ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0682.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: semi-arid hydrology, small-scale storage, checkdams, tanks, farm bunds, Cauvery, GWAVA
Online: 29 March 2021 (11:22:07 CEST)
Recently, there has been renewed interest in the performance, functionality, and sustainability of traditional small-scale storage interventions (check dams, farm bunds and tanks) used across India for the improvement of local water security. The Central Groundwater Board of India is en-couraging the construction of such interventions for the alleviation of water scarcity. It is of critical importance to understand the hydrological effect of these interventions at basin scales to maximise their effectiveness. The quantification of small-scale interventions in hydrological modelling is often neglected, especially in large-scale modelling exercises. A bespoke version of the GWAVA model was developed to assess the impact of interventions on the water balance of the Cauvery Basin and two smaller sub-catchments. Model results demonstrate that farm bunds appear to have a negligible effect on the estimated average annual simulated streamflow at the outlets of the two sub-catchments and the basin whereas tanks and check dams have a more significant effect. In-terventions generally were found to increase evaporation losses across the catchment. The model adaption used in this study provides a step-change in the conceptualisation and quantification of the consequences of small-scale storage interventions in large- or basin-scale hydrological models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0045.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: endorheic; lake; Central Asia; evaporation; semi-arid; Kazakhstan; climate change; Landsat; regional climate model; Burabay
Online: 7 December 2017 (14:56:58 CET)
Both climate change and anthropogenic activities contribute to the deterioration of terrestrial water resources and ecosystems worldwide. Central Asian endorheic basins are among the most affected regions through both climate and human impacts. Here, we used a digital elevation model, digitized bathymetry maps and Landsat images to estimate the areal water cover extent and volumetric storage changes in small terminal lakes in Burabay National Nature Park (BNNP), located in Northern Central Asia (CA), for the period of 1986 to 2016. Based on the analysis of long-term climatic data from meteorological stations, short-term hydrometeorological network observations, gridded climate datasets (CRU) and global atmospheric reanalysis (ERA Interim), we have evaluated the impacts of historical climatic conditions on the water balance of BNNP lake catchments. We also discuss the future based on regional climate model projections. We attribute the overall decline of BNNP lakes to long-term deficit of water balance with lake evaporation loss exceeding precipitation inputs. Direct anthropogenic water abstraction has a minor importance in water balance. However, the changes in watersheds caused by the expansion of human settlements and roads disrupting water drainage may play a more significant role in lake water storage decline. More precise water resources assessment at the local scale will be facilitated by further development of freely available higher spatial resolution remote sensing products. In addition, the results of this work can be used for the development of lake/reservoir evaporation models driven by remote sensing and atmospheric reanalysis data without the direct use of ground observations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0101.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: animal welfare assessment; beef cow systems; semi-arid rangelands; Namibia
Online: 4 December 2020 (11:11:53 CET)
A proposed animal welfare assessment protocol for semi-arid rangeland-based cow-calf systems in Namibia combined 40 measures from a protocol developed for beef cattle in New Zealand with additional Namibia-specific measures. Preliminary validation of the protocol had been undertaken with five herds in one semi-commercial village. The aim of the current study was to apply this protocol and compare animal welfare across three cow-calf production systems in Namibia. A total of 2529 beef cows were evaluated during pregnancy testing in the yards of 17 commercial, 20 semi-commercial and 18 communal (total: 55) herds followed by an assessment of farm resources and a questionnaire-guided interview. Non-parametric tests were used to evaluate the difference in the welfare scores between the production systems. The results indicated a discrepancy of animal welfare between the three farm types, with a marked separation of commercial farms from semi-commercial, and communal village farms in the least. The differences in these production systems was mainly driven by economic gains through access to better beef export market for commercial farms and semi-commercial villages, as well as by the differences in the available grazing land, facility designs/quality and traditional customs in the village systems. The results indicate an advantage of commercialisation over communalisation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0203.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: soil salinity; arid; semi-arid; Landsat 8 OLI
Online: 16 April 2018 (10:18:42 CEST)
Soil salinity, whether natural or human induced, is a major geo-hazard in arid and semi-arid landscapes. In agricultural lands, it negatively affects plant growth, crop yields, whereas in semi-arid and arid non-agricultural areas it affects urban structures due to subsidence, corrosion and ground water quality, leading to further soil erosion and land degradation Accurately mapping soil salinity through remote sensing techniques has been an active area of research in the past few decades particularly for agricultural lands. Most of this research has focused on the utilization and development of salinity indices for properly mapping and identifying saline agricultural soils. This research study develops a soil salinity index and model using Landsat 8 OLI image data from the near infra-red and shortwave infra-red spectral information with emphasis on soil salinity mapping and assessment in non-agricultural desert arid and semi-arid surfaces. The developed index when integrated into a semi-empirical model outperformed in its soil salinity mapping overall accuracy (60%) in comparison to other salinity indices (~50%). The newly developed index further outperformed other indices in its accuracy in mapping and identifying high saline soils (67%) and excessively high saline soils (90%).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0296.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: semi-arid steppe region; large-scale coal-power base; landscape ecological classification
Online: 23 April 2018 (12:48:59 CEST)
The ecological background condition of the semi-arid steppe region (SASR) is extremely fragile. It is recognized that the development of coal and electricity power is a kind of strong human interference behavior for regional landscape ecology. Landscape ecological classification (LEC) is the premise of landscape ecology research of the mining area. The current research on the SASR and grassland LEC of coal-power base is relatively less, but still remains uncertainty concerning how to stratify and classify urban mining landscapes into units of ecological significance at spatial scales appropriate for management. This study is based on hierarchy theory, scale theory, landscape process, the patch-corridor-matrix model, the network, the theory of multiple planning integration and the principle of remote sensing. According to the comprehensive principle, principles of the combining of structure and function, principle of the combining human-ominated and natural landscape, principle of emphasis, and principle of combining qualitative analysis with quantitative research of LEC in large-scale coal-power base(LSCPB). On the basis of occurrence method land classification, fully consider the ecological attributes of the land, integration pattern, processes and function theory of the landscape ecology, the LEC system of the LSCPB in the SASR has been constructed by using top-down decomposition classification method. Empirical research of the Victory and Mindong No.1 mining areas of Shenhua Group shows that the classification system constructed in this paper can meet the requirements of LEC and fully reflect the status of landscape ecology of LSCPB in SASR. This study can provide theoretical guidance for the landscape ecology of LSCPB, while also supporting a theoretical reference for the LEC research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0154.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: arid and semi-arid; afforestation; desertification; drought effects; compost fertilizer
Online: 11 October 2021 (10:49:33 CEST)
Desertification is impeding the implementation of reforestation efforts in Mongolia. Many of these efforts have been unsuccessful due to lack of technical knowledge on water and nutrient management strategies, limited financial support, and short-lived rainfall events. We investigated the effects of irrigation and fertilization on the morpho-physiological traits of Populus sibirica Hort. Ex Tausch and Ulmus pumila L. and to suggest irrigation and fertilization strategies for reforestation. Different irrigation and fertilizer treatments were applied: no irrigation, 2 L h-1, 4 L h-1 and 8 L h-1 of water; no fertilizer, 2 L h-1 + NPK, 4 L h-1 + NPK, and 8 L h-1 + NPK; and no compost, 2 L h-1 + compost, 4 L h-1 + compost, and 8 L h-1 + compost. The leaf area (LA) and specific leaf area (SLA) of both species responded positively to 4 L h-1 and/or 8 L h-1. Results also showed that the addition of either NPK or compost to 4 L h-1 and/or 8 L h-1 irrigation resulted in a higher LA, SLA, and leaf biomass (LB). Total chlorophyll content decreased with irrigation in both species. The same pattern was detected when a higher amount of irrigation was combined with fertilizers. Lastly, we found that both diurnal and seasonal leaf water potential of plants grown in 4 L h-1 and/or 8 L h-1 were significantly higher than in control plots. Therefore, 4 L h-1 and/or 8 L h-1 with either NPK or compost has shown to be the optimal irrigation and fertilization strategy for the species in an arid and semi-arid region of Mongolia. Results should provide us with a better understanding of tree responses to varying amounts of irrigation with or without fertilizer in pursuit of sustainable forest management in arid and semi-arid ecosystems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0329.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: climate change; integrated hydrological model; semi-arid; impacts
Online: 25 December 2019 (03:16:28 CET)
This study evaluated the impact of climate change on water resources in a large semi-arid urban watershed located in Niamey Republic of Niger, West Africa. The watershed was modeled using the fully integrated surface-subsurface HydroGeoSpheremodel at a high spatial resolution. Historical (1980-2005) and projected (2020-2050) climate scenario derived from the outputs of three Regional Climate Models (RCM) under the RCP 4.5 scenario were statistically downscaled using the multiscale quantile mapping bias correction method. Results show that the bias correction method is optimum at daily and monthly scales, and increased RCM resolution does not improve the performance of the model. The three RCMs predict increases of up to 1.6% in annual rainfall and of 1.58°C for mean annual temperatures between the historical and projected periods. The durations of the Minimum Environmental Flow (MEF) conditions, required to supply drinking and agriculture water, were found to be sensitive to changes in runoff resulting from climate change. MEF occurrences and durations are likely to be greater for (2020-2030), and then they will be reduced for (2030-2050). All three RCMs consistently project a rise in groundwater table of more than 10 meters in topographically high zones where the groundwater table is deep and an increase of 2 meters in the shallow groundwater table.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0301.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Grain yield; reflectance; chlorophyll; semi-arid; grain filling; Algeria
Online: 20 July 2022 (10:23:42 CEST)
: Our study aim to test the influence of RGB reflectance and chlorophyll content on grain fill and grain yield of 15 durum wheat cultivars sown under semi-arid conditions. the evolution of chlorophyll content during three stages showed a stability during the heading stage, the chlorophyll content begins at this degradation during grain filling. Boutaleb genotype which was the best yielding genotype was characterized by low values of RGB reflectance and high values of majority of grain filling parameters and thousand kernels weight. Grain filling follows a sigmoid curve. Chlorophyll content was positively correlated with reflectance under the green band and negatively with both Red and Blue bands. A positive correlation was recorded between thousand kernel weight and grain yield, maximum grain dry weight and grain filling duration. The duration of the grain filling was positively influenced by the maximum dry weight of the grain and negatively by the grain filling ratio, the grain filling ratio was positively affected by reflectance at blue band. The principal component analysis separated the cultivars considered into 3 principal components, the absorption/reflectance component, the profitability component and the component of grain filling rate to which the local landrace Boutaleb belongs in terms of grain yield.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0137.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Droughts; Gridded data; SPEI; Triangulation; Semi-Arid; Eastern Africa
Online: 8 November 2021 (13:07:40 CET)
Abstract: Droughts are complex and gradually evolving conditions of extreme water deficits which can compromise livelihoods and ecological integrity, especially in fragile arid and semi-arid regions that depend on rainfed farming, such as Kitui West in south-eastern Kenya. Against the background of low ground-station density, 10 gridded rainfall products and four gridded temperature products were used to generate an ensemble of 40 calculations of the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) to assess uncertainties in the onset, duration and magnitude of past droughts. These uncertainties were driven more by variations between the rainfall products than variations between the temperature products. Remaining ambiguities in drought occurrence could be resolved by complementing the quantitative analysis with ground-based information from key informants engaged in disaster relief, effectively formulating an ensemble approach to SPEI-based drought identification to aid decision making. The reported trend towards drier conditions in Eastern Africa was confirmed for Kitui West by the majority of data products, whereas the rainfall effect on the increasingly dry conditions was more subtle than annual and seasonal declines and greater annual variation, which warrants further investigation. Nevertheless, the effects of increasing droughts are already felt on the ground and warrant decisive action.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: M.C.W.H.; semi-arid regions; rainfall; runoff; Vs; λ; AMC
Online: 5 January 2020 (14:54:16 CET)
In this study a new approach for planning Micro-Catchment Water Harvesting (M.C.W.H.) systems for irrigation in semi-arid regions such as the Aegean islands, is presented. M.C.W.H. is a cheap solution for constructing irrigation infrastructure with zero energy cost in regions where water is scarce. The proposed approach introduces simple linear relationships for estimating the annual volume of water Vs collected mainly from the CA (Contributing Area), stored in the root zone (Infiltration Basin, IB), according to the annual rainfall and runoff depths, after having determined the ratio of areas of micro-catchment (MC) components i.e. λ= ΑCA/ΑΙΒ and its whole area AMC This procedure was applied in Paros island of the Cyclades complex in the middle of the Aegean sea in east Mediterranean. Besides, income-cost analysis was performed via NPV method for almond, peach and apricot trees. The new approach was proved versatile and easy to use. Besides, the investment turned out to be advantageous two years after the MCs construction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0109.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: animal welfare assessment; categorisation; beef cow systems; semi-arid rangelands; Namibia
Online: 4 December 2020 (12:36:14 CET)
The study aimed to develop standards for a welfare assessment protocol, by validating potential categorisation thresholds for assessment of beef farms in various beef cow-calf production systems in Namibia. Forty measures combined from a New Zealand-based protocol plus Namibia-specific measures, were applied on 55 beef farms (17 commercial farms, 20 semi-commercial and 18 communal village farms) during pregnancy testing, and a questionnaire guided interview. The categorised measures on a 3-point welfare score of 0: good 1: marginal and 2: poor/unacceptable welfare were subsequently compared with derivation of thresholds based upon the poorest 15% and best 50% of herds for each measure. Overall combined thresholds of continuous measures across the 3 farm types, showed 10/22 measures that posed welfare compromise across Namibia, where commercial farms had 4/22 measures and semi-commercial and communal village farms had 12/22 and 11/22 respectively with high thresholds. Most measures-imposed thresholds were retained because of significant importance to welfare of animals and preventiveness of the traits, while leniency was given to adjust good feeding and mortality measures to signify periods of drought. Handling measures (fearful, falling/lying) and abrasions thresholds were adjusted to reflect the temporary stress caused by infrequent cattle handling, and faulty yard designs/design and possible cattle breed influence on handling. Hence, the country needs prioritised investigation of underlying contributing factors and remediation to reduce the high thresholds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0264.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: snow; semi-arid climate; data assimilation; particle filter; SWE; MERRA-2
Online: 12 October 2018 (11:17:16 CEST)
The snow melt from the High Atlas is a critical water resource in Morocco. In spite of its importance, monitoring the spatio-temporal evolution of key snow cover properties like the snow water equivalent remains challenging due to the lack of in situ measurements at high elevation. Since 2015, the Sentinel-2 mission provides high spatial resolution images with a 5 day revisit time, which offers new opportunities to characterize snow cover distribution in mountain regions. Here we present a new data assimilation scheme to estimate the state of the snowpack without in situ data. The model was forced using MERRA-2 data and a particle filter was developed to dynamically reduce the biases in temperature and precipitation using Sentinel-2 observations of the snow cover area. The assimilation scheme was implemented using SnowModel, a distributed energy-balance snowpack model and tested in a pilot catchment in the High Atlas. The study period covers 2015-2016 snow season which corresponds to the first operational year of Sentinel-2A, therefore the full revisit capacity was not yet achieved. Yet, we show that the data assimilation led to a better agreement with independent observations of the snow height at an automatic weather station and the snow cover extent from MODIS. The performance of the data assimilation scheme should benefit from the continuous improvements in MERRA-2 reanalyses and the full revisit capacity of Sentinel-2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0073.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Artificial restoration; ecological restoration; coal mining subsidence; semi–arid; soil microbial community
Online: 3 August 2018 (15:48:23 CEST)
Increased attention has been paid to the influence of coal mining subsidence on ecological environment. Restoration of ecosystem in damaged mining area is critical for restoring disturbed environment. The comparing of plant communities and microbial communities in the artificial restoration and natural restoration areas provides an effective method for evaluating the restoration effects. However, such studies are limited in coal mining subsidence restoration areas. Subsidence area in Shendong mining area, located in the semi-arid region of Western China, was restored from 2003 with 5 ecological restoration plant species. In July 2017, the comparison and analysis of plant and microbial communities were conducted at the artificial restoration areas (AR) and the natural remediation areas (NR). The results showed that the artificial ecological restoration in Shendong mining area has achieved some success, but it has not recovered to a similar ecosystem before the destruction. A higher plant species, coverage and bacterial community diversity were observed in AR. However, these features have lower similarity compared with those in NR sites. Potential soil factors, such as pH, moisture content, total carbon content, organic matter, nitrogen and bulk density, have a greater impact on soil bacterial community structure and diversity. In the ecological restoration of the mining area, attention should be paid to the restoration of soil properties in the mining area. This study can provide theoretical guidance for more scientific ecological restoration in the damaged mining area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0152.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: deep convolutional neural networks; identification; semi-verification; multi-scale features; face verification
Online: 20 March 2017 (09:06:18 CET)
Face verification for unrestricted faces in the wild is a challenging task. This paper proposes a method based on two deep convolutional neural networks(CNN) for face verification. In this work, we explore to use identification signal to supervise one CNN and the combination of semi-verification and identification to train the other one. In order to estimate semi-verification loss at a low computation cost, a circle, which is composed of all faces, is used for selecting face pairs from pairwise samples. In the process of face normalization, we propose to use different landmarks of faces to solve the problems caused by poses. And the final face representation is formed by the concatenating feature of each deep CNN after PCA reduction. What's more, each feature is a combination of multi-scale representations through making use of auxiliary classifiers. For the final verification, we only adopt the face representation of one region and one resolution of a face jointing Joint Bayesian classifier. Experiments show that our method can extract effective face representation with a small training dataset and our algorithm achieves 99.71% verification accuracy on LFW dataset.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0538.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Green space; Arid; Diabetes; Hispanics; Built Environment; Biophilia
Online: 20 November 2020 (11:25:55 CET)
Evolutionary psychology theories propose that contact with green, natural environments may benefit physical health, but little comparable evidence exists for brown, natural environments, such as the desert. In this study, we examined the association between “brownness” and “greenness” with fasting glucose among young residents of El Paso, Texas. We defined brownness as the surface not covered by vegetation or impervious land within Euclidian buffers around participants’ homes. Fasting glucose along with demographic and behavioral data was obtained from the Nurse Engagement and Wellness Study (N = 517). We found that residential proximity to brownness was not associated with fasting glucose when modeled independently. In contrast, we found that residential greenness was associated with decreased levels of fasting glucose, despite the relatively low levels of greenness within the predominantly desert environment of El Paso. A difference between the top and bottom greenness exposure quartiles within a 250 m buffer was associated with a 3.5 mg/dL decrease in fasting glucose levels (95% confidence interval: -6.2, -0.8). Our results suggest that within the understudied context of the desert, green vegetation may be health-promoting to a degree that is similar to other, non-desert locations in the world that have higher baselines levels of green.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0186.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: arid regions; Kazakhstan; irrigated soils; soil salinity; heavy metals
Online: 20 April 2022 (08:53:15 CEST)
A single paragraph of about 200 words maximum. For research articles, abstracts should give a pertinent overview of the work. We strongly encourage authors to use the following style of structured abstracts, but without headings: (1) Background: Place the question addressed in a broad context and highlight the purpose of the study; (2) Methods: briefly describe the main methods or treatments applied; (3) Results: summarize the article's main findings; (4) Conclusions: indicate the main conclusions or interpretations. The abstract should be an objective representation of the article and it must not contain results that are not presented and substantiated in the main text and should not exaggerate the main conclusions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0389.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Numerical weather prediction; Time integration; Filtering; Laplace transform; semi-implicit; semi-Lagrangian; Forecast accuracy
Online: 23 August 2022 (03:13:59 CEST)
A time integration scheme based on semi-Lagrangian advection and Laplace transform adjustment has been implemented in a baroclinic primitive equation model. The semi-Lagrangian scheme makes it possible to use large time steps. However, errors arising from the semi-implicit scheme increase with the time step size. In contrast, the errors using the Laplace transform adjustment remain relatively small for typical time steps used with semi-Lagrangian advection. Numerical experiments confirm the superior performance of the Laplace transform scheme relative to the semi-implicit reference model. The algorithmic complexity of the scheme is comparable to the reference model, making it computationally competitive, and indicating its potential for integrating weather and climate prediction models.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0480.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: transparent photovoltaics; semi-transparent photovoltaics; biomimetic
Online: 30 September 2022 (08:25:31 CEST)
There has been a surge in the interest for (semi)transparent photovoltaics (sTPVs) in recent years, since the more traditional, opaque, devices are not ideally suited for a variety of innovative appli-cations spanning from smart and self-powered windows for buildings to those for vehicle inte-gration. Additional requirements for these photovoltaic applications are a high conversion effi-ciency (despite the necessary compromise to achieve a degree of transparency) and an aesthetical-ly pleasing design. One potential realm to explore in the attempt to meet such challenges is the bio-logical world, where evolution has led to highly efficient and fascinating light-management structures. In this mini-review, we explore some of the biomimetic approaches that can be used to improve both transparent and semitransparent photovoltaic cells, such as moth-eye inspired structures for improved performance and stability or tuneable, coloured, and semi-transparent devices inspired by beetles’ cuticles. Lastly, we will briefly discuss possible future developments for bio-inspired and potentially bio-compatible sTPVs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0080.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: photo-voltaic; monocrystalline; energy efficiency; hot-arid climate; smart cities; MATLAB simulations
Online: 7 September 2019 (00:40:23 CEST)
Due to an increase of the monocrystalline PV systems installations, for a drive towards the sustainable smart cities in the hot arid developing country such as Pakistan, pose challenges of the performance and degradation issues. Monocrystalline PV module efficiencies are declining and damaging under the continuous exposure to higher surface day-time temperatures in the different parts of the country. A MATLAB simulations were performed based on the validated mathematical approach. This paper investigates the hot arid surface temperature impacts on the performance of PV modules during the summer and winter seasons in Pakistan. The investigations are performed examining the power generating efficiency of the PV system. This paper also investigates the influence of installations of PV-system in the North, South, East and West regions of Pakistan. It was examined that the northern areas of Pakistan are more suitable for maintaining the long-term durability of the PV system. Investigations are performed for the peak summer and peak winter days. During summer months, cooling strategies have to be implemented to overcome the heating effects whilst reducing degradation effect on installed PV-system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0224.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Fractional moment; stock exchange; multiple factor; semi variance
Online: 8 March 2021 (13:44:31 CET)
Complex models have received significant interest in recent years and are being increasingly used to explain the stochastic phenomenon with upward and downward fluctuation such as the stock market. Different from existing semi-variance methods in traditional integer dimension construction for two variables, this paper proposes a simplified multi-factorized fractional dimension derivation with the exact Excel tool algorithm involving the fractional center moment extension to covariance, which is a complex parameter average that is a multi-factorized extension to Pearson covariance. By examining the peaks and troughs of gold price averages, the proposed algorithm provides more insight into revealing underlying stock market trends to see who is the financial market leader during good economic times. The calculation results demonstrate that the complex covariance is able to distinguish subtle differences among stock market performances and gold prices for the same field that the two variable covariance may overlook. We take the London, Tokyo, Shanghai, Toronto and Nasdaq as the representative examples.
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Microwave hearting; CO2 conversion; Semi-coke; Boudouard reaction
Online: 1 February 2021 (15:26:34 CET)
The conversion of CO2 into more synthetically flexible CO is an effective and potential method for CO2 remediation, utilization and carbon emission reduction. In this paper, the reaction of carbon-carbon dioxide (Boudouard reaction) was performed in a microwave fixed bed reactor using semi-coke (SC) as both the microwave absorber and reactant and was systematically compared with that heated in a conventional thermal field. The effects of the heating source, SC particle size, CO2 flow rate and additives on CO2 conversion and CO output were investigated. By microwave heating (MWH), CO2 conversion reached more than 99 %, while by conventional heating (CH), the maximum conversion of CO2 was approximately 29% at 900 °C. Meanwhile, for the reaction with 5 wt% Barium Carbonate added as a promoter, the reaction temperature was significantly reduced to 750 °C with almost quantitative conversion of CO2. Further kinetic calculations showed that the apparent activation energy of the reaction under microwave heating was 46.3 kJ/mol, which was only one-third of that observed under conventional heating. The microwave-assisted Boudouard reaction with catalytic barium carbonate is a promising method for carbon dioxide utilization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0068.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Geometry & Topology Keywords: Tournaments; Semi-Simplicial Sets; Neural networks; Persistent homology
Online: 4 March 2020 (11:40:12 CET)
Complete digraphs are referred to in the combinatorics literature as tournaments. We consider a family of semi-simplicial complexes, that we refer to as ``tournaplexes'', whose simplices are tournaments. In particular, given a digraph G, we associate with it a ``flag tournaplex'' which is a tournaplex containing the directed flag complex of G, but also the geometric realisation of cliques that are not directed. We define several types of filtrations on tournaplexes, and exploiting persistent homology, we observe that flag tournaplexes provide finer means of distinguishing graph dynamics than the directed flag complex. We then demonstrate the power of these ideas by applying them to graph data arising from the Blue Brain Project's digital reconstruction of a rat's neocortex.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0172.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: energy bands; Chern number; Kramers degeneracy; semi-quantum approach
Online: 9 November 2021 (13:36:52 CET)
We generalize the dynamical analog of the Berry geometric phase setup to the quaternionic model of Avron et al. In our dynamical quaternionic system, the fast half-integer spin subsystem interacts with a slow two-degrees-of-freedom subsystem. The model is invariant under the 1:1:2 weighted SO(2) symmetry and spin inversion. There is one formal control parameter in addition to four dynamical variables of the slow subsystem. We demonstrate that the most elementary qualitative phenomenon associated with the rearrangement of the energy super-bands of our model consists of the rearrangement of one energy level between two energy superbands which takes place when the formal control parameter takes the special isolated value associated with the conical degeneracy of the semi-quantum eigenvalues. This qualitative phenomenon is of the topological origin, and is characterized by the second Chern class of the associated semi-quantum system. The correspondence between the number of redistributed energy levels and the second Chern number is confirmed through a series of examples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0237.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: damper; magnetorheological fluids; current intensity; AMESim; semi-active suspension
Online: 14 May 2020 (11:43:12 CEST)
In the context of improving the comfort and dynamics of the vehicle, the suspension system has been continuously developed and improved, especially using magnetorheological (MR) shock absorbers. The development of this technology which is relatively new has not been easy. Thus, the first widespread commercial use of MR fluid in a semi-active suspension system was implemented in passenger cars. The magnetorheological shock absorber can combine the comfort with the dynamic driving, because it allows the damping characteristic to be adapted to the road profile. The main objective of the paper is to analyze the dynamic behavior of the magnetorheological shock absorber in the semi-active suspension. In this sense, the author carried out a set of experimental measurements with a damping test bench, specially built and equipped with modern equipment. The results obtained from the experimental determinations show a significantly improved comfort when using a magnetorheological shock absorber, compared to a classic one, by the fact that the magnetorheological shock absorber allows to modify the damping coefficient according to the road conditions, thus maintaining the permanent contact between the tire and the road due to increased damping force.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0230.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: carotid intraplaque hemorrhage; carotid atherosclerosis; semi-automatic quantification; MPRAGE
Online: 20 October 2019 (01:39:19 CEST)
Purpose: Carotid intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) increases risk of territorial cerebral ischemic events, but different sequences or criteria have been used to diagnose or quantify carotid IPH. The purpose of this study was to compare manual segmentation and semi-automatic segmentation for quantification of carotid IPH on magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition with gradient-echo (MPRAGE) sequences. Methods: Forty patients with 16–79% carotid stenosis and IPH on MPRAGE sequences were reviewed by two trained radiologists with more than five years of specialized experience in carotid plaque characterization with carotid plaque MRI. Initially, the radiologists manually viewed the IPH based on the MPRAGE sequence. IPH volume was then measured by three different semi-automatic methods, with high signal intensity 150%, 175%, and 200%, respectively, above that of adjacent muscle on the MPRAGE sequence. Agreement on measurements between manual segmentation and semi-automatic segmentation was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: There was near-perfect agreement between manual segmentation and the 150% and 175% criteria for semi-automatic segmentation in quantification of IPH volume. The ICC of each semi-automatic segmentation were as follows: 150% criteria: 0.861, 175% criteria: 0.809, 200% criteria: 0.491. The ICC value of manual vs. 150% criteria and manual vs. 175% criteria were significantly better than the manual vs. 200% criteria (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The ICC of 150% and 175% criteria for semi-automatic segmentation are more reliable for quantification of IPH volume. Semi-automatic classification tools may be beneficial in large-scale multicenter studies by reducing image analysis time and avoiding bias between human reviewers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0225.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: 2-inner product; vector-valued spaces; 2-semi norm.
Online: 22 June 2019 (14:46:09 CEST)
This paper is devoted to the study of reproducing kernels on 2-inner product Hilbert spaces. We focus on a new structure to produce reproducing kernel Hilbert and Banach spaces. According to multi-variable computing, this structures can be useful in electrocardiographs, machine learning and economy
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0427.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: organic photovoltaics; charge transport; semi-empirical; kinetic Monte Carlo
Online: 19 November 2018 (07:09:55 CET)
Evaluating new, promising organic molecules to make next-generation organic optoelectronic devices necessitates the evaluation of charge carrier transport performance through the semi-conducting medium. In this work, we utilize quantum chemical calculations (QCC) and kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations to predict the zero-field hole mobilities of ~100 morphologies of the benchmark polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene), with varying simulation volume, structural order, and chain-length polydispersity. Morphologies with monodisperse chains were generated previously using an optimized molecular dynamics force-field and represent a spectrum of nanostructured order. We discover that a combined consideration of backbone clustering and system-wide disorder arising from side-chain conformations are correlated with hole mobility. Furthermore, we show that strongly interconnected thiophene backbones are required for efficient charge transport. This definitively shows the role "tie-chains" play in enabling mobile charges in P3HT. By marrying QCC and KMC over multiple length- and time-scales, we demonstrate that it is now possible to routinely probe the relationship between molecular nanostructure and device performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0129.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: semi-active suspension; feed energy; parameter optimization; genetic algorithm
Online: 19 December 2017 (06:53:01 CET)
In order to coordinate the damping performance and energy regenerative performance of energy regenerative suspension, this paper proposes a structure of vehicle semi-active energy regenerative suspension with electro-hydraulic actuator (EHA). In light of the proposed concept, a specific energy regenerative scheme is designed and the mechanical properties test is carried out. Based on the test results, the parameter identification for the system model is conducted using recursive least squares algorithm. On the basis of system principle, the nonlinear model of the semi-active energy regenerative suspension with EHA is built. Meanwhile, LQG control strategy of the system is designed. And then the influence of the main parameters of EHA on the damping performance and energy regenerative performance of suspension is analyzed. Finally, the main parameters of EHA actuator are optimized via genetic algorithm. The test results show that when sinusoidal is input at the frequency of 2Hz and the amplitude of 30mm, the spring mass acceleration RMS value of optimized EHA semi-active energy regenerative suspension is reduced by 22.23% and energy regenerative power RMS value is increased by 40.51%, which means while meeting the requirements of certain vehicle ride comfort and driving safety, energy regenerative performance is improved significantly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0013.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: α-mangostin; antibacterial; antifungal; food packaging; semi-synthetic modification
Online: 2 August 2016 (09:02:09 CEST)
The microbial contamination in food packaging have been a major concern that paved the way for the search for natural based new anti-microbial agents, such as modified α-mangostin. In the present work, twelve synthetic analogs were obtained via semi-synthetic modification of α-mangostin by Ritter reaction, reduction by palladium-carbon (Pd-C), alkylation, and acetylation. The evaluation of the anti-microbial potential of the synthetic analogs showed higher therapeutic value than the parent molecule. The anti-microbial studies proved that I E showed higher antibacterial activity whereas I I showed most significant antifungal activity. Due to their microbial properties, modified α-mangostin can be utilized as active anti-microbial agents in food packaging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0233.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: wetland vegetation; normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI); Landsat; precipitation; air temperature; snowmelt; extremely arid regions
Online: 28 March 2018 (06:13:23 CEST)
Based on 541 Landsat images between 1988 and 2016, the normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVIs) of the wetland vegetation at Xitugou (XTG) and Wowachi (WWC) inside the Dunhuang Yangguan National Nature Reserve (YNNR) in northwest China were calculated for assessing impacts of climate change on wetland vegetation in the YNNR. It was found that the wetland vegetation at the XTG and WWC both had shown a significant increasing trend in the past 30 years, and the increase in both annual mean temperature and peak snow depth over the Altun Mountains led to the increase of wetland vegetation. The influence of local precipitation on the XTG wetland vegetation was greater than on the WWC wetland vegetation, which demonstrates that in extremely arid regions, the major constrain to the wetland vegetation is water availability in soils which is greatly related to the surface water detention and discharge of groundwater. At both XTG and WWC, snowmelt from the Altun Mountains is the main contributor to the groundwater discharge, while local precipitation plays a less role in influencing the wetland vegetation at the WWC than at the XTG, because the wetland vegetation grows on a relatively flat terrain at the WWC, while in a stream channel at the XTG.
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Semi-structured Interview; SSI; In-depth interview; Strength and Weakness
Online: 21 June 2021 (08:52:20 CEST)
A semi-structured interview (SSI) is one of the essential tools in conduction qualitative research. This essay draws upon the pros and cons of applying semi-structured interviews (SSI) in the qualitative research method. Moreover, the challenges of SSI during the coronavirus pandemic are critically discussed to provide plausible recommendations.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: essential fatty acid semi carbazide; ID50; IL-4; IL-12
Online: 18 February 2020 (11:15:32 CET)
Bacterial infections are world-wide problem and resistant bacteria is increasing globally that lead to treatments failure. Thus, it is important to find new techniques that are effective for the treatment antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. Green medicine used for the medication of different bacterial infection. Therefore , the study aimed to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of essential fatty acid semi carbazide (EFASC) compounds extracted from flaxseed to eradicate resistance pathogens . Crud extracts of Linum usitatissimum was extracted by hexane for extraction of EFASC. The results of LD50 appear that a live suspension of E.coli was 0.49×107 ,while HK E.coli was 108 , 125 mg /ml were the optimum dose in stimulate immune response of EFASC which gave maximum dose of total WBC , Neutrophil and Monocyte count. The immunomodulatory activity appear that E.coli + EFASC released moderate levels of IL-4 . HK E.coli release higher IL-4 lead to increase the hypersensitivity and hyper responses of immune system. HK + EFASC immunogen revealed moderate increased in IL-12 mean level 0.99 pg /ml, HK bacteria recorded 1.49 pg/ml, while the mean of EFASC revealed no significant different compare with control. An effective protection was observed in immunized groups with HK E.coli and EFASC challenged with 100 of LD50 of a live E.coli.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0328.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: proton exchange membranes; semi-crystalline polymers; small-angle neutron scattering
Online: 29 September 2019 (06:25:39 CEST)
Membranes based on sulfonated synditoactic polystyrene were thoroughly characterized by contrast variation SANS over a wide Q-range in dry and hydrated states. The film samples were prepared by solid-state sulfonation that allowed a uniform sulfonation of only the amorphous phase while preserving the crystallinity of the membrane. The samples were loaded with different guest molecules in either the amorphous (fullerenes) or the crystalline (toluene) regions, in order to vary the neutron contrast or to reproduce the conditions enabling an increased resistance of the membranes to chemical decomposition. The use of uni-axially deformed film samples and contrast variation with different H2O/D2O mixtures allowed for the identification and characterization of different structural levels with sizes between nm and μm, which form and evolve in the membrane morphology in dry and hydrated states and produce scattering features on different detection sectors and at different detection distances after the sample, depending on their size and orientation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0045.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: adoption; land-use; degradation; ethnobotany; networking; agroforestry; dry semi-deciduous
Online: 7 November 2017 (04:06:23 CET)
Bamboo agroforestry is currently being promoted as a viable land use option to reduce dependence on natural forest for wood fuels in Ghana. To align the design and introduction of bamboo agroforestry in conformity with farmers’ needs, perceptions, skills and local cultural practices, information on its acceptability and adoption potential among farmers is necessary. It is therefore the objective of this study to (1) describe bamboo ethnobotany and (2) assess socioeconomic factors that affect the acceptability and adoption of bamboo and its integration into farming practices. Accordingly, information has been collected from 200 farmers in the dry semi-deciduous forest zone of Ghana. The study identified the socioeconomic risks and uncertainties as well as biophysical factors that are likely to influence the potential adoption of bamboo agroforestry in the study region. Gender, age, farmers’ known uses of bamboo, the practice of leaving trees on farmlands, farmers’ networking and access to extension services, land availability and ownership by farmers were identified as suitable predictor variables for the adoption of bamboo agroforestry. It is envisaged that bamboo agroforestry is a good bet in the DSFZ though there is the need to explore domestic energy (fuelwood) provision and substitution potential in order to have a broader picture of the technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0368.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General Mathematics Keywords: semi-structured complex numbers; trigonometry; Euler formulas; quaternions; singularities; engineering; science
Online: 21 March 2023 (04:30:05 CET)
Recently, a paper was written to reformulate and strengthen the theory of semi-structured complex numbers H (a new number set invented to enable division by zero). Whilst the paper had profound results, the application of this number set in many areas of engineering and science has not been fully explored. Consequently, the aim of this paper was to establish the number set H as a useful mathematical tool by providing an amalgam of results arising from its application in several areas of engineering and science. In the process, this paper makes four major contributions: these are (1) determining the product of the gradients of a horizontal and vertical line; (2) developing new Euler formulas relating exponential, trigonometric and hyperbolic functions in the 3D semi-structured complex number Euclidean space; (3) establishing semi-structured complex numbers as a better extension of the complex number set than quaternions; (4) resolving singularities that may arise in engineering and science equations (because of division by zero) to develop reasonable conclusions in the absence of experimental data. These results and their applications provide a firm foundation to advance the number set H as a useful mathematical tool.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0436.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: semi-solid annealing; 2A14 aluminum alloy; hot-rolled; EBSD; TEM; recrystallization
Online: 27 February 2023 (03:34:13 CET)
In this paper, in order to provide proper parameters for the preparation of semi-solid billets, the semi-solid annealing of hot-rolled 2A14 Al alloy was investigated. The microstructure was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) with X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). XRD results show that with the increase of temperature, equilibrium θ-Al2Cu gradually dissolved in the matrix. The EDS results of SEM and STEM show that there were coarse θ-Al2Cu phase, ultra-fine precipitate Al(MnFeSi) or (Mn, Fe)Al6 phase and atomic clusters in the microstructure. EBSD results show that the recrystallization mechanism was dominated by continuous static recrystallization (CSRX), the homogeneous nucleation occurred when the sample was heated to near solidus temperature, and CSRX happened in the semi-solid temperature. In the process of recrystallization, the micro-texture changed from preferred orientation to random orientation. A variety of experimental results show that static recrystallization (SRX) occurred at semi-solid temperature due to the blocking effect of atomic clusters on dislocation slip and the Zener drag effect of fine precipitates on low angle grain boundaries (LAGBs) disappeared with melting at semi-solid temperature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0065.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic & Molecular Physics Keywords: oscillatory integrals; stationary point approximation; semi-classical theory, uniform Airy approximation
Online: 5 March 2019 (12:34:07 CET)
To determine the photon emission or absorption probability for a diatomic system in the context of the semiclassical approximation it is necessary to calculate the characteristic canonical oscillatory integral which has one or more saddle points. Integrals like that appear in a whole range of physical problems, e.g. the atom-atom and atom-surface scattering and various optical phenomena. A uniform approximation of the integral, based on the stationary phase method is proposed, where the integral with several saddle points is replaced by a sum of integrals each having only one or at most two real saddle points and is easily soluble. In this way we formally reduce the codimension in canonical integrals of "elementary catastrophes" with codimensions greater than 1. The validity of the proposed method was tested on examples of integrals with three saddle points ("cusp" catastrophe) and four saddle points ("swallow-tail" catastrophe).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0277.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: Multi-point iterative methods; Banach space; local-semi-local convergence analysis.
Online: 24 December 2018 (12:37:26 CET)
The aim of this article is to extend the local as well as the semi-local convergence analysis of multi-point iterative methods using center Lipschitz conditions in combination with our idea, of the restricted convergence region. It turns out that this way a finer convergence analysis for these methods is obtained than in earlier works and without additional hypotheses. Numerical examples favoring our technique over earlier ones completes this article.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0091.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: solar power interpolation; solar power attenuation; spatial autocorrelation; semi-variograms; geosatistics
Online: 7 December 2018 (03:55:55 CET)
To reduce solar power production invariance, it is critical to study varying patterns of power production in the concerned region. Analyzing the patterns of past power production trends can help simulate power production scenarios for future. The current study area is around Amsterdam, located in Netherlands. PVoutput.org website is used to mine 6 months of solar power production data for 120 stations around Amsterdam city. FME Workbench software is used to actively fetch the data from the mentioned website and manage in a MySQL database. Solar attenuation maps created using ArcGIS, helped to graphically visualize the variations in solar power production at different times and locations. Further, spatial autocorrelation is checked between the stations using semi-variograms in geostatistical tool of ArcMap. This feature allows to check whether the stations located close to each other are more correlated to each other rather than stations which are far apart. The statistical data analysis of power production can aid solar power production companies to better interpolate and predict solar power in advance for the concerned study region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0346.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: SLM, Process Control, Semi-supervised Machine Learning, Randomised Singular Value Decomposition
Online: 18 September 2018 (11:21:58 CEST)
Risk-averse areas such as the medical, aerospace and energy sectors have been somewhat slow towards accepting and applying Additive Manufacturing (AM) in many of their value chains. This is partly because there are still signicant uncertainties concerning the quality of AM builds. This paper introduces a machine learning algorithm for the automatic detection of faults in AM products. The approach is semi-supervised in that, during training, it is able to use data from both builds where the resulting components were certied and builds where the quality of the resulting components is unknown. This makes the approach cost ecient, particularly in scenarios where part certication is costly and time consuming. The study specically analyses Selective Laser Melting (SLM) builds. Key features are extracted from large sets of photodiode data, obtained during the building of 49 tensile test bars. Ultimate tensile strength (UTS) tests were then used to categorise each bar as `faulty' or `acceptable'. A fully supervised approach identied faulty specimens with a 77% success rate while the semi-supervised approach was able to consistently achieve similar results, despite being trained on a fraction of the available certication data. The results show that semi-supervised learning is a promising approach for the automatic certication of AM builds that can be implemented at a fraction of the cost currently required.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0290.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Pd-CNT nanohybrids, functionalizated CNTs, polarity, Semi-homogeneous catalysis, Heck reaction
Online: 16 July 2018 (13:56:50 CEST)
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are effective supports for nano metals and together they represent hybrids that combine unique properties of both. A microwave induced reaction was used to deposit nano palladium on carboxylated and octadecylamine functionalized multiwall CNTs, which were used to carry out C-C coupling reactions in DMF and toluene. These hybrids showed excellent catalytic activity with yield as high as 99.8% while its enhancement with respect to commercially available Pd/C catalyst reached as high as 109%, and the reactions times were significantly lower. Polarity of the functionalized form was found to be a significant factor with the polar carboxylated CNT showing better activity in DMF while the relatively nonpolar octadecyl amine was better in toluene. The results suggest the possibility of tailor making functionalized CNT when used as catalyst supports
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0013.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: green infrastructure; riparian restoration; green corridor; drainageway; urban valley; stormwater management; flooding; arid landscape; sustainability; urban ecosystem
Online: 3 September 2018 (07:57:32 CEST)
This paper describes the feasibility and probable benefits associated with greening the Tahliah Channel, a concrete drainage channel that was originally built to relieve urban flooding in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia. It includes an estimation of irrigation needs for channel greening based on a standardized planting specification. The study also demonstrates alternative strategies for meeting the required irrigation demand, including water harvesting and graywater reuse on a residential scale. The study shows that greening Tahliah Channel is possible relying mainly on graywater reuse from the surrounding buildings. Also, the study shows that rainwater harvesting is not a reliable source for irrigation. Rather, it can cover only part of the irrigation needs (6%) and so can be used as a secondary supporting source. The positive results of this case study will be of interest to those in arid countries who are looking to upgrade and replace traditional, single function drainage infrastructure with more sustainable, green infrastructure systems. More specifically, the objectives of the study are consistent with the goals of the Saudi government’s ongoing initiative that advocates for more resilient and sustainable cities. (Vision 2030 year).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0062.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: optimization of planting structure; biannual cropping pattern; arid oasis irrigation area; moderate scale; benefit of unilateral water use
Online: 5 June 2018 (11:08:42 CEST)
Light and heat resources are ample in Xinjiang plain oasis region. Planting structure is single in irrigation area, which leads to severe seasonal water shortages due to high concentration of water utilization. Therefore, how to make full use of light and heat resources to develop oasis agriculture without expanding planting scale has become the focus of research. The biannual cropping patterns are possible solutions to the problem. Manas River Irrigation area, which is located on the northern slope of Tianshan Mountain in Xinjiang in China is regarded as a typical case study to analyze the suitable planting structure and planting scale for biannual cropping pattern. The effects of optimizing planting patterns on alleviating the contradiction between water supply and water need，and the efficiency of water resources utilization was also studied. The results of the study show that：(1) the suitable planting scales of Manas River irrigation area in wet year (P = 25%), normal year (P = 50%), and low flow year (P = 75%) are about 72.66%, 78.73% and 83.91% of the current planting scale. (2) After the planting structure was optimized, the water use process in the irrigation area extends from May to August at present to April to November. The water use ratio at the peak period of water use decreased from 0.847 to 0.601, and the water use peak was significantly dispersed. (3) Economic benefits per cubic metre of water of the biannual cropping patterns increased from 8.65 yuan·m−3 at present to 9.45 yuan·m−3, 10.31 yuan·m−3 and 11.43 yuan·m−3 in wet year (P = 25%), in normal year (P = 50%) and low flow year (P = 75%) respectively, which proved that replanting crops could improve the efficiency of water resources utilization in irrigated areas. Therefore, the optimal planting pattern can be implemented to improve the utilization efficiency of soil and water resources in irrigation area in the arid oasis with single planting pattern with excessive concentration of water use peak and serious water shortage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0354.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: insecticides; semi-synthetic pesticides; eugenol derivatives; alkoxy alcohols; essential oils; nanoencapsulation biopesticides
Online: 28 March 2022 (06:12:52 CEST)
A new set of alkoxy alcohols were synthesised by reaction of eugenol oxirane with aliphatic and aromatic alcohols. These eugenol derivatives were evaluated against their effect upon the viability of the insect cell line Sf9 (Spodoptera frugiperda).The most promising compounds, 4-(3-(tert-butoxy)-2-hydroxypropyl)-2-methoxyphenol and 4-(2-((4-fluorobenzyl)oxy)-3-hydroxypropyl)-2-methoxyphenol were submitted to in silico assays to predict possible targets. Thought an Inverted Virtual Screening approach, 23 common pesticide targets were screened and the top 2 targets predicted were further evaluated through molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations. In addition, these to eugenol derivatives were subjected to encapsulation and release assays using liposome-based nanosystems of egg phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol (7:3), with encapsulation efficiencies higher than 90% and release profiles well described by both Korsmeyer-Peppas and Weibull models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0212.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: label free; metabolic models; Saccharomyces; semi-absolute quantification; quantitative proteomics; TPA; UPS2.
Online: 13 December 2021 (16:04:34 CET)
In proteomics, it is essential to quantify proteins in absolute terms if we wish compare results among studies and integrate high-throughput biological data into genome-scale metabolic models. While labeling target peptides with stable isotopes allows protein abundance to be accurately quantified, the utility of this technique is constrained by the low number of quantifiable proteins that it yields. Recently, label-free shotgun proteomics has become the “gold standard” for carrying out global assessments of biological samples containing thousands of proteins. However, this tool must be further improved if we wish to accurately quantify absolute levels of proteins. Here, we used different label-free quantification techniques to estimate absolute protein abundance in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. More specifically, we evaluated the performance of seven different quantification methods, based either on spectral counting (SC) or extracted-ion chromatogram (XIC), which were applied to samples from five different proteome backgrounds. We also compared the accuracy and reproducibility of two strategies for transforming relative abundance into absolute abundance: a UPS2-based strategy and the total protein approach (TPA). This study mentions technical challenges related to UPS2 use and proposes ways of addressing them, including utilizing a smaller, more highly optimized amount of UPS2. Overall, three SC-based methods (PAI, SAF, and NSAF) yielded the best results because they struck a good balance between experimental performance and protein quantification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0503.v1
Subject: Keywords: Graded 1-absorbing primary ideals; graded primary ideals; graded semi-primary ideals.
Online: 26 August 2021 (09:57:50 CEST)
Let $G$ be a group with identity $e$ and $R$ be a commutative $G$-graded ring with nonzero unity $1$. Graded semi-primary and graded $1$-absorbing primary ideals have been investigated and examined by several authors as generalizations of graded primary ideals. However, these three concepts are different. In this article, we characterize graded rings over which every graded semi-primary ideal is graded $1$-absorbing primary and graded rings over which every graded $1$-absorbing primary ideal is graded primary.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Magnetic levitating system; Low-cost device; Semi-active control; Education for engineering
Online: 13 April 2021 (13:57:09 CEST)
This paper describes how to construct a low-cost magnetic levitation system (MagLev). The MagLev has been intensively used in the engineering education, allowing instructors and students to learn through hands-on experiments essential concepts, such as electronics, electromagnetism, and control systems. Built from scratch, the proposed MagLev depends only on simple, low-cost components readily available on the market. In addition to showing how to construct the MagLev, this paper presents a semi-active control strategy which seems novel when applied in the MagLev. Experiments performed in the laboratory have compared the proposed control scheme with the classical PID control. The corresponding real-time experiments illustrate both the effectiveness of the approach and the potential of the MagLev for education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0002.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Cruciform joint; fatigue; semi-elliptical crack; cooling; weld magnification factor; Fracture Mechanics
Online: 1 December 2017 (06:52:06 CET)
The objective of this research is to develop an experimental-theoretical analysis about the influence of the cooling medium and the geometry of the welding bead profile in fatigue life and associated parameters with structural integrity of welded joints. A welded joint with cruciform geometry is considered using SMAW, plates in structural steel ASTM A36 HR of 8 mm of thickness and E6013 electrode input. A three-dimensional computational model of the cruciform joint was created using the finite element method. For this model, the surface undulation of the cord and differentiation in the mechanical properties of the fusion zone were considered, the heat-affected zone (HAZ) and base material, respectively. In addition, an initial residual stress field which was established experimentally was considered. The results were a set of analytical expressions for the weld magnification factor Mk. It was found that values for the latter decrease markedly in function of the intensity of the cooling medium used in the post welding cooling phase, mainly due to the effect of the residual compressive stresses. The obtained models of behavior of the weld magnification factor are compared with the results from other researchers with some small differences, mainly due to the inclusion of the cooling effect of the post weld and the variation of the leg of the weld bead. The obtained analytical equations in the present research for Mk can be used in management models of life and structural integrity for this type of welded joint.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0067.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Mg-Al-Zn-Y magnesium alloy; SIMA; extrusion; semi-solid; microstructure evolution
Online: 15 September 2017 (12:07:30 CEST)
Semi-solid feedstock of AZ80 magnesium alloy modified by minor rare-earth Y element (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 wt.%) were fabricated by strain induces melting activated (SIMA) in the form of extrusion and partial remelting. The effect of Y addition on the microstructure evolution of extruded and isothermal treated alloy was observed by optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and quantitative analysis. The results show that the Y addition can refine the microstructure and make the β-Mg17Al12 phases agglomerating. During the subsequent isothermal treatment at 570℃, the average solid grain size, shape factor and liquid fractions increased with prolonged soaking time. Smaller spheroidal solid grains and the larger shape factor were obtained due to Y addition. The coalescence and Ostwald ripening of solid grains operated the coarsening process simultaneously. The coarsening rate constants of AZ80M1 (0.2 wt.% Y addition) of 164.22 μm3s-1 was approximately four times less than the un-modified AZ80 alloy of 689.44 μm3s-1. In contrast, the desirable semi-solid structure featured by fine, well globular solid grains and appropriate liquid fractions and shape factor was achieved in AZ80M1 alloy treated at 570℃ for 20-30 min.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0493.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Devolution; land cover change; semi-arod; food security; arable land; coservation; environment services
Online: 28 February 2023 (02:43:40 CET)
This study focuses on land cover and land management changes in relation to food security and environmental services in a semi-arid area of East Nusa Tenggara (ENT) – Indonesia. The study was conducted in Central Sumba District of ENT Province. Classification and regression tree (CART) for land cover classification has been analyzed using machine learning techniques using Google Earth Engine. A survey with Focus Group Discussion (FGD) and followed with in-depth interviews were conducted for primary data collection involving a total of 871 respondents. The Socio-economic data analyzed statistics descriptively and non-parametric tests. The study showed that: 1). There has been a substantial land use change during the devo-lution era that has both positive and negative implications for food security and envi-ronmental services. 2). There has been population pressure in the fertile or agricultur-al land as the direct impact of the development of city infrastructures; and 3). Nation-al intervention through the Food Estate program has fostered and shaped land use change and land management in Central Sumba District. The study highlights the importance that the devolution spirit should help to well manage the limited ara-ble/agricultural land in dominated semi-arid to ensure food security and environment services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0025.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: object detection; semi-supervised learning; Mask R-CNN; floor-plan images; computer vision
Online: 1 September 2022 (15:16:43 CEST)
Research has been growing on object detection using semi-supervised methods in past few years. We examine the intersection of these two areas for floor-plan objects to promote the research objective of detecting more accurate objects with less labelled data. The floor-plan objects include different furniture items with multiple types of the same class, and this high inter-class similarity impacts the performance of prior methods. In this paper, we present Mask R-CNN based semi-supervised approach that provides pixel-to-pixel alignment to generate individual annotation masks for each class to mine the inter-class similarity. The semi-supervised approach has a student-teacher network that pulls information from the teacher network and feeds it to the student network. The teacher network uses unlabeled data to form pseudo-boxes, and the student network uses both unlabeled data with the pseudo boxes and labelled data as ground truth for training. It learns representations of furniture items by combining labelled and unlabeled data. On the Mask R-CNN detector with ResNet-101 backbone network, the proposed approach achieves mAP of 98.8%, 99.7%, and 99.8% with only 1%, 5% and 10% labelled data, respectively. Our experiment affirms the efficiency of the proposed approach as it outperforms the fully supervised counterpart using only 10% of the labels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0085.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: object segmentation; LiDAR-camera fusion; autonomous driving; artificial intelligence; semi-supervised learning; iseAuto
Online: 4 March 2022 (21:43:06 CET)
Object segmentation is still considered a challenging problem in autonomous driving, particularly in consideration of real world conditions. Following this line of research, this paper approaches the problem of object segmentation using LiDAR-camera fusion and semi-supervised learning implemented in a fully-convolutional neural network. Our method is tested on real-world data acquired using our custom vehicle iseAuto shuttle. The data include all-weather scenarios, featuring night and rainy weather. In this work, it is shown that LiDAR-camera fusion with only a few annotated scenarios and semi-supervised learning, it is possible to achieve robust performance on real-world data in a multi-class object segmentation problem. The performance of our algorithm is measured in terms of intersection over union, precision, recall and area-under-the-curve average precision. Our network achieves 82% IoU in vehicle detection in day fair scenarios and 64% IoU in vehicle segmentation in night rain scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0623.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Scaled boundary finite element method; Heat conduction; Abaqus UEL; Polygon; Quadtree; Semi-analytic
Online: 25 June 2021 (12:37:43 CEST)
This paper presents a steady-state and transient heat conduction analysis framework using the polygonal scaled boundary finite element method (PSBFEM) with polygon/quadtree meshes. The PSBFEM is implemented with commercial finite element code Abaqus by the User Element Subroutine (UEL) feature. The detailed implementation of the framework, defining the UEL element, and solving the stiffness/mass matrix by the eigenvalue decomposition are presented. Several benchmark problems from heat conduction are solved to validate the proposed implementation. Results show that the PSBFEM is reliable and accurate for solving heat conduction problems. Not only can the proposed implementation help engineering practitioners analyze the heat conduction problem using polygonal mesh in Abaqus, but it also provides a reference for developing the UEL to solve other problems using the scaled boundary finite element method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0083.v3
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: air waves; falling rock; semi-empirical model; uniform motion phase; acceleration movement phase
Online: 25 January 2017 (03:46:33 CET)
In this paper, a semi-empirical model of air waves induced by falling rock is described. The model is composed of a uniform motion phase (velocity close to 0 m·s-1) and an acceleration movement phase. The uniform motion phase was determined based on experimentally and the acceleration movement phase was derived by theoretical analysis. A series of experiments were performed to verify the semi-empirical model and elucidated the law of the uniform motion phase. The acceleration movement phase accounted for a larger portion with a greater height of the falling rock. Experimental results of different falling heights of the goaf showed close agreement with theoretical analysis values. The semi-empirical model could accurately and conveniently estimate the velocity of air wave induced by falling rock. Thus, the semi-empirical model can provide a reference and basis for estimating the speed of air waves and designing protective measures in mines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0475.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: DAST; semi-synthesis; fluorination; Beckmann-rearrangement; cyclopropane; natural product; ecdysteroid; NMR; structure elucidation; anticancer
Online: 31 January 2022 (21:35:38 CET)
Fluorine represents a privileged building block in pharmaceutical chemistry. Diethylaminosulfur-trifluoride (DAST) is a reagent commonly used for replacement of alcoholic hydroxyl groups with fluorine and is also known to catalyze water elimination and cyclic Beckmann-rearrangement type reactions. In this work we aimed to use DAST for diversity-oriented semisynthetic transformation of natural products bearing multiple hydroxyl groups to prepare new bioactive compounds. Four ecdysteroids, including a new constituent of Cyanotis arachnoidea, were selected as starting materials for DAST-catalyzed transformations. The newly prepared compounds represented combinations of various structural changes DAST was known to catalyze, and a unique cyclopropane ring closure that was found for the first time. Several compounds demonstrated in vitro antitumor properties. A new 17-N-acetylecdysteroid (13) exerted potent antiproliferative activity and no cytotoxicity on drug susceptible and multi-drug resistant mouse T-cell lymphoma cells. Further, compound 13 acted in significant synergism with doxorubicin without detectable direct ABCB1 inhibition. Our results demonstrate that DAST is a versatile tool for diversity-oriented synthesis to expand chemical space towards new bioactive compounds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0780.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Deep learning; Computer vision; Remote sensing; Supervised learning; Semi-supervised learning; Segmentation; Seagrass mapping
Online: 31 March 2021 (15:53:19 CEST)
Intertidal seagrass plays a vital role in estimating the overall health and dynamics of coastal environments due to its interaction with tidal changes. However, most seagrass habitats around the globe have been in steady decline due to human impacts, disturbing the already delicate balance in environmental conditions that sustain seagrass. Miniaturization of multi-spectral sensors has facilitated very high resolution mapping of seagrass meadows, which significantly improve the potential for ecologists to monitor changes. In this study, two analytical approaches used for classifying intertidal seagrass habitats are compared: Object-based Image Analysis (OBIA) and Fully Convolutional Neural Networks (FCNNs). Both methods produce pixel-wise classifications in order to create segmented maps, however FCNNs are an emerging set of algorithms within Deep Learning with sparse application towards seagrass mapping. Conversely, OBIA has been a prominent solution within this field, with many studies leveraging in-situ data and multiscale segmentation to create habitat maps. This work demonstrates the utility of FCNNs in a semi-supervised setting to map seagrass and other coastal features from an optical drone survey conducted at Budle Bay, Northumberland, England. Semi-supervision is also an emerging field within Deep Learning that has practical benefits of achieving state of the art results using only subsets of labelled data. This is especially beneficial for remote sensing applications where in-situ data is an expensive commodity. For our results, we show that FCNNs have comparable performance with standard OBIA method used by ecologists, while also noting an increase in performance for mapping ecological features that are sparsely labelled across the study site.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0358.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: gas drive water displacement; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Semi-Permeable Baffle; centrifugal-NMR; start-up pressure
Online: 21 March 2023 (01:23:35 CET)
Reservoir in the Central Structural Zone of the Xihu Sag is the Huagang Formation, dominated by natural gas reservoirs, and the reservoir in the Western Slope Zone is the Pinghu Formation, dominated by light oil and wet gas. In this paper, the Gas Drive Water Displacement- Magnetic Resonance Imaging (GWD-MRI) experiments are used to simulate the charging characteristics of the sandstone migration layer. The centrifugal- Magnetic Resonance (Cen-NMR) experiments simulate the short-term fast trap charging process, and the Semi-Permeable Baffle (SPB) charging experiment simulates the slow trap accumulation process. Studies have shown that there is a start-up pressure for the migration layer charging, and the start-up pressure of the core with a permeability of 0.3mD is about 0.6MPa. Experimental simulations have confirmed that there is a front zone with changed water saturation, with a width of about 1-1.5cm. The migration layer charging mainly has two actions, drive effect and carry effect. The drive effect reduces the water saturation to 70%-80%, and the carry effect can still reduce the water saturation by 5%-10%. The water saturation of rapid charging is mainly affected by the petro-physical. The porosity is high, the water saturation is low. The water saturation decreased significantly with the increase of centrifugal force when the centrifugal force is smaller. If the centrifugal force is greater than 0.8 MPa, the water saturation decreases slowly. The water saturation of the trap slowly charging is basically maintained at 40%-50%, which matches the water saturation of the airtight coring from 40%-55%, the petro-physical do not affect the final water saturation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0221.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: metal adsorption; soil organic matter; iron oxide; Semi-quantitative analysis method; antagonistic effect; DCB extraction
Online: 14 December 2021 (10:23:18 CET)
The combination of organic matter, iron oxide, and clay minerals is of great significance for the adsorption of copper ions (Cu). The purpose of this study is to explore the characteristics of Cu adsorption and laws governing Cu complexation to organic–inorganic, organic–clay mineral, and iron-oxide–clay mineral complexes in the sediments in the estuary of plateau fault and sinking lake——Dianchi Lake. In this study, Cu adsorption tests were performed on the three complexes, in order to study the kinetic behavior of adsorption, Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were used. The samples before and after adsorption were characterized via scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Our results show that, the Freundlich isotherm models model was able to describe adsorbent behavior in comparison to the Langmuir models. During the Cu adsorption process, the iron-oxide–clay mineral complex is able to adsorb Cu, via coordination exchange, through the –OH contained therein. Organic-matter–clay mineral complexes bonded to the surfaces of clay minerals by replacing the hydroxyl groups with functional groups (carboxyl groups or phenolic hydroxyl groups) contained in the organic matter. Organic–inorganic composites then adsorbed Cu through the coordination exchange of –OH in the polar functional groups of alcohols, phenols, and carboxylic acids. The adsorption capacity of Cu in these three sediment complexes was observed to have the following order: organic–inorganic complex > organic-matter–clay mineral complex > iron-oxide–clay mineral complex. The semi-quantitative analysis results of Fourier Infrared Spectroscopy show that the organic matter (changes in the peak area of functional groups such as carboxyl groups) in the organic-inorganic composite material has an important effect on the amount of copper ions adsorbed by clay minerals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0025.v2
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Brain segmentation; Coarse-to-fine; Gen- erative Adversarial Network; Semi-supervised learning; Multi-stage method
Online: 6 December 2021 (14:33:23 CET)
Image segmentation is a new challenge prob- lem in medical application. The use of medical imaging has become an integral part of research, as it allows us to see inside the human body without surgical intervention. Many researcher have studied brain segmentation. One stage method is used to segment the brain tissues. In this paper, we proposed the multi-stage generative ad- versarial network to solve the problem of information loss in the one-stage. We utilize the coarse-to-fine to improve brain segmentation using multi-stage generative adversar- ial networks (GAN). In the first stage, our model generated a coarse outline for (i) background and (ii) brain tissues. Then, in the second stage, the model generated outline for (i) white matter (WM), (ii) gray matter (GM) and (iii) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A good result can be achieved by fusing the coarse outline and refine outline. We conclude that our model is more efficient and accu- rate in practice for both infant and adult brain segmenta- tion. Moreover, we observe that multi-stage model is faster than prior models. To be more specific, the main goal of multi-stage model is to see the performance of the model in a few shot learning case where a few labeled data are available. For medical image, this proposed model can work in a wide range of image segmentation where the convolution neural networks and one-stage methods have failed.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: cross-shore profile; sediment transport rates; semi-enclosed sea; sandy coast; coastal erosion; dune development.
Online: 15 December 2020 (10:22:52 CET)
We report cross-shore profile evolution at Palanga, eastern Baltic Sea where short period waves dominate. Cross-shore profile studies began directly after a significant coastal erosion caused by storm “Anatoly” in December of 1999 and continued for a year. Further measurements were undertaken sixteen years later. Cross-shore profile ∆V(x) changes were described, and cross-shore transport rates Q(x) were calculated. A K-means clustering technique was applied to determine sections of the profile with the same development tendencies. Profile evolution was strongly influenced by the depth of closure which is constrained by a moraine layer and the presence of a groyne. The method used divided the profile into four clusters: the 1st cluster in the deepest water represents profile evolution limited by the depth of closure, and the 2nd and 3rd mostly are affected by processes induced by wind, wave and sea-water level changes. The most intensive sediment volume changes were observed directly after the coastal erosion. The largest sand accumulation was in the 4th profile cluster, which includes the upper beach and dunes. Seaward extension of the dune system caused a narrowing of the visible beach which has led to an increased sand volume (accretion) being misinterpreted as erosion
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0286.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: landscape connectivity; natura 2000 network; strategic environmental assessment; protected areas and spatial planning, semi commons
Online: 25 October 2019 (11:30:25 CEST)
The military areas in Sardinia are around 234 km2, which constitutes 59.97% of the national surface affected by military easements. This situation is due to its geographic centrality in the Mediterranean. This contribution evaluates the performance of the Local Coastline Plan (LCP) and the Site Management Plan of Community Interest (SCI) in conditions of military constraint. The case study is the Municipality of Villaputzu where an important coastal military easement and the use of the coast for recreational tourism purposes coexist together through specific planning, a consequence of institutional agreements between the Municipal Administration of Villaputzu and the Ministry of Defense. The evaluation of the congruence of the specific objectives of the LCP and the SCI shows how their combined action favors the environmental enhancement of Sardinia, contributing to the formation of ecosystem services, even in particular conditions arising from military easements. These are sites that pass from the status of "anti-commons" to "semi-commons". In fact, the military release process in Sardinia, together with the promiscuous military and civil use, activates unique governance policies of their kind that find a significant field of application in Sardinia to guarantee a sustainable renewal of economic development of the ‘semi-commons’ awaiting to become ‘commons’
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0067.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: semi-analytical solutions; hydrodynamic characteristics; piezoelectric cantilever beam; wave energy harvesters; lumped and structural parameters.
Online: 11 December 2017 (15:25:30 CET)
We mainly describe the influence factors of captured power by huge wave energy harvesters, which the vertical motion of buoy can transform ocean’s potential energy into piezoelectric energy power by waves. By means of semi-analytical solutions and theoretical analysis, related environmental coefficients are analyzed firstly and find the most appropriate wave frequency and geometric structure as reference. Secondly, the numerical results also discuss the impact trend of hydrodynamic parameters and geometric volume on motion, voltage and power with qualitative agreement. The simulation data confirm that structure parameters of the modified model could markedly deliver sufficient power to ocean high electrical equipment with long-time stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0114.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: indoor localization; crowdsourcing; received signal strength; graph-based semi-supervised learning; linear regression; compressed sensing.
Online: 18 April 2017 (12:33:47 CEST)
Indoor positioning based on the received signal strength (RSS) of the WiFi signal has become the most popular solution for indoor localization. In order to realize the rapid deployment of indoor localization systems, solutions based on crowdsourcing have been proposed. However, compared to conventional methods, crowdsourced RSS values are more erroneous and can result in large localization errors. To mitigate the negative effect of the erroneous measurements, a graph-based semi-supervised learning (G-SSL) method is used to exploit the correlation between the RSS values at nearby locations to estimate an optimal RSS value at each location. Before using the G-SSL method, the Linear Regression (LR) algorithm is proposed to solve the device diversity problem in crowdsourcing system. Since the spatial distribution of the APs is sparse, the Compressed Sensing (CS) method is applied to precisely estimate the location of the APs. Based on the location of the APs and a simple signal propagation model, the RSS difference between different locations is calculated and used as an additional constraint to improve the performance of G-SSL. Furthermore, to exploit the sparsity of the weights used in the G-SSL, we use the CS method to reconstruct these weights more accurately and make a further improvement on the performance of the G-SSL. Experimental results show improved results in terms of the smoothness of the radio map and the localization accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0177.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: quasi-stationary wave; stratosphere; mesosphere; westward phase tilt; geopotential height; ozone; annual and semi-annual oscillation
Online: 14 February 2022 (14:05:03 CET)
The purpose of this work is to study quasi-stationary wave structure in the mid-latitude stratosphere and mesosphere (40–50°N) and its role in the formation of the annual ozone cycle. Geopotential height and ozone from Aura MLS data are used and winter climatology for January–February 2011–2020 is considered. More closely examined is the 10-degree longitude segment centered on Longfengshan Brewer station, China, and located in the region of the Aleutian Low influence associated with the quasi-stationary zonal maximum of total ozone. Annual and semi-annual oscillations in ozone were compared using units of ozone volume mixing ratio and concentration, as well as changes in ozone peak altitude and in time series of ozone at individual pressure levels between 316 hPa (9 km) and 0.001 hPa (96 km). The ozone maximum in the vertical profile is higher in volume mixing ratio (VMR) values than in concentration by about 15 km (5 km) in the stratosphere (mesosphere), in consistency with some previous studies. We found that the properties of the annual cycle are better resolved in the altitude range of the main ozone maximum: middle–upper stratosphere in VMR and lower stratosphere in concentration. Both approaches reveal SAO/AO-related changes in the of ozone peak altitudes in a range of 4–6 km during the year. In the lower-stratospheric ozone of the Longfengshan domain, an earlier development of the annual cycle takes place with a maximum in February and a minimum in August compared to spring and autumn, respectively, in zonal means. This is presumably due to the higher rate of dynamical ozone accumulation in the region of the quasi-stationary zonal ozone maximum. The “no-annual-cycle” transition layers are found in the stratosphere and mesosphere. These layers with undisturbed ozone volume mixing ratio throughout the year are of interest for more detailed future study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0395.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: Tamarind Gum; Hydrogels; Semi-IPNs; Green synthesis; Silver Nanoparticles; Drug Delivery; Chemotherapeutics; HCT116 Cell; Anti-microbial
Online: 22 November 2021 (13:46:47 CET)
Novel pH responsive semi-interpenetrating polymer hydrogels based on tamarind gum-co-poly(acrylamidoglycolic acid) (TMGA) polymers have been synthesized using simple free radical polymerization in the presence of bis[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] phosphate as a crosslinker and potassium persulfate as a initiator. In addition, these hydrogels have been used as templates for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (13.4±3.6 nm in diameter, TMGA-Ag) by using leaf extract of Teminalia bellirica as reducing agent. Swelling kinetics and equilibrium swelling behavior of the TMGA hydrogels have been investigated in various pH environment the maxium % equilibrium swelling behavior observed i.e., 2882±1.2. The synthesized hydrogels and silver nanocomposites have been characterized by the UV, FTIR, XRD, SEM and TEM. TMGA and TMGA-Ag hydrogels have been investigated to study the characteristics of drug delivery and antimicrobial study. Doxorubicin hydrochloride, a chemotherapeutic agent successfully encapsulated with maximum encapulstaion efficiency i.e., 69.20±1.2 and performed in vitro release studies in pH physiological and gastric environment at 37 ℃. The drug release behavior is examined with kinetic models such as zero order, first order, Higuchi, Hixson Crowell, Korsmeyer-Peppas. These release data was the best fitted with the Korsemeyer-Peppas transport mechanism with n=0.91. Treatment effect on HCT116 Cell, human colon cancer cells were assessed with cell viability and cell cycle analysis. Antimicrobial activity of TMGA-Ag hydrogels is studied against to Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia. Finally, the results demonstrate that TMGA and TMGA-Ag are promising candidates for anti-cancer drug delivery and inactivation of pathogenic bacteria, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0143.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Boundary value problems; semi-innite intervals; existence and 22 uniqueness; iterative transformation method; numerical test
Online: 4 February 2021 (15:07:39 CET)
This work is concerned with the existence and uniqueness of boundary value problems defined on semi-infinite intervals. These kinds of problems seldom admit exactly known solutions and, therefore, the theoretical information on their well-posedness is essential before attempting to derive an approximate solution by analytical or numerical means. Our utmost contribution in this context is the definition of a numerical test for investigating the existence and uniqueness of solutions of boundary problems defined on semi-infinite intervals. The main result is given by a theorem relating the existence and uniqueness question to the number of real zeros of a function implicitly defined within the formulation of the iterative transformation method. As a consequence, we can investigate the existence and uniqueness of solutions by studying the behaviour of that function. Within such a context the numerical test is illustrated by two examples where we find meaningful numerical results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0088.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: physical layer security; semi-infinite programming; amplify-and-forward two-way relay; imperfect CSI; robust optimization
Online: 31 July 2017 (08:59:04 CEST)
This paper considers a two-way relay network, where two source nodes exchange messages through several relays in the presence of an eavesdropper, and the channel state information (CSI) of the eavesdropper is imperfectly known. The amplify-and-forward relay protocol is used and the relay beamforming weights are designed. The model is built up to minimize the total relay transmit power while guaranteeing the quality of service at users and preventing the eavesdropper from decoding the signals. Due to the imperfect CSI, a semi-infinite programming problem is obtained. An algorithm is proposed to solve the problem, and the iterative points are updated through the linesearch technique, where the feasibility are preserved during iterations. The optimality property is analyzed. The obtained subproblems are quadratic constrained quadratic programming problems, either with less than $4$ constraints or with only one variable, which are solved optimally. Simulation results demonstrate the importance of the proposed model, and imply that the proposed algorithm is efficient and converges very fast, where more than 85% of the problems are solved optimally.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0413.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: financial capacity instruments; Semi-Structured Clinical Interview for Financial Capacity; deci-sional capacity; mild cognitive impairment; gamification
Online: 31 May 2022 (07:37:21 CEST)
Financial capacity instruments are psychometric tools designed to evaluate individual decisional capacity based on financial decisions. As tests are complex and need special conditions for administration and evaluation, it is difficult to use them in daily geriatric clinics. Our scoping review objective was to evaluate existing financial capacity instruments from the perspective of simplicity and portability. We evaluated one English speaking knowledge database (Medline) using a dedicated MeSH terminology. The review yielded one independent instrument, The Semi-Structured Clinical Interview for Financial Capacity, that can be easy adapted for every-day clinical use. It is simple to understand and perform and do not need trained personnel for administration. It can be finalized in 15 minutes. Initially validated on 261 subjects (with different forms of cognitive impairment), it showed good accuracy and precision mainly in subjects with cognitive impairment. The test is less apt to detect early or fluctuating cognitive impairment. Simplicity, the main advantage of the test, allows gamification fact that increases portability. Familiar images (coins, money) that are used for performing simple tasks does not need complex translation and adaptation. In form of a game, the test is suitable for serial administration, increasing the chance for early capacity reduction detection. Results reflect a physician judgement related to the subjects’ capacity to understand and execute simple financial instructions and not financial proficiency scores. The main limitation of our review is that we investigated only one, English speaking, knowledge database. The scoping strategy generated a financial capacity instrument that can be used in geriatric clinics for early diagnostic of decisional capacity reduction. Further studies are needed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the test in conditions of serial administration and in populations having various financial experience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0043.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: newborn screening; research; long-term follow-up; NBSTRN; LPDR; RUSP. (3-10 keywords separated by semi colons)
Online: 1 June 2021 (15:10:29 CEST)
The goal of newborn screening is to improve health outcomes by identifying and treating affected newborns. This manuscript provides an overview of a data tool to facilitate the longitudinal collection of health information on newborns diagnosed with a condition through NBS. The Newborn Screening Translational Research Network (NBSTRN) developed the Longitudinal Pediatric Data Resource (LPDR) to capture, store, analyze, visualize, and share genomic and phenotypic data over the lifespan of NBS identified newborns to facilitate understanding of genetic disease, and to assess the impact of early identification and treatment. NBSTRN developed a consensus-based process using clinical care experts to create, maintain, and evolve question and answer sets organized into common data elements (CDEs). The LPDR contains 24,172 core and disease-specific CDEs for 118 rare genetic diseases, and the CDEs are being made available through the NIH CDE Repository. The number of CDEs for each condition average of 2,200 with a range from 69 to 7,944. The LPDR is used by state NBS programs, clinical researchers, and community-based organizations. Case level, de-identified data sets are available for secondary research and data mining. The development of the LPDR for longitudinal data gathering, sharing, and analysis supports research and facilitates the translation of new discoveries into clinical practice.
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Fennel; Semi-natural habitat; Interspersion and juxtaposition index (IJI); Insecticides – Insect abundance and richness – Essential oil yield
Online: 12 April 2021 (12:43:39 CEST)
Agricultural landscapes are more and more characterized by intensification and habitat losses. Landscape composition and configuration are known to mediate insect abundance and richness. In the context of global insect decline, and despite 75% of crops being under insect’s dependence, there is still a gap of knowledge about the link between pollinators and aromatic crops. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is an aromatic plant cultivated in South of France, for its essential oil which is of great economic interest. Using pan-traps, we investigated the influence of the surrounding habitats at landscape scale (semi-natural habitat proportion and vicinity, landscape configuration) and local scale agricultural practices (insecticides and patch size) on fennel-flower-visitor abundance and richness and their subsequent impact on fennel essential oil yield. We found that fennel may to be a generalist plant species. We did not find any effect of intense local management practices on insect abundance and richness. Landscape configuration and the proximity to semi-natural habitat were the main drivers of flying insect’s family richness. This richness positively influenced fennel essential oil yield. Maintaining a complex configuration of patches at the landscape scale are important to sustain insect diversity and crop yield.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0344.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: religious pluralism; decolonization of mind; semi-structured interview; psychological features; Hinduism; Indian culture; religious rights of human
Online: 29 May 2019 (05:03:27 CEST)
This article presents the study of religious pluralism and decolonization of Indian mind in Russia. The paper analyzes the investigation results concerning psychological features of modern Indian students from universities in Russia and India. For measuring of connection between religious pluralism and decolonization of Indian mind we made socio-psychological investigation of Indian students. We made 254 semi-structured interview with Indian students who are studying in Russia and India. According to the result of investigation that decolonization of Indian mind is connected with the level of religious pluralism. Among the values principles of religious pluralism get more significance and importance in decolonizing mind of Indian students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0093.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: consumer behavior; cooking fuel; environmental consciousness; health consciousness; semi-parametric estimation; trivariate probit; water and sanitation; wealth
Online: 13 February 2018 (08:53:03 CET)
Relying on Random Utility Theory (RUT) as the guiding mechanism for the Data Generating Process (DGP), this paper uses households consumption choices on cooking fuel, drinking water, and sanitation from the 2014 United States Agency for International Development's (USAID) Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data on Burkina Faso, to characterize and investigate the inter-linkages between health consciousness and environmental consciousness, and their relationship with wealth in a low income country context. We achieve this by specifying sequentially three econometric modeling frameworks: the first one being independent binary probit (IBP) models to describe each choice process, followed by a fully parametric trivariate probit (FPTP) model to account for choice dependency, and finally by a semi-parametric trivariate probit (SPTP) model to further relax the linearity assumption. Based on the Akaike Information criteria (AIC) and the estimated Trivariate model correlation coefficients, the SPTP framework is found to be the best specification for describing the observed consumption behaviors. The results show that increased wealth level raises households health and environmental consciousness, while leaving the relative preference ordering over the elements in the household consumption basket unchanged.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0310.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Functional Data Analysis (FDA); Hybrid Data; Semi-Functional Partial Linear Regression Model (SFPLR); Partial Functional Linear Regression; Literature Review
Online: 17 November 2021 (15:21:19 CET)
Background: In the functional data analysis (FDA), the hybrid or mixed data are scalar and functional datasets. The semi-functional partial linear regression model (SFPLR) is one of the first semiparametric models for the scalar response with hybrid covariates. Various extensions of this model are explored and summarized. Methods: Two first research articles, including “semi-functional partial linear regression model”, and “Partial functional linear regression” have more than 300 citations in Google Scholar. Finally, only 106 articles remained according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria such as 1) including the published articles in the ISI journals and excluding 2) non-English and 3) preprints, slides, and conference papers. We use the PRISMA standard for systematic review. Results: The articles are categorized into the following main topics: estimation procedures, confidence regions, time series, and panel data, Bayesian, spatial, robust, testing, quantile regression, varying Coefficient Models, Variable Selection, Single-index model, Measurement error, Multiple Functions, Missing values, Rank Method and Others. There are different applications and datasets such as the Tecator dataset, air quality, electricity consumption, and Neuroimaging, among others. Conclusions: SFPLR is one of the most famous regression modeling methods for hybrid data that has a lot of extensions among other models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0125.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: MHD model problem; boundary problem on semi-infinite interval; non-standard finite difference scheme; quasi-uniform mesh; error estimation
Online: 3 February 2021 (16:11:55 CET)
This paper deals with a non-standard finite difference scheme defined on a quasi-uniform mesh for approximate solutions of the Magneto-Hydro Dynamics (MHD) boundary layer flow of an incompressible fluid past a flat plate for a wide range of the magnetic parameter. We show how to improve the obtained numerical results via a mesh refinement and a Richardson extrapolation. The obtained numerical results are favourably compared with those available in the literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0054.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: 3D printing; semi-solid extrusion 3D printing; additive manufacturing; extemporaneous manufacturing; drug delivery; personalized dosage forms; veterinary medicine; prednisolone
Online: 2 November 2020 (14:59:30 CET)
Currently, the number of approved veterinary medicines are limited, and human medications are used off-label. These approved human medications are of too high potencies for a cat or a small dog breed. Therefore, there is a dire demand for smaller doses of veterinary medicines. This study aims to investigate the use of three semi-solid extrusion 3D printers in a pharmacy or animal clinic setting for extemporaneous manufacturing of prednisolone containing orodispersible films for veterinary use. Orodispersible films with adequate content uniformity and acceptance values defined by the European Pharmacopoeia was produced with one of the studied printers, namely, the Allevi 2 bioprinter. Smooth and flexible films, with high mechanical strength, neutral pH, and low moisture content were produced with high correlation between prepared design and obtained drug amount, indicating that the Allevi 2 printer could successfully be used to extemporaneously manufacture personalized doses for animals at the point-of-care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0053.v2
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Electro-Rheological fluid; Semi-active vibration control; tunable vibration absorber; type-1 fuzzy control; interval type-2 fuzzy control
Online: 23 May 2017 (15:58:35 CEST)
This study presents a vibration control using actively tunable vibration absorbers (ATVA) to suppress vibration of a thin plate. The ATVA’s is made of a sandwich hollow structure embedded with the electrorheological fluid (ERF). ERF is considered to be one of the most important smart fluids and it is suitable to be embedded in a smart structure due to its controllable viscosity property. ERF’s apparent viscosity can be controlled in response to the electric field and the change is reversible in 10 microseconds. Therefore, the physical properties of the ERF-embedded smart structure, such as the stiffness and damping coefficients, can be changed in response to the applied electric field. A mathematical model is difficult to be obtained to describe the exact characteristics of the ERF embedded ATVA because of the nonlinearity of ERF’s viscosity. Therefore, a fuzzy modeling and experimental validations of ERF-based ATVA from stationary random vibrations of thin plates are presented in this study. Because Type-2 fuzzy sets generalize Type-1 fuzzy sets so that more modelling uncertainties can be handled, a semi-active vibration controller is proposed based on Type-2 fuzzy sets. To investigate the different performances by using different types of fuzzy controllers, the experimental measurements employing type-1 fuzzy and interval type-2 fuzzy controllers are implemented by the Compact RIO embedded system. The fuzzy modeling framework and solution methods presented in this work can be used for design, performance analysis, and optimization of ATVA from stationary random vibration of thin plates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0172.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Dirac hypertube; Dirac polarized vacuum; M-theory; manifold of uncertainty; nonlocality; semi-quantum limit; supersymmetry; tight bound states, unified field theory
Online: 4 November 2020 (08:08:03 CET)
A radical, albeit pragmatic protocol for experimental access to putative String/M-theoretic, Einstein Unified Field Mechanical (UFM) additional dimensionality (XD) of the brane-bouquet bulk is presented. If successful, results demonstrate the existence dimensionality beyond the metric of observed physical reality provided by the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics and Cosmology. Quantum Mechanics (QM), as well-known is incomplete and further, should no longer be considered the basement of reality; meaning, Locality and Unitarity – the fundaments of quantum theory are an insufficient basis for extending the representation of reality. A seminal model of Tight Bound States (TBS) below the lowest Bohr orbit in the hydrogen atom, proposed by Vigier, is extended to a Kaluza-Klein-like (KK) cyclical tier of XD hyperspherical cavities defined within a manifold of uncertainty (MOU) of finite radius up to the semi-quantum limit, predicting, within its domain, new spectral lines in Hydrogen. The proposed protocol for this process, with phase modifications, provides efficacy of large-scale additional dimensionality (LSXD) of the brane bulk; XD-LSXD incursion duality accesses nonlocal Einsteinian UFM phenomena, leading to myriad new classes of technological innovation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0055.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Fractional complex moment; SARS-CoV-2; coronaviruses; spike protein sequence; Pearson correlation coefficient; semi-covariance coefficient; positive-correlative and negative-correlative domains
Online: 2 March 2021 (09:30:12 CET)
Complex modeling has received significant attention in recent years and is increasingly used to explain the statistical phenomenon with increasing and decreasing fluctuations such as the similarity or difference of spike protein charge patterns of coronaviruses. Different from the existing covariance or correlation coefficient methods in traditional integer dimension construction, this study proposes a simplified novel fractional dimension derivation with the exact Excel tool algorithm. It involves the fractional center moment extension to covariance, which ends up a complex covariance coefficient that is better than the Pearson correlation coefficient, in the sense that the nonlinearity relationship can be further depicted. The spike protein sequences of coronaviruses were obtained from the GenBank and GISAID database, including the coronaviruses from pangolin, bat, canine, swine (three variants), feline, tiger, SARS-CoV-1, MERS, and SARS-CoV-2 (including the strains of Wuhan, Beijing, New York, German, and UK variant B.1.1.7) were used as the representative examples in this study. By examining the values above and below the average/mean based on the positive and negative charge patterns of the amino acid residues of the spike proteins from coronaviruses, the proposed algorithm provides deep insights into the nonlinear evolving trends of spike proteins for understanding the viral evolution and identifying the protein characteristics associated with viral fatality. The calculation results demonstrate that the complex covariance coefficient analyzed by this algorithm is capable of distinguishing the subtle nonlinear differences in the spike protein charge patterns with reference to Wuhan strain SARS-CoV-2 for which the Pearson correlation coefficient may overlook. Our analysis reveals the unique convergent (positive correlative) to divergent (negative correlative) domain center positions of each virus. The convergent or conserved region may be critical to the viral stability or viability; while the divergent region is highly variable between coronaviruses suggesting high frequency of mutations in this region. The analyses show that the conserved center region of SARS-CoV-1 spike protein is located at amino acid residues 900, but shifted to the amino acid residues 700 in MERS spike protein, and then to amino acid residues 600 in SARS-COV-2 spike protein, indicating the evolvement of the coronaviruses. Interestingly, the conserved center region of the spike protein in SARS-COV-2 variant B.1.1.7 shifted back to amino acid residues 700, suggesting this variant is more virulent than the original SARS-COV-2 strain. Another important characteristic our study reveals is that the distance between the divergent mean and the maximal divergent point in each of the viruses (MERS>SARS-CoV-1>SARS-CoV-2) is proportional to viral fatality rate. This algorithm may help to understand and analyze the evolving trends and critical characteristics of SARS-COV-2 variants, other coronaviral proteins and viruses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0417.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: heating and cooling of injection mold; melt flow control; carbon fiber reinforced semi-aromatic polyamide; fiber orientation; bending strength; weld line; crystallization
Online: 21 January 2021 (12:29:40 CET)
Fiber reinforced thermoplastics (FRTP), which is reinforced with glass or carbon fibers, are used to improve the mechanical strength of injection-molded products. However, FRTP has problems such as the formation of weld lines, the deterioration of the appearance due to the exposure of fibers on the molded product surface, and the deterioration of the strength of molded products due to the fiber orientation in the molded products. We have designed and fabricated an injection mold capable of melt flow control and induction heating and cooling that has the functions of both heating and cooling the injection mold as well as the function of controlling the melt flow direction using a movable core pin. In this study, the above-mentioned mold was used for the molding of carbon fiber reinforced semi-aromatic polyamide. As a result, we found that increasing the heating temperature of the mold and increasing melt flow control volume contribute to the prevention of the generation of a weld line and the exposure of fibers on the molded product surface, as well as to the formation of a flat surface and increased bending strength. The relationships of these results with the carbon fiber orientation in the molded products and the crystallization of semi-aromatic polyamide were also examined in this study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0300.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: polyelectrolytes; charge regulation; long-range interactions; Debye-Hückel interactions; transfer matrix; Ising models; semi-grand canonical ensemble; Monte Carlo simulations; conformational equilibria; variational methods
Online: 19 June 2018 (12:33:38 CEST)
The classical Rotational Isomeric State (RIS) model, originally proposed by Flory, has been used to rationalize a wide range of physicochemical properties of neutral polymers. However, many weak polyelectrolytes of interest are able to regulate their charge depending on the conformational state of the bonds. Recently, it has been shown that the RIS model can be coupled with the Site Binding (SB) model, for which the ionizable sites can adopt two states: protonated or deprotonated. The resulting combined scheme, the SBRIS model, allows to analyse ionization and conformational equilibria on the same foot. In the present work this approach is extended to include pH-dependent electrostatic Long Range (LR) interactions, ubiquitous in weak polyelectrolytes at moderate and low ionic strengths. With this aim the original LR interactions are taken into account by defining effective Short Range (SR) and pH-dependent parameters, such as effective microscopic protonation constants and rotational bond energies. The new parameters are systematically calculated using variational methods. The machinery of statistical mechanics for SR interactions, including the powerful and fast transfer matrix methods, can then be applied. The resulting technique, to which we will refer as Local Effective Interaction Parameters (LEIP) method, is illustrated with a minimal model of a flexible linear polyelectrolyte containing only one type of rotating bonds. LEIP reproduces very well the pH dependence of the degree of protonation and bond probabilities obtained by semi-grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations, where LR interactions are taken explicitly into account. The reduction in the computational time in several orders of magnitude suggests that the LEIP technique could be useful in a range of areas involving linear weak polyelectrolytes, allowing direct fitting of the relevant physical parameters to the experimental quantities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0414.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: ethnobotanical indices; ethnobotanical uses; native and exotic species; local community; semi-structured interviews; natural resources in mountains areas; traditional knowledge and manage-ment; ornamental plants
Online: 24 August 2022 (05:51:58 CEST)
Iturbide is located in the Northeast of Mexico, it has a rich native and exotic flora, however, there are no ethnobotanical records, therefore, it requires attention in the documentation of traditional practices and uses of its botanical resources. In 2021, twelve field trips were carried out, applying 110 semi-structured interviews. Plant samples were collected, identified and deposited in an herbarium. We used the Chi-square test to compare ethnobotanical uses with respect to others reported in Mexico. To determine the cultural importance, three ethnobotanical indices were applied (UVI, ICF and FL). We recorded 250 species with ethnobotanical uses associated with 121 genera and 83 families, including 140 native and 110 exotic species. The most common plant families were Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, and Fabaceae. The main uses were ornamental, medicinal and food. The species with the highest UVI values were Lepidium peruvianum, Ocimum basilicum and Rosmarinus officinale. The multifunctionality of the native and exotic flora demonstrates the extensive knowledge associated with botanical resources. Examples, the role of ornamental plants, with a direct impact on human well-being, the resilience of healers and traditional inhabitants by using different species for the treatment of various ailments. or indigenous edible plants in the daily diet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0297.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: polyelectrolytes; charge regulation; charge fluctuations; weak polyelectrolyte; annealed polyelectrolyte; monte carlo simulation; semi-grand canonical ensemble; binding equilibria; conformational equilibria; constant ph ensamble; stretching; scaling law
Online: 27 October 2019 (10:01:16 CET)
This work addresses the role of charge regulation (CR) and the associated fluctuations in the conformational and mechanical properties of weak polyelectrolytes. Due to CR, changes in the pH-value modifies the average macromolecular charge and conformational equilibria. A second effect is that, for a given average charge per site, fluctuations can alter the intensity of the interactions by means of correlation between binding sites. We investigate both effects by means of Monte Carlo simulations at constant pH-value, so that the charge is a fluctuating quantity. Once the average charge per site is available, we turn off the fluctuations by assigning the same average charge to every site. A constant charge MC simulation is then performed. We make use of a model which accounts for the main fundamental aspects of a linear flexible polyelectrolyte i.e. proton binding, angle internal rotation, bond stretching and bending. Steric excluded volume and differentiated treatment for short-range and long-range interactions are also included in the model. It can be regarded as a kind of "minimal'' model in the sense that contains a minimum number of parameters but still preserving the atomistic detail. It is shown that, if fluctuations are activated, gauche state bond probabilities increase, and the persistence length decreases, so that the polymer becomes more folded. Macromolecular stretching is also analyzed in presence of CR (the charge depends on the applied force) and without CR (the charge is fixed to the value at zero force). The analysis of the low force scaling behavior concludes that Pincus exponent becomes pH-dependent. Both with and without CR, a transition from 1/2 at high pH-values (phantom chain) to 3/5 to low pH-values (Pincus regime), is observed. Finally, the intermediate force stretching regime is investigated. It is found that CR induces a moderate influence in the force-extension curves and persistence length (which in this force regime becomes force-dependent). It is thus concluded that the effect of CR on the stretching curves is mainly due to changes in the average charge at zero force. It is also found that, for the cases studied, the effect of steric excluded volume is almost irrelevant compared to electrostatic interactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0271.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: magnesite; dolomite; semi-soluble salt-type minerals; tailings; sodium hexametaphosphate SHMP; 1-hydroxyethylene-1,1-diphosphonic acid HEDP; Dynamic Froth Analyzer; froth properties; remining; pneumatic Imhoflot; reactor-separator; FineFuture
Online: 9 April 2021 (15:58:10 CEST)
Depletion of ore deposits, increasing demand for raw materials, the need to process low-grade, complex and finely disseminated ores and the reprocessing of tailings are challenges, especially for froth flotation separation technologies. Even though capable of handling relatively fine grain sizes the flotation separation of very fine and ultrafine particles faces many problems still. Further, the flotation of low-contrast semi-soluble salt-type minerals with very similar surface properties, many complex interactions between minerals, reagents and dissolved species often result in poor selectivity. This study investigates the flotation beneficiation of ultrafine magnesite rich in dolomite from de-sliming, currently reported to the tailings. The paper especially focuses on the impact of the depressant sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) on: (i) the froth properties using dynamic froth analysis (DFA), (ii) the separation between magnesite and dolomite/calcite and (iii) its effect on the entrainment. Furthermore, the application of 1-hydroxyethylene-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP) is a more environmentally friendly and low-cost alternative to SHMP is presented and discussed. The paper contributes to understanding on the complexity of depressant responses in froth flotation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0548.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: asphalt mixture; low-temperature cracking; tensile strength; strength reserve; flexural strength; Uniaxial Tension Stress Test (UTST); Thermal Stress Restrained Specimen Test (TSRST); Bending Beam Test (BBT); Semi-Circular Bending Test (SCB);
Online: 27 September 2018 (14:43:05 CEST)
In regions with low-temperature action transverse cracks can appear in asphalt pavements as a result of thermal stresses that exceed the fracture strength of materials used in asphalt layers. To better understand thermal cracking phenomenon, strength properties of different asphalt mixtures were investigated. Four test methods were used to assess the influence of bitumen type and mixture composition on tensile strength properties of asphalt mixtures: tensile strength using the Thermal Stress Restrained Specimen Test (TSRST) and the Uniaxial Tension Stress Test (UTST), flexural strength using the Bending Beam Test (BBT) and fracture toughness using the Semi-Circular Bending Test (SCB). The strength reserve behavior of tested asphalt mixtures was assessed as well. The influence of cooling rate on strength reserve was investigated and correlations between results from different test methods were also analyzed and discussed. It was observed that the type of bitumen is a factor of crucial importance to low-temperature properties of the tested asphalt concretes. This conclusion was proved by all test methods that were used. It was also observed that the level of cooling rate influences the strength reserve and, in consequence, resistance to low-temperature cracking. It was concluded that reasonably good correlations were observed between strength results for the UTST, BBT and SCB test methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0026.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: semi-flexible polymers; hard sphere; athermal chain; Monte Carlo; molecular simulation; crystallization; packing; phase transition; order parameter; liquid crystal; nematic order; oblate mesogen; prolate mesogen; face centered cubic; hexagonal close packed; bending angle; freely-jointed model
Online: 3 January 2023 (09:30:22 CET)
The local and global order in dense packings of linear, semi-flexible polymers of tangent hard spheres are studied by employing extensive Monte Carlo simulations at increasing volume fractions. Chain stiffness is controlled by a tunable harmonic potential for the bending angle whose intensity dictates the rigidity of the polymer backbone as a function of the bending constant and equilibrium angle. The studied angles range from acute to obtuse ones, reaching the limit of rod-like polymers. We analyze how packing density and chain stiffness affect the ability of chains to self-organize at the local and global levels. The former corresponds to crystallinity as quantified by the Characteristic Crystallographic Element (CCE) norm descriptor, while the latter is computed through the scalar orientational order parameter. In all cases, we identify the critical volume fraction for the phase transition and gauge the established crystal morphologies, developing a complete phase diagram as a function of packing density and equilibrium bending angle. A plethora of structures is obtained, ranging from random hexagonal closed packed morphologies of mixed character and almost perfect face centered cubic (FCC) and hexagonal close-packed (HCP) crystals at the level of monomers, to nematic mesophases, with prolate and oblate mesogens at the level of chains. For rod-like chains, hysteresis is observed between the establishment of long-range nematic order and crystallization, while for right-angle chains both transitions are synchronized. A comparison is also provided against the analogous packings of monomeric and fully flexible chains of hard spheres.