ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0156.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Hydrostatic bearings; Journal bearings; Static load characteristics; Measurements; Predictions
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:57:53 CEST)
Hydrostatic bearings for liquid rocket engine turbopumps provide distinctive advantages including high load capacity even with low viscosity cryogenic fluid and extending a life span by minimizing friction and wear between rotor and bearing surfaces. Application of hydrostatic bearings into turbopumps demands reliable test data base with well-quantified operating parameters and experimentally validated accurate performance predictive tools. The present paper shows the comprehensive experimental data and validation of predicted static load characteristics of hydrostatic journal bearings lubricated with air, water, and liquid nitrogen. Extensive experiments for static load characteristics of hydrostatic bearings are conducted using a turbopump rotor-bearing system simulator while increasing supply pressure (Ps) into the test bearings. The test results demonstrate notable effects of the test fluids and their temperatures, as well as Ps, on the bearing performance. In general, the measured bearing flow rate, rotor displacement, and stiffness of the test bearings steadily increase with Ps. The static load bearing characteristics predictions considering flow turbulence and compressibility matched well with the experimental results. The work with an independent test data and engineering computational programs will further the implementation of hydrostatic bearings in high performance turbopump shaft systems with improved efficiency and enhanced reusability of liquid rocket engine sub-systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0219.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Waterbomb structure; Origami pattern; Quasi-static load; Critical axial buckling load-to-weight ratio; Radial stiffness-to-weight ratio
Online: 12 January 2021 (12:20:55 CET)
Waterbomb structures are origami-inspired deformable structural components used in new types of robots. They have a unique radially deployable ability that enables robots to better adapt to their environment. In this paper, we propose a series of new waterbomb structures with square, rectangle, and parallelogram base units. Through quasi-static axial and radial compression experiments and numerical simulations, we prove that the parallelogram waterbomb structure has a twist displacement mode along the axial direction. Compared with the square waterbomb structure, the proposed optimal design of the parallelogram waterbomb structure reduces the critical axial buckling load-to-weight ratio by 55.4% and increases the radial stiffness-to-weight ratio by 67.6%. The significant increase in the radial stiffness-to-weight ratio of the waterbomb structure and decrease in the critical axial buckling load-to-weight ratio make the proposed origami pattern attractive for practical robotics applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0295.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: plenum fan; blade profile; static pressure; static efficiency; velocity distribution
Online: 17 April 2020 (08:22:49 CEST)
We successfully designed an optimized plenum fan with a three-dimensional, smooth, curved blade. The optimized model revealed that the static pressure in the channel had been increased uniformly and stably, and the flow separation at the leading edge was significantly reduced. To conclude, the three-dimensional blade stabilized the fluid flow, and the flow friction was reduced by suppressing the flow separation as much as possible so that both the static pressure and the static efficiency were clearly improved in comparison with those of the original model. The static efficiency, as a result, was improved by 6% compared with that of the original model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0017.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Energy static conversion; Off-grid supply; Thermoacoustics; HRES
Online: 2 August 2021 (11:12:05 CEST)
The electrification of rural areas of the planet has become one of the greatest challenges for sustainability. In fact, it would be the key to guaranteeing development for the poorest of the planet, but from which most of the raw material for the food market derives. The paradigm of centralized production is not applicable in these territories, because the distribution network would involve unjustifiable costs. For this reason, studies have multiplied to ensure the energy supply, especially electricity, of off-grid utilities, to guarantee energy autonomy while reducing the dependence on specialist assistance for the management of the system. In this work, a hybrid system (HRES) is proposed that combines the exploitation of solar energy with that of the wind through the use of static devices, in order to improve the system's availability and limit the cost of operation and maintenance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0355.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: momenergy; static Poynting vector flow; zeropoint; ion propulsion
Online: 28 November 2019 (09:31:46 CET)
This paper updates earlier thoughts by the author on a putative electromagnetic propulsion system, to perform a more detailed energy balance. The previous paper demonstrated how momentum could be dumped to the ground state of the electromagnetic field but a claim was left somewhat hanging at the end of the previous paper, that the work done in changing the craft's velocity would effectively shift the centre of mass of the field - although that would be an infinitesimal shift in practice. The craft must always supply work to change velocity, such as by an accelerate/de-accelerate cycle and superficially this looks to violate the conservation of energy; we prove that this isn't so.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0123.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: static features extraction; dynamic environments; 3D reconstruction; monocular SLAM
Online: 12 January 2020 (15:12:52 CET)
Many classic visual monocular SLAM systems have been developed over the past decades, however, most of them will fail when dynamic scenarios dominate. DM-SLAM is proposed for handling dynamic objects in environments based on ORB-SLAM. The article mainly concentrates on two aspects. Firstly, DLRSAC is proposed to extract static features from the dynamic scene based on awareness of nature difference between motion and static, which is integrated into initialization of DM-SLAM. Secondly, we design candidate map points selection mechanism based on neighborhood mutual exclusion to balance the accuracy of tracking camera pose and system robustness in motion scenes. Finally, we conduct experiments in the public dataset and compare DM-SLAM with ORB-SLAM. The experiments verify the superiority of the DM-SLAM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0609.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: position control; static friction; EGR valve system; automotive application
Online: 31 July 2018 (06:30:04 CEST)
This paper proposes a position control method for low cost EGR valve system in automotive application. Generally, position control system using in automotive application has many restrictions such as cost and space, the mechanical structure of actuator implies high friction and large difference between static friction and coulomb friction. This large friction difference occurs the vibrated position control result when the controller uses conventional linear controller such as P, PI. In this paper, low cost position control method which can apply under the condition of high difference friction mechanical system. Proposed method is verified by comparing conventional control result of experiments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0173.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: Static; Stretching; Post-Match; Soccer; Recovery; DOMS; Injury; Performance
Online: 10 July 2018 (11:53:41 CEST)
Soccer is the most played sport worldwide, with over 265 million participants. It is an incredibly demanding sport, with many different technical skills and physical loads placed on the body. This makes post-match recovery strategies amongst high level soccer players of great importance. The aim of this review is to summarize the existing literature on stretching for post-match recovery, examining its relation to injury prevention, Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS), and performance. Scientific evidence of the highest quality and relevance was extracted and reviewed. Despite its common practice, evidence does not support static stretching as a modality to improve recovery post-match amongst soccer players. Larger trials with important outcome measures are needed to determine if a post-match stretching regimen to facilitate recovery exists.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0010.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: static formation temperature; shut-in time; least squares; PSO
Online: 2 August 2016 (05:42:07 CEST)
The static formation temperature (SFT) is required to determine the thermophysical properties and production parameters in geothermal and oil reservoirs. However, the SFT is not easy to be obtained by both experimental and physical methods. In this paper, a mathematical approach to predicting SFT based on a new model describing the relationship between bottom hole temperature (BHT) and shut-in time was proposed. The unknown coefficients of the model were derived from least squares fit by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. Besides, the ability to predict SFT based on a few BHT data (such as first 3, 4, or 5 ones of a data set) was evaluated. The accuracy of the proposed method to predict SFT was testified with a deviation percentage less than ±4% and high values of regression coefficient R2 (>0.98). The proposed method could be used as a practical tool to predict SFT in both geothermal and oil wells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0397.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Loudspeaker; Cone; Static output feedback; H infinity optimal loop shaping
Online: 19 October 2020 (16:02:04 CEST)
Noise reduction is the major issue in the loudspeaker for the application of the musical instruments and related areas. In this paper, a noise disturbance control of a loudspeaker with optimal and robust controllers has been done successfully. The noise of the loudspeaker has been analyzed by simply track a reference cone displacement with the actual cone displacement. Static output feedback and H infinity optimal loop shaping controllers have been used to compare the actual and reference cone displacements by using a sine wave and random cone displacement signals and a promising results have been analyzed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0189.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: nanoplastics; nanoparticles; seawater; colloids; static light scattering; dynamic light scattering
Online: 12 March 2020 (02:56:34 CET)
Static (SLS) and dynamic (DLS) light scattering techniques are assessed for their capacity to detect colloidal particles with diameters between d = 0.1 and 0.8 µm at very low concentrations in seawater. The detection limit of the apparatus was determined using model monodisperse spherical polystyrene latex particles with diameters 0.2 µm and 0.5 µm. It is shown that the concentration and size of colloids can be determined down to about 10-6 g/L. Seawater obtained from different locations in western Europe was characterized using light scattering. It was found that seawater filtered through 0.45 µm pore size membrane filters was within the experimental error the same as that of ultrapure Milli-Q water containing the same amount of sea salt and no colloids could be detected with DLS. When the seawater was filtered through 0.8 µm pore size filters, colloidal particles were detected. The measurements show that the concentration of colloids in the seawater samples is not higher than 10-6 g/L and that they have an average diameter of about 0.6 µm. We stress that these particles are not necessarily nanoplastics.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.3390/sci1030060
Subject: Keywords: biomechanics; dynamic stability; inertial measurement unit; MCL tear; static stability
Online: 15 October 2019 (00:00:00 CEST)
Injuries to the ligaments of the knee are extremely common among athletes who participate in high-risk sports, or any sport that requires frequent cutting motions, jumping, or contact. In order to determine the best way to heal these injuries, it is important to understand not just the pathology of the injury, but also the biomechanical factors that are affected, including stability and steadiness. While many studies have been done to examine the stability of healthy knees, there is little to no existing literature on stability of knees afflicted by injury. In order to surpass this obstacle, static steadiness and dynamic stability data was collected using the Lockhart Monitor phone application and Xsens accelerometers, respectively, both before and after completion of a course of physical therapy in a patient with a grade 2 medial collateral ligament (MCL) tear. These results were then used to determine the degree to which the prescribed physical therapy protocol was effective in healing the MCL, which can be useful for tweaking the individual protocol for future conservative treatment and management of the injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0254.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Nuclear & High Energy Physics Keywords: electromagnetic radiation; electron; charge-mass ratio; uncertainty principle; static mass
Online: 20 May 2019 (15:29:40 CEST)
The experiments of Project 8 have been excellent, but the expected goals still difficult to achieve. So much so that some of the results at your fingertips were also missing. In view of this, the focus of this article is to clarify several easy confused concepts. Only in this way, we can reasonably explain the experimental data. The main points are as follows: 1. The value c of the light speed in vacuum and a particle with zero static mass, both of which do not exist in the reality. That is to say, the so-called a photon's static mass is equal to zero but has energy, which is a paradox that confuses two different definitional domains. 2. In the reality, photons are high-speed particles generated by electromagnetic radiation. They must have the characteristics of (static) mass, energy and wave, in order to describe the main body to aim at photons from different angles. 3. After any main body comes into being electromagnetic radiation, its static mass will inevitably decrease accordingly. 4. The charge-mass ratio of an electron is a physical constant, which is the ratio of its charge to the amount of matter, and is not affected by relativistic effects and electromagnetic radiation. 5. The uncertainty of moving electrons is caused by random electromagnetic radiations. Finally, it is pointed out that if the cyclotron frequency of a single electron is measured, and at the same time, its de Broglie wavelength or frequency can also be measured, then its static mass can be obtained. Even so, the expected goals are still difficult to achieve, because random electromagnetic radiations are always taking away continually the matter composition of the single electron being measured. However, this was precisely a result of the research obtained by Project 8, and had universality, which should be reflect on.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0187.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Keywords: membrane bioreactor (MBR); wastewater; rotating membranes; static membranes; fouling; modelling
Online: 12 June 2018 (10:48:01 CEST)
Fouling by activated sludge in membrane bioreactor (MBR) processes for wastewater treatment can be reduced using several strategies such as backflushing, relaxation, and chemical cleaning. Some proprietary systems such as Avanti’s RPU-185 Flexidisks MBR use novel circular rotating, flat sheet membranes to assist in limiting this fouling. An attempt has already been made to model this novel rotating fouling process by developing a simulation model based on first principles and traditional fouling mechanisms. In order to directly compare the potential benefits of rotational MBR system, a follow-up study was carried out using Avanti’s newly developed static (non-rotating) Flexidisks MBR system. This new process uses the same proprietary and patented membrane modular arrangement as used in the circular rotational unit, but is configured instead as a static square-shaped unit which is in-line with the more traditional and popular format used for submerged flat sheet MBR systems. During this study, the results from operating the static pilot unit were simulated and modelled using a standard fouling model coupled with a viscosity to mixed liquor relationship model. These results were then compared with those obtained from running the rotating MBR model however with rotational switching functions turned off and rotational parameters set to a static mode. This comparison was done to ascertain whether the basic premise of the developed rotational model was sound in empirical terms when compared to a standard MBR flux model. The study concluded that relatively good agreement was reached between the two types of models, thus vindicating the usage of a complex rotational MBR model. Follow on studies will now compare results from the rotating MBR system using rotational models developed by other researchers to ascertain the effectiveness rotating MBR modelling approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0343.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: Massive particle; Static black hole; f(R) gravity; Pseudo-Newtonian Potential
Online: 22 July 2022 (14:14:20 CEST)
In this paper, we investigated the trajectory of the massive particle in the vicinity of a general spherical symmetric black hole. Also, in the framework of general sphericalily symmetric black hole, Pseudo-Newtonian potential (PNP) and effective potentials has been investigated. As an example, static spherically symmetric black hole in f(R) gravity is considered and presented the brief discussion on the structure of spacetime and horizons. We calculated energy and angular momentum in the framework of general relativity as well as in Pseudo-Newtonian theory. A graphical comparison of angular momentum in this both framework has been studied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0728.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: parametric design; rake; picking; static analysis; CATIA; ANSYS; von Mises stress
Online: 31 July 2020 (03:34:11 CEST)
Olive picking is one of the most common social agricultural activities in many regions of Andalusia where the predominant crop is the traditional olive grove. The machinery used includes shakers, blowers and an essential low-cost type: hand-rake sweepers. The latter are generally used by the women of the squads to sweep the olives that fall from the trees. This article is focused on the design and optimisation of a hand-rake sweeper, in terms of durability and cost, for the picking of olives and other fruits, such as almonds, which are currently the main alternative to non-perennial crops in Andalusia. A parametric design of a hand-rake sweeper was created for this application using the design software CATIA, and its most vulnerable points were analysed in terms of effectiveness with varying design parameters, conducting usage simulations with ANSYS for a light material such as polypropylene. The maximum von Mises stress of the whole structure was 155.81 MPa. Using ANSYS, the dimension parameters of the hand-rake sweeper structure were optimised. The modified design was analysed again, showing a reduction of maximum tensions of 10.06%, as well as a decrease in its maximum elongations (0.0181 mm).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0670.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: metal cutting machine; static output feedback; full state feedback H2 controllers
Online: 28 July 2020 (09:55:47 CEST)
In this paper, a metal cutting machine position control have been designed and simulated using Matlab/Simulink Toolbox successfully. The open loop response of the system analysis shows that the system needs performance improvement. Static output feedback and full state feedback H2 controllers have been used to increase the performance of the system. Comparison of the metal cutting machine position using static output feedback and full state feedback H2 controllers have been done to track a set point position using step and sine wave input signals and a promising results have been analyzed.
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Laser shock peening; FE simulation; Residual stress; Minimum principal stress; Static damping
Online: 18 August 2021 (10:51:34 CEST)
Laser shock peening is a process which can reduce stress corrosion cracking and improve fatigue life by forming compressive residual stress on the surface of the material. In a computational FE simulation of laser shock peening, during applying the pressure load generated by the laser pulse to the surface of simulation geometry, the peening is simulated by explicit analysis and then convert to implicit analysis to dissipate the dynamic energy remaining in the geometry. In this study, static damping is applied to dissipate residual dynamic energy without converting it into an implicit analysis. The compressive residual stress distribution is compared between the simulation results for the stainless steel 304 material and the same material subjected to actual laser shock peening. The laser shock peening parameters were 4.2J laser pulse energy, 50% overlap of 3mm diameter of the laser beam and water as a confinement layer. As a result, the compressive residual stress from the surface to the depth direction is similar to both the simulation and the experimental result measured by the hole drilling method.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0148.v1
Subject: Keywords: Music-making; Cerebrospinal fluid; Myodural bridge; Somatic rhythmic motion; CSF-static compartment
Online: 7 December 2020 (12:34:58 CET)
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-contacting neurons (CSF-N) located in the surface of both brain ventricles and the central canal (cc) in the spinal cord. The cc and CSF maintain a proliferative niche for neural progenitor cells and play a vital role in development of the brain. The CSF circulates in the ventricles and the subarachnoid spaces with the CSF rhythmic flow: cardiac pulsation and respiratory fluctuation. A new concept of CSF motion may be contrary to the classical one that the direction of CSF motion may vary in direction and may be dynamic in its location. The CSF pressure may also depend on the body position. Moderate music-making has been considered a potential approach for rehabilitative and restorative therapy of brain dysfunctions. Recently, we find that the CSF-Ns are present in both the interior CFS in the cc and also exterior CSF around the surface of the spinal cord. We hypothesize that CSF-N as mechanical sensors in the spinal cord could sense motion of the spinal cord. The myodural bridge is a ligament connecting a pair of deep, upper-neck muscles to the dura mater, which envelops the arachnoid mater and contains the CSF surrounding the brain and the spinal cord. We figure out the term “CSF-static compartment” and classify CSF storage location as rostral pool and caudal pool to demonstrate our hypothesis. We presume that the somatic body movement with music-making and rehabilitation-based interventions would orchestrate the CSF motion with head movement, myodural bridge stretching and puling as well as spinal bending.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0007.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: fresh concrete; rheology; static yield stress; structural build-up; aggregates; packing fraction
Online: 1 March 2020 (03:29:39 CET)
With increasing interest in the use of additive manufacturing techniques in the construction industry, static rheological properties of fresh concrete have necessarily come into focus. In particular, the knowledge and control of static yield stress (SYS) and its development over time are crucial for mastering formwork-free construction, e.g. by means of layered extrusion. Furthermore, solid understanding of the influences of various concrete constituents on the initial SYS of the mixture and the structural build-up rate is required for purposeful material design. This contribution is concentrated on the effect of aggregates on these rheological parameters. The volume fraction of aggregates was varied in the range of 35 to 55 % by volume under condition of constant total surface area of the particles. The total surface area per unit volume of cement paste was equal to 5.00, 7.25 and 10.00 m²/l, conditioned on the constant volume fraction of aggregates. Both variations were enabled by changing the particle size distributions of the aggregates while holding the cement paste composition constant for all concrete mixtures. To characterise the SYS and the structural build-up, constant shear rate tests with a vane-geometry rotational rheometer were performed. It was found that in the ranges under investigation the variation in volume fraction had a more pronounced effect on the static rheological properties of concrete than did the variation in surface area. An accurate mathematical description of the relationship between the initial SYS of concrete and the relative volume fraction of aggregate based on the Chateau-Ovarlez-Trung model was proposed. Challenges in deriving a similar relationship for the structural build-up rate of concrete were highlighted.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0047.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Concrete sleeper; crosstie; design standard; holes; web opening; railway infrastructure; static performance
Online: 5 August 2016 (08:06:33 CEST)
Prestressed concrete sleepers (or railroad ties) are principally designed in order to carry wheel loads from the rails to the ground of railway tracks. Their design takes into account static and dynamic loading conditions. In spite of the most common use of the prestressed concrete crossties in railway tracks, there have always been many demands from rail engineers to improve serviceability and functionality of concrete crossties. For example, signaling, fiber optic, equipment cables are often damaged either by ballast corners or by tamping machine. There has been a need to re-design concrete crosstie to cater cables internally so that they would not experience detrimental or harsh environments. Also, many concrete crossties need a retrofit for automatic train control device and similar signaling equipment. In contrast, the effects of holes and web openings on structural capacity of concrete crossties have not been thoroughly investigated. This paper accordingly highlights the effect of holes and web openings on the toughness and ductility of concrete crossties. The outcome of this research enables better decision making process for retrofiting prestressed concrete crossties with holes and web opening in practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0221.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: quasi-static load; abutment screw; dental implant; finite element method; dynamic load; mesiodistal
Online: 13 September 2021 (15:55:30 CEST)
Variations in the implant thread shape and occlusal load behavior may result in significant changes in the biological and mechanical properties of dental implants and surrounding bone tissue. Most previous studies consider a single implant thread design, an isotropic bone structure, and a static occlusal load. However, the effects of different thread designs, bone material properties, and loading conditions are important concerns in clinical practice. Accordingly, the present study performs Finite Element Analysis (FEA) simulations to investigate the static, quasi-static and dynamic response of the implant and implanted bone material under various thread designs and occlusal loading directions (buccal-lingual, mesiodistal and apical). The simulations focus specifically on the von Mises stress, displacement, shear stress, compressive stress and tensile stress within the implant and the surrounding bone. The results show that the thread design and occlusal loading rate have a significant effect on the stress distribution and deformation of the implant and bone structure during clinical applications. Overall, the results provide a useful insight into the design of enhanced dental implants for an improved load transfer efficiency and success rate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0230.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: finite element method; earthquake induced landslide; static and dynamic analysis; deformation based failure
Online: 22 August 2019 (10:45:22 CEST)
Globally 30% of landslides occur in the northeastern part of India . One of the major earthquake events in Sikkim, India occurred on 18th September 2011 (Mw 6.9) led to over 300 landslides and 122 human deaths . These landslides not only controlled by natural disasters but initiated due to human activities. The present study considered Lungchok landslide occurred in south district of Sikkim due to 2011 seismic event. The study focused on the failure mechanism of the landslide based on finite element analysis by adopting eight different cases. The deformation characteristic was investigated for dry and saturated slope conditions under static and dynamic behavior considering vehicle loads using GeoStudio software. The FEM analysis has been carried out using load deformation and linear elastic. The analysis shows that the failure of the slope was not sudden due to the 2011 earthquake event, but progressive failure was observed with time and construction activity. The paper demonstrates that, an increase in infrastructure development including construction by hill cutting increased the initiation of landslide with soil erosion. The cracks developed after 2011 earthquake event led to further deformations during future disasters required effective stabilization measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0118.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Anisotropic Triaxial test; Initial shear stress; Pore water pressure ratio; Static liquefaction; Ramsar sand
Online: 5 September 2020 (05:01:41 CEST)
Liquefaction risk assessment is critical for the safety and economics of structures. As the soil strata of Ramsar area in north Iran is mostly composed of poorly graded clean sand and the ground water table is found at shallow depths, it is highly susceptible to liquefaction. In this study, a series of isotropic and anisotropic consolidated undrained triaxial tests are performed on reconstituted specimens of Ramsar sand to identify the liquefaction potential of the area. The specimens are consolidated isotropically to simulate the level ground condition, and anisotropically to simulate the soil condition on a slope and/ or under a structure. The various states of soil behavior are studied by preparing specimens at different initial relative densities and applying different levels of effective stress. The critical state soil mechanics approach for identifying the liquefaction susceptibility is adopted and the observed phenomena are further explained in relation to the micro-mechanical behavior. As only four among the 27 conducted tests did not exhibit liquefactive behavior, Ramsar sand can be qualified as strongly susceptible to liquefaction. Furthermore, it is observed that the pore pressure ratio is a good indication of the liquefaction susceptibility
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0152.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Electromagnetic fields, return strokes, dipole fields, accelerating charges, radiation fields, static fields, velocity fields
Online: 12 December 2018 (15:21:10 CET)
Electric and/or magnetic fields are generated by stationary charges, uniformly moving charges and accelerating charges. These field components are described in the literature as static fields, velocity fields (or generalized Coulomb field) and radiation fields (or acceleration fields), respectively. In the literature, the electromagnetic fields generated by lightning return strokes are presented using the field components associated with short dipoles and in this description the one to one association of the electromagnetic field terms with the physical process that gives rise to them is lost. In this paper, we will derive expressions for the electromagnetic fields using field equations associated with accelerating (and moving) charges and separate the resulting fields into static, velocity and radiation fields. The results illustrates how the radiation fields emanating from the lightning channel give rise to field terms varying as inverse of distance and distance squired, the velocity fields generating field terms varying as inverse of distance squired and the static fields generating fields components varying as inverse of distance squired and distance cube. These field components depend explicitly on the speed of propagation of the current pulse. However, the total field does not depend explicitly on the speed of propagation of the current pulse. It is shown that these field components can be combined to generate the field components pertinent to the dipole technique. However, in this conversion process the connection of the field components to the physical process taking place at the source that generate these fields (i.e. static charges, uniformly moving charges and accelerating charges) is lost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0617.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Hexagon joint, Helical pile, Bearing capacity, Static pile load test, Dynamic pile load test
Online: 31 July 2018 (10:07:54 CEST)
This study aims to improve the shaft with hexagon joints to be a type not requiring welding or bolts in the static load test . In order to evaluate the bearing capacity of helical piles, two sites were selected to conduct pile installation for the field test and the pile load test. For the pile load test, the static pile load test and the dynamic pile load test were carried out, and torque was measured during pile installation for the field test to compare and analyze expected bearing capacity and thus assess the feasibility of the method for estimating the bearing capacity. The field pile load test revealed the bearing capacity of the gravity grout pile was the same or greater than 600kN in the static pile load test in accordance with AC 358 Code. The non-grout pile showed the bearing capacity the same or smaller than 600kN, suggesting gravity grouting is required. Moreover, the field pile load test was used to establish the bearing capacity equation considering the torque in pile installation, and a small number of samples were used to establish the equation which can be used as a basic data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0113.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Bioremediation; gas chromatography; green chemistry; mass spectrometry; microcosm; organotin analysis; static headspace; tributyltin (TBT)
Online: 17 February 2018 (11:39:21 CET)
Tributyltin (TBT) is one of the most toxic anthropogenic compounds introduced into the marine environment. Despite its global ban in 2008, TBT is still a problem of great concern due to its high affinity for particulate matter, providing a direct and potentially persistent route of entry into benthic sediments. Bioremediation strategies may constitute an alternative approach to conventional physicochemical methods, benefiting from the microorganism’s potential to metabolize anthropogenic compounds. In this work, a simple, precise and accurate static headspace gas chromatography method was developed to investigate the ability of TBT degrading microbes in sedimentary microcosms over a period of 120 days. The proposed method was validated for linearity, repeatability, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection and limit of quantification. The method was subsequently successfully applied for the detection and quantification of TBT and degrading compounds in sediment samples on day 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 of the experiment employing the principles of green chemistry. On day 120 the concentration of TBT remaining in the microcosms ranged between 91.91 ng/g wet wt for the least effective microbial inoculant to 52.73 ng/g wet wt for the most effective microbial inoculant from a stating concentration of 100 ng/g wet wt.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0184.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: distillation column; disturbance rejection; genetic algorithm; H∞ control; linear matrix inequalities; static output feedback
Online: 26 December 2017 (05:22:09 CET)
The current work addresses the control of two-input two-output (TITO) Wood and Berry model of a binary distillation column. The controller design problem is formulated in terms of multivariable H∞ control synthesis. The controller structure takes the form of simplest static output feedback (SOF) control. The controller synthesis is performed using a hybrid approach of blending linear matrix inequalities (LMI) and genetic algorithm (GA). The performance of the static output feedback controller is compared with three other controllers designed for Wood and Berry model available in the literature. The first simulation study is performed for the case of tracking a unit step command in the presence of a step change in output disturbance. A second simulation study is performed for rejecting a change in sinusoidal output disturbance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0709.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Gene delivery; Non-viral carrier; Dextran-stearic acid-spermine; Iron oxide nanoparticles; Static magnetic field.
Online: 31 May 2021 (08:25:25 CEST)
Non-viral gene carriers because of their limited side effects, biocompatibility, simplicity and taking the advantages of electrostatic interactions have shown noticeable potential in gene delivery. The low transfection rate of non-viral vectors under physiological conditions is a significant issue. Here, the aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups on gene carriers such as two synthesized amphiphilic polymer of dextran-stearic acid-spermine (DSASP) with verified lipid and amine conjugations that associated with Fe3O4 superparamagnetic nanoparticles to promote the target delivery and decrease the transfection time using static magnetic field. Our findings illustrate that magnetic nanoparticles are spherical with positive surface charges and superparamagnetic behaviors. The DSASP–pDNA/MNPs offered a strong pDNA condensation, protection against DNase degradation, significant cell viability in HEK 293T cells and. Although conjugations of spermine play a critical role in transfection efficiency, amphiphilic polymer with more derivatives of stearic acid showed better transfection yields. Therefore, DSASP amphiphilic magnetic carriers offer new insights for gene delivery due to the amine contents and ameliorate the uptake of complexes via cell membrane based on its hydrophilic surface.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0023.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: near field; pulse like ground motions; bridge, non-linear static analysis; non-linear dynamic analysis
Online: 2 September 2020 (04:51:43 CEST)
Near-fault ground motions can cause severe damage to civil structures, including bridges. Safety assessment of these structures for near fault ground motion is usually performed through Non-Linear Dynamic Analyses, while faster methods are often used. IMPAb (Incremental Modal Pushover Analysis for Bridges) permits to investigate the seismic response of a bridge by considering the effects of higher modes, which are often relevant for bridges. In this work, IMPAb is applied to a bridge case study considering near-fault pulse-like ground motion records. The records were analyzed and selected from the European Strong Motion Database and the pulse parameters were evaluated. In the paper results from standard pushover procedures and IMPAb are compared with nonlinear Response-History Analysis (NRHA), considering also the vertical component of the motion, as benchmark solutions and incremental dynamic analysis (IDA). Results from the case study demonstrate that the vertical seismic action has a minor influence on the structural response of the bridge. Therefore IMPAb, which can be applied considering vertical motion, remains very effective conserving the original formulation of the procedure, and can be considered a well performing procedure also for near-fault events.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0275.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: near threshold computing (NTC); dual-supply; static random access memory (SRAM); reliability; write aggregation buffer
Online: 5 September 2018 (05:45:16 CEST)
Energy-efficient microprocessors are essential for a wide range of applications. While near-threshold computing is a promising technique to improve energy efficiency, optimal supply demands from logic core and on-chip memory are conflicting. In this paper, we perform static reliability analysis of 6T SRAM and discover the variance among different sizing configuration and asymmetric minimum voltage requirements between read and write operations. We leverage this asymmetric property in near-threshold processors equipped with voltage boosting capability by proposing an opportunistic dual-supply switching scheme with a write aggregation buffer. Our results show that proposed technique improves energy efficiency by more than 21.45% with approximate 10.19% performance speed-up.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0333.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: converter; ice-melting; modular multilevel converter (MMC); optimization design; transmission line; static var generator (SVG)
Online: 18 August 2018 (08:56:04 CEST)
Ice covering on overhead transmission lines would cause damage to transmission system and long-term power outage. Among various de-icing devices, modular multilevel converter (MMC) based DC de-icer (MMC-DDI) is recognized as a promising solution due to its excellent technical performance. Its principle feasibility has been well studied, but few literature discuss its economy or hardware optimization, thus the designed MMC-DDI for high voltage transmission lines is usually too large and too expensive for engineering applications. To fill this gap, this paper presents a quantitative analysis on the converter characteristics of MMC-DDI, and calculates the minimal converter rating and its influencing factors. It reals that, for a given de-icing requirement, the converter rating varies greatly with its AC-side voltage. Then an optimization configuration is proposed to reduce the converter rating and improve its economy. The proposed configuration is verified in a MMC-DDI for a 500kV transmission line as a case study. The result shows, in the case of outputting same de-icing characteristics, the optimized converter rating is reduced from 151 MVA to 68 MVA, and total cost of MMC-DDI is reduced by 48%. This analysis and conclusion are conductive to the optimized design of multilevel DC de-icer, then to its engineering application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0045.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: Pattern based access; Graphical password; safe password; non-intuitive password; non-static password; visually encrypted password
Online: 2 November 2021 (11:06:37 CET)
With increased vulnerabilities and vast technology landscapes, it is extremely critical to build systems which are highly resistant to cyber-attacks, to break into systems to exploit. It is almost impossible to build 100% secure authentication & authorization mechanisms merely through standard password / PIN (With all combinations of special characters, numbers & upper/lower case alphabets and by using any of the Graphical password mechanisms). The immense computing capacity and several hacking methods used, make almost every authentication method susceptible to cyber-attacks in one or the other way. Only proven / known system which is not vulnerable in spite of highly sophisticated computing power is, human brain. In this paper, we present a new method of authentication using a combination of computer’s computing ability in combination with human intelligence. In fact this human intelligence is personalized making the overall security method more secure. Text based passwords are easy to be cracked . There is an increased need for an alternate and more complex authentication and authorization methods. Some of the Methods   in the category of Graphical passwords could be susceptible, when Shoulder surfing/cameras/spy devices are used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0036.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Anaerobic digestion; Chemical oxygen demand; Optimization; Poultry slaughterhouse wastewater; Response surface methodology; Static Granular Bed Reactor
Online: 4 February 2019 (13:53:16 CET)
In this study, the efficiency of an anaerobic treatment system for wastewater from a South African poultry slaughterhouse was evaluated using a lab-scale static granular bed reactor (SGBR). The down-flow SGBR (2 L) was operated continuously for 138 days under mesophilic conditions (35-37 ˚C), at hydraulic retention times (HRTs) ranging from 24 to 96 h and average organic loading rates (OLRs) of 0.78 to 5.74 g COD/L.day. The SGBR achieved an average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 80% and the maximum COD removal achieved was 95%, at an HRT of 24 h and average OLR of 5.74 g COD/L.day. The optimization of the SGBR, with regard to a suitable HRT and OLR, was determined using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal SGBR performance with regard to the maximum COD removal efficiency was predicted for an OLR of 12.49 g COD/L.day and a HRT of 24 h, resulting in a 95.5% COD removal efficiency. The model R2 of 0.9638 indicated that the model is a good fit and is suitable to predict the COD removal efficiency for the SGBR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0241.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: load flow analysis; load voltage deviation; plug-in electric vehicles load; power-flow analysis; static load models
Online: 17 May 2018 (10:24:09 CEST)
This paper proposes the impact of plug-in electric vehicles integrated into power distribution system based on voltage dependent control. The plug-in electric vehicles was modeled as the static load model in power distribution systems under balanced load condition. The power flow analysis is determined by using the basic parameters of the electrical network. The main point of this study are compare with voltage magnitude profiles, load voltage deviation, and total power losses of the electrical power system. There are investigating the affected from constant power load, constant current load, constant impedance load and plug-in electric vehicles load, respectively. The IEEE 33 bus test system is used to test the proposed method by assigning each load type to a balanced load in steady state and applied the solving methodology based on the bus injection to branch injection matric, branch current to bus voltage matrix, and current injection matrix to solve the power flow problem. The simulation results showed that the plug-in electric vehicles load had the lowest impact compared to other loads. The lowest plug-in values for the electric vehicle loads were 0.062, 119.67 kW and 79.31 kVar for the load voltage deviation, total active power loss and total reactive power loss, respectively. Therefore, this study can be verified that the plug-in electric vehicles load were affected to the lowest of the electrical power system in condition to same sizing and position. So that, in condition to the plug-in electric vehicles load added into the electrical power system with the conventional load type or complex load type could be considered that the affected from the plug-in electric vehicles load in next study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0145.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Open source; FEA; finite element analysis; linear static structural; Code Aster; Salome Meca; Mecway; SimScale; Z88, CAE
Online: 28 September 2017 (14:58:31 CEST)
The aim of this work was to determine if the development of low-cost or no-cost finite element analysis (FEA) software has advanced to the point where it can be used in place of trusted commercial FEA packages for linear static structural analyses using isotropic material models. Nonlinear structural analysis will be covered in a separate paper. Several suitable packages were identified, these underwent a process of systematic elimination when they were unable to meet the minimum imposed qualitative criteria. Three packages were chosen to be subjected to performance benchmarking, namely: Code_Aster/Salome Meca; Mecway and Z88 Aurora. SimScale, a browser-based analysis package was included as well because it met all the baseline criteria and has the potential to offer a completely cloud-based approach to computer aided engineering, potentially reshaping the way an engineering business views its operational capabilities. This paper presents the test cases and simulation results for packages that fall under the linear static structural analysis type.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0589.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: LLDPE; quasi-static and dynamic experimental tests, impact energy absorption; material parameter identification; constitutive material model; validation; simulation
Online: 24 March 2021 (13:38:40 CET)
Current industrial trends bring new challenges in energy absorbing systems. Polymer materials as the traditional packaging material seem to be promising due to their low weight, structure and production price. Based on the review, the linear low-density polyethylene material was identified as the most promising material for absorbing impact energy. The current paper addresses the identification of the material parameters and the development of a Constitutive material model to be used in future design by virtual prototyping. The paper deals with the experimental measurement of the stress-strain relations of the linear low-density polyethylene under static and dynamic loading. The quasi-static measurement is realized in two perpendicular principal directions and is supplemented by a test measurement in the 45 degrees direction, i.e. exactly between the principal directions. The quasi-static stress-strain curves are analyzed as an initial step for dynamic strain rate dependent material behavior. The dynamic response is tested in the drop tower using a spherical impactor hitting the flat material multi-layered specimen at two different energy levels. The strain rate dependent material model is identified by optimizing the static material response obtained in the dynamic experiments. The material model is validated by the virtual reconstruction of the experiments and by comparing the numerical results to the experimental ones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0012.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: power gating; read decoupling; read-write static noise margin; dynamic noise margin; read-write energy; schmitt trigger; leakage power
Online: 4 August 2017 (11:08:55 CEST)
An ultra-low power (ULP), power gated static random access memory (SRAM) is presented for Internet of Things (IoT) applications, which operates in sub-threshold voltage ranges from 300mV to 500mV. The proposed SRAM has tendency to operate in low supply voltages with high static and dynamic noise margins. The IoT application involves battery enabled low leakage memory architecture in subthreshold regime which has low power consumption. Therefore, to improve power consumption along with better cell stability, a power gated 10T SRAM is presented. The proposed cell uses a power gated p-MOS transistor to reduce the leakage power or static power in standby mode. Moreover, due to the schmitt triggering and read decoupling of 10T SRAM the static and dynamic behavior in read, write and standby mode has shown enhanced tolerance at different process, voltage and temperature (PVT) conditions. The proposed SRAM shows better results in terms of leakage power, read static noise margin (RSNM), write static noise margin (WSNM), write-ability or write trip point (WTP), read-write energy and dynamic read margin (DRM). Further, these parameters are observed at 8-Kilo bit (Kb) and compared with already existing SRAM architectures. It is observed that the leakage power is reduced by 1/81×, 1/75× of the conventional 6T (C6T) SRAM and read decoupled 8T (RD8T) SRAM, respectively at 300mV VDD. On the contrary, RSNM, WSNM, WTP and DRM values are improved by 3×, 2×, 11.11% and 31.8% as compared to C6T SRAM, respectively. Similarly, proposed 10T has 1.48×, 25% and 9.75% better RSNM, WSNM and WTP values as compared to RD8T SRAM, respectively at 300mV VDD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0148.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: static synchronous compensator (STATCOM); discrete wavelet transform (DWT); multi-layer perceptron neural network (MLP); Bayes and Naive Bayes (NB) classifier
Online: 13 October 2019 (16:22:41 CEST)
This paper presents the methodology to detect and identify the type of fault that occurs in shunt connected static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) transmission line using a combination of Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Naive Bayes classifier. To study this, the network model is designed using Mat-lab/Simulink. The different faults such as Line to Ground (LG), Line to Line (LL), Double Line to Ground (LLG) and three-phase (LLLG) fault are applied at different zones of system with and without STATCOM considering the effect of varying fault resistance. The three-phase fault current waveforms obtained are decomposed into several levels using daubechies mother wavelet of db4 to extract the features such as standard deviation and Energy values. The extracted features are used to train the classifiers such as Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Network (MLP), Bayes and Naive Bayes (NB) classifier to classify the type of fault that occurs in the system. The results reveal that the proposed NB classifier outperforms in terms of accuracy rate, misclassification rate, kappa statistics, mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), relative absolute error (RAE) and root-relative square error (RRSE) than MLP and Bayes classifier.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0390.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: general relativity; gravitational lensing; wormhole-like static aether solution; Gauss-Bonnet theorem; plasma and non-plasma mediums; dark matter; modified gravity
Online: 26 July 2022 (06:12:06 CEST)
In this paper, we study the deflection angle for wormhole-like static aether solution by using Gibbons and Werner technique in non-plasma, plasma and dark matter mediums. For this purpose, we use optical spacetime geometry to calculate the Gaussian optical curvature, then implement the Gauss-Bonnet theorem in weak field limits. Moreover, we compute the deflection angle by using a technique known as Keeton and Petters technique. Furthermore, we analyze the graphical behaviour of the bending angle ψ with respect to the impact parameter b, mass m as integration constant and parameter q in non-plasma and plasma mediums. We examine that deflection angle is exponentially increasing as direct with charge. Also, we observe that for small values of b, ψ increases and for large values of b the angle deceases. We also considered an analysis to the shadow cast of the wormhole relative to an observer at various locations. Comparing it the the Schwarzschild shadow, shadow cast is possible for wormhole as r<2m. At r>2m, the Schwarzschild is larger. As r → ∞, we have seen that the behavior of the shadow, as well as the weak deflection angle, approaches that of the Schwarzschild black hole. Overall, the effect of plasma tends to decrease the value of the observables due to the wormhole geometry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0379.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: vanadium redox flow battery; power density; limiting current; cell geometry; mass transfer; electrolyte mixing; static mixer; industrial design; multidisciplinary research; energy transitions
Online: 26 March 2020 (01:51:17 CET)
The world is moving to the next phase of the energy transition with high penetrations of renewable energy. Flexible and scalable redox flow battery (RFB) technology is expected to play an important role in ensuring electricity network security and reliability. Continuous performance improvements will further enhance their value by reducing parasitic losses and maximizing available energy conversion over broader operating conditions. Concentration overpotentials from poor internal reactant distribution at high and low states of charge (SOC) limit power densities and are thus an important area of investigation. However, efforts to address these coupled electrochemical phenomena can compromise mechanical performance. Modelling and simulation of cell design innovations have shown it is possible to reduce losses from pump energy while increasing the availability of active species where required. The combination of wedge-shaped cells with static mixers investigated in this paper can reduce pressure drop and improve energy efficiency. Toroidal vanadium redox flow battery (VRB/VRFB) designs incorporating this innovation are presented for further development to improve community engagement with the technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0210.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: non-linear static (Pushover) analysis; modal pushover; non-linear time-history analysis; incremental analysis; bridges; assessment of bridges; seismic response of bridges
Online: 16 February 2020 (04:34:37 CET)
A large number of bridges are designed and built without considering seismic actions and, differently from buildings, there are currently no comprehensive guidelines to evaluate existing bridges without performing, as in the well known incremental dynamic analysis (IDA), complex non linear dynamic analyses (RHA). Bridges are structurally very different from building but, at the same time, are sensitive to higher modes as well as many multi-storey buildings that inspired innovative pushover procedures such as the well known modal pushover analysis (MPA). In the present study the incremental modal pushover analysis (IMPA), a pushover based approach already proposed and applied on buildings by the same authors, is revised and proposed for bridges (IMPAβ). IMPAβ accounts for the effects of higher modes in order to accurately estimate the seismic response of bridges; the effect of higher modes is considered by introducing a suitable number of modes to ensure the participation of a predefined total effective modal mass. The efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated by conducting a study on two bridges, one regular and one irregular, and the IDA analysis is employed as reference solution. Numerical results indicate good accuracy of the proposed method in assessing the seismic response and a very good accuracy if compared to other available pushover procedures available in the literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0059.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: moso bamboo; quasi-static behavior; tensile behavior; size effect on energy absorption; damage pattern of the multiple bamboo columns; macroscopic tensile fracture mode
Online: 17 August 2017 (07:53:23 CEST)
In this paper, quasi-static axial compression tests are performed on the nodal Moso bamboos to study the size effect on energy absorption of the bamboos and the damage pattern of the multiple bamboo columns. Experimental results show that under the same moisture content, growth age and growing environment, the specific energy absorption (SEA) of the test samples increases with the increase of the out-diameter and thickness of the bamboo columns, indicating that size effect exists for energy absorption of the Moso Bamboos. For the multiple bamboo columns, there are mainly three failure modes for the constituent single bamboo columns: splitting above the node, splitting below the node and splitting through the node. Also, the tensile tests are conducted on three kinds of dog-bone shaped bamboo samples to investigate the macroscopic tensile fracture mode in the longitudinal direction of Moso bamboos. Results show that there is no direct relationship between the fracture pattern and moisture content of the bamboos, as well as the growth age of the bamboos. However, the tensile loading rate and the shape of the dog-bone shaped bamboo sample could affect the macroscopic fracture pattern of the bamboos in some cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0083.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: evapotranspiration; green infrastructure; HYDRUS; leaf water potential; low impact development; optimization; overdesign; stomatal conductance; simulated runoff test; static sizing; stormwater control measure; tree trench
Online: 15 January 2020 (07:28:40 CET)
Green infrastructure systems are often overdesigned. This may be a byproduct of static sizing (e.g., accounting for a design storm’s runoff volume but not exfiltration rates) or may be deliberate (e.g., buffering against performance loss through time). Regardless, overdesign may compromise plants’ access to water in systems where soil pits are embedded in infiltration beds. It could raise the storm size required for water to reach soil pits, reducing water availability between storms, which could ultimately induce plant physiological stress. This study investigated the hydrological dynamics and water relations of a tree trench system suspected to have been overbuilt and identified factors contributing to, compounding, and mitigating the risk of plant stress. Results provided strong evidence that the abovementioned processes played out. Water in the infiltration bed reached soil pits only once in three years, with that event occurring during a hydrant release. Moreover, minimal water was retained in the soil pit during the event due to the hydraulic properties of the soil media. Through a growing season, one of the two tree types frequently experienced water stress, while the other did so only rarely. These contrasting responses can likely be attributed to roots either being largely confined to the soil pits or reaching a deeper water source. Implications of these results for green infrastructure design are considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0326.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle & Field Physics Keywords: zero-point energy; quantized time-space static electromagnetic field; gravity field; weak interaction; strong interaction; masses of W and Z; mass of a neutrino; β collapse; quantized Einstein gravity equation
Online: 29 July 2019 (04:13:51 CEST)
We propose a new theory beyond the standard model of elementary-particle physics. Employing the concept of a quantized spacetime, our theory demonstrates that the zero-point energy of the vacuum alone is sufficient to create all the fields, including gravity, the static electromagnetic field, and the weak and strong interactions. No serious undetermined parameters are assumed. Furthermore, the relations between the forces at the quantum-mechanics level is made clear. Using these relations, we quantize Einstein’s gravitational equation and explain the Dark Energy in our universe. Beginning with the zero-point energy of the vacuum, and after quantizing Newtonian gravity, we combine the energies of a static electromagnetic field and gravity in a quantum spacetime. Applying these results to the Einstein gravity equation, we substitute the energy density derived from the zero-point energy in addition to redefining differentials in a quantized spacetime. We thus derive the quantized Einstein gravitational equation without assuming the existence of macroscopic masses. This also explains the existence of the Dark Energy in the universe. For the weak interaction, by considering plane-wave electron and the zero-point energy, we obtain a wavefunction that represents a β collapse. In this process, from a different point of view than Weinberg-Salam theory, we derive the masses of the W and Z bosons and the neutrino, and we calculate the radius of the neutron. For the strong interaction, we previously reported an analytical theory for calculating the mass of a proton by considering a specific linear attractive potential obtained from the zero-point energy, which agrees well with the measurements. In the present study, we calculate the strong interaction between two nucleons, i.e., the mass of the pi-meson. The resulting calculated quantities agree with the measurements, which verifies our proposed theory.