Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

The Influence of pH and Temperature on Water as a Pressurized Fluid in the Extraction of Bioactive Myconutrients from Chaga Mushroom (Inonotus obliquus)

Version 1 : Received: 7 July 2021 / Approved: 8 July 2021 / Online: 8 July 2021 (10:02:51 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Abu-Reidah, I.M.; Critch, A.L.; Manful, C.F.; Rajakaruna, A.; Vidal, N.P.; Pham, T.H.; Cheema, M.; Thomas, R. Effects of pH and Temperature on Water under Pressurized Conditions in the Extraction of Nutraceuticals from Chaga (Inonotus obliquus) Mushroom. Antioxidants 2021, 10, 1322. Abu-Reidah, I.M.; Critch, A.L.; Manful, C.F.; Rajakaruna, A.; Vidal, N.P.; Pham, T.H.; Cheema, M.; Thomas, R. Effects of pH and Temperature on Water under Pressurized Conditions in the Extraction of Nutraceuticals from Chaga (Inonotus obliquus) Mushroom. Antioxidants 2021, 10, 1322.

Journal reference: Antioxidants 2021, 10, 1322
DOI: 10.3390/antiox10081322

Abstract

Mushrooms have long rich history in folk medicine, traditional and functional foods due to high content of dietary myco-nutrients. Currently, there is increased interest in finding appropriate food-grade green ex-traction systems capable of extracting these bioactive compounds from dietary mushrooms for applica-tions in various food, pharmacological or nutraceutical formulations. Herein, we evaluated a modified Swiss water process (SWP) method using alkaline and acidic pH at low and high temperature under pressurized conditions as a suitable green food grade solvent to obtained extracts enriched with my-co-nutrients (dietary phenolics, total antioxidants (TAA), vitamins, and minerals) from Chaga. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution accurate mass tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRAMS-MS/MS) was used to assess the phenolic compounds and vitamin levels in the extracts, while inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine the mineral con-tents. Over twenty phenolic compounds were quantitatively evaluated in the extracts and the highest total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was observed at pH11.5 at 100°C. The most abundant phenolic compounds present in Chaga extracts included phenolic acids such as protocatechuic acid 4-glucoside (0.7-1.08µg/mL), syringic acid (0.62-1.18µg/mL), and myricetin (0.68-1.3µg/mL). Vitamins are being reported for the first time in Chaga. pH 2.5 at 100°C treatment shows superior effects in extracting the B vitamins whereas pH 2.5 at 60 and 100°C treatments were outstanding for extraction of total fat-soluble vitamins. Vitamin E content was the highest for the fat-soluble vitamins in the Chaga extract under acidic pH (2.5) and high temp. (100°C) and ranges between 50 to 175 µg/100g Chaga. Antioxidant minerals ranged from 85.94 µg/g (pH7 at 100°C) to 113.86 µg/g DW (pH2.5 at 100°C). High temperature 100°C and a pH of 2.5 or 9.5. The treatment of pH11.5 at 100°C was the most useful for recovering phenolics and antioxidants from Chaga including several phenolic compounds reported for the first time in Chaga. SWP is being proposed herein for the first time as a novel, green food-grade solvent system for the extraction of myco-nutrients from Chaga and have potential applications as a suitable approach to extract nutrients from other matrices. Chaga extracts enriched with bioactive myconutrients and antioxidants may be suitable for further use or applications in the food and nutraceutical industries.

Keywords

Chaga (Inonotus obliquus); Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE); myconutrients; Swiss water process (SWP); Green extraction; pH; Temperature

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