Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Motion Planning for Autonomous Vehicles Based on Sequential Optimization

Version 1 : Received: 10 February 2022 / Approved: 11 February 2022 / Online: 11 February 2022 (21:08:27 CET)

How to cite: Diachuk, M.; Easa, S.M. Motion Planning for Autonomous Vehicles Based on Sequential Optimization. Preprints 2022, 2022020165 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202202.0165.v1). Diachuk, M.; Easa, S.M. Motion Planning for Autonomous Vehicles Based on Sequential Optimization. Preprints 2022, 2022020165 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202202.0165.v1).

Abstract

This study presents the substantiation, development, and analysis of a technique for planning the autonomous vehicle (AV) motion reference parameters. The trajectory plan, speed and acceleration distributions, including other AV's kinematic parameters, are determined using sequential optimization. The study objectives are based on an analysis of the fundamental problems of AV motion planning summarized in this area's latest publications. The proposed approach combines the basic principles of the finite element method (FEM) and nonlinear optimization with nonlinear constraints. First, the generalization on representing an investigated function by finite elements (FE) is briefly described. A one-dimension FE with two nodes and three degrees of freedom (DOF) in a node was chosen as the basic one, corresponding to the 5th-degree polynomial. Next, a method for determining the motion trajectory is presented. The following are considered: formation of a restricted space for the AV's allowable maneuvering, the geometry of motion trajectory and its relation with vehicle steerability parameters, cost functions and their influences on the desirable trajectory's nature, compliance of nonlinear restrictions of the node parameters with the motion area boundaries. At the second stage, a technique for optimizing AV speed and acceleration redistribution is presented. The model considers possible combinations of cost functions, conditions of limiting the kinematic parameters with the tire slip critical speed, maximum speed level, maximum longitudinal acceleration, and critical lateral acceleration. In the simulation section, several variants of trajectories were searched and compared. Several versions of distributing the longitudinal speed and acceleration curves are determined, and their comparative analysis is fulfilled. At the end of the paper, the advantages and drawbacks of the proposed technique are noted. The conclusion is made regarding the options for improving the method in further studies.

Keywords

autonomous vehicle; trajectory planning; speed planning; nonlinear optimization; nonlinear restrictions

Subject

ENGINEERING, Automotive Engineering

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