in a few minutes. Because the dispersed heat needs to be supplied again through the combustion of fuel, increasing the consumption of energy and the pollutant emissions, the evaluation of the amount of the lost energy is crucial for the development of operating or mechanical systems able to contain this dispersion. To perform this study, CFD simulation software was used. Results show that at the door opening, because of temperature and pressure differences between the furnace and the ambient, turbulences are generated. Results also show that the amount of energy lost for an opening of 10 minutes for radiation, convection and conduction is equal to 5606 MJ where convection is the main contributor with 5020 MJ. The model created, after being validated, has been applied to perform other simulations in order to improve the energy performance of the furnace. Results show that a reduction of the opening time of the door allows energy savings and limits pollutant emissions.
Fri, 10 February 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1818| View: 857| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0033.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Li-ion cell; Thermal runaway; Accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC); Pressure Change
Online: 10 February 2017 (16:58:01 CET)
In this work commercial 18650 lithium-ion cells with LiMn2O4, LiFePO4 and Li(Ni0.33Mn0.33Co0.33)O2 cathodes were exposed to external heating in an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter (es-ARC, THT Company) to investigate the thermal behavior under abuse conditions. New procedures for measuring external and internal pressure change of cells were developed. The external pressure was measured utilizing a gas-tight cylinder inside the calorimeter chamber in order to detect venting of the cells. For internal pressure measurements, a pressure line connected to a pressure transducer was directly inserted into the cell. During the thermal runaway experiments, three stages (low rate, medium rate and high rate reaction) have been observed. Both pressure and temperature change indicated different stages of exothermic reactions, which produced gases or/and heat. The onset temperature of thermal runaway was estimated according to temperature and pressure changes. Moreover, the different activation energies for the exothermic reactions could be derived from Arrhenius plots.
Wed, 3 August 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1805| View: 988| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0028.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Solar Power; Flyback Converter; Duty Cycle; Coupling Inductor
Online: 3 August 2016 (08:32:45 CEST)
In this paper, a method of charging lead acid battery with solar power by flyback converter is proposed. The basic system consists of a buffer circuit, auxiliary power circuit, control circuit, voltage feedback circuit and current feedback circuit. The system is capable of monitoring battery voltage and the current, charging the coupling inductor and automatic control of output duty cycle, overcharging and over-discharging protection. The experiment proves that the charging efficiency is improved by about 83% at full load.
Fri, 28 April 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1774| View: 746| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0184.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: SiC bidirectional AC-DC converter; inverter; variable frequency; PLL; LCL filter
Online: 28 April 2017 (05:06:38 CEST)
The paper presents the design stages of a single-phase Silicon Carbide bidirectional DC-AC converter. This includes the LCL filter design responsible to meet grid connection requirements. A 3kW laboratory prototype of the power converter is built employing a low-cost phase locked loop and its results are presented. The design of the low-cost phase locked loop and its implementation are depicted in some detail.
Thu, 29 December 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1759| View: 811| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0138.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: hybrid materials; machine tool structures; modal analysis; machine tool kinematics; aluminium metal foams; aluminium corrugated sandwiches; CFRP materials; FE simulations; damping
Online: 29 December 2016 (07:36:15 CET)
The dynamic behaviour of a machine tool (MT) directly influences the machining performances. The adoption of lightweight structures may reduce the effects of undesired vibrations and increasing the workpiece quality. This paper aims to present and compare a set of hybrid materials that may be excellent candidate to fabricate the MT moving parts. The selected materials have high dynamic characteristics and capacity to damp mechanical vibrations. In this way, starting by the kinematic model of a milling machine that highlights the main critical factors, this study paper evaluates a number of prototypes made of Al Foam sandwiches (AFS), Al Corrugated sandwiches (ACS) and materials reinforced by carbon fibres (CFRP). A set of prototypes has been fabricated, represented the Z-axis ram of a commercial milling machine. The static and dynamical properties have been evaluated by using both FE simulations and experimental tests. The obtained results show that the proposed structures may be a valid alternative to the conventional materials of MT moving parts, increasing machining performances. In particular, the AFS prototype highlighted a damping coefficient that is 20 times greater than a conventional ram (e.g. steel). The CFRP structure is able to satisfy the machining requirements with a reduced weight of 48.5%, while the ACS prototype showed a good trade-off between stiffness and damping.
Thu, 16 March 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1712| View: 811| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0111.v1
Online: 16 March 2017 (07:12:22 CET)
We present an open-source Star Tracker (ST) for Attitude Determination. Our implementation makes use of open source software of common usage in astronomy running on a Raspberry Pi 2 platform. The developed platform is open and available for parties interested in further development. Evaluation of the system showed that the ST is suitable for Cubesats of 2U or larger. The ST platform is capable of solving the Lost-In-Space (LIS) problem. Currently, the average accuracy reached of the algorithm is close to 5 seconds of arc with an average processing time of 75 seconds. However, a average accuracy of about 3 minutes of arc can be reached with 35 seconds in average processing time. We also describe the evaluation procedure, the found conclusions of this procedure, in particular the section of the algorithm where most of the processing time is spent and other possible source of errors not included in this study.
Mon, 15 August 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1702| View: 1004| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0148.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: ac–dc power converters; battery chargers; dual active bridge; DAB; optimal design; power MOSFETs; single-stage
Online: 15 August 2016 (11:06:09 CEST)
The growing attention for plug-in electric vehicles, and the associated high-performance demands, have initiated a development trend towards highly efficient and compact on-board battery chargers. These isolated ac-dc converters are most commonly realized using two conversion stages, combining a non-isolated power factor correction (PFC) rectifier with an isolated dc-dc converter. This, however, involves two loss stages and a relatively high component count, limiting the achievable efficiency and power density and resulting in high costs. In this paper a single-stage converter approach is analyzed to realize a single-phase ac-dc converter, combining all functionalities into one conversion stage and thus enabling a cost-effective efficiency and power density increase. The converter topology consists of a quasi-lossless synchronous rectifier followed by an isolated dual active bridge (DAB) dc-dc converter, putting a small filter capacitor in between. To show the performance potential of this bidirectional, isolated ac-dc converter, a comprehensive design procedure and multi-objective optimization with respect to efficiency and power density is presented, using detailed loss and volume models. The models and procedures are verified by a 3.7 kW hardware demonstrator, interfacing a 400 V dc-bus with the single-phase 230 V, 50 Hz utility grid. Measurement results indicate a state-of-the-art efficiency of 96.1% and power density of 2.2 kW/dm3, confirming the competitiveness of the investigated single-stage DAB ac-dc converter.
Sat, 3 September 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1697| View: 985| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0007.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: shale gas; stimulated reservoir volume; fracture parameters optimization; formation parameters
Online: 3 September 2016 (11:16:08 CEST)
Hydraulic fracturing in shale gas reservoirs has usually resulted in complex fracture network. The results of micro-seismic monitoring showed that the nature and degree of fracture complexity must be clearly understood to optimize stimulation design and completion strategy. This is often called stimulated reservoir volume (SRV). In the oil & gas industry, stimulated reservoir volume has made the shale gas exploitation and development so successful, so it is a main technique in shale gas development. The successful exploitation and development of shale gas reservoir has mainly relied on some combined technologies such as horizontal drilling, multi-stage completions, innovative fracturing, and fracture mapping to engineer economic completions. Hydraulic fracturing with large volumes of proppant and fracturing fluids will not only create high conductivity primary fractures but also stimulate adjacent natural fractures. Fracture network forming around every hydraulic fracture yields a stimulated reservoir volume. A model of horizontal wells which was based on a shale gas reservoir after volume fracturing in China was established to analyze the effect of related parameters on the production of multi-fractured horizontal wells in this paper. The adsorbed gas in the shale gas reservoir is simulated by dissolved gas in the immobile oil. The key to simulate SRV is to accurately represent the hydraulic fractures and the induced complex natural fracture system. However, current numerical simulation methods, such as dual porosity modeling, discrete modeling, have the following limitations: 1) time-consuming to set up hydraulic and natural fracture system; 2) large computation time required. In this paper, the shape of the stimulated formation is described by an expanding ellipsoid. Simplified stimulated zones with higher permeability were used to model the hydraulic fracture and the induced complex natural fracture system. In other words, each primary fracture has an enhanced zone, namely SRV zone. This method saves much developing fine-grid time and computing time. Compared with the simulation results of fine-grid reference model, it has shown that this simplified model greatly decreases simulation time and provides accurate results. In order to analyze the impacts of related parameters on production, a series of simulation scenarios and corresponding production performance were designed. Optimal design and analyses of fracturing parameters and the formation parameters have been calculated in this model. Simulation results showed that the number of primary fractures, half length, SRV half-width and drop-down have great effects on the post-fracturing production. Formation anisotropies also control the production performance while the conductivity of the primary fractures and SRV permeability do not have much impact on production performance. The complexity of stimulated reservoir volume has strong effect on gas well productivity. Fracture number mainly affects the early time production performance. The increase of SRV width cannot enlarge the drainage area of the multi-fractured horizontal wells, but it can improve the recovery in its own drainage region. Permeability anisotropies have much effect on production rate, especially the late time production rate. The results prove that horizontal well with volume fracturing plays an irreplaceable role in the development of ultra-low permeability shale gas reservoir.
Thu, 5 January 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1664| View: 895| Comments: 1 | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0021.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: capacity; cooling and heating; fin-tube heat exchanger; pressure drop; turbulator
Online: 5 January 2017 (09:07:14 CET)
This study presents the comparison of heat transfer capacity and pressure drop characteristics between a basic fin-tube heat exchanger and a modified heat exchanger with the structural change of branch tubes and coiled turbulators. All experiments were carried out using an air-enthalpy type calorimeter based on the method described in ASHRAE standards, under heat exchanger experimental conditions. 14 different kinds of heat exchangers were used for the experiment. Cooling and heating capacities of the turbulator heat exchanger were excellent, compared to the basic one. As the insertion ratio of the coiled turbulator and the number of row increased, the heat transfer performance increased. However, the capacity per unit area was more effective in 4 rows than 6 rows, and the cooling performance of the 6 row turbulator heat exchanger (100% turbulator insert ratio) was down to about 6% than that of 4 row one. As the water flow rate and the turbulator insertion ratio increased, the pressure drop of the water side increased. This trend was more pronounced in 6 rows. In the cooling condition, the pressure drop on the air side was slightly increased due to the generation of condensed water, but was insignificant under the heating condition. The power consumption of the pump was more affected by the water flow rate than the coiled turbulator. The equivalent hydraulic diameter of a tube by the turbulator was reduced and then the heat transfer performance was improved. Thus, the tube diameter was smaller, the heat flux was better.
Mon, 30 January 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1635| View: 1172| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0131.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Electromagnetic devices; Iron losses; LS model; Magnetic equivalent circuit; Models coupling
Online: 30 January 2017 (08:20:38 CET)
In this paper, an original approach allowing the determination of the iron losses in the electromagnetic devices is presented. This new approach exploits the Loss Surface (LS) hysteresis model and the magnetic flux density waveforms resulting from a generalized nonlinear adaptive magnetic equivalent circuit (MEC) using a mesh-based formulation in two-dimensional (2-D) or quasi three-dimensional (3-D). The model coupling has been applied to a 18-slots/16-poles radial-flux interior permanent-magnet (PM) synchronous machine (PMSM) dedicated to automotive applications, mainly for electric/hybrid/fuel cell vehicles (EVs/HEVs/FCVs). The obtained results have been compared with those made retrospectively in the 2-D transient finite-element (FE) Flux. The influence of the MEC discretization on the iron loss calculation and the electromagnetic performances has been analyzed. The computation time is divided by 3/2 with an error less than 7 %.
Thu, 3 November 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1625| View: 1067| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0025.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: waste management; economic instruments; pay-as-you-throw; municipal solid waste; recycling; environmental management
Online: 3 November 2016 (10:28:43 CET)
The “Pay-as-you-throw” scheme, PAYT, is an economic instrument of waste management that implements the “polluter pays” principle by charging inhabitants of municipalities according to the amount of residual, organic and bulky waste they send for third-party waste management. When combined with well-developed infrastructure to collect the different waste fractions (residual waste, paper and cardboard, plastics, bio waste, green cuttings, many recyclables) as well as with a good level of citizen’s awareness, its performance has frequently been linked to high collection rates of recyclables. However, the establishment and operation of PAYT systems can require significant resource inputs from municipalities. In this paper, PAYT is analysed through a case study from the German County of Aschaffenburg, covering nearly 20 years of implementation across 173,000 inhabitants. Key performance indicators applied include temporal trends in the county’s recyclables collection rate, waste treatment fees for residents and municipal waste management costs, benchmarked against German municipalities not implementing PAYT.
Tue, 27 September 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1619| View: 976| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0108.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: distributed energy resources; meter reading; microgrids; NB-PLC; noise
Online: 27 September 2016 (15:44:03 CEST)
Distributed Energy Resources might have a severe influence on Power Line Communications, as they can generate interfering signals and high frequency emissions or supraharmonics that may cause loss of metering and control data. In this paper, the influence of various energy resources on Narrowband Power Line Communications is described and analyzed through several test measurements performed in a real microgrid. Accordingly, the paper describes the effects on smart metering communications through MAC layer analysis. Results show that the commutation frequency of inverters and the presence of battery chargers are remarkable sources of disturbance in low voltage distribution networks. In this sense, the results presented can contribute to efforts towards standardization and normative of emissions at higher frequencies higher, such as CENELEC EN 50160 and IEC/TS 62749.
Thu, 3 August 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1612| View: 594| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0010.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: solar energy; gains; estimation; tilt angle; south-facing; surface; Pristina
Online: 3 August 2017 (10:51:13 CEST)
Solar energy is derived from photons of light coming from the sun in a form called radiation. Solar energy finds extensive application in air and water heating, solar cooking, as well as electrical power generation, depending on the way of capturing, converting and distribution. To enable such application, it is necessary to analyze the horizontal tilt angle of horizontal surfaces – in order that when the solar energy reaches the earth surface to be completely absorbed. This paper tends to describe the availability of solar radiation for south-facing flat surfaces. The optimal monthly, seasonal, and annual tilt angles have been estimated for Pristina. The solar radiation received by the incident plane is estimated based on isotropic sky analysis models, namely Liu and Jordan model. The annual optimum tilt angle for Pristina was found to be 34.7°. The determination of annual solar energy gains is done by applying the optimal monthly, seasonal and annual tilt angles for an inclined surface compared to a horizontal surface. Monthly, seasonal and annual percentages of solar energy gains have been estimated to be 21.35%, 19.98%, and 14.43%. Losses of solar energy were estimated by 1.13 % when a surface was fixed at a seasonal optimum tilt angle, and when it was fixed at an annual optimum tilt angle, those losses were 5.7%.
Fri, 28 July 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1612| View: 635| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0084.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: CMOS inverter; NMOS transistor; PMOS transistor; voltage transfer characteristic (VTC), threshold voltage; voltage critical value; noise margins; NMOS transconductance parameter; PMOS transconductance parameter
Online: 28 July 2017 (12:44:55 CEST)
The objective of this paper is to research the impact of electrical and physical parameters that characterize the complementary MOSFET transistors (NMOS and PMOS transistors) in the CMOS inverter for static mode of operation. In addition to this, the paper also aims at exploring the directives that are to be followed during the design phase of the CMOS inverters that enable designers to design the CMOS inverters with the best possible performance, depending on operation conditions. The CMOS inverter designed with the best possible features also enables the designing of the CMOS logic circuits with the best possible performance, according to the operation conditions and designers’ requirements.
Mon, 30 January 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1593| View: 1077| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0132.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: intelligent fault diagnosis; convolutional neural networks; domain adaptation; anti-noise
Online: 30 January 2017 (12:15:03 CET)
Intelligent fault diagnosis techniques have replaced the time-consuming and unreliable human analysis, increasing the efficiency of fault diagnosis. Deep learning model can improve the accuracy of intelligent fault diagnosis with the help of its multilayer nonlinear mapping ability. This paper has proposed a novel method named Deep Convolutional Neural Networks with Wide First-layer Kernels (WDCNN). The proposed method uses raw vibration signals as input (data augmentation is used to generate more inputs), and uses the wide kernels in first convolutional layer for extracting feature and suppressing high frequency noise. Small convolutional kernels in the preceding layers are used for multilayer nonlinear mapping. AdaBN is implemented to improve the domain adaptation ability of the model. The proposed model addresses the problem that currently, the accuracy of CNN applied to fault diagnosis is not very high. WDCNN can not only achieve 100% classification accuracy on normal signals, but also outperform state of the art DNN model which is based on frequency features under different working load and noisy environment.
Thu, 31 May 2018
REVIEW Download: 1590| View: 390| Comments: 2 | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0484.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: deep learning; deep convolutional neural networks; dcnn; convolutional neural networks; cnn; robot learning; transfer learning; robotic grasping; robotic grasp detection; human-robot collaboration
Online: 31 May 2018 (17:27:23 CEST)
In order for robots to attain more general-purpose utility, grasping is a necessary skill to master. Such general-purpose robots may use their perception abilities in order to visually identify grasps for a given object. A grasp describes how a robotic end-effector can be arranged on top of an object to securely grab it between the robotic gripper and successfully lift it without slippage. Traditionally, grasp detection requires expert human knowledge to analytically form the task-specific algorithm, but this is an arduous and time-consuming approach. During the last five years, deep learning methods have enabled significant advancements in robotic vision, natural language processing, and automated driving applications. The successful results of these methods have driven robotics researchers to explore the application of deep learning methods in task generalised robotic applications. This paper reviews the current state-of-the-art in regards to the application of deep learning methods to generalised robotic grasping and discusses how each element of the deep learning approach has improved the overall performance of robotic grasp detection. A number of the most promising approaches are evaluated and the most successful for grasp detection is identified as the one-shot detection method. The availability of suitable volumes of appropriate training data is identified as a major obstacle for effective utilisation of the deep learning approaches, and the use of transfer learning techniques is identified as a potential mechanism to address this. Finally, current trends in the field and future potential research directions are discussed.
Sat, 22 October 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1573| View: 1018| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0096.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: triaxial accelerometer; wearable devices; fall detection; mobile health-care; SisFall
Online: 22 October 2016 (11:20:53 CEST)
Research on fall and movement detection with wearable devices has witnessed promising growth. However, there are few publicly available datasets, all recorded with smartphones, that prevent authors to evenly compare their new proposals. Here, we present a dataset of falls and activities of daily living (ADL) acquired with a self-developed device composed of two types of accelerometer and one gyroscope. It consists of 19 ADL and 15 fall types performed by 23 young adults, 15 ADL types performed by 14 healthy and independent participants over 62 years old, and data from one participant of 60 years old that performed all ADL and falls. These activities were selected based on a survey and a literature analysis. We test the dataset with widely used feature extraction and a simple to implement threshold based classification, achieving up to 96~\% of accuracy in fall detection. An individual activity analysis demonstrates that most errors coincide in a few number of activities where algorithms could be focused on. Finally, validation tests with elderly people significantly reduced the fall detection performance of the tested features. This validates findings of other authors and encourages to develop new strategies with this new dataset as benchmark.
Sat, 19 November 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1566| View: 819| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0102.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: ocean wave energy; fluid-structure interaction; BEM; diffraction/ radiation; floating cylinder; heave; array
Online: 19 November 2016 (05:20:36 CET)
This work condenses various modeling techniques for different Point Absorber configurations. A combined frequency - time domain model will be developed in Matlab-FORTRAN in order to compute the displacement, velocities and the power absorbed in the heave mode. Additionally, a single buoy motion including multiple degrees of freedom will be investigated as well. Therefore, the diffraction-radiation Boundary Element Method solvers NEMOH and BEMIO will be applied in the calculation of the hydrodynamic coefficients, which will determine the solution of Newtons impulse equations of motion. Initially, the Wave to wire model will be validated through comparison with previous experimental results for a submerged cone cylinder shape (Buldra-FO3). A single, generic, vertical floating cylinder will be contemplated then, that responds to the action of the passing waves excitation. Later, two vertical floating cylinders aligned with the incident wave direction will be modeled for a variable distance between the bodies. For both unidirectional regular and irregular waves as an input in deep water, the convolutive radiation force function term will be hereby approximated through the Prony method. By changing the spatial disposition of the axisymmetric buoys, using for instance triangular or diamond shaped arrays of three and four bodies respectively, the study will focus on the interaction effects for regular waves. The results will highlight the most efficient layout for maximizing the energy production whilst providing important insights into their performance, revealing for instance displacement amplification or capture width ratios in near-resonance conditions.
Fri, 16 June 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1565| View: 616| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0080.v1
Online: 16 June 2017 (12:01:56 CEST)
Sailing sports are experiencing a period of radical innovations. Traditional displacing monohulls have always been the reference for yachting in the past, but the continuous quest for performances has generated many variations and many convergences with surprising results. On the aerodynamic side conventional soft sails have been sometime replaced by rigid wings, but the biggest innovation has been the use of traction kites as a propulsion device. On the hydrodynamic side we have seen the rapid growth of hydrofoils, an old concept that is having a rebirth. Probably the most remarkable expression of innovation and integration between concepts having different roots is the hydrofoil kite-board, point of encounter of the traditional wave surfing, the traction kite innovation and the hydrofoil technology. Hydrofoil kite-board can reach speeds up to 3 times the wind speed, are at least one order of magnitude cheaper than any boat with comparable performances, easy to manage and races are spectacular. Hydrofoil are object of investigation trying to further improve performances as well as to increase the stability and the “sailability". In the following we will present a concept that extends the range of efficiency of the foil through a completely passive morphing of the wing.
Mon, 19 June 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1561| View: 797| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0088.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: power control; power electronics; pwm inverters; disturbance observer; grid connected system; grid stability; distorted voltage
Online: 19 June 2017 (16:35:26 CEST)
Penetration of grid connected inverters (GCI) has arisen in power systems due to increasing integration of renewable sources. However, restrictive grid codes require that renewable sources connected to the grid with power electronic systems must be properly connected and appropriate currents must be injected to support stability of the grid under grid faults. Simultaneous injection of symmetrical positive and negative sequence currents is mandatory to support stabilization of grid at the instant of grid faults. Conventional synchronously rotating frame dq current controllers are insufficient under grid faults due to low bandwidth of PI controllers. This paper proposes a new grid current control strategy for grid connected voltage source inverters under unbalanced grid voltage conditions. A proportional current controller with a first order low pass filter disturbance observer (DOb) is proposed which establishes positive sequence power requirements and independently control negative sequence current components under unbalanced voltage conditions. The method does not need any parameter, since it estimates nonlinear terms with low pass filter DOb. Simulations are implemented in Matlab/Simulink platform demonstrating the effectiveness of proposed method.
Wed, 15 March 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1539| View: 722| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0103.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: radar 3D imaging; synthetic aperture radar; millimeter wave radar; remote sensing; compressed sensing; inverse Radon transform; portable
Online: 15 March 2017 (08:44:25 CET)
In this paper, a new millimeter wave 3D imaging radar is proposed. The user just needs to move the radar along a circular track, a high resolution 3D imaging can be generated. The proposed radar uses the movement of itself to synthesize a large aperture in both the azimuth and elevation directions. It can utilize inverse Radon transform to resolve 3D imaging. To improve the sensing result, compressed sensing approach is further investigated. The simulation and experimental result further illustrated the design. Because a single transceiver circuit is needed, a light, affordable and high resolution 3D mmWave imaging radar is illustrated in the paper.
Wed, 3 August 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1537| View: 886| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0023.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Packed beds; Thermal heat; Porosity effect; Thermal contact resistance
Online: 3 August 2016 (08:29:06 CEST)
Modelling water vapour flow, heat transfer and porosity in porous adsorbent is somewhat challenging simulation problem. Primary macroscopic water vapour flow models, such as Darcy's law, fail to predict the pressure drop entirely correctly for the reason that many of flow parameters not considered because of the simplifications that remain made for the multi-scale structure of the porous adsorbents. For one to develop a good physical understanding of such water vapour flows and the accuracy of existing 3D simulation models, there is a need for some accurate 3D geometry to be studied. This present work describes two-phase water vapour flow and adsorption/ desorption performed on porous adsorbent by a Dynamic vapour sorption (DVS). The CFD simulation results are associated with experiments results. It is decided that for such complex porous adsorbent CFD simulation problems the use of COMSOL Multiphysics and SolidWorks flow simulation will be utilised.
Fri, 23 September 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1527| View: 1195| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0084.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: robot joint; virtual torque sensor; Gaussian process regression; harmonic drive compliance model
Online: 23 September 2016 (09:52:45 CEST)
In this paper, a method is developed for presenting a novel virtual torque sensor based on precise model and position measurements avoids the need of traditional strain gauges and amplifiers. More specifically, the harmonic drive compliance model and the Gaussian process regression (GPR) technique are used together to achieve virtual torque sensor measurement. While the harmonic drive compliance model provides the analytic part, the Gaussian process regression method is used to reconstruct the unmolded part based on motor-side and link-side joint angles as well as motor current. After an automatic offline calibration, the method allows for a lean online implementation. The virtual torque sensor measurement is compared with measurements of a commercial torque sensor, and the results have attested the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Thu, 25 August 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1506| View: 670| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0206.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: impulse radar; ultra-wideband (UWB); noncontact; short-range; healthcare; respiration; heartbeat; SNR; ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD); continuous-wavelet transform (CWT)
Online: 25 August 2016 (08:57:22 CEST)
The designed radar sensor realizes the healthcare monitoring capable of short-range to detect the chest-wall movement of the subject caused by cardiopulmonary activities, and wirelessly estimating the distance from the sensor to the subject without any devices being attached to the body. Ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) based denoise method and 1-D continuous-wavelet transform (CWT) are applied for improving on the detection SNR so that accurate respiration rate and heartbeat rate can be acquired in time domain or frequency domain with further distance. No choosing the conventional Doppler radar only able to capture the Doppler signatures due to the lack of bandwidth information as noncontact sensor, we take full advantages of ultra-wideband (UWB) impulse radar to make it low power consumed and portable conveniently, with flexible detection range and preferable accuracy. This noncontact healthcare sensor system addressed proves the commercial feasibility and vast availability of using compact impulse radar for emerging biomedical applications. Compared with traditional contact measurement devices, experimental results utilizing the 2.3 GHz bandwidth transceiver, demonstrate 100% similar results.
Mon, 9 October 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1497| View: 2113| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0042.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: free software; human motion; Kinovea; low cost; reliability; validity; video analysis
Online: 9 October 2017 (05:07:57 CEST)
Clinical rehabilitation and sports performance analysis both require the objectification of movement. Kinovea© is a free 2D motion analysis software that enables the establishment of kinematics parameters. This low-cost technology has been used in sports sciences, as well as clinical field and research work. Although it has been validated as a tool with which to assess time-related variables, this is not yet the case regarding angular and distance variables. The main objective of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the Kinovea software in obtaining angular and distance data at different perspectives of 90°, 75°, 60° and 45°. For this purpose, a figure with 29 points was designed (in AutoCAD) and 24 frames analysed. Each frame was examined by three observers who each made two attempts. For each export data item, 20 angles and 20 distance variables were calculated, with intra- and inter-observer reliability also analysed. To evaluate Kinovea reliability and validity a multiple approach was applied involving the following analysis: -systematic error with a two-way ANOVA 2x4; -relative reliability with ICC and CV (95% confidence interval); -absolute reliability with Standard Error. The results thus obtained indicate that the Kinovea software is a valid and reliable tool that is able to measure accurately at distances up to 5 m from the object and at an angle range of 90°–45°. Nevertheless, for optimum results an angle of 90° is suggested.
Wed, 27 July 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1492| View: 1185| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0086.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: thermal model; fast charge; lithium-ion cell
Online: 27 July 2016 (16:30:36 CEST)
The cell case temperature versus time profiles of a multistage fast charging technique (4C-1C-CV)/fast discharge (4C) in a 2.3 Ah cylindrical lithium-ion cell are analyzed using a 1D thermal model. Heat generation is dominated by the irreversible component associated to cell overpotential, although evidences of the reversible component are also observed, associated to the heat related to entropy from the electrode reactions. The final charging stages (i.e., 1C-CV) significantly reduce heat generation and cell temperature during charge, resulting in a thermally safe charging protocol. Cell heat capacity was determined from cell specific heats and cell materials thickness. The 1D model adjustment of the experimental data during the 2 min. resting period between discharge and charge allowed us to calculate both the time constant of the relaxation process and the cell thermal resistance. The obtained values of these thermal parameters used in the proposed model are almost equal to those found in the literature for the same cell model, which suggests that the proposed model is suitable for its implementation in thermal management systems.
Thu, 15 March 2018
ARTICLE Download: 1487| View: 353| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: deep Kalman filter; simultaneous sensor integration and modelling (SSIM); GNSS/IMU integration; recurrent neural network; deep learning; long-short term memory (LSTM)
Online: 15 March 2018 (07:10:32 CET)
The Bayes filters, such as Kalman and particle filters, have been used in sensor fusion to integrate two sources of information and obtain the best estimate of the unknowns. Efficient integration of multiple sensors requires deep knowledge of their error sources and it is not trivial for complicated sensors, such as Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). Therefore, IMU error modelling and efficient integration of IMU and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observations has remained a challenge. In this paper, we develop deep Kalman filter to model and remove IMU errors and consequently, improve the accuracy of IMU positioning. In other words, we add modelling step to the prediction and update steps of Kalman filter and the IMU error model is learned during integration. Therefore, our deep Kalman filter outperforms Kalman filter and reaches higher accuracy.
Tue, 22 May 2018
ARTICLE Download: 1471| View: 251| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0309.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: Acoustic design; Reverberation time; Clarity; Lateral fraction; Acoustic measurements; Classical concert hall
Online: 22 May 2018 (13:49:31 CEST)
This study aims at an acoustic design of the classical concert hall and evaluation of the acoustic performance. In terms of three acoustic parameters (i.e., reverberation time (RT), clarity (C80), and lateral fraction (LF)), this study performed acoustic simulation modeling and site measurement with the K Art Hall located in South Korea as a case study. First, in order to meet the acoustic performance of the K Art Hall (target RT: 1.4~1.7 seconds, target C80: -2dB or more +2dB or less, and target LF: 10~35%), the finish materials and shape of the room as an interior acoustic design were determined. Second, the average values of the RT, C80, and LF using the acoustic simulation modeling were estimated at 1.4 second, 1.2~1.6 dB, and 29%, respectively. Third, the average values of the RT, C80, and LF through site measuring were measured at 1.5~1.64 second, 0.07~1.31dB, and 22.22~31.37%, respectively. Thus, the results of both the acoustic simulation modeling and site measuring were analyzed so as to satisfy the target acoustic performance. The results of this study will help the decision-makers (i.e., owner, construction managers, etc.) to plan the classical concert hall in terms of the RT, C80, and LF.
Thu, 8 September 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1464| View: 820| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0032.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: channel state information; energy harvesting; amplify-and-forward; time power switching relaying; throughput
Online: 8 September 2016 (11:59:56 CEST)
Wireless Powered Communication Networks (WPCN), which has attracted much attention of researchers, also been recently recommended in 5th generation (5G) wireless networks. With the help of the WPCN, the reliability and battery life of wireless low-power devices can be improved. In this paper, we investigate throughput and ergodic capacity in WPCN-assisted amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying system, considering two transmission modes including delay-tolerant and delay-limited. As important achievement, we propose symmetric energy harvesting protocol, namely time power switching relaying (TPSR) in order to find maximal throughput. In particular, both time switching and power switching coefficients in this schemes are considered. Unlike most of the previous works, we further focus on impact of outdated channel state information (CSI) in this WPCN. In order to evaluate information processing efficiency, the performance can be substantially improved by optimally harvesting time and power coefficients of the received signal at relay node for energy and information extraction, and by deploying several scenarios. By deploying Monte Carlo simulation, it is confirmed that the system performance is more sensitive to CSI estimation error, noise variance, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and resulting in other reasonable computations of TPSR need be deployed to obtain QoS requirement.
Thu, 29 September 2016
REVIEW Download: 1464| View: 824| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0118.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: inertial response; internal voltage; variable speed wind turbines
Online: 29 September 2016 (11:38:53 CEST)
With the rapid development of wind power generations, the inertial response of wind turbines (WTs) are widely concerned recently, which is important for grid frequency dynamic and stability. This paper recognizes and understands the inertial response of type-3 and type-4 WTs from the view of equivalent internal voltage, in analogy with typical synchronous generators (SGs). Due to the dynamic of the equivalent inertial voltage different from SGs, the electromechanical inertia of WTs is completely hidden. The rapid power control loop and synchronization control loop is the main reasons that the WT's inertial response is disenabled. On the basis of the equivalent internal voltage's dynamic, the existing inertia control method for WTs are reviewed and summarized as three approaches from the view of WT's control, i.e. optimizing the power control or synchronization control or both. At last, the main challenges and issues of these inertia controls are attempted to explain and address.
Thu, 27 October 2016
REVIEW Download: 1459| View: 992| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0092.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: communication standards; cyber security; intrusion detection system; smart grid; topology control; Wireless sensor networks
Online: 27 October 2016 (11:26:10 CEST)
An existing power grid is going through a massive transformation. Smart grid technology is a radical approach for improvisation in prevailing power grid. Integration of electrical and communication infrastructure is inevitable for the deployment of Smart grid network. Smart grid technology is characterized by full duplex communication, automatic metering infrastructure, renewable energy integration, distribution automation and complete monitoring and control of entire power grid. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are small micro electrical mechanical systems which are accomplished to collect and communicate the data from surroundings. WSNs can be used for monitoring and control of smart grid assets. Security of wireless sensor based communication network is a major concern for researchers and developers. The limited processing capabilities of wireless sensor networks make them more vulnerable to cyber-attacks. The countermeasures against cyber-attacks must be less complex with an ability to offer confidentiality, data readiness and integrity. The address oriented design and development approach for usual communication network requires a paradigm shift to design data oriented WSN architecture. WSN security is an inevitable part of smart grid cyber security. This paper is expected to serve as a comprehensive assessment and analysis of communication standards, cyber security issues and solutions for WSN based smart grid infrastructure.
Thu, 12 January 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1446| View: 728| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0062.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: piezoelectric cantilever energy harvester 1; autonomous 2; adaptive 3; self-powered 4; voltage doubler interface circuit 5; closed loop control 6; feed-forward 7; multi-shot technology 8
Online: 12 January 2017 (10:45:23 CET)
The abundant mechanical vibration energy in bridge road environment can be converted into electric energy by using the piezoelectric energy harvest technology, which could be an efficient way to provide energy required by the wireless sensor network in the bridge condition monitoring system. An autonomous energy harvesting system has been designed based on cantilever beams for sensing and acquiring the bridge vibration energy. After the analysis of the dynamic properties of the piezoelectric cantilever beam in the energy conversion, three kinds of interface circuits were compared through simulation and experimental results. It was shown that the VD interface circuit has less power loss. Furthermore, the proposed closed loop control method based on the VD circuit was simple, adaptive, and self-powered, which is suitable for the road energy harvesting application. Finally, the energy harvesting system based on VD circuit was realized with harvested power of around 0.8mW.
Mon, 12 September 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1444| View: 774| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0042.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: insulator; pollution flashover; equivalent salt deposit density (ESDD); soluble constituent; flashover voltage gradient
Online: 12 September 2016 (10:47:42 CEST)
Natural polluted insulator surfaces are always coated with various kinds of soluble constituents, and those constituents affect flashover performance differentially. Currently this fact is not considered either in laboratory experiments or field pollution degree measurements, causing the existing insulation selection method to be deficient. In this paper a systematical research on insulator flashover voltage gradient correction involving types of soluble pollution constituents was presented. Taking typical type glass insulator as the sample, its flashover tests polluted by typical soluble chemicals NaCl, NaNO3, KNO3, NH4NO3, MgSO4, Ca(NO3)2 and CaSO4 were carried out. Then the flashover gradient correction was made combining the flashover performance of each soluble constituent, the ESDD contribution of the seven constituents, as well as the saturation performance of CaSO4. The correction was well verified with the flashover test results of insulator polluted by three types of soluble mixture. Research results indicate that the flashover gradient correction method proposed by this paper performs well in reducing the calculating error. It is recommended to carry out component measurements and flashover gradient correction to better select outdoor insulation configuration.
Mon, 26 September 2016
REVIEW Download: 1431| View: 923| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0089.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: generalized thermodynamic optimization; iron and steel production processes; finite time thermodynamics; constructal theory; entransy theory; metallurgical process engineering
Online: 26 September 2016 (09:51:14 CEST)
Combining modern thermodynamics theory branches, including finite time thermodynamics or entropy generation minimization, constructal theory and entransy theory, with metallurgical process engineering, this paper provides a new exploration on generalized thermodynamic optimization theory for iron and steel production processes. The theoretical core is to thermodynamically optimize performances of elemental packages, working procedure modules, functional subsystems, and whole process of iron and steel production processes with real finite-resource and/or finite-size constraints with various irreversibilities toward saving energy, decreasing consumption, reducing emission and increasing yield, and to achieve the comprehensive coordination among the material flow, energy flow and environment of the hierarchical process systems. A series of application cases of the theory are reviewed. It can provide a new angle of view for the iron and steel production processes from thermodynamics, and can also provide some guidelines for other process industries.
Fri, 17 November 2017
REVIEW Download: 1424| View: 535| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0027.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: renewable energy; concentrated solar power; solar tower; parabolic trough; natural gas boost; thermal energy storage; molten salt; steam; Rankine cycles
Online: 17 November 2017 (03:56:36 CET)
The paper examines design and operating data of current concentrated solar power (CSP) solar tower (ST) plants. The study includes CSP with or without boost by combustion of natural gas (NG), and with or without thermal energy storage (TES). The latest, actual specific costs per installed capacity are very high, 6085 $/kW for Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System (ISEGS) with no TES, and 9227 $/kW for Crescent Dunes with TES. The actual production of electricity is very low and much less than the expected. The actual capacity factors are 22% for ISEGS, despite combustion of a significant amount of NG largely exceeding the planned values, and 13% for Crescent Dunes. The design values were 33% and 52%. The study then reviews the proposed technology updates to produce better ratio of solar field power to electric power, better capacity factor, better matching of production and demand, lower plant’s cost, improved reliability and increased life span of plant’s components. The key areas of progress are found in materials and manufacturing processes, design of solar field and receiver, receiver and power block fluids, power cycle parameters, optimal management of daily and seasonal operation of the plant, new TES concepts, integration of solar plant with thermal desalination, integration of solar plant with combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) installations and finally, specialization and regionalization of the project specification.
Thu, 4 August 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1413| View: 1169| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0041.v1
Online: 4 August 2016 (10:19:55 CEST)
Taking into account the growing interest in microalgae to be used as raw material for biodiesel production, this research is aimed at analyzing the rheological behaviour of microalgae suspensions (Chlorella sp) at different culture times under eight different conditions (temperature, salinity and CO2, NO3 and PO4 levels) in order to estimate the energy demands of each step, with the purpose of optimizing a continuous feed tubular bioreactor construction. For each condition, it was calculated the biomass and oil yields, so as to correlate these results with rheological parameters. The suspension results indicated that the microalgae Chlorella sp is a non-Newtonian material with dilatant characteristics; the processing time hardly exerted an influence on the rheograms of the suspension of the microalgae Chlorella sp, except for the simultaneous conditions of low salinity and low CO2 content; NO3 and PO4 contents and the amount of supplements influenced the rheological parameters of the suspension of the microalgae Chlorella sp, when in low concentration of CO2 and low salinity levels.
Mon, 23 January 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1406| View: 905| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0099.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Zhundong coal; char; CO2 gasification; alkali and alkaline earth metals
Online: 23 January 2017 (09:27:35 CET)
Coal gasification with carbon dioxide is a process for generating clean gaseous fuels and relieving greenhouse effect. Zhundong coal has high alkali and alkali earth metals (AAEMs) content, medium volatile and low ash in nature. Isothermal CO2 gasification of char derived from Zhundong coal (R-char) and char from acid washing R-char (AR-char) are performed in thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA). The effect of AAEMs is investigated on the gasification behavior in the range of temperatures 1073 K to 1273 K. The carbon conversion increases rapidly with increasing reaction temperature and CO2 concentration. R-char has high gasification rate and carbon conversion compared with AR-char. The accuracy of the free-model approach for calculating activation energy at different conversions is validated by compared with different kinetic models (volume reaction model, distributed activation energy model). Moreover, R-char gasification with CO2 shows a compensation effect as the Arrhenius parameters (EA and k0) increase or decrease simultaneously.
Mon, 17 October 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1382| View: 937| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0068.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: particulate matter; dust storm; meteorological parameter; HYSPLIT; WRF/Chem
Online: 17 October 2016 (12:16:08 CEST)
Background: Long-range transport of dust aerosol has intense impacts on the atmospheric environment over wide areas. Methods: The annual and seasonal changes in meteorological parameters associated with the occurrence of dust storms were studied. The features of an intense dust storm and its transport characteristics were studied during June 7th to June 9th 2010 in Ahvaz city. Temporal and spatial distribution of Middle Eastern dust storm event was analyzed by models of HYSPLIT and WRF/Chem, and in- situ observations. Results: A disagreement between the occurrences of dust storms, temperature, relative humidity and rainfall, show the major source of dust storms over Ahvaz city are neighboring countries. Using HYSPLIT results, the dust particles are mainly transported from north western region of Iraq and eastern Syria to downward areas including Ahvaz city. The arrived Dust aerosols mixed with local anthropogenic emissions, led to the highest PM10 concentration of 4200 ppm. The model results were found to well reproduce temporal and spatial distribution of mineral dust concentrations according to in-situ measurements. Conclusion: The performance of WRF/Chem was acceptable for simulation of temporal and spatial distributions of dust storm events. Therefore, it can be taken as a reference in daily air quality forecasting.
Thu, 18 May 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1372| View: 880| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0136.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: generalized integrator; grid connected inverters; phase locked loops; renewable energy; symmetrical components; unbalanced voltage
Online: 18 May 2017 (04:40:16 CEST)
Frequency, amplitude and phase information of the grid voltage are of great importance in constructing a robust controller structure for grid connected inverter systems. This paper presents a simple and robust approach for the instantaneous estimation of positive and negative sequence voltage components under distorted voltage conditions. A second order generalized integrator (SOGI) is used to filter the distorted voltage and to generate orthogonal voltage components for each of the three phases. These filtered and orthogonal components are used for instantaneous calculation of symmetrical components. The implemented method is frequency adaptive; the method is demonstrated and compared to a conventional phase locked loop (PLL) technique with both MATLAB/Simulink simulations and experiments utilizing the dSPACE ds1103 digital controller.
Tue, 2 May 2017
REVIEW Download: 1367| View: 718| Comments: 1 | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0021.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: machine tool metrology; temperature; uncertainty; traceability; error sources
Online: 2 May 2017 (04:35:18 CEST)
Errors during manufacture of high value components are not acceptable nowadays in driving industries such as energy and transportation. Sectors such as aerospace, automotive, shipbuilding, nuclear power, large science facilities or wind power manufacture complex and accurate components that demand close measurements and fast feedback into manufacturing processes. New measuring technologies are already available in machine tools, including integrated touch probes and fast interface capabilities. They shall provide the possibility to measure the workpiece during or after the manufacturing process, maintaining the original setup of the workpiece and avoiding the manufacturing process from being interrupted to transport the workpiece to a measuring position. However, the traceability of the measurement process on a machine tool is not ensured yet and measurement data is still not fully reliable for process control or product validation. Due to the similarity between a coordinate measuring machine and a machine tool, some of the methods applied for a correct assessment of uncertainty in coordinate measuring machines are adapted to the challenges of a machine tool. The scientific objective is to determine the uncertainty on a machine tool measurement and, in this way, convert it into a machine integrated traceable measuring process. This paper reviews the fundamentals of machine tool metrology.
Thu, 13 October 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1366| View: 1070| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0046.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: blast load; concrete-filled steel columns; finite element analysis
Online: 13 October 2016 (05:11:20 CEST)
Concrete-filled steel columns have been extensively used in the world due to having all suitable characteristics of concrete and steel, more ductility, increasing concrete confinement using steel wall, large energy-absorption capacity and appropriate fire behavior. In present paper, concrete-filled steel square columns have been simulated under the influence of blast load using ABAQUS software. These responses will be compared for scaled distances based on the distance to source and weight of explosive material. As result, it can be seen that although concrete deformation has been restricted using steel tube, but inner layer of concrete has been seriously damaged and column displacement will be decreased by increasing scaled distance. We also concluded that concrete-filled steel columns have high ductility and blast resistance.
Wed, 16 November 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1364| View: 818| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0079.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: oblique detonation wave; mixed compression inlet; inlet diffusion; total pressure recovery
Online: 16 November 2016 (09:32:59 CET)
The aim of this work is to present a design approach of a Shock-Induced Combustion Ramjet (Shcramjet) inlet, and present its optimization in terms of the flow and geometrical parameters. The flow properties of mixed compression type inlet of a Shcramjet are examined using analytical and numerical techniques. The geometries obtained with variations in the wedge angles, length, height and cowl lip positions are used to study the flow characteristics of inlet, identifying bow shock temperature ratio as the optimization parameter. The two-dimensional geometries of two-shock and three-shock inlet models designed analytically for shock-on-lip condition at Mach 12.5 and an altitude of 32.5 km are numerically simulated in OpenFOAM CFD Toolbox. A density based compressible CFD solver based on central upwind schemes of Kurganov and Tadmore is used to solve 2D inviscid Euler equations. The inlet total pressure recovery is expressed as a function of temperature ratios of compression shocks, and is found to have a maxima at a bow shock temperature ratio at the design condition when the bow and external shocks have equal strengths. The effect of considering the flow to be calorically imperfect is studied numerically, and the deviation from the analytical design is presented.
Wed, 31 August 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1354| View: 870| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0233.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: micro-Doppler; FMCW radar; through-the-wall; classification
Online: 31 August 2016 (09:02:32 CEST)
The ability to detect the presence as well as classify the activities of individuals behind visually obscuring structures is of significant benefit to police, security and emergency services in many situations. This paper presents the analysis from a series of experimental results generated using a through-the-wall (TTW) Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) C-Band radar system named Soprano. The objective of this analysis was to classify whether an individual was carrying an item in both hands or not using micro-Doppler information from a FMCW sensor. The radar was deployed at a standoff distance, of approximately 0.5 m, outside a residential building and used to detect multiple people walking within a room. Through the application of digital filtering, it was shown that significant suppression of the primary wall reflection is possible, significantly enhancing the target signal to clutter ratio. Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) signal processing techniques were then applied to the micro-Doppler signatures from different individuals. Features from the SVD information have been used to classify whether the person was carrying an item or walking free handed. Excellent performance of the classifier was achieved in this challenging scenario with accuracies up to 94%, suggesting that future through wall radar sensors may have the ability to reliably recognize many different types of activities in TTW scenarios using these techniques.
Wed, 1 March 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1347| View: 748| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0003.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: neutral-point-clamped inverter; buck-boost inverter; single stage conversion; photovoltaic inverter
Online: 1 March 2017 (09:31:28 CET)
This paper proposes a novel single-stage buck-boost three-Level neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverter with two independent dc sources coupled for the grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) application, which can effectively solve the unbalanced operational conditions generally appeared between two coupled independent PV sources induced by the unequal irradiation and temperature distribution. The proposed control scheme can simultaneously guarantee the maximum power point (MPP) operation of both PV sources and maintain the output waveform quality. Compared to the traditional two-stage PV inverter, the proposed NPC inverter could reduce the PV array voltage requirement and dc-link capacitors’ voltage rating, meanwhile show the advantage in operational efficiency. MATLAB simulations and the captured experimental results are presented to show the performance of the proposed three-level inverter.
Mon, 15 August 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1344| View: 1003| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0151.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Nanoscale silicon, optical waveguides, Mach-zehnder interferometer, directional coupler, thermal sensor, optical switches
Online: 15 August 2016 (11:26:43 CEST)
A compact Mach-zehnder interferometer with a novel design of directional couplers and a phase shifter has been presented as a thermo-optical sensor. With the aim of reducing device size to micro and nano dimension silicon-on-insulator technology was employed. That allowed miniaturization of device size through the reduction of its cross sectional area to 0.066 µm2 and the radius of curvature of both the arms of the directional coupler and S-bends of the phase shifter to 5 µm and C-bends to 3 µm. These nano size device dimensions made it possible to reduce the coupling gap to 0.2 µm, which resulted in a significant reduction in the coupling length. The device geometry and its performance characteristics were analyzed and optimized using coupled mode analysis and finite difference time domain simulation tools, respectively. The wavelength dependent transmission loss of the device was measured at different temperature to verify and validate its performance characteristics. Tested devices showed a remarkable temperature dependent transmission characteristic offering significant changes in transmission loss band – with as low as 0.45 0C change in substrate temperature. The extinction ratio and the free spectral range of the device were 26 dB and 0.26 nm respectively in the wavelength range of 1549.5 nm – 1550.5 nm. These results imply that the devices presented here can be used as compact and highly sensitive thermal sensors and optical switches.
Wed, 24 August 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1335| View: 1311| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0200.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: climate change; GCMs’; RCPs’; downscaling; temperature; precipitation; extreme events; SWAT; discharge
Online: 24 August 2016 (10:16:40 CEST)
Assessment of extreme events and climate change on reservoir inflow is important for water and power stressed countries. Projected climate is subject to uncertainties related to climate change scenarios and Global Circulation Models (GCMs’). Extreme climatic events will increase with the rise in temperature as mentioned in the AR5 of the IPCC. This paper discusses the consequences of climate change that include extreme events on discharge. Historical climatic and gauging data were collected from different stations within a watershed. The observed flow data was used for calibration and validation of SWAT model. Downscaling was performed on future GCMs’ temperature and precipitation data, and plausible extreme events were generated. Corrected climatic data was applied to project the influence of climate change. Results showed a large uncertainty in discharge using different GCMs’ and different emissions scenarios. The annual tendency of the GCMs’ is bi-vocal: six GCMs’ projected a rise in annual flow, while one GCM projected a decrease in flow. The change in average seasonal flow is more as compared to annual variations. Changes in winter and spring discharge are mostly positive, even with the decrease in precipitation. The changes in flows are generally negative for summer and autumn due to early snowmelt from an increase in temperature. The change in average seasonal flows under RCPs’ 4.5 and 8.5 are projected to vary from -29.1 to 130.7% and -49.4 to 171%, respectively. In the medium range (RCP 4.5) impact scenario, the uncertainty range of average runoff is relatively low. While in the high range (RCP 8.5) impact scenario, this range is significantly larger. RCP 8.5 covered a wide range of uncertainties, while RCP 4.5 covered a short range of possibilities. These outcomes suggest that it is important to consider the influence of climate change on water resources to frame appropriate guidelines for planning and management.
Fri, 22 July 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1335| View: 1243| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0067.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Energy Harvester, Neutrality, Perpetual, COTS, Health Monitoring WSN
Online: 22 July 2016 (15:14:29 CEST)
This paper investigates an Energy Neutral System using Micro Energy Harvesters for a Health Monitoring Wireless Sensor Node (HM-WSN). We have implemented HM-WSN consisting of a solar cell energy harvester, a Power Management Unit (PMU) and the ucontroller, sensor and transmitter acting as load. A battery extender and a switching logic circuit for sensor node is designed to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed system. The HM-WSN senses body temperature with improvement in lifetime of coincell. The HM-WSN is built using commercially available off the shelf (COTS components and consumes 47.2uW for data being updated every 134s. It can be operated for approximately 1.32 years only on a coincell. Furthermore, the HM-WSN can be operated with solar energy at 200lux, achieving 96.36 years with a combination of a coincell with an additional capacitor of 2.2mF. It attains 4.07 years to 16.87 years lifetime with the load capacitor varying from 1mF to 1.5mF at 350lux lighting condition. With the same ambient condition and a 2mF load capacitor, HM-WSN attains complete energy autonomy.
Mon, 26 September 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1323| View: 713| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0085.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: passenger flow distribution integrating model; urban rail transit hub platform; simulation and application; performance evaluation; traffic safety and service level
Online: 26 September 2016 (08:11:45 CEST)
Urban rail transit has become the main mode to ease traffic congestion. Researches on the dynamic variation regularity of passenger flow distribution and passenger flow volume of urban rail transit hub platform have important implication in hub capacity design, operation organization and risk prevention. This paper proposes a passenger flow distribution integrating model (PFDIM) based on the basic theory analysis and basic parameter models of passenger flow distribution in hub platform. Simulation designs of PFDIM are built with Java and Anylogic, which contain simulation system functional framework, implementation path, simulation processes and simulation models. By case study, the performance comparison between two simulation methods indicates that simulation designs are scientific and accordant with the reality scene; calculation results prove that PFDIM has a good performance on describing the dynamic variation regularity of passenger flow distribution. Moreover, the experiments with different departure intervals could provide the reference for train scheduling under the viewpoint of traffic safety and service level.
Mon, 5 September 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1313| View: 1044| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0224.v2
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: propeller; cavitation pattern; unsteady cavitation; induced pressure fluctuations; high-speed visualization; volume acceleration; cavitation-pressure correlations
Online: 5 September 2016 (09:37:05 CEST)
An experimental study is carried out in a cavitation tunnel on a propeller operating downstream of a non-uniform wake. The goal of this work is to establish quantitative correlations between the near pressure field and the cavitation pattern that takes place on the propeller blades. The pressure field is measured at the walls of the test section and in the near wake of the propeller, and is combined with quantitative high-speed image recording of the cavitation pattern. Through simple harmonic analysis of the pressure data and image processing techniques that allow to retrieve the cavitation extension and volume, we discuss the potential sources that generate the pressure fluctuations. Time correlations are unambiguously established between pressure peak fluctuations and cavitation collapse events, based upon the Rayleigh collapse time. Finally, we design a model to predict the cavitation-induced pressure fluctuations from the derivation of the cavitation volume acceleration. This simple model demonstrates a remarkable agreement with the actual pressure field.
Fri, 7 October 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1303| View: 1111| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0017.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: coherent Doppler lidar; multi-Doppler lidar; WindScanner; wind energy
Online: 7 October 2016 (12:19:05 CEST)
In this paper, the technical aspects of a multi-lidar instrument, the long-range WindScanner system, will be presented accompanied by an overview of the results from several field campaigns. The long-range WindScanner system consists of three spatially separated coherent Doppler scanning lidars and a remote master computer that coordinates them. The lidars were carefully engineered to perform arbitrary and time controlled scanning trajectories. Their wireless coordination via the master computer allows achieving and maintaining lidars’ synchronization within ten milliseconds. As a whole, the long-range WindScanner system can measure an entire wind field by emitting and directing three laser beams to intersect, and then by moving the beam intersection over the points of interest. The long-range WindScanner system was developed to tackle the need for high-quality observations of wind fields from scales of modern wind turbine and wind farms. It has been in operation since 2013.
Mon, 9 January 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1287| View: 910| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0038.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: experimental identification; multi-poles placement control; smart flexible manipulator; active vibration control; non-collocation
Online: 9 January 2017 (04:56:13 CET)
This paper presents experimental identification and vibration suppression of a flexible manipulator with non-collocated piezoelectric actuators and strain sensors using optimal multi-poles placement control. To precisely identify the system model, a reduced order transfer function with relocated zeros is proposed, and a first-order inertia element is added to the model to compensate the non-collocation. Comparisons show the identified model match closely with the experimental results both in the time and frequency domains, and a fit of 97.2% is achieved. Based on the identified model, a full-state multi-poles placement controller is designed, and the optimal locations of the closed loop poles are determined. The feasibility of the proposed controller is validated by simulations. Moreover, the controller is tested for different locations of the closed loop poles, and an excellent performance of the optimal locations of the closed loop poles is shown. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed controller is demonstrated by experiments. Results show that the vibrations of the expected modes are significantly diminished. Besides, vibrations of the higher modes are also slightly suppressed. Accordingly, multi-mode vibrations of the manipulator are well attenuated, and the tip displacement converges quickly with the proposed method.
Thu, 1 December 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1284| View: 932| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0005.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: liquid storage tanks; soil-structure interaction; seismic response; earthquake ground motions
Online: 1 December 2016 (10:36:42 CET)
Soil-structure interaction (SSI) could affect the seismic response of structures. Since liquid storage tanks are vital structures and must continue their operation under severe earthquakes, their seismic behavior should be studied. Accordingly, the seismic response of liquid storage tanks founded on half space soil is scrutinized under different earthquake ground motions. To better comparison, the six considered ground motions are classified based on their pulse like characteristics, into two groups, named far and near fault ground motions. To model the liquid storage tanks, the simplified mass-spring model is used and the liquid is modeled as two lumped masses known as sloshing and impulsive, and the interaction of fluid and structure is considered using two coupled springs and dashpots. The SSI effect, also, is considered using a coupled spring and dashpot. Besides, four types of soils are used to consider wide variety of soil properties. To this end, after deriving the equations of motion, the MATLAB programming is employed to obtain the time history responses. Results show that although the SSI effect leads to decrease the impulsive displacement, overturning moment and normalized base shear, the sloshing (or convective) displacement is not affected by such effects due to its long period.
Wed, 13 June 2018
ARTICLE Download: 1270| View: 227| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0214.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Lean, Just in Time, Pull System, Waste Management, Sustainable improvement, Waste flow Mapping.
Online: 13 June 2018 (14:33:00 CEST)
Lean is one of the systematic approach to achieve higher value for organizations through eliminate non-value-added activities. It is an integrated set of tools, techniques, and principles designed to optimize cost, quality and delivery while improving safety. In Vietnam, industry waste management and treatment has become serious issue. The aim of this research is to present the effective of Lean application for industrial wastes collecting and delivery improvement. Through a case study, this paper showed the way of Lean tools and principles applied for wastes management and treatment such as Value Stream Mapping, Pull system, Visual Control, and Andon.... to get benefit on both economic and environment. In addition, the results introduced a good experience for Vietnamese enterprises in cost saving and sustainable development in waste management.
Mon, 3 October 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1270| View: 846| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0001.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Pump station, Sump, Anti-vortex device, Flow pattern, Vortex
Online: 3 October 2016 (11:15:07 CEST)
A pump station is a very important flood control facility for mitigating inundation of urban lowland areas. It is not easy to secure a site to increase the capacity of a pump station in an urban area because of various limitations or to maximize the discharge capacity of the pump sump. Adding a facility to improve the pump capacity of a pump station may affect the flow characteristics, such as unexpected increases in the flow velocity and vorticity, and cause severe problems with operating the pump station. To solve those problems, anti-vortex devices (AVDs) have been developed and adopted for appropriate design standards. The Korean design criteria for AVDs are based on experience and foreign standards because not enough data on the AVD are available. In this study, the flow in the sump was numerically simulated at various AVD heights to collect information on improving the design and efficiency of a pump station. Consequently, an appropriate height for the AVD and changes in the flow pattern and vortex in the pump sump were determined and compared with 12 cases of inflow conditions with respect to the vertical location.
Thu, 20 July 2017
REVIEW Download: 1268| View: 822| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0057.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generators; Wind Energy Conversion System; Finite Element Analysis; Soft computing Techniques
Online: 20 July 2017 (08:53:41 CEST)
The Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) plays an inevitable role across the world. In particular, the attention for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generators (PMSGs) connected with wind farm is popular. This paper deals with the literature review that describes the recent advances, progresses and innovatory trends on PMSGs for WECS. Comparison between geared and direct-driven conversion systems and the classification of electrical machines used in WECS are discussed. A detailed analysis on the design aspects considering various topologies of PMSGs are encompassed in the literature. The PMSG design and optimization problems are solved by field computation techniques and optimized by using Soft Computing (SC) techniques .The three-dimensional, finite element software platform for the analysis and design of PMSGs is discussed. This paper also deals with the interdisciplinary modeling, analysis, and optimization of PMSG using Finite Element Analysis (FEM) and SC techniques. Finally, PMSGs are reviewed and compared for further exploration.
Tue, 17 January 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1261| View: 754| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0078.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: input current ripple-free; boost converter; coupled-inductor; voltage-doubler cell; passive lossless clamp circuits; high voltage gain; renewable energy
Online: 17 January 2017 (11:10:36 CET)
Abstract: High step-up voltage gain nonisolated DC-DC converter have attracted much attention in photovoltaic, fuel cells and other renewable energy system applications. In this paper, by combining input current ripple-free boost cell with coupled-inductor voltage-doubler cell, an input current ripple-free high voltage gain nonisolated converter is proposed. In addition, passive lossless clamp circuit is adopted to recycle the leakage inductor energy and to reduce the voltage spike across the power switch. By utilizing voltage-doubler cell consisting of diode and capacitor, the voltage stress of switch is further reduced and the resonance between the leakage inductor and the stray capacitor of the output diode is eliminated. A low switch-on-resistance low-voltage-rated MOSFET can therefore be employed to reduce the conduction loss and cost. The reverse recovery loss of output diode is reduced, and the efficiency of converter can be improved. Furthermore, the proposed converter can achieve nearly zero input current-ripple and make the design of electromagnetic interference (EMI) filter easy. Steady state analysis and operation mode of the converter is performed. Finally, experimental results are presented to verify the analysis results of the proposed converter.
Tue, 31 January 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1260| View: 913| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0137.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: cell culture; bioreactor; live cell imaging; tissue engineering
Online: 31 January 2017 (12:39:46 CET)
Here, we present a staged approach for an innovative repurposing of a portable infant humidicrib into a live cell growth, observation, and imaging system. Furthmore, humidicrib can support different variations of “umbilical” bioreactors, and can be used to conduct electrophysiology experiments and in situ immunohistochemistry. Modifications incorporate a closed loop carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration control system with umbilical CO2 and heating support for tailored bioreactors. The repurposing cost is inexpensive and allows for the continued observation and imaging of cells. This prototype unit has been used to continuously observe and image live primary neurons for up to 21 days. This demonstrates the repurposed units’ suitability for use in tissue culture based research, particularly where modifications to microscopes are required or where sensitive manipulation outside of a standard incubator is needed.
Wed, 23 May 2018
TECHNICAL NOTE Download: 1259| View: 209| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0313.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: network simulators; NS-3; simulation; network
Online: 23 May 2018 (06:39:42 CEST)
Network Simulators is typically used to study services and applications in complex scenarios due to the infeasibility of deploying real testbeds. Many problems can be solved by using network simulators such as NS-3. With this in mind, the aim of this article is to introduce new NS-3 users through detailed information. It is sometimes difficult to handle by new users the traditional manuals developed by NS-3 project official website. In this article, NS-3 for communication network and Eclipse Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for powerful programming language are integrated step-by-step, explaining the main features of these open source software packages and concluding with an example simulation. Our effort is to make it easy for a beginner to be part of the NS-3 research community and to maintain an open environment of knowledge.
Thu, 2 March 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1258| View: 796| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0016.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: hybrid ADC; sigma-delta ADC; cyclic ADC; pseudo-differential OTA; X-ray sensor
Online: 2 March 2017 (08:37:48 CET)
This paper presents a two-stage ADC based on pseudo-differential operational transconductance amplifier (OTA), which is designed for the readout circuit of X-ray linear array sensor. This hybrid ADC employs an incremental sigma-delta ADC and a cyclic ADC, achieving a good trade-off between accuracy and conversion speed. The two stages share the same hardware to reduce power consumption and die area. A common-mood feedback module is used to suppress the influence of charge injection, and the effectiveness is demonstrated by detailed theoretical analysis. A test chip of 14-bit ADC is fabricated in 0.35μm CMOS technology. The measured root mean square (RMS) value of DNL is 0.254 LSB, and the maximum value of INL is -0.776/+1.56 LSB. The measured effective number of bits (ENOB) is 13.43 bits.
Fri, 23 September 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1256| View: 1059| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0079.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: textile wearable technologies; flexible electronics; mHealth
Online: 23 September 2016 (04:02:38 CEST)
In this article we present the design and development of T-Shirt prototypes that embed novel textile sensors for the capture of cardio and respiratory signals. The sensors are connected through textile interconnects to either an embedded custom designed data acquisition and transmission unit or to snap fastener terminals for connection to external monitoring devices. Prototypes with diverse approaches of integration are presented. The performance of the wearable systems is addressed in terms of signal-to-noise ratio amplitude and signal interference caused by baseline wander and motion artifacts, through laboratorial tests with subjects in standing and walking conditions. Performance tests were also conducted in Hospital environment using a T-Shirt prototype connected to a commercial 3-channel Holter monitoring device. The textile sensors and interconnects were realized with the assistance of an industrial 6-needle digital embroidery tool and their resistance to wear addressed with normalized tests of laundering and abrasion. The main aspects of the system´s design leading to major improvements and failure factors are discussed. Pathways and methods for the overall system´s optimization are highlighted.
Tue, 4 April 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1247| View: 823| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0019.v1
Online: 4 April 2017 (09:44:42 CEST)
Thin film transistors (TFTs) using In-Ga-Zn Oxide (IGZO) as active layer and the gate insulator was treated with NH3 plasma and N2O plasma, respectively, which is fabricated on flexible PI substrate in this work. The performance of IGZO TFTs with different plasma species and treatment time are investigated and compared. The experiment results show that the plasma species and treatment time play an important role in the threshold voltage, field-effect mobility, Ion/Ioff ratio, sub-threshold swing (SS) and bias stress stability of the devices. The TFT with a 10 seconds NH3 plasma treatment shows the best performance; specifically, threshold voltage of 0.34 V, field-effect mobility of 15.97 cm2/Vs, Ion/Ioff ratio of 6.33×107, and sub-threshold swing of 0.36 V/dec. The proposed flexible IGZO-TFTs in this paper can be used as driving devices in the next-generation flexible displays.
Mon, 29 August 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1243| View: 1005| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0227.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: railway noise; railway vibration; squeal noise vibration; screeching noise vibration; impact noise vibration; abatement; mitigation; life cycle analysis
Online: 29 August 2016 (12:39:40 CEST)
The railway industry focus in the past years was to research, find and develop methods to mitigate noise and vibration resulted from wheel/rail contact along track infrastructure. This resulted in a wide range of abatement measures that are available for the professionals of the industry today. However, although there are many options in the market, their practical implementations depend upon general constraints that affect most technological application in the engineering world. The progression of these technologies have facilitated the selection of more adequate methods for each best case scenario, but further studies are ought to be made to proper assess if each one is fit for their purpose. Every method implementation must be analyzed through budget and timeframe limitations, which includes building, maintenance and inspection costs and time allocation, while also aiming to meet different benefits, such as environmental impact control and wear of the whole infrastructure. There are several situations and facilities in a railway project design that need noise and vibration mitigation methods and each design allocates different priorities for each one of them. Traditionally the disturbance caused by railways to the community are generated by wheel/rail contact sound radiation that expresses in different ways, depending on the movement of the rolling stock and track alignment, such as rolling noise, impact noise and curve noise. More specifically, in special trackworks such as turnouts, the main area of this study, there are two noises types that must be evaluated: impact noise and screeching noise. With respect to the second, it is similar to curve squeals and, being such, its mitigation methods are to be assigned as if it was to abate curve squeal in turnouts and crossings. The impact noise on the other hand, emerges from the sound made by the rolling stock moving through joints and discontinuities (i.e. gaps) that composes these special components of a railway track. A life cycle analysis is therefore substantial for this reality and in this case will be applied to Squeal and Impact Noise on Special Trackwork. The evaluation is based on a valid literature review and the total costs were assumed by industry reports to maintain coherency. The period for a life cycle analysis is usually of 50 years, hence it was the value assumed. As for the general parameters, an area with high density of people was considered to estimate the values for a community with very strict limits for noise and vibration.
Fri, 2 September 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1241| View: 1021| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0005.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: multi-type loads; active power dispatch optimization; simulated-annealing Q-learning
Online: 2 September 2016 (11:23:55 CEST)
An active power dispatch method for a microgrid (MG) with multi-type loads, renewable energy sources (RESs) and distributed energy storage devices (DESDs) is the focus of this paper. The MG operates in a grid-connected model, and distributed power sources contribute to the service for load demands. The outputs of multiple DESDs are controlled to optimize the active power dispatch. Our goal with optimization is to reduce the economic cost under time-of-use (TOU) price, and to adjust the excessively high or low load rate of distributed transformers (DTs) caused by the peak-valley demand and load uncertainties. To simulate a practical environment, the stochastic characteristics of multi-type loads are formulated. The transition matrix of system state is provided. Then, a finite-horizon Markov decision process (FHMDP) model is established to describe the dispatch optimization problem. A learning-based technique is adopted to search the optimal joint control policy of multiple DESDs. Finally, simulation experiments are performed to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, and the fuzzification analysis of the method is presented.
Thu, 28 September 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1241| View: 548| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0145.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Open source; FEA; finite element analysis; linear static structural; Code Aster; Salome Meca; Mecway; SimScale; Z88, CAE
Online: 28 September 2017 (14:58:31 CEST)
The aim of this work was to determine if the development of low-cost or no-cost finite element analysis (FEA) software has advanced to the point where it can be used in place of trusted commercial FEA packages for linear static structural analyses using isotropic material models. Nonlinear structural analysis will be covered in a separate paper. Several suitable packages were identified, these underwent a process of systematic elimination when they were unable to meet the minimum imposed qualitative criteria. Three packages were chosen to be subjected to performance benchmarking, namely: Code_Aster/Salome Meca; Mecway and Z88 Aurora. SimScale, a browser-based analysis package was included as well because it met all the baseline criteria and has the potential to offer a completely cloud-based approach to computer aided engineering, potentially reshaping the way an engineering business views its operational capabilities. This paper presents the test cases and simulation results for packages that fall under the linear static structural analysis type.
Thu, 7 December 2017
CASE REPORT Download: 1229| View: 330| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0044.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: reciprocating pump; oil station; pipeline; vibration; pressure pulsation
Online: 7 December 2017 (14:46:23 CET)
Due to the periodic movement of the piston in the reciprocating pump, the fluid will cause pressure pulsation, and the vibration of the pipeline will lead to instrument distortion, pipe failure and equipment damage. Therefore, it is necessary to study the vibration phenomena of the reciprocating pump pipeline based on the pressure pulsation theory. This paper starts from the reciprocating pump pipe pressure pulsation caused by fluid, pressure pulsation in the pipeline and the excited force is calculated under the action of the reciprocating pump. Then, the numerical simulation model is established based on the pipe beam model, and the rationality of the numerical simulation method is verified by the indoor experiment. Finally, a case study is taken as an example to analyze the vibration law of the pipeline system, and proposed the stress reduction and vibration reduction measures. The main conclusions are drawn from the analysis: (1) Excited force is produced in the bend or tee joint, and it can also influence the straight pipe in different levels; (2) In this pipeline system, the pump discharge pipe has a larger vibration amplitude and lower natural frequency; (3) The vibration amplitude increases with the pipe thermal stress, and when the oil temperature is higher than 85°C, it had a greater influence on the vertical vibration amplitude of the pipe.
Tue, 9 August 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1221| View: 825| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0088.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Face Recognition; Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT); singular value decomposition (SVD)
Online: 9 August 2016 (11:37:36 CEST)
In this paper, we proposed the fusion of two projection based face recognition algorithms: local binary Patterns in DCT domain and singular value decomposition (SVD) characterized by its simplicity and efficiently. Standard databases ORL are used to test the experimental results which prove that proposed system achieves more accurate face recognition as compared to individual method.
Sat, 20 August 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1213| View: 897| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0182.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: aging offshore jacket platform; safety assessment; analytic hierarchy process; grey clustering method
Online: 20 August 2016 (05:26:34 CEST)
It is a significant task to assess the safety of the aging offshore jacket platform in order to extend the service life. This paper analyzes the multiple risk factors of an aging jacket platform in Bohai Bay, China and builds the safety evaluation index system, which includes three levels, namely, the target layer, the first-grade indicators layer and the second-grade indicators layer. The target layer consists of three first-grade indicators: ocean environments, structure status, and human and organizational factors. Each first-grade indicator is divided into three second-grade indicators. The weight of each indicator is calculated by analytic hierarchy process to weaken subjective effect. Grey clustering method is applied to estimate the failure risk of the platform in Bohai Bay qualitatively and quantitatively. The assessment standard is divided into five grades and the whitening function of each grey cluster is determined by the assessment scheme. The grey evaluation weight vector of each second-grade indicator is calculated by the table dispatching method. Through layer by layer calculation, the grey assessment value of the target layer is finally estimated by making the grey assessment weight vector single-value and the grey grade is determined according to the maximum principle. The evaluation results show quantitatively that the failure risk grade of the jacket platform in Bohai Bay is medium and the safety assessment method is reasonable and feasible.
Thu, 18 August 2016
CASE REPORT Download: 1202| View: 919| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0174.v1
Online: 18 August 2016 (10:36:09 CEST)
The ambient air quality data for particulate matter as well as criteria of gaseous pollutants were assembled during December 2013 to December 2015 from the Continuous Air Quality Monitoring Station (CAMS) located at Agrabad, Chittagong. The observation showed that during April- October, 24 hour average concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 were within the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) level but it increased occasionally by more than two and a half times during the whole non-monsoon period (November-March). The highest values found of PM2.5 were 321.1 µg/m3 in January, 2013 and 220.34 µg/m3 in December 2015. Whether, the highest alarming concentration of PM10 was reported as 474 µg/m3 in January 2007. The other gaseous pollutants such as SO2, NO2, O3, CO and Hydrocarbons remain well within the permissible limit except dry non-monsoon period. The yearly average increase of Air Quality Index (AQI) value indicates the growth rate of air pollution in Chittagong city. The main responsible pollutant for air pollution is found PM2.5.
Fri, 17 March 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1200| View: 778| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0127.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: hybrid adaptive; unscented kalman filtering; maximum a posteriori; maximum likelihood criterion
Online: 17 March 2017 (01:49:42 CET)
In order to overcome the limitation of the traditional adaptive Unscented Kalman Filtering (UKF) algorithm in noise covariance estimation for statement and measurement, we propose a hybrid adaptive UKF algorithm based on combining Maximum a posteriori (MAP) criterion and Maximum likelihood (ML) criterion, in this paper. First, to prevent the actual noise covariance deviating from the true value which can lead to the state estimation error and arouse the filtering divergence, a real-time covariance matrices estimation algorithm based on hybrid MAP and ML is proposed for obtaining the statement and measurement noises covariance, respectively; and then, a balance equation the two kinds of covariance matrix is structured in this proposed to minimize the statement estimation error. Compared with the UFK based MAP and based ML, the proposed algorithm provides better convergence and stability.
Sun, 18 September 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1198| View: 913| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0060.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: nonlinear vibration; imperfection; curved SWCNT; nonlocal theory; differential quadrature method (DQ)
Online: 18 September 2016 (10:14:46 CEST)
Imperfection sensitivity of large amplitude vibration of curved single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is considered in this study. The SWCNT is modeled as a Timoshenko nano-beam and its curved shape is included as an initial geometric imperfection term in the displacement field. Geometric nonlinearities of von Kármán type and nonlocal elasticity theory of Eringen are employed to derive governing equations of motion of nano-beam. Spatial discretization of governing equations and associated boundary conditions is performed using differential quadrature (DQ) method and the corresponding nonlinear eigenvalue problem is iteratively solved. Effects of value and location of the geometric imperfection, and the nonlocal small-scale parameter on the nonlinear frequency ratio and imperfection sensitivity of a curved SWCNT for various boundary conditions are investigated. The results show that the geometric imperfection plays a significant role in the nonlinear vibration characteristics of curved SWCNTs.
Fri, 28 April 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1196| View: 632| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0187.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: influencing factors; building development costs; New Zealand; structural equation modeling
Online: 28 April 2017 (05:22:10 CEST)
Identification of costs drivers and their influence level on building development costs play a key role in the development of construction models and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of any project. Forty-five indicators influencing building development costs in New Zealand are explored by literature review and pilot interviews. These indicators are grouped into seven categories. The determination and ranking of the cost drivers are carried out by a questionnaire survey distributed to key professionals working in New Zealand’s construction industry. Structural equation modeling (SEM) software was employed for analysis of the collected data. One of the key advantages of this powerful software is to provide the p-value according to the structure of the research model. Findings of this study indicate that the property market and construction industry factor, statutory and regulatory factor, and socio-economic factor are major factors affecting building development costs in New Zealand.
Thu, 6 October 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1188| View: 1244| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0013.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: drought; SPEI; evapotranspiration; Thornthwaite; FAO Penman-Monteith
Online: 6 October 2016 (13:04:49 CEST)
The aim of this study is to analyze the characteristics of drought such as intensity, cumulative curves and trends, based on SPEI (Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index) at 8 stations in Korea from 1981 to 2010. The traditional SPEI is based on Thornthwaite equation for estimating evapotranspiration; SPEI_th. However, a standard of agricultural water management in Korea suggests FAO Penman-Monteith equation; SPEI_pm. In this study, we analyzed the intensity and trends of drought using SPEI_th and SPEI_pm, respectively, and analyzed the relationship between them. Both of central and southern region, the SPEIs were below -1.0 (moderated drought) for the periods May-August in the representative drought year such as 1988, 2001, and 2008-09. The frequency of drought was higher in southern region than central region. In addition, SPEI_pm showed slightly more intensive drought rather than SPEI_th except for Chuncheon and Gwangju. In 5 stations except for Cheoncheon, Gwangju and Jinju, the cumulative probability that SPEI_pm is below -1.5 was significantly increased from 1981-1995 to 1996-2010. As the results of drought trends, the increasing trend of SPEIs was shown on fall season, and the cumulative probability that SPEI_pm is below -1.5 was also significantly increased.
Wed, 17 August 2016
REVIEW Download: 1184| View: 742| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0161.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: railway; trains; rolling stocks; recycling; reuse; life cycle; environmental benefit
Online: 17 August 2016 (11:25:48 CEST)
This review paper presents the importance of recycling, nowadays, in our society. Firstly, it demonstrates that modern rolling stocks can be useful for this environmental benefit since almost all the materials involved in their composition can be recycled and reutilised. To begin with, a brief definition and concept of each type of train are discussed herein, accompanied by some demonstrative illustrations. Then, in order to explain better the component analyses, the recovery rates and the percentage of each material belonging to trains composition have been highlighted. In this way, an idea of the quantity of the materials that can be recycled was designed. Furthermore, the suitable end-of-life rail vehicles procedures are discussed, as well as the life cycle of the main materials in which both criteria take into account the environmental issues and the best and safest way to deal with them. Finally, this research reports more specifications about the applications of all the recycling processes involving those principal railway materials. The aim of this study is to make the manufacturers and industries aware of how rolling stock recycling can bring benefits to the environments and, consequently, to the society.
Thu, 4 May 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1183| View: 664| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0033.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: electric vehicle; solar power; techno-economic analysis; carbon emission mitigation; India
Online: 4 May 2017 (06:22:04 CEST)
The technologies influencing alternative ways of transportation are augmenting in recent years as the need for transportation is increasing rapidly due to urbanization and motorization. In this paper, a solar powered electric auto-rickshaw (SPEA) is designed and developed for Indian conditions. The developed vehicle is comprehensively analyzed techno-economically for its viability in the Indian market. The performance analysis of SPEA results in an optimal charging rate of 2 kWh per day with an average solar irradiance of 325 W/m2. The discharging characteristics are studied based on different loading conditions. The vehicle achieved a maximum speed of 21.69 km/h with battery discharge rate of 296W at 90kg load and also reached a maximum discharge rate of 540W at 390kg loading with a maximum speed of 12.11 km/h. The environmental analysis of SPEA displayed yearly CO2 emissions of 1,777 kg, 1,987 kg and 1,938 kg using Compressed Natural Gas, Liquefied Petroleum Gas and gasoline engines respectively can be mitigated using SPEA. The results of financial analysis of SPEA were welcoming as the investor gets 24.44% lesser payback duration compared to gasoline run vehicle. Socio-Economic analysis of SPEA discussed its significant advantages and showed 18.73% and 3.9% increase in yearly income over gasoline driven and battery driven vehicles.
Wed, 20 July 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1182| View: 1122| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0061.v1
Online: 20 July 2016 (04:09:12 CEST)
This paper discusses wind tunnel test results aimed at advancing active flow control technology to increase the aerodynamic efficiency of an aircraft during take-off. A model of the outer section of a representative civil airliner wing was equipped with two-stage fluidic actuators between the slat edge and wing tip, where mechanical high-lift devices fail to integrate. The experiments were conducted at a nominal take-off Mach number of M = 0.2. At this incidence velocity, separation on the wing section, accompanied by increased drag, is triggered by the strong slat edge vortex at high angles of attack. On the basis of global force measurements and local static pressure data, the effect of pulsed blowing on the complex flow is evaluated, considering various momentum coefficients and spanwise distributions of the actuation effort. It is shown that through local intensification of forcing, a momentum coefficient of less than cμ = 0.6% suffices to offset the stall by 2.4°, increase the maximum lift by more than 10%, and reduce the drag by 37% compared to the uncontrolled flow.
Mon, 8 May 2017
REVIEW Download: 1178| View: 767| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0052.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: MEMS; microelectrodes; neural interface; conducting polymer; nanotechnology
Online: 8 May 2017 (08:39:35 CEST)
With the rapid development of MEMS (Micro-electro-mechanical Systems) fabrication technologies, manifolds microelectrodes with various structures and functions have been designed and fabricated for applications in biomedical research, diagnosis and treatment through electrical stimulation and electrophysiological signal recording. The flexible MEMS microelectrodes exhibit multi-aspect excellent characteristics beyond stiff microelectrodes based on silicon or SU-8, which comprising: lighter weight, smaller volume, better conforming to neural tissue and lower fabrication cost. In this paper, we mainly reviewed key technologies on flexible MEMS microelectrodes for neural interface in recent years, including: design and fabrication technology, flexible MEMS microelectrodes with fluidic channels and electrode-tissue interface modification technology for performance improvement. Furthermore, the future directions of flexible MEMS microelectrodes for neural interface were described including transparent and stretchable microelectrodes integrated with multi-aspect functions and next-generation electrode-tissue interface modifications facilitated electrode efficacy and safety during implantation. Finally, the combinations among micro fabrication techniques with biomedical engineering and nanotechnology represented by flexible MEMS microelectrodes for neural interface will open a new gate to human lives and understanding of the world.
Mon, 17 October 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1177| View: 875| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0066.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: fatigue; crack growth; low temperature; residual life; aluminum-alloy
Online: 17 October 2016 (11:27:13 CEST)
This paper seeks to model the crack propagation in of AAs (aluminum-alloys) 2524-T3 and 7050-T7452 subjected to fatigue loading at low temperature. Fatigue crack growth tests were performed on AAs 2524-T3 and 7050-T7452 subjected to constant-amplitude and actual random-spectra loading histories at room temperature of about 25 °C and at cryogenic temperature of -70 °C, respectively, to determine their crack growth properties and residual lives. The interaction mechanisms between cryogenic temperature and the fatigue load were deduced on the basis of the results of fractographic analysis. Temperature-dependent residual lives under actual random-spectrum load history were modeled based on a modified accumulation damage rule by accounting for the load interaction. Good correlation was achieved between the predictions and actual experiments, demonstrating the practical and effective use of the proposed method.
Fri, 11 November 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1172| View: 782| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0065.v1
Online: 11 November 2016 (18:26:38 CET)
A large amount of accurate river cross-section data is indispensable for predicting river stages. However, the measured river cross-section data are usually sparse in the transverse direction at each cross-section as well as in the longitudinal direction along the river channel. This study presents three algorithms to resample the river cross-section data points in both the transverse and longitudinal directions from the original data. The resampled cross-section data based on the linear interpolation satisfactorily maintains the topographic and morphological features of the river channel, especially in the meandering river segment. A two-dimensional (2D) high-resolution unstructured-grid hydrodynamic model was used to assess the performance of the original and resampled cross-section data on a simulated river stage under low flow and high flow conditions. The simulated river stages are significantly improved using the resampled cross-section data based on the linear interpolation in the tidal river and non-tidal river segments. Furthermore, the performance of the 2D and three-dimensional (3D) models on the simulated river stage was also evaluated using the resampled cross-section data. The results indicate that the 2D and 3D models reproduce similar river stages in both tidal and non-tidal river segments under the low flow condition. However, the 2D model overestimates the river stages in both the tidal and non-tidal river segments compared to the 3D model under the high flow condition. The model sensitivity was implemented to investigate the influence of bottom drag coefficient and vertical eddy viscosity on river stage. The results reveal that bottom drag coefficient has a minor impact on river stage, but the vertical eddy viscosity is insensitive to river stage.
Fri, 5 August 2016
TECHNICAL NOTE Download: 1168| View: 1046| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0047.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Concrete sleeper; crosstie; design standard; holes; web opening; railway infrastructure; static performance
Online: 5 August 2016 (08:06:33 CEST)
Prestressed concrete sleepers (or railroad ties) are principally designed in order to carry wheel loads from the rails to the ground of railway tracks. Their design takes into account static and dynamic loading conditions. In spite of the most common use of the prestressed concrete crossties in railway tracks, there have always been many demands from rail engineers to improve serviceability and functionality of concrete crossties. For example, signaling, fiber optic, equipment cables are often damaged either by ballast corners or by tamping machine. There has been a need to re-design concrete crosstie to cater cables internally so that they would not experience detrimental or harsh environments. Also, many concrete crossties need a retrofit for automatic train control device and similar signaling equipment. In contrast, the effects of holes and web openings on structural capacity of concrete crossties have not been thoroughly investigated. This paper accordingly highlights the effect of holes and web openings on the toughness and ductility of concrete crossties. The outcome of this research enables better decision making process for retrofiting prestressed concrete crossties with holes and web opening in practice.
Wed, 19 October 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1165| View: 943| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0079.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: river confluence; stage-discharge relationship; hydrodynamic influence; backwater; flow separation
Online: 19 October 2016 (12:31:32 CEST)
An accurate assessment of the stage-discharge relationship in open channel flows is necessary and important to the design and management of hydraulic structures and engineering in practical hydrosystems such as rivers and streams. While the flow structures and patterns at open channel junctions are interesting and have been widely studied in the literature, this paper focuses further on the effect of flow junctions on stage-discharge relationship at mountain river confluences. In this study, both the flume and physical model experiments are designed and performed carefully to test and analyze the complex flow structures and characteristics at river confluences with different configurations and hydraulic conditions. The impacts of the flow junctions on the traditional stage-discharge relationship are analyzed in this study. The results of this study are discussed in the paper for the understanding of flow structures at flow junctions and the design and management of hydraulic structures in river engineering.