ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0042.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: pH regulation; biohydrogen; suspended; immobilized; productivity
Online: 7 November 2016 (07:54:10 CET)
The effect of pH regulation on biohydrogen production was studied using suspended and immobilized mixed cultures. Four sets of experiments were conducted using suspended cells under regulated pH (Sus_R) and non-regulated pH conditions (Sus_N) as well as alginate-immobilized cells under pH regulated (Imm_R) and non-pH regulated conditions (Imm_N). Sus_R showed a peak hydrogen fraction of 44% and complete glucose degradation, compared to Sus_N with a peak hydrogen fraction of 36% and a glucose degradation of 37%. Imm_R experiments showed a peak biohydrogen fraction of 35%, while the peak hydrogen fraction observed with Imm_N was 22%. The highest hydrogen fraction was observed using suspended cells under regulated pH conditions. A 100% glucose degradation was observed in both pH regulated and non-regulated processes using immobilized cells. The rate of pH change was slower for immobilized cells compared to suspended cells suggesting a better buffering capacity under non pH regulated conditions. The study showed that biohydrogen production with suspended cells in a non-regulated pH environment resulted in early termination of the process and lower productivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0297.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: polyelectrolytes; charge regulation; charge fluctuations; weak polyelectrolyte; annealed polyelectrolyte; monte carlo simulation; semi-grand canonical ensemble; binding equilibria; conformational equilibria; constant ph ensamble; stretching; scaling law
Online: 27 October 2019 (10:01:16 CET)
This work addresses the role of charge regulation (CR) and the associated fluctuations in the conformational and mechanical properties of weak polyelectrolytes. Due to CR, changes in the pH-value modifies the average macromolecular charge and conformational equilibria. A second effect is that, for a given average charge per site, fluctuations can alter the intensity of the interactions by means of correlation between binding sites. We investigate both effects by means of Monte Carlo simulations at constant pH-value, so that the charge is a fluctuating quantity. Once the average charge per site is available, we turn off the fluctuations by assigning the same average charge to every site. A constant charge MC simulation is then performed. We make use of a model which accounts for the main fundamental aspects of a linear flexible polyelectrolyte i.e. proton binding, angle internal rotation, bond stretching and bending. Steric excluded volume and differentiated treatment for short-range and long-range interactions are also included in the model. It can be regarded as a kind of "minimal'' model in the sense that contains a minimum number of parameters but still preserving the atomistic detail. It is shown that, if fluctuations are activated, gauche state bond probabilities increase, and the persistence length decreases, so that the polymer becomes more folded. Macromolecular stretching is also analyzed in presence of CR (the charge depends on the applied force) and without CR (the charge is fixed to the value at zero force). The analysis of the low force scaling behavior concludes that Pincus exponent becomes pH-dependent. Both with and without CR, a transition from 1/2 at high pH-values (phantom chain) to 3/5 to low pH-values (Pincus regime), is observed. Finally, the intermediate force stretching regime is investigated. It is found that CR induces a moderate influence in the force-extension curves and persistence length (which in this force regime becomes force-dependent). It is thus concluded that the effect of CR on the stretching curves is mainly due to changes in the average charge at zero force. It is also found that, for the cases studied, the effect of steric excluded volume is almost irrelevant compared to electrostatic interactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0092.v1
Online: 8 October 2019 (11:32:24 CEST)
Galdieria maxima is a polyextremophilic alga capable of diverse metabolic processes. Ammonia is widely used in culture media typical of laboratory growth. Recent reports that this species can grow on wastes promote the concept that G. maxima might have biotechnological utility. Accordingly, there is a need to know the range of pH levels that can support G. maxima growth in a given nitrogen source. Here, we examined the combined effect of pH and nitrate/ammonium source on the growth and long-term response of the photochemical process to a pH gradient in different G. maxima strains. All were able to use differing nitrogen sources, despite both the growth rate and photochemical activity were significantly affected by the combination with the pH. All strains acidified the NH4+-medium (pH<3); only G. maxima IPPAS P507 showed reduced capacity in lowering the pH from 6.5. pH was a limiting factor in nitrate uptake at pH≥6.5; noteworthy, at pH 5 on nitrate G. maxima ACUF551 showed a good growth performance, despite the alkalization of the medium.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0031.v1
Online: 1 July 2021 (14:17:48 CEST)
pH value almost affects the function of cells and organisms in all aspects, so in biology, biochemical and many other research fields, it is necessary to apply simple, intuitive, sensitive, stable detection of pH and base characteristics inside and outside the cell. Therefore, many research groups have explored the design and application of pH probes based on surface enhanced Raman scattering（SERS）. In this review article, we discussed the basic theoretical background of explaining the working mechanism of pH SERS sensors, and also briefly described the significance of cell pH measurement, and simply classified and summarized the factors that affected the performance of pH SERS probes. Some applications of pH probes based on surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) in intracellular and extracellular pH imaging and the combination of other analytical detection techniques are described. And finally, the development prospect of this field is prospected.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0297.v1
Online: 11 March 2021 (08:36:21 CET)
Airborne transmission of seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses is responsible for their epidemiological success and public health burden in humans. Efficient airborne transmission of H1N1 influenza virus relies on receptor specificity and pH of fusion of the surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA). In this study, we examine the role of HA pH of fusion on transmissibility of a cell culture-adapted H3N2 virus. Mutations in the HA head at positions 78 and 212 of A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2), which were selected after cell culture adaptation, decrease the acid stability of the virus from a pH of 5.5 (WT) to 5.8 (mutant). In addition, we observed that this mutant H3N2 virus replicated to higher titers in cell culture but had reduced airborne transmission in the ferret model. These data demonstrate that, like H1N1 HA, the pH of fusion for H3N2 HA is a determinant of efficient airborne transmission. Surprisingly, we demonstrate that the NA segment noncoding regions can impact the pH of fusion of reassortant viruses. Taken together, our data confirm that HA acid stability is an important characteristic of epidemiologically successful human influenza viruses and is influenced by HA/NA balance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0515.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: organophosphate; pesticide; pH stability; toxicity; Apis mellifera
Online: 27 August 2021 (10:49:28 CEST)
Organophosphate pesticides are used in large quantities. However, they exhibit toxic effects on non-target organisms. Dimethoate and its oxo-analog omethoate inhibit acetylcholinesterase and are toxic for mammals. Moreover, they show extreme toxicity for bees. Once in the environment, they undergo chemical transformations and decomposition. We show that dime-thoate and omethoate decompose rapidly in alkaline aqueous solutions (half-lives 5.7 and 0.89 days) but are highly stable in acidic solutions (half-lives 124 and 104 days). These differences are explained using quantum chemical calculations, indicating that a weaker P–S bond in omethoate is more susceptible to hydrolysis, particularly at a high pH. The toxicity of these pesticides solutions decreases over time, indicating that no or very little highly toxic omethoate is formed during hydrolysis. Presented data can be used to predict dimethoate and omethoate concentrations in contaminated water depending on pH. Presented results suggest that alkaline hydrolysis of organophosphates has an advantage over other techniques for their removal since there is no risk of omethoate accumulation and increased toxicity of contaminated water.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0510.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Hydrogel; pH-responsive; colon; targeted delivery; methotrexate
Online: 22 September 2020 (08:17:48 CEST)
The purpose of current research work was to formulate and typify gelatin and poly(vinyl) alcohol (Gel/PVA) hydrogel which would be highly pH-responsive and can able to accomplish targeted delivery of methotrexate in order to treat the colo-rectal pathologies. The primed gel/pva hydrogel discs were subjected to various physicochemical techniques i.e. swelling, diffusion co-efficient, sol-gel analysis and porosity using three altered sorts of pH (1.2, 6.8 & 7.4) phosphate buffer solutions for assessment/evaluation, and their characterization was done through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Shape alteration and controlled methotrexate of release of Gel/PVA hydrogel have been done using three type of pH (1.2, 6.8 & 7.4) phosphate buffer mediums. Methotrexate was loaded through in-situ drug loading method due to hydrophobicity. Different kinetic models (first order & zero order kinetic), Higuchi model and Krosmere peppas model/Power law were applied to manipulate the drug release data. Physicochemical evaluation tests and drug release profile results were found insignificant (p< 0.05) in various pH mediums and dependent upon polymers concentration pH of medium and cross-linker amount. Kinetic model disclosed that release of methotrexate from Gel/PVA hydrogel follow non-Fickian diffusion method. It became concluded from this research work that release of methotrexate Gel/PVA hydrogel in targeted colon area can be achieved for treating colo-rectal disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0188.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry & Petrology Keywords: recycled aggregates; cement paste; carbonation; calcite; pH
Online: 21 March 2018 (07:52:05 CET)
In this study, four samples of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste of Mexico City were characterized, in order to find innovative uses for this type of materials. Gravel and sand from a recycling plant were analyzed, as well as recycled aggregates in the laboratory from demolished concrete collected in landfills. The characterization was carried out by means of XRD, chemical microanalysis (EDS), pH measurement and sieve analysis. The results reveal that the minerals present in the analyzed materials are triclinic feldspars, cristobalite and pyroxene which correspond to the natural aggregates, as well as variable amounts of calcite, product of the carbonation of the cement paste adhered to these aggregates and in a smaller proportion calcium hemicarboaluminate, rosenhanite and tobermorite. It was determined that the quality (amount of cement) of the original concrete that was recycled, has great influence on the granulometry and the chemical-mineralogical composition of the aggregates, since there will be different quantities and qualities of cement paste adhered to the aggregates of according to size. Finally the pH values measured in all samples fluctuate between 10.15 and 12.08, therefore it is suggested that these materials can be used in soil stabilization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0356.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: PEG; viability; osteoblasts; fibroblasts; pH; polyurethane; polyethylene glycol
Online: 23 September 2022 (03:52:52 CEST)
Grafting polyethylene glycol (PEG) on polymers surface is widely used to improve biocompatibility by reducing protein and cell adhesion. Although PEG is considered to be bioinert, its incorporation to biomaterials has shown to improve cell viability depending on the amount and molecular weight (MW) used. This phenomenon was studied here by grafting PEG of three MW onto polyurethane (PU) substrata at three molar concentrations to assess their effect on PU surface properties and on the viability of osteoblasts and fibroblasts. PEG formed a covering on the substrata which increased the hydrophilicity and surface energy of PUs. Among the results it was observed that osteoblast viability increased for all MW and grafting densities of PEG employed compared with unmodified PU. However, fibroblast viability only increased at certain combinations of MW and grafting densities of PEG, suggesting an optimal level of these parameters. PEG grafting also promoted a more spread cell morphology than that exhibited by unmodified PU; nevertheless, cells became apoptotic-like as PEG MW and grafting density were increased. These effects on cells could be due to PEG affecting culture medium pH, which became more alkaline at higher MW and concentrations of PEG. Results support the hypothesis that surface energy of PU substrates can be tuned by controlling the MW and grafting density of PEG, but these parameters should be optimized to promote cell viability without inducing apoptotic-like behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0063.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Blood Brain Barrier; pH; Proteome; Phospho-Proteome; Endothelial
Online: 6 June 2022 (05:51:59 CEST)
Pathologies of the blood brain barrier (BBB) have been linked to a multitude of CNS disorders whose pathology is poorly understood. Cortical spreading depression (CSD) has long been postulated to be involved in the underlying mechanisms of these disease states, yet full understanding remains elusive. This study utilized an in vitro model of the BBB with b.End3 murine endothelial cells to investigate the role of CSD in BBB pathology by characterizing effects of the release of major pronociceptive substances on BBB functional integrity using TEER screening, transcellular uptake, and immunoreactive methods in concert with global proteome and phospho-proteomic approaches. Findings demonstrated relocalization and functional alteration to proteins associated with the cytoskeleton and endothelial tight junctions. Pathologic mechanisms induced by individual substances released during CSD were found to have unique phosphorylation signatures in phospho-proteome analysis, identifying Zona Occludens 1 as a possible pathologic “checkpoint” of the BBB. Utilizing these phosphorylation signatures, possible novel diagnostic methods may be developed for neurological diseases and warrants further investigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0664.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: sodium alginate; microsphere; ultrasonic atomization; Dox; pH-adjusted
Online: 29 July 2021 (14:07:33 CEST)
The objective of this study aimed to develop biodegradable calcium alginate microspheres carrying doxorubicin (Dox) at the micrometer-scale for sustained-release and the capacity of pH regulatory for transarterial chemoembolization. Ultrasonic atomization and CaCl2 cross-linking technologies were used to prepare the microspheres. A 4 by 5 experiment was first designed to identify imperative parameters. The concentration of CaCl2 and the flow rate of the pump were found to be critical to generate microspheres with a constant volume median diameter (~ 39 m) across 5 groups with different alginate:NaHCO3 ratios using each corresponding flow rate. In each group, the encapsulation efficiency was positively correlated to the Dox-loaded efficiency. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy showed that NaHCO3 and Dox were step-by-step incorporated into the calcium alginate microspheres successfully. Microspheres containing alginate:NaHCO3 = 1 exhibited rough and porous surfaces, high Young’s modulus and hardness. In each group with the same alginate:NaHCO3 ratio, the swelling rates of microspheres were higher in PBS containing 10% FBS compared to those in PBS alone. Microspheres with relative high NaHCO3 concentrations in PBS containing 10% FBS maintained better physiological pH and higher accumulated Dox release ratios. In two distinct hepatocellular carcinoma-derived cell lines, treatments with microspheres carrying Dox demonstrated that the cell viabilities decreased in groups with relative high NaHCO3 ratios in time- and dose-dependent manners. Our results suggested that biodegradable alginate microspheres containing relative high NaHCO3 concentrations improved the cytotoxicity effects in vitro.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0478.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: electrospun nanofibers; pH; mercury ion; chemosensor; thermo-response
Online: 22 October 2018 (07:42:20 CEST)
Novel multifunctional fluorescent chemosensors composed of electrospun (ES) nanofibers with high sensitivity toward pH, mercury ions (Hg2+), and temperature were prepared from poly(N-Isopropylacrylamide-co-N-methylolacrylamide-co-rhodamine derivative) (poly(NIPAAm-co-NMA-co-RhBN2AM)) by employing electrospinning process. NIPAAm and NMA moieties provide hydrophilic and thermo-responsive properties (absorption of Hg2+ in aqueous solutions), and chemical cross-linking sites (stabilization of the fibrous structure in aqueous solutions), respectively. The fluorescent probe, RhBN2AM is highly sensitive toward pH and Hg2+. Synthesis of poly(NIPAAm-co-NMA-co-RhBN2AM) with different compositions were carried on via free-radical polymerization. ES nanofibers prepared from sensory copolymers with a 71.1:28.4:0.5 NIPAAm: NMA: RhBN2AM ratio (P3 ES nanofibers) exhibited significant color change from nonfluorescent to red fluorescence while sensing pH or Hg2+, and high reversibility of on/off switchable fluorescence emission when Hg2+ and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were sequentially added. The P3 ES nanofibrous membranes had a higher surface-to-volume ratio to enhance their performance than did the corresponding thin films. In addition, the fluorescence emission of P3 ES nanofibrous membranes exhibited second enhancement above the lower critical solution temperature. Thus, the ES nanofibrous membranes prepared from P3 with on/off switchable capacity and thermo-responsive characteristics can be used as multifunctional sensory devise for specific heavy transition metal (HTM) in aqueous solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0359.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Parkia biglobosa, alkaline fermentation, vegetable protein, condiment, pH
Online: 22 June 2018 (14:38:29 CEST)
Parkia biglobosa (African locust bean) seed was fermented aerobically to produce a vegetable protein based condiment using various temperature differences and ambient temperature. The rate of fermentation was monitored using three (3) different methods namely: weight loss, pH and Carbon dioxide release. Samples were inoculated using Bacillus subtilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as starter culture. During fermentation, several changes occur in the seeds of the African Locust bean. The difference in the weight loss (initial and final weight of the fermenting samples) were used to monitor the rate of fermentation of the African Locust bean (parkia biglobosa) seeds to vegetable protein called ‘Iru’. Fermentation of this seed to ‘Iru’ is an alkaline fermentation, which was confirmed by this work. As means of monitoring the rate of fermentation, the evolution of CO2 was also monitored.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0057.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: gold nanoparticles; citrate reduction method; pH-effect; concentration
Online: 5 June 2018 (09:49:45 CEST)
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are currently under intense investigation for biomedical and biotechnology applications, thanks to their ease in preparation, stability, biocompatibility, multiple surface functionalities and size-dependent optical properties. The most commonly used method for AuNPs synthesis in aqueous solution is the reduction of tetrachloroauric acid (HAuCl4) with trisodium citrate. We observed variations in the pH and concentration of the gold colloidal suspension synthesized under standard conditions, verifying a reduction in the reaction yield by around 46% from pH 5.3 (2.4 nM) to pH 4.7 (1.29 nM). Citrate-capped AuNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, TEM, EDS and zeta-potential measurements, revealing a linear correlation between pH and the concentration of the generated AuNPs. This result can be attributed to the adverse effect of protons both on citrate oxidation and on citrate adsorption onto the gold surface, which is required to form the stabilization layer. Overall, this study provides insight into the effect of the pH over the synthesis performance of the method, which would be of particular interest from the point of view of large-scale manufacturing processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0406.v2
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: halogen bonding; azobenzene; pH sensitive; stimuli responsive; orthogonal interaction
Online: 18 January 2022 (10:27:57 CET)
Smart materials represent an elegant class of (macro)-molecules endowed with the ability to react to chemical/physical changes in the environment. Herein, we prepared new photo responsive azobenzenes possessing halogen bond donor groups. The X-ray structures of two molecules highlight supramolecular organizations governed by unusual noncovalent bonds. In azo dye I-azo-NO2, the nitro group is engaged in orthogonal H···O···I halogen and hydrogen bonding, linking the units in parallel undulating chains. As far as compound I-azo-NH-MMA is concerned, a non-centrosymmetric pattern is formed due to a very rare I···π interaction involving the alkene group supplemented by hydrogen bonds. The Cambridge Structural Database contains only four structures showing the same I···CH2=C contact. For all compounds, an 19F NMR spectroscopic analysis confirms the formation of halogen bonds in solution through a recognition process with chloride anion, and the reversible photo-responsiveness is demonstrated upon exposing a solution to UV light irradiation. Finally, the intermediate I-azo-NH2 also shows a pronounced color change due to pH variation. These azobenzenes are thereby attractive building blocks to design future multi-stimuli responsive materials for highly functional devices.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0274.v2
Online: 2 May 2020 (16:40:16 CEST)
36 years after the publication of the important article by Busa and Nuccitelli on the variability of intracellular pH (pHi) and the interdependence of pHi and intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), little research has been carried out on pHi and calcium signaling. Moreover, the results appear to be contradictory. Some authors claim that the increase in [Ca2+]i is due to a reduction in pHi, others that it is caused by an increase in pHi. The reasons for these conflicting results have not yet been discussed and clarified in an exhaustive manner. Variations in pHi have a significant impact on the increase in [Ca2+]i and hence on some of the basic biochemical mechanisms of calcium signaling. This paper focuses on the possible triggering role of protons, highlighting the mechanisms potentially involved and the open issues that could be clarified by research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0475.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Pb; turbidity; pH; rain water; filtration; absorbtion; public health
Online: 22 October 2018 (06:06:19 CEST)
Pb found in rain water is not only caused by tin roof on houses but also caused by the pollution of industrial activities, vehicles and land clearing activity by fire. Pb pollutant dissolves and enters into rain water storages and it’s consumed as drinking. Pb can cause bad impact to human, for example disruption of enzyme, anemia and low intelligence. The purposes of this research are (1) to evaluate Pb, pH and turbidity level in rain water, (2) to analyze the effectiveness of mollusk sand filtration and the absorption of activity carbon to decrease Pb, turbidity and pH, and (3) to analyze the correlation of Pb, length of stay and smoking habit on public health. This research is an experimental by using pre and post test designs with control and observational by using cross sectional design. The research was conducted in urban and rural areas of Pontianak and Kubu Raya regency. The sampling was done in determining the number of samples of Pb, pH and turbidity in rain water. The analyzing the data by using computer program. The results show that: (1) the average of Pb, pH and turbidity level before treatment is considered high at 131.7 µg/L on Pb, turbidity at 20 NTU and low pH at 5.2. After the treatment was the Pb has decreased to 0.71 µg/L and turbidity has to 5.66 NTU, pH to 6.9 and (2) Rain water treatment is very effective to decrease Pb for 99.4% and turbidity for 72%, and (3) there is a correlation among Pb found in rain water, length of stay and smoking activity to public health. Recommends that: the residents of Pontianak and Kubu Raya to process rain water before consuming. The rain water treatment can be done by applying mollusk sand filtration and absorption of active carbon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0356.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: Anomalous diffusion; FRAP; Numerical Simulations; PH -domain, Membrane Binding
Online: 19 July 2018 (11:17:03 CEST)
FRAP technique have been used for decades to measure movements of molecules in 2D. Data obtained by FRAP experiments in cell plasma membranes are assumed to be described through means of two parameters, a diffusion coefficient D (as defined in a pure Brownian model) and a mobile fraction M. Nevertheless, it has also been shown that recoveries can be nicely fit using anomalous sub-diffusion. FRAP at variable radii has been developed using the Brownian diffusion model to access geometrical characteristics of the surrounding landscape of the molecule. Here we performed numerical simulations of continuous time random walk (CTRW) anomalous subdiffusion and interpreted them in the context of variable radii FRAP. These simulations were compared to experimental data obtained at variable radii on living cells using the PH domain of the membrane binding protein EFA6 (exchange factor for ARF6, a small G protein). This protein domain is an excellent candidate to explore the structure of the interface between cytosol and plasma membrane in cells. By direct comparison of our numerical simulations to the experiments, we show that this protein does not exhibit anomalous diffusion in BHK cells. The non Brownian PH-EFA6 dynamics observed here is more related to spatial heterogeneities such as cytoskeleton fences effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0150.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: radiation; skin barrier; sebaceous gland; transepidermal water loss; skin pH
Online: 23 November 2017 (08:33:29 CET)
Abstract: Radiation-induced skin injury can be a serious cutaneous damage and have specific characteristics. Asymptomatic periods are classified as the latent stage. The skin barrier plays a critical role in the modulation of skin permeability and hydration and protects the body against a harsh external environment. However, an analysis on the skin barrier dysfunction against radiation exposure in the latent stage has not been conducted. Thus, we investigated whether skin barrier is impaired by irradiation in the latent stage and aimed to identify the molecules involved in skin barrier dysfunction. We analyzed skin barrier function and its components in SKH-1 mice that received 20 and 40 Gy local irradiation. Increased transepidermal water loss and skin pH were observed in the latent stage of the irradiated skin. Skin barrier components, such as structural proteins and lipid synthesis enzymes in keratinocyte, increased in the irradiated group. Interestingly, we noted sebaceous gland atrophy and increased serine protease and inflammatory cytokines in the irradiated skin during the latent period. This finding indicates that the main factor of skin barrier dysfunction in the latent stage of radiation-induced skin injury is sebaceous gland deficiency, which could be an intervention target for skin barrier impairment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0010.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: fertilization; cleavage; gastrulation; sperm motility; temperature; salinity; pH; Acanthaster outbreaks
Online: 1 December 2016 (11:01:19 CET)
For broadcast spawning invertebrates such as the crown-of-thorns starfish, early life history stages (from spawning to settlement) may be exposed to a wide range of environmental conditions, and could have a major bearing on reproductive success and population replenishment. Arrested development in response to multiple environmental stressors at the earliest stages can be used to define lower and upper limits for normal development. Here, we compared sperm swimming speeds and proportion of motile sperm and rates of fertilization and early development under a range of environmental variables (temperature: 20-36°C, salinity: 20-34 psu, and pH: 7.6-8.2) to identify environmental tipping points and thresholds for reproductive success. We also tested the effects of water-soluble compounds derived from eggs on sperm activity. Our results demonstrate that gametes, fertilization, and early development are robust to a wide range of temperature, salinity, and pH levels that are outside the range found at the geographical limits of adult distribution and can tolerate environmental conditions that exceed expected anomalies as a result of climate change. Water-soluble compounds associated with eggs also enhance sperm activity, particularly in environmental conditions where sperm motility is initially limited. These findings suggest that fertilization and embryonic development of crown-of-thorns starfish are tolerant to a wide range of environmental conditions, though environmental constraints on recruitment success may occur at later ontogenic stages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0055.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: NMR; chemometrics; chloroform; phosgene; hydrochloric acid; sample degradation; pH-shift; protonation
Online: 5 July 2022 (03:53:09 CEST)
Highly reactive decomposition products of (deuterated) chloroform can deteriorate samples dissolved in this commonly used NMR solvent. For sensitive samples (such as peptides, unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins), this can lead to abnormal NMR spectra (e.g. signal shifts depending on pH, attenuation of signals over time due to chemical changes of analytes, new signals from reaction products). Such irreproducibly influenced spectra are especially problematic for non-targeted analysis methods. To prevent these artefacts, chlorine, phosgene and hydrochloric acid need to be eliminated from deuterated chloroform prior to its use. Since the common stabilization methods have proven insufficient for sensitive NMR samples, another purging method has been tested: Mitigation is easily and reliably achieved by washing the deuterated chloroform with concentrated Na2CO3-solution and subsequent desiccation with oven-dried Na2CO3.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0431.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: metal-organic gels; doxorubicin loading and release; pH-responsiveness; anticancer effect
Online: 30 May 2018 (05:01:21 CEST)
Slow and controlled release systems for drugs, have attracted increasing interest recently. A highly efficient metal-organic gels (MOGs) drug delivery carrier, i.e., MIL-100(Al) gels, has been fabricated by a facile, low cost and environment friendly one-pot process. The unique structure of MIL-100(Al) gels leads to a high loading efficiency (620 mg/g) towards doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) as a kind of anticancer drugs. DOX-loaded MOGs exhibited high stability under physiological conditions and sustained release capacity of DOX for up to 3 days (under acidic environments). They further showed sustained drug release behavior and excellent antitumor effects in in vitro experiments on HeLa cells, in contrast with the extremely low biotoxicity of MOGs. Our work provides a promising way for the anticancer therapy, by utilizing this MOGs-based drug delivery system, as an efficient and safe vehicle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0512.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: Intelligent corrosion inhibitor; Oleate imidazoline; Polyacrylamide; pH-controlled release; L80 carbon steel.
Online: 27 December 2022 (07:49:22 CET)
To provide carbon steel a long corrosion protection effect in NaCl solution with various pH, a pH-controlled intelligent inhibitor based on poly-acrylamide (PAM) and oleate imidazoline (OIM) was synthesized. SEM, FT-IR and TGA results indicating the OIM inhibitor was successfully loaded into PAM hydrogel with a very high content (39.64 wt%). The OIM release behavior from hydrogel structure have two stages, quickly release and sustained release. The pH of solution could affect the initial release kinetics of OIM inhibitor and the diffusion path in hydrogel structure. Weight loss measurement of L80 steel in different pH solution with OIM@PAM proved the inhibitor responsive release mechanism and an-ti-corrosion performance. The inhibition efficiency of OIM@PAM can maintain over 80% after long term immersion in harsh corrosive environment (pH 3), which is much higher than the inhibition efficiency of inhibitor in moderate corrosive solution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0145.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: CO2; Keeling curve; Mauna Loa; carbonates; ocean pH; chemical potential; acidification 1
Online: 12 September 2022 (10:00:52 CEST)
Seasonal oscillations in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in the Earth’s atmosphere stronger in northern latitudes are assumed to show that terrestrial photosynthesis exceeds respiration in summer reducing the pCO2, but increasing in winter when respiration exceeds photosynthesis. We disagree, proposing that variations in the temperature of the surface mixing zone of seawater also regulate the atmospheric pCO2, thermodynamically. We show that carbonate (CO32-) concentrations will therefore increase in summer with CaCO3 (calcite or aragonite) becoming less soluble, so calcium and carbonate ions are predicted to aggregate more while CO2 concentration falls in warmer seawater, thermodynamically favoring lower atmospheric pCO2. In winter, these physical processes are reversed, redissolving suspended calcite thus increasing carbonate alkalinity; carbonate concentration lessens as bicarbonate and soluble CO2 increase, raising the pCO2 in air. Our numerical computation shows that thermal fluctuations in equilibria favor absorption from air of more than one mole of CO2 per square meter in summer, coinciding with calcite formation maximizing in warmer water, potentially augmenting limestone reefs if there is a trend for increasing temperature . Another assumption we challenge is that upwelling from deeper water is the sole cause of increases in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and alkalinity in surface waters, particularly in the southern hemisphere. Instead, calcite dissolution is favored as water temperature falls near the surface. It is well established that the seasonal summer decline in atmospheric CO2 coincides in fertile seawater with higher rates of biotic calcification and acidity, allowing increased CO2 capture by photosynthesis. However, its reversal in winter is proposed to be also a result of the cyclic dissolution of calcite as temperature falls, facilitated by biogenic respiration now exceeding photosynthesis; this can mutually provide the CO2 needed to convert carbonate ion alkalinity from calcite dissolution with bicarbonate increasing. Physical reasons why this oscillation is more obvious in the northern hemisphere include greater seasonal variations in water temperature (ca. 7.1 oC) being almost twice that in the cooler southern hemisphere (ca. 4.7 oC) and the greater depth of the surface mixing zone of seawater in the southern oceans. Evidence from 13CO2 fluxes between surface seawater and air is also assessed to test this hypothesis but questions remain regarding the regional rates of inorganic precipitation and dissolution of CaCO3 in the mixing zone. In summary, rapid biogenic calcification is favored by summer photosynthesis, but slower abiogenic calcification is more likely in warmer water.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0027.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: glass fibers; composites; environmental aging; modeling; kinetics; water; pH; temperature; orientation; durability
Online: 4 July 2022 (03:44:24 CEST)
Glass fibers slowly dissolve and age when exposed to water molecules. Such a phenomenon also occurs when glass fibers are inside fiber-reinforced composites protected by the matrix. This en-vironmental aging results in the deterioration of the mechanical properties of the composite. In structural applications, GFRPs are continuously exposed to water environments for decades (typically design lifetime is around 25 years or even more). During their lifetime, these materials are affected by various temperatures, pH acidity levels, mechanical loads, and the synergy of these factors. The rate of the degradation process depends on the nature of glass, sizing, fiber orientation, and environmental factors such as acidity, temperature, and mechanical stress. In this work, degradation of typical industrial grade R-glass fibers, when inside an epoxy fiber-reinforced composite, is studied experimentally and computationally. A Dissolving Cylinder Zero-Order Kinetic (DCZOK) model was applied and could describe the long-term dissolution of glass composites, considering the influence of fiber orientation (hoop vs transverse), pH (1.7, 4.0, 5.7, 7.0, and 10.0), and temperature (20, 40, 60, and 80 °C). The limitations of the DCZOK model and effects of sizing protection, accumulation of degradation products inside the composite, and water availability were discussed. Experimentally dissolution was measured using ICP-MS. Like for the fibers, for GFRPs also, the temperature showed an Arrhenius-type influence on the ki-netics, increasing the rate of dissolution exponentially with increasing temperature. Similar to fibers, GFRPs showed a hyperbolic dependence on pH. The model was able to capture all of these effects, and the limitations were addressed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0543.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: grafting; polypropylene; gamma rays; methyl methacrylate; N-vinylimidazole; pH-responsiveness; vancomycin; release
Online: 29 November 2021 (15:04:44 CET)
Surface modification of polypropylene (PP) films is achieved using gamma-irradiation-induced grafting to proffer with antimicrobial activity. The copolymer was obtained through a versatile two-step route; pristine PP is exposed to gamma rays and grafted using methyl methacrylate (MMA), then N-vinylimidazole (NVI) is grafted onto the copolymer PP-g-MMA by simultaneous irradiation. The characterization included Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), and physicochemical analysis of swelling and contact angle. The copolymer (PP-g-MMA)-g-NVI was loaded with vancomycin, and the drug released was quantified by UV-vis spectrophotometry at different pH. The surface of (PP-g-MMA)-g-NVI exhibited pH-responsiveness and moderate hydrophilicity, suitable properties for controlled drug release.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0485.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Metal Organic Framework; Cu (II) ion- industrial waste water; pH; time; adsorption
Online: 18 June 2021 (15:16:57 CEST)
Copper is a heavy metal used in many industries and known for its negative impacts on the environment and human’s health. A novel structured metal organic framework (MOF) was used for copper adsorption for this work. SEM, EDAX, XRD and FTIR were done to confirm the structure of MOF prepared. MOF of 0.05 gm was used to examine its ability in Cu+ 2 removals with different initial concentrations of Cu+2 and pH values (5, 7 and 9). The prepared MOF was able to achieve Cu removal with 94.6%, 93%, 91.5%, and 92.5 % for the initial concentrations of 5, 10, 15, and 20 ppm respectively. It also performed very well for pH 5 and 7 with average removal ranging from 93.9%-95% for pH 5 and 7 for the initial concentrations of 5, 10, and 15 respectively which indicate that the prepared MOF is of high ability in Cu+ 2 removal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0132.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Wine yeast; malic acid; pH; breeding; Malo Lactic Fermentation; Marker Assisted Selection
Online: 3 March 2021 (12:43:08 CET)
Background Natural Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains exhibit very large genotypic and phe-notypic diversity. Breeding programs taking advantage of this characteristic, are widely used for yeast selection in the wine industry, especially in the recent years when winemakers need to adapt their production to climate change. The aim of this work was to evaluate a Marker Assisted Se-lection (MAS) program to improve malic acid consumption capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in grape juice. Methods Optimal individuals of two unrelated F1-hybrids were crossed to get a new genetic background carrying many “malic consumer” loci. Then, eleven QTLs already identified were used for implementing the MAS breeding program. Results By this way, extreme individuals able to consume more than 70% of malic acid in grape juice were selected. These individuals were tested in different enological matrixes and compared to their original parental strains. They greatly reduced the malic acid content at the end of alcoholic fermentations, they appeared to be robust to the environment and accelerate the ongoing of malo-lactic fermentations by Oenococcus oeni. Conclusions This study illustrates how MAS can be efficiently used for selecting industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with outlier properties for winemaking.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0192.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: caffeine; colloidal coffee; optical absorption; pH sensor; solute-solvent interactions; UV absorber
Online: 19 August 2019 (04:14:30 CEST)
Coffee and caffeine have been used as solar absorbers and also to increase the thermal stability and efficiency of perovskite solar cells. In this work, we report the sensing of extremely alkaline pH by colloidal coffee solution aided by generation of an optical absorption band in the near-UV region. This generation of absorption band could be explained by the orientation induced dipole-dipole interactions arising from differing caffeine-solvent interactions with varying pH. Such a generation leads to the lowering of direct as well as indirect bandgaps from 4 eV-->2.8 eV& 3.4 eV-->2.5 eV, respectively. We also estimate the changes in optical energy storage efficiency, inferring it to be highest for pH 11 having the highest intensity of the generated absorption band (λ_abs≈360 nm). With these observations and further deductions, the work reported in this paper would be of immense interest to the researchers working in the field of development of chemical pH sensors and also in the development of novel UV absorbers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0296.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: polymer surfaces; surface wettability; plasma surface modification; tunable surface wettability; pH-responsive
Online: 26 April 2019 (10:35:01 CEST)
Various methods of polymer surface tailoring have been studied to control the changes in wetting behavior. Polymers having precisely controlled wetting behavior in a specific environment are blessed with a wealth of opportunities and potential applications exploitable in biomaterial engineering. The controlled wetting behavior can be obtained by combining surface chemistry and morphology. Plasma assisted polymer surface modification technique have played a significant part to control surface chemistry and morphology. This review focuses on plasma polymerization and investigations regarding surface chemistry, surface wettability, coating kinetics, as well as coating stability. We begin with brief overview of plasma polymerization; these include growth mechanisms of plasma polymerization and influence of plasma parameters. Next, surface wettability and theoretical background structures and chemistry of superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic surfaces. In this review, overview of recent work on tunable wettability by tailoring surface chemistry and physical appearance (i.e. substrate texture) is also described. The formation of smart polymer coatings, which adjust their surface wettability by according to outside environment, including, pH, light, electric field and temperature. Finally, the applications of tunable wettability and pH responsiveness of polymer coatings in real life are addressed. This review should be of interest to plasma surface science communality specifically focused controlled wettability of smart polymer surfaces.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0390.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Exhaled Breath Condensate (EBC) Samples; Noninvasive Colleting Method; Biomarker, Diseases, pH, acidification
Online: 17 October 2018 (16:52:04 CEST)
Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) sample analysis is an entirely non-invasive novel sample collection method that is fast, easy to perform, and effort-appeared independent. EBC samples can be very useful in identifying the biomarkers of many diseases. This review provides an updated overview of EBC pH disturbances in different disorders as well as physiological levels among healthy individuals since 2012. Our meta-analysis addresses some of the key questions related to sample processing before pH measurement and discusses various methods of condensate standardization that can be employed prior to conducting a pH assay. Given the recent widespread interest in research into the use of EBC to identify biomarkers, it is necessary to establish a pathway leading from analytical methods for biomarker evaluation using EBC pH to clinical applications of this technology. This review fills a gap in the literature and attempts to connect theory to practical analytical approaches to analyzing EBC samples and making critical treatment-related decisions next to the patient's bed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0331.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: pH and breast cancer; breast cancer etiology; breast cancer etiopathogenesis; breast cancer treatment; pH-centric anticancer paradigm; hydrogen ion dynamics of cancer; cancer proton reversal; MDR integral approach
Online: 27 November 2019 (04:57:00 CET)
Despite all efforts, the treatment of breast cancer (BC) cannot be considered to be a success story. The advances in surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy have not been sufficient. Indeed, the accumulated experience clearly indicates that new perspectives and non-main stream approaches are needed to better characterize the etiopathogenesis and treatment of this disease. This contibution deals with how the new pH-centric anticancer paradigm plays a fundamental role in reaching a more integral understanding of the etiology, etiopathogenesis and treatment of this multifactorial disease. For the first time the armamentarium available for the treatment of the different types and phases of BC is approached here from a Unitarian perspective based upon the hydrogen ion dynamics of cancer. The wide-ranged pH-related molecular, biochemical and metabolic model is able to embrace most the fields and subfields of breast cancer pathology. This single and integrated approach allows to advance a unidirectional program to treatment. Further efforts in this line are likely to first improve the therapeutics of each subtype of this tumor, then every phase of the disease and finally every individual patient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0157.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Vanadium-titanium-iron concentrate; Pellet; Sulfuric acid; Cyclic leaching; Vanadium; Eh-pH diagrams
Online: 8 November 2022 (16:04:55 CET)
Here, a process for leaching vanadium from calcified roasting pellets (CPVC) of vanadium-titanium iron concentrate by a two-stage sulfuric acid cycle was proposed. When the silicon removal acid concentration of the pellet in the first stage was 1.5 mol/L, the solid-liquid ratio was 6: 1, the silicon removal acid concentration of the leaching solution was 3.0 mol/L, and the standing time was 48 h, the silica gel formation time was 23 h, the filtration time was 70 s, and the loss rates of vanadium and iron were 1.52% and 0.17%, respectively. When the acid concentration was 2 mol/L, at room temperature, using a leaching time of 28 days, and a solid-liquid ratio of 5: 1 in the second stage, the total leaching rates of vanadium and iron were 75.52% and 0.71%, respectively. The concentration of vanadium in the leaching solution reached 6.80 g/L, and vanadium was directly precipitated without extraction. After secondary roasting, the crushing strength of the pellets reached 2250 N, which met the requirement for blast furnace iron making. The Eh-pH diagrams of the V-Fe-H2O system at different temperatures were plotted. Thermodynamically, it was difficult to selectively leach vanadium and iron by changing the conventional acid leaching conditions. In addition, the pellets before and after leaching were analyzed. The grade of iron in the pellets increased slightly after leaching, and the main phases in the pellets remained as Fe2O3 and Fe9TiO15. The S in the sulfuric acid solution entered the leached pellets during the acid leaching reaction and was removed by the secondary roasting of the leached pellets.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0083.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: bioelectricity; ion flux; membrane potential; live sensor dyes; pH; serotonin; acetylcholine; GABA; hiNSC
Online: 6 July 2022 (03:52:01 CEST)
All living cells maintain a charge distribution across their cell membrane (membrane potential) by carefully controlled ion fluxes. These bioelectric signals regulate cell behavior (such as migration, proliferation, differentiation) as well as higher-level tissue and organ patterning. Thus, voltage gradients represent an important parameter for diagnostics as well as a promising target for therapeutic interventions in birth defects, injury, and cancer. However, despite much progress in cell and molecular biology, little is known about bioelectric states in human stem cells. Here, we present simple methods to simultaneously track ion dynamics, membrane voltage, cell morphology, and cell activity (pH and ROS), using fluorescent reporter dyes in living human neurons derived from induced neural stem cells (hiNSC). We developed and tested functional protocols for manipulating ion fluxes, membrane potential, and cell activity, and tracking neural responses to wounding and re-innervation in vitro. Finally, using morphology sensor, we tested and quantified the ability of physiological actuators (neurotransmitters and pH) to manipulate nerve wound re-innervation. These methods are not specific to a particular cell type and should be broadly applicable to the study of bioelectrical controls across a wide range of combinations of models and endpoints.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0307.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Clonorchis sinensis; cathepsin D; aspartic peptidase; molecular dynamics simulation; pH effect; flap dynamics
Online: 13 May 2021 (14:03:32 CEST)
Cathepsin D (CatD; EC 188.8.131.52) family peptidases of parasitic organisms are regarded as potential drug targets as they play critical roles in the physiology and pathobiology of parasites. Previously, we characterized the biochemical features of cathepsin D isozyme 2 (CatD2) in the carcinogenic liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis (CsCatD2). In this study, we performed all-atomic molecular dynamics simulations by applying different systems for the ligand-free/bound forms under neutral and acidic conditions to investigate the pH-dependent structural alterations and associated functional changes in CsCatD2. CsCatD2 showed several distinctive characteristics as follows: 1) CsCatD2-inhibitor complex formed more hydrogen bonds; 2) acidic pH caused major conformational transitions from open to closed state in this enzyme; 3) neutral pH induced displacement of the N-terminal part to hinder the accessibility of the active site and open allosteric site of this enzyme; and 4) the flap dynamics metrics, including distance (d1), TriCα angles (θ1 and θ2), and dihedral angle (ϕ), account for the asymmetrical twisting motion of the active site of this enzyme. These findings provide an in-depth understanding of the pH-dependent structural dynamics of CsCatD2 and basic information for the rational design of an inhibitor as a drug targeting CsCatD2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0412.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Hydronium jarosite; potassium jarosite; micro particles; pH; aging time; energy storage; euhedral morphology
Online: 16 December 2020 (13:41:15 CET)
Structural and morphological properties of the hydronium-potassium jarosite microstructures were investigated in this work, and their electrical properties were evaluated. All microstructures were synthesized at a reasonable temperature of 343 K with a reduced reaction time of 3 hours. Increase in the pH from 0.8 to 2.1 decreased the particle sized from 3 µm to 200 nm and increasing the aging time from 0, 3 to 7 days resulted in semispherical, spherical and euhedreal jarosite structures, respectively. A Rietveld analysis also was done, finding that increasing pH, the amount of hydronium substitution by potassium in the cationic site also increases, having a 77.72 % of hydronium jarosite (JH) plus 22.29 % potassium jarosite (JK) at pH 0.8; 82.44 % (JH) and 17.56 % (JK) at pH 1.1, and 89.98 % (JH) plus 10.02 % (JK) at pH 2.1. The results obtained in this work show that the obtained hydronium potassium jarosite microstructures with reduced particle size and euhedreal morphology can be used as anode materials for improving the life time of lithium ion batteries, due that during the analysis of the voltage obtained using electrodes made with this particles and graphite, this ranged from 0.89 to 1.36 V.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0432.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: sustainable food production; pH; supplemental C; marine aquaponics; wastewater treatment; halophytic plants; Litopenaeus vannamei
Online: 23 November 2022 (04:17:35 CET)
pH is the major factor that makes producers in aquaponics frustrated, since the main three organisms (aquatic animal, plant, and microbes) in the system with different preferences. Yet, amending the growing environment with additional C is a potential method to improve the growth of shrimp and plants as well as the establishment of microbe. A detailed study of the effects of pH and additional C on aquaponics under saline conditions has not been investigated. In this study, the effect of pH and additional C on the growth performance of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) and five edible plants in marine aquaponic systems using the nutrient film technique (NFT) was evaluated. The results indicated that at both pH 6.5 treatments, plants grew better; nevertheless, the growth performance of plants in pH 7.5 with additional C was improved and showed a similar yield to lower pH treatments. On the other hand, shrimp growth was little affected by pH and additional C. A higher impact of imbalanced ionic composition on shrimp performance may have contributed to this trend. Hence, we suggest that only if the ionic composition is managed can make RO water a suitable source of water for shrimp-based aquaponic. In spite of this, more research is required.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0463.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: metallothermy; thermodynamics; Ellingham diagrams; Nernst equation; Pourbaix (Eh-pH) diagrams; E-pO-2 diagrams
Online: 18 March 2021 (09:31:48 CET)
Rare earths are classified as most important and critical material for US economy and defense by Congress and a mandate has been set to increase their in-house production, domestic resource utilization and decrease reliance on foreign resources and reserves. They are widely available in earth crust as ore (bastnaesite (La, Ce)FCO3, monazite, (Ce, La, Y, Th)PO4, and xenotime, YPO4), but their so-called economic reserves are sparsely located geographically. They may be produced by various means such as beneficiation (physical, chemical, mechanical, or electrical), reduction (direct or indirect), electrolysis (of aqueous or molten / fused single or mixed salt systems) at high temperature or hydrometallurgy. Out of these, direct reduction also known as metallothermic reduction (La and Ca reduction) is mostly utilized. Its variant, high temperature electrowinning of fused salts is also practiced widely. These processes are material and application specific. In this study, author will employ thermodynamics (Ellingham diagrams, free energy of formation, reduction potential, Nernst equation, Pourbaix (Eh-pH) diagrams, E-pO-2 diagrams), kinetics and energetic of a chemical reaction (chemical metallurgy) to reduce rare earth oxide / salt to rare earth metals (REO/RES – REM). It is shown that materials and energy requirement vary greatly depending on type of mineral ore, production facility, and beneficiation / mineral processing method selected. Aim is to reduce dependence on coal deposits. It is anticipated this route will be able to produce rare earths with > 35% yield and > 98% purity which be described in subsequent studies and patents.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0408.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: actuator; alternator; electrochemomechanical; inverter; more-than-Moore; oil-water interface; oscillator; pH; unconventional computing
Online: 27 March 2020 (11:34:27 CET)
In this article, we report the generation of alternating current by application of constant and ramping DC voltages across oil-water interfaces. The work reported here can be broadly divided into two parts depending on the shapes of oil-water interfaces i.e. flattened and curved. In the first part, an alternating current of ~100 nA (amplitude)was generated by applying a constant DC voltage of -3V& above across a free standing and flattened oil-water interface.In another part, an alternating current of ~150 nA (amplitude) was generated by applying a ramping up DC voltage starting from -5V to 5V, then again ramping back down to -5V for the free standing and curved interface. The suggested qualitative mechanism that engenders such a phenomenon includes the oil-water interface acting like a membrane. This membrane oscillates due to the electrophoretic movement of ions present in aqueous phase by application of a DC voltage across the interface.This electrophoretic movement of ions across oil-water interfaces causes the Faraday instabilities leading to oscillations of the said interface.This method could also be used to study the stress levels in the interfacial films between two immiscible liquids. It explores more-than-Moore’s paradigm by finding a substitute to a conventional alternator/inverter that generates alternating current upon applying DC voltage input. This work would be of substantial interest to researchers exploring alternatives to conventional AC generators that can be used in liquid environments and in the design of novel integrated circuits that could be used for unconventional computing applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0096.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: ph sensors; reticulorumen; blood gas; automatic milking system; real-time monitoring; precision livestock farming
Online: 10 January 2020 (10:08:05 CET)
We hypothesized possibility that inline registered reticulorumen pH can be as biomarker of cows reproduction and health status. Aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of reticulorumen pH with biomarkers from automatic milking system (AMS) and some blood parameters and determinate reticulorumen pH as biomarker of cows reproduction and health status. According to cows reproductive status the cows were classified as belonging to the following four groups: 15-30 d. postpartum; 1-34 d. after insemination; 35 d. after insemination (non-pregnant); 35 d. after insemination (pregnant). According reticulorumen pH assay experimental animals were divided into four classes: 1) pH<6.22 (5.3% of cows), 2) pH - 6.22-6.42 (42.1% of cows), 3) pH - 6.42-6.62 (21.1% of cows), 4) pH >6.62 (10.5% of cows). Rumination time, body weight, milk yield, milk fat – protein ratio, milk lactose, milk somatic cell count (SCC), milk electrical conductivity of all quarters of udder were registered with the help of Lely Astronaut® A3 milking robots. The pH, temperature of the contents of cow reticulorumens and cow activity were measured using specific smaX-tec boluses. Blood gas parameters were analyzed using a blood gas analyzer (EPOC, Canada). We found that pregnant cows has higher reticulorumen pH during insemination time, comparing with non-pregnant. Cows with lower reticulorumen pH has lowest milk fat – protein ratio, and lactose concentration, and highest SCC. Cows with lowest reticulorumen pH has lowest blood pH. With increase reticulorumen pH, increases blood potasium and hematocrit, decreases CO2, saturation and sodium.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0004.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: influenza; neutralising antibodies; vestigial esterase; antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity; pH-induced conformational changes
Online: 2 July 2018 (08:33:45 CEST)
Initial attempts to develop monoclonal antibodies as therapeutics to resolve influenza infections focused mainly on searching for antibodies with the potential to neutralise the virus in vitro with classical haemagglutination inhibition and micro-neutralisation assays. This led to the identification of many antibodies that bind to the head domain of haemagglutinin (HA) which generally have potent neutralisation capabilities that block viral entry or viral membrane fusion. However, this class of antibodies has a narrow breadth of protection in that they are usually strain specific. This led to the emphasis on stalk targeting antibodies which are able to bind a broad range of viral targets that span across different influenza subtypes. Recently, a third class of antibodies targeting the vestigial esterase (VE) domain have been characterised. In this review, we describe the key features of neutralising VE targeting antibodies and compare them with head and stalk class antibodies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0189.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: batch; biopolyesters; bioreactor; cell recycling; continuous; chemostat; fed-batch; fermentation; pH-stat; polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)
Online: 21 March 2018 (13:01:12 CET)
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are microbial biopolyesters utilized as “green plastics”. Their production under controlled conditions resorts to bioreactors operated in different modes. Because PHA biosynthesis constitutes a multiphase process, both feeding strategy and bioreactor operation mode need smart adaptation. Traditional PHA production setups based on batch, repeated batch, fed-batch or cyclic fed-batch processes are often limited in productivity, or display insufficient controllability of polyester composition. For highly diluted substrate streams like it is the case for (agro)industrial waste streams, fed-batch enhanced by cell recycling were recently reported as a viable tool to increase volumetric productivity. As emerging trend, continuous fermentation processes in single-, two-, and multi-stage setups are reported, which bring the kinetics of both microbial growth and PHA accumulation into agreement with process engineering, and allow tailoring PHA´s molecular structure. Moreover, we currently witness an increasing number of CO2-based PHA production processes using cyanobacteria; these light-driven processes resort to photobioreactors similar to those used for microalgae cultivation, and can be operated both discontinuously and continuously. This development goes in parallel to the emerging use of methane and syngas as an abundantly available gaseous substrates, which also calls for bioreactor systems with optimized gas transfer. The review sheds light on the challenges of diverse PHA production processes in different bioreactor types and operational regimes using miscellaneous microbial production strains such as extremophilic Archaea, chemoheterotrophic eubacteria and phototrophic cyanobacteria. Particular emphasize is dedicated to the limitations and promises of different bioreactor-strain combinations, and to efforts devoted to upscaling these processes to industrially relevant scales.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0115.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: beta-amyloid toxicity, proteolytic digestion, membrane channel, intracellular ion disturbances, calcium homeostasis, intracellular pH, lysosome
Online: 4 August 2021 (13:19:50 CEST)
In this manuscript, we reassess the data on beta-amyloid-induced changes of intracellular ions concentrations published previously by Abramov et al. (2003, 2004). Their observations made using high-resolution confocal microscopy with fast temporal resolution of images formed by fluorescent ion-sensitive fluorescent probes in living cells represent an unequivocal support for the amyloid channel theory. However, closer look reveals multiple facts which cannot be explained by channel formation in plasma membrane. Recently proposed amyloid degradation toxicity hypothesis provides the interpretation to these facts by considering that channels are formed in the lysosomal membranes.
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: pH neutralization; ion release; enamel demineralization; glass ionomer cement; surface pre-reacted glass ionomer filler
Online: 5 May 2020 (04:22:41 CEST)
This study was aimed at investigating the protective effects of glass ionomer cement (GIC) and surface pre-reacted glass ionomer (S-PRG) fillers used as dental restorative materials on demineralization of bovine enamel. GlasIonomer FX ULTRA (FXU), Fuji IX GP Extra (FIXE), CAREDYNE RESTORE (CDR) were used as GICs. PRG Barrier Coat (BC) was used as the S-PRG filler. They were incubated in a lactic acid solution (pH = 4.0) for 6 d at a temperature of 37 °C. The mineral was etched from the enamel surface, and a large number of Ca and P ions were detected in solution. The Al, F, Na, Sr, and Sr ions were released in GICs and S-RPG fillers. The Zn ion was released only in CDR and the B ion was released only in BC. The presence of apparent enamel prism peripheries was observed after 6 d of treatment for the group containing only enamel blocks. pH values for the FXU, FIXE, CDR, BC, and enamel block groups after 6 d were 6.5, 6.6, 6.7, 5.9, and 5.1, respectively. Therefore, the observed pH neutralization effect suppressed progression of caries due to the release of several ions from the restoratives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0202.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: relaxation response; meditation; music; serum; pH; electric conductivity; delayed luminescence; fractals; coherent states; self-similarity
Online: 12 April 2020 (17:12:29 CEST)
In our recent works we reported that physical and chemical characteristics of serum can vary in relation to the psychic activity of an individual depending on whether it is oriented to stress or relaxation. We wandered if these observations could be accompanied by an appreciable modification of the Ph, electric conductivity and Delayed Luminescence of the same serum samples. Our preliminary data may suggest that the serum pH could significantly increase during a Relaxation Response intervention while electric conductivity seems to decrease. Moreover, Delayed Luminescense could vary in the same subject according to the Relaxation Response practice. According to our proof of concept study, we postulate the appearance of a coherent system within the blood samples analyzed after the Relaxation Response. Further researches and some technical development are needed to support our preliminary findings.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0344.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: carbonic anhydrase; carbonic anhydrase related proteins; acid-base balance; ion transport; pH regulation; motor coordination; zebrafish
Online: 25 March 2022 (09:22:10 CET)
During the last decades, zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become one of the most important model organisms to study different physiological and biological phenomena. Research field of carbonic anhydrases (CAs) and carbonic anhydrase related proteins (CARPs) is not an exception in this. The best-known known function of CAs is the regulation of acid-base balance. However, studies performed with zebrafish, among others, have revealed important roles for these proteins in many other physiological processes, some of which have been unpredicted in the light of the previous studies and suggestions. Examples are roles in zebrafish pigmentation as well as motor coordination. Disruption of the function of these proteins may generate even lethal outcomes. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of CA-related studies performed in zebrafish.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0186.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Chaga (Inonotus obliquus); Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE); myconutrients; Swiss water process (SWP); Green extraction; pH; Temperature
Online: 8 July 2021 (10:02:51 CEST)
Mushrooms have long rich history in folk medicine, traditional and functional foods due to high content of dietary myco-nutrients. Currently, there is increased interest in finding appropriate food-grade green ex-traction systems capable of extracting these bioactive compounds from dietary mushrooms for applica-tions in various food, pharmacological or nutraceutical formulations. Herein, we evaluated a modified Swiss water process (SWP) method using alkaline and acidic pH at low and high temperature under pressurized conditions as a suitable green food grade solvent to obtained extracts enriched with my-co-nutrients (dietary phenolics, total antioxidants (TAA), vitamins, and minerals) from Chaga. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution accurate mass tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRAMS-MS/MS) was used to assess the phenolic compounds and vitamin levels in the extracts, while inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine the mineral con-tents. Over twenty phenolic compounds were quantitatively evaluated in the extracts and the highest total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was observed at pH11.5 at 100°C. The most abundant phenolic compounds present in Chaga extracts included phenolic acids such as protocatechuic acid 4-glucoside (0.7-1.08µg/mL), syringic acid (0.62-1.18µg/mL), and myricetin (0.68-1.3µg/mL). Vitamins are being reported for the first time in Chaga. pH 2.5 at 100°C treatment shows superior effects in extracting the B vitamins whereas pH 2.5 at 60 and 100°C treatments were outstanding for extraction of total fat-soluble vitamins. Vitamin E content was the highest for the fat-soluble vitamins in the Chaga extract under acidic pH (2.5) and high temp. (100°C) and ranges between 50 to 175 µg/100g Chaga. Antioxidant minerals ranged from 85.94 µg/g (pH7 at 100°C) to 113.86 µg/g DW (pH2.5 at 100°C). High temperature 100°C and a pH of 2.5 or 9.5. The treatment of pH11.5 at 100°C was the most useful for recovering phenolics and antioxidants from Chaga including several phenolic compounds reported for the first time in Chaga. SWP is being proposed herein for the first time as a novel, green food-grade solvent system for the extraction of myco-nutrients from Chaga and have potential applications as a suitable approach to extract nutrients from other matrices. Chaga extracts enriched with bioactive myconutrients and antioxidants may be suitable for further use or applications in the food and nutraceutical industries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0064.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: Moderate halophile; Carbonate minerals; Mg/Ca ratios; Different magnesium, Carbonic anhydrase; pH increase; Cell density; Growth mode
Online: 2 November 2018 (14:23:37 CET)
Carbonate precipitation induced by microorganism has become a hot spot in the field of carbonate sedimentology, while the effect of different magnesium on biominerals has rarely been studied. Therefore, magnesium sulfate and magnesium chloride were used to investigate the significant role played on carbonate minerals. In this study, Staphylococcus epidermidis Y2 was isolated and identified by 16S rDNA homology comparison. The ammonia, pH, carbonic anhydrase, carbonate and bicarbonate ions were investigated. The mineral phase, morphology and elemental composition were analyzed by XRD and SEM-EDS. The ultrathin slices of bacteria were analyzed by HRTEM-SAED and STEM. The result showed that this bacterium could release ammonia and carbonic anhydrase to increase pH, and elevate the supersaturation via a large number of carbonate and bicarbonate ions released through carbon dioxide hydration catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase. The crystal cell density of monohydrocalcite was lower in magnesium chloride medium than that in magnesium sulfate medium. The crystal grew in a mode of spiral staircas in magnesium sulfate medium, while in a concentric circular pattern in magnesium chloride medium. There was no obvious intracellular biomineralization. This study may be helpful to further understand the biomineralization mechanism, may also provide some references for the reconstruction of paleogeological environment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0534.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer etiopathogenesis; breast cancer treatment; hydrogen ion dynamics of cancer; pH-related paradigm; H+-related therapeutics of breast cancer
Online: 23 September 2020 (04:04:24 CEST)
A brand-new approach to the understanding of breast cancer (BC) is urgently needed. In this contribution, the etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of this disease is approached from the new pH-centric anticancer paradigm. Only this Unitarian perspective based upon that the hydrogen ion (H+) dynamics of cancer, allows understanding and integrating the many dualisms, confusions, and paradoxes of the disease. The new H+-related wide range model can embrace under a unique frame of mind the many aspects of the disease and at the same time therapeutically interfere with most, if not with all, the hallmarks of cancer known to date. The pH-related armamentarium available for the treatment of BC here reviewed may be beneficial for all types and stages of the disease. In this vein, we have attempted a mega synthesis of traditional and new knowledge in the different areas of breast cancer research and treatment based upon the wide range approach afforded by the hydrogen ion dynamics of cancer. The concerted utilization of a pH-related drugs nowadays available for the treatment of breast cancer is advanced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0097.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Electrochemistry Keywords: Te nanotubes decorated with Pt nanoparticles; fuel cell neutral pH; oxygen reduction reaction; methanol oxidation reaction; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.
Online: 7 March 2019 (13:49:46 CET)
In fuel-cell technological development, one of the most important objectives is to minimize the amount of Pt, the most employed material as oxygen reduction and methanol oxidation electro-catalyst. In this paper we report the synthesis and characterization of Te nanotubes (TeNTs) decorated with Pt nanoparticles, readily prepared from stirred aqueous solutions of PtCl2 containing a suspension of TeNTs and ethanol acting as a reducing agent, avoiding the use of any hydrophobic surfactants as capping stabilizing substance. The as obtained TeNTs decorated with Pt nanoparticles (TeNTs/PtNPs) have been fully characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area diffraction patterns (SAD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). We demonstrate that the new material can be successfully employed in fuel cell either as anodic (for methanol oxidation reaction) and cathodic (for oxygen reduction reaction) electrode with high efficiency in terms of related mass activities and on-set improvement. Remarkably, the cell operates in aqueous electrolyte buffered at pH 7.0, thus avoiding acidic or alkaline conditions that may lead e. g. to Pt dissolution (at low pH) and paving the way for the development of biocompatible devices and on chip fuel cells.
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: feminine hygiene; feminine gel wash; lactic acid; vulvar skin pH; vulvar microbiome; skin microflora; vulvovaginal environment; bacterial 16S rRNA gene; fungal ITS
Online: 9 December 2019 (03:53:52 CET)
Background: While intimate feminine hygiene products are widely used by women as part of daily cleansing routines, little is known about how these products impact the vulvovaginal area and its microbiome stability. A novel gel wash containing lactic acid (pH 4.2) for external daily use was formulated to provide gentle cleansing, freshness, and antimicrobial protection to maintain a healthy balance of the vulvar skin area. This 4-week clinical study assessed tolerance of the gel wash when used on the external genital area and its effects on skin hydration, vulvar skin pH, and the vulvar microbiome. After a 7-day pre-study conditioning period, 36 healthy females in 3 balanced age groups (18-29, 30-44, and 45-55 years) used the gel wash to cleanse their external genital area (mons pubis and vulva) and entire body at least once per day for 28 days. The primary endpoint wasSkin tolerance of the gel wash was assessed by the gynecologist. Effects of the gel wash on vulvar skin microbiota were studied by performing bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal ITS microbial richness and diversity analysis. Results: Based on gynecologic assessment after 28 days of use, the gel wash showed acceptable tolerance, with no signs of increased dryness, redness, edema, itching, stinging, or burning. Use of the gel wash was associated with a significant increase in both short-term (single application) and longer-term (daily use for 28 days) skin moisturization. There was no significant change in vulvar skin pH over time with daily product use, and the gel wash did not significantly affect the natural vulvar microbiome species richness or diversity for bacteria or fungi. Conclusions: Results of the study showed that this new gel wash is a mild, moisturizing cleanser that does not harm and instead maintains the natural pH and microbial diversity of vulvar skin. To our knowledge, this was the first study to assess the effect of an antimicrobial feminine gel wash on the natural pH and vulvar microbiome habitat of the skin using bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal ITS genetic sequencing techniques, thereby providing a better understanding of the bacterial and fungal communities that inhabit the external vulvar area in healthy women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0100.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Amphistegina lobifera; Red Sea; pH microsensor; global warming; thermal stress; ocean acidification; large benthic foraminifera; coral reef; LC-MS/MS proteomics; photosymbiotic calcifier
Online: 2 March 2021 (15:52:01 CET)
Reef-dwelling calcifiers face numerous environmental stresses associated with anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions, including ocean acidification and warming. Photosymbiont-bearing calcifiers, such as large benthic foraminifera, are particularly sensitive. To gain insight into their resistance and adaptive mechanisms to climate change, Amphistegina lobifera from the Gulf of Aqaba were cultured under elevated pCO2 (492, 963, and 3182 ppm) fully-crossed with elevated temperature (28°C and 31°C) for two months. Differential protein abundances in host and photosymbionts amongst treatments were investigated alongside physiological responses and microenvironmental pH variations. Over 1000 proteins were identified, of which one-third varied significantly between treatments. Thermal stress induced protein depletions, along with reduced holobiont growth. Elevated pCO2 caused only minor proteomic alterations and color changes. However, combined stressors reduced pore sizes and increased microenvironmental pH, indicating adaptive modifications to gas exchange. Notably, substantial proteomic variations at moderate-pCO2 and 31°C indicate cellular stress, while stable physiological performance at high-pCO2 and 31°C is scrutinized by putative decreases in test stability. Our experiment shows that the effects of climate change can be missed when stressors are assessed in isolation, and that physiological responses should be assessed across organismal levels to make more realistic predictions for the fate of reef calcifiers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0027.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: neurodegenerative diseases - multiple sclerosis; new therapeutic options for multiple sclerosis and other 24 neurodegenerative diseases. pH in cancer and neurodegenerative diseases - cancer and neurodegeneration as opposed processes - 25 metabolic e
Online: 2 February 2022 (09:42:40 CET)
The pH-related metabolic paradigm has rapidly grown in cancer research and treatment. In this contribution, this recent oncological perspective has been laterally for the first time in order to integrate neurodegeneration within the energetics of the cancer acid-base conceptual frame. At all levels of study, molecular, biochemical, metabolic and clinical, the intimate nature of both processes appears to be opposite mechanisms occurring at the far ends of a physiopathological intracellular pH/extracellular pH (pHi/pHe) spectrum. This wide-ranged original approach now permits an increase in our understanding of these opposite processes, cancer and neurodegeneration, and, as a consequence, allows to propose new avenues of treatment based upon the intracellular and microenvironmental hydrogen ion dynamics regulating and deregulating the biochemistry and metabolism of both cancer and neural cells. Under the same perspective, the etiopathogenesis and special characteristics of multiple sclerosis (MS) becomes an excellent model for the study of neurodegenerative diseases and, utilizing this pioneering approach, we find that MS appears to be a metabolic disease even before an autoimmune one. Also within this paradigm, several important aspects of MS, from mitochondrial failure to microbiota functional abnormalities, are analyzed in depth.