REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0625.v1
Online: 26 May 2021 (08:17:01 CEST)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) family that identify pathogen-associated molecular patterns derived from microbes and activate immune cell response. Following TLRs ligation, different adaptor and transcription molecules such as myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) are recruited that initiate inflammatory signaling pathways. The human Toll-like receptor 10 (hTLR10) is a novel member of the PRRs family with a regulatory function of immune responses because of unique cytoplasmic domains which lead to induction of both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Recent studies have reported the association of TLR10 polymorphisms with many inflammatory diseases and human cancer. Engagement of TLR10 on the surface of the epithelium and macrophages leads to the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, while other studies have proven an anti-inflammatory role of TLR10. Accordingly, TLR10 suppresses proinflammatory cytokine production via negative regulation of MyD88 and the Akt (protein kinase B) and MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) signaling pathways. This review aimed to provide answers for these conflicting findings (Inflammatory and anti-inflammatory properties of TLR10) to further identify distinct biological functions of TLR10.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0313.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: PRDX6; inflammation; NRF2; HGFs.
Online: 17 November 2021 (23:34:15 CET)
Periodontitis is a progressive and inflammatory oral disease and results in the damage of the supporting tissues of teeth. Peroxiredoxin6 (PRDX6) is an antioxidant enzyme and has been identified as a regulator in redox balance. This study aimed to investigate whether PRDX6 could protect human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) from lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammation and its mechanisms. Here, both inflamed and non-inflamed human gingival tissues were collected to assess the expression of PRDX6 and NRF2 by Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Furthermore, HGFs were stimulated with LPS, MJ33 (PRDX6 phospholipase A2 inhibitor), or ML385 (NRF2 inhibitor). The expression levels of inflammatory cytokines were measured by RT-qPCR and ELISA, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected using DCFH-DA. PRDX6 was downregulated in inflamed gingival tissues. In HGFs, LPS induced inflammatory cytokines and ROS was upregulated in PRDX6 knockdown cells. Furthermore, co-treatment with MJ33 alleviated LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines and ROS, while inhibiting NRF2 upregulated those in HGFs. Therefore, this study provided a new mechanistic insight that PRDX6, regulated by the NRF2 signaling, alleviates LPS- induced periodontitis in human gingival fibroblasts.
Online: 19 July 2020 (15:11:24 CEST)
Severe COVID-19 disease is characterised by an exaggerated inflammatory response, called cytokine storm, accompanied by a condition of immune depression. Even sepsis is characterised by an exaggerated inflammatory response, called SIRS (Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome), accompanied by a condition of immune depression called CARS (compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome). Clinical studies reveal that most sepsis patients who did not die during the hyper inflammatory response (SIRS) subsequently succumbed to the condition of immune depression (CARS). Severe acute pancreatitis begins with local inflammation that induces systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), accompanied and followed by a compensatory anti-inflammatory response (CARS). In COVID-19 disease, the male response to SARS CoV-2 virus is typically characterised by a robust inflammatory response. Instead, a cell-mediated immune response is dominant in women. This means that the male sex tends to have a more robust hyper inflammatory response than the female one. Furthermore, in women the condition of immune depression is less represented, therefore they are more protected. Sepsis, severe acute pancreatitis and COVID-19 disease evolve between two fundamental aspects: hyper inflammation and immunodepression. The experience gained over years of studies of sepsis and severe acute pancreatitis suggests that therapies should be differentiated according to the evolutionary stage of the disease. The goal is to save the lives of most patients with COVID-19 disease. The identification of critical points, suitable for designing the windows of therapeutic opportunity, may allow the use of therapeutic interventions, in the COVID-19 disease, which are effective (there are no approved drugs yet), safe (without significant side effects), targeted (based on the evolutionary phase of the disease) personalized, (based on sex, co-morbidities, age, etc.) and timely (based on signs, symptoms, laboratory parameters and instrumental investigations).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0176.v1
Online: 24 May 2017 (08:48:15 CEST)
Micronutrient homeostasis is a key factor in maintaining a healthy immune system. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is involved in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. The main cause of zinc deficiency is malnutrition. Zinc deficiency leads to cell-mediated immune dysfunctions among other manifestations. Consequently, such dysfunctions lead to a worse outcome in the response towards bacterial infection and sepsis. For instance, zinc is an essential component of the pathogen-eliminating signal transduction pathways leading to neutrophil extracellular traps formation, as well as inducing cell-mediated immunity over humoral immunity by regulating specific factors or differentiation. Additionally, zinc deficiency plays a role in inflammation, mainly elevating inflammatory response as well as damage to host tissue. Zinc is involved in the modulation of the proinflammatory response by targeting Nuclear Factor Kappa B, a transcription factor that is the master regulator of proinflammatory responses. It is also involved in controlling oxidative stress and regulating inflammatory cytokines. Zinc plays an intricate function during an immune response and its homeostasis is critical for sustaining proper immune function. This review will summarize the latest findings concerning the role of this micronutrient during the course of infections and inflammatory response and how the immune system modulates zinc depending on different stimuli.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0085.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: Ranolozine; Insuline; astrocytes; inflammation; antioxidants
Online: 6 June 2022 (10:14:05 CEST)
Ranolazine (Rn) is a drug used to treat persistent chronic coronary ischemia. It has also been shown to have therapeutic benefits on the central nervous system and an anti-diabetic effect by lowering blood glucose levels and however, no effects of Rn on cellular sensitivity to insulin (Ins) have been demonstrated yet. The present study aimed to investigate the permissive effects of Rn on the actions of Ins in astrocytes in primary culture. Ins at 10-8 M, Rn (10-6 M) and Ins+Rn (10-8 M and 10−6 M respectively) were added to astrocytes during 24 h. In comparison to control cells, Rn and/or Ins caused modifications in cell viability and proliferation. p-AKT, p-ERK, p-eNOS, Mn-SOD, COX-2, and the anti-inflammatory protein COX-2 were all upregulated by ins. On the contrary, no significant changes were found in the protein expression of Cu/Zn-SOD, NF-κB and IκB. The presence of Rn produced an increase in p-ERK protein and a significant decrease in COX-2 protein expression. Furthermore, Rn significantly increased the effects of Ins on the expression of p-AKT, p-eNOS, p-ERK, Mn-SOD, and PPAR-γ. On the other hand, Rn+Ins produced a significant decrease in COX-2 expression. In conclusion, Rn facilitated the effects of insulin on the p-AKT, p-eNOS, p-ERK, Mn-SOD and PPAR-γ, signaling pathways, as well as on the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of the hormone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0665.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: cannabinoid receptor; inflammation; astrocytes; immunohistochemistry
Online: 29 July 2021 (14:11:55 CEST)
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) persist despite the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), suggesting underlying systemic and central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory mechanisms. The endogenous cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2) modulate inflammatory gene expression and play an important role in maintaining neuronal homeostasis. Cannabis use is disproportionately high among people with HIV (PWH) and may provide a neuroprotective effect for those on ART due to its anti-inflammatory properties. However, expression profiles of CB1 and CB2 in the brains of PWH on ART with HAND have not been reported. In this study, biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses were performed to determine CB1 and CB2 expression in brain specimens of HAND donors. Immunoblot revealed CB1 and CB2 were differentially expressed in frontal cortices from HAND brains compared to neurocognitively unimpaired (NUI) brains from PWH. CB1 expression levels negatively correlated with memory and information processing speed. CB1 was primarily localized to neuronal soma in HAND brains versus a more punctate distribution on neuronal processes of NUI brains. CB1 expression was increased in cells with glial morphology and showed increased colocalization with an astroglial marker. These results suggest that targeting the endocannabinoid system may be a potential therapeutic strategy for HAND.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0278.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: cembranoid; inflammation; macrophage; NFkB; adhesion
Online: 16 April 2020 (13:44:33 CEST)
Inflammation is considered an important target for stroke therapy because it induces secondary brain damage after the initial ischemic insult. Peripheral monocytes migrate to the brain parenchyma after a central insult. They then differentiate to macrophages in a positive feedback fashion contributing to damage instead of ischemic resolution and inflammation control. A cyclic diterpenoid, (1S,2E,4R,6R,7E,11E)-cembra-2,7,11-triene-4,6-diol (4R), decreases neurodegeneration after ischemia with central anti-inflammatory activity. This study aims to determine whether the central anti-inflammatory effect of 4R is effective against peripheral inflammation triggered by brain ischemia. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of 4R, we treated macrophages with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as an inflammatory model, followed by treatment with 4R. Microarray transcriptome analysis of over 30,000 genes identified the differential expression of 393 genes. Genes related to inflammation, cell adhesion, and transcription were validated with qPCR, and reduced expression was determined. Quantification of NF-kB phosphorylation served as a marker for the modulation of inflammation through gene transcription. Our results show that 4R was associated with a reduction in NFKB1 and ITGB5 gene expression, increased phosphorylation of NF-kB, and a decrease in macrophage adhesion in a blood-brain barrier model. These results indicate that 4R can partially modulate the peripheral immune response, making 4R a potential drug against post-ischemic inflammation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci1030065
Online: 16 December 2019 (00:00:00 CET)
Toll-like receptor 5 ligand, flagellin, and Vascular Adhesion Protein-1 (VAP-1) are involved in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study aimed to determine whether VAP-1 mediates flagellin-induced hepatic fat accumulation. The effects of flagellin on adipocyte VAP-1 expression were first studied in vitro. Then, flagellin (100 ng/mouse) or saline was intraperitoneally injected to C57BL/6J WT and C57BL/6-Aoc3-/- (VAP-1 KO) mice on high-fat diet twice a week every two weeks for 10-weeks. After that, the effects on inflammation, insulin signaling, and metabolism were studied in liver and adipose tissues. Hepatic fat was quantified histologically and biochemically. Because flagellin challenge increased VAP-1 expression in human adipocytes, we used VAP-1 KO mice to determine whether VAP-1 regulates the inflammatory and metabolic effects of flagellin in vivo. In mice, VAP-1 mediated flagellin-induced inflammation, leukocyte infiltration and lipolysis in visceral adipose tissue. Consequently, increased release of glycerol led to hepatic steatosis in WT but not KO mice. Flagellin-induced hepatic fibrosis was not mediated by VAP-1. VAP-1 KO mice harbored more inflammation-related microbes than WT, while flagellin did not affect the gut microbiota. Our results suggest that by acting on visceral adipose tissue, flagellin increased leukocyte infiltration that induced lipolysis. Further, the released glycerol participated in hepatic fat accumulation. In conclusion, the results describe that gut microbial flagellin through VAP-1 induced hepatic steatosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0136.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: apoptosis; cardiotrophin-1; colon; inflammation
Online: 12 October 2019 (03:38:00 CEST)
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a relatively frequent, chronic disease that impacts significantly the patient’s quality of life. Although many therapeutic options are available, additional approaches are needed because many patients either do not respond to current therapies or show significant side effects. Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) is a cytokine with potent cytoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties. The purpose of this study was to assess if the administration of CT-1 could reduce colon damage in mice with experimental UC. UC was induced with 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the drinking water. Some mice received i.v. dose of CT-1 (200 µg/kg) 2 hours before and 2 and 4 days after DSS administration. Animals were followed during 7 days after DSS. The severity of UC was measured by standard scores. Colon damage was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry. Inflammatory mediators were measured by Western blot and PCR. CT-1 administration to DSS-treated mice ameliorated both the clinical course (disease activity index), histological damage, inflammation (colon expression of TNF-α, IL-17, IL-10, INF-γ, and iNOS), and apoptosis. Our results suggest that CT-1 administration before UC induction improves the clinical course, tissue damage and inflammation degree in DSS-induced UC in mice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0149.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: atherosclerosis, mesenchymal stem cells, inflammation
Online: 7 August 2018 (23:22:20 CEST)
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease which results in thickening of the vessel wall and narrowing of the lumen. It is a leading cause of death worldwide. Preventive treatment is taken into prioritized consideration since currently no effective approaches to cure atherosclerosis are available. These treatments mainly focus on lowering blood cholesterol levels, especially LDL-C, by statins. Even so, lowering lipid levels is not sufficient to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in all patients. Recently, atherosclerosis has increasingly been recognized as a chronic inflammatory disease involving the immune system, initiating new therapeutic approaches which could alleviate or prevent atherosclerosis by modulating inflammation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as a promising option to relieve inflammation and balance immune responses in inflammatory diseases. Several studies including our group also reported that MSCs may be a new therapeutic option for atherosclerosis. This review summarizes the updated state of our knowledge in the administration of MSCs to alleviate atherosclerosis and discusses some of the key unresolved challenges that need to be solved in future studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0382.v1
Online: 20 July 2018 (12:49:20 CEST)
While over half of all spinal cord injuries (SCIs) occur in the cervical region, the majority of preclinical studies have focused on models of thoracic injury. However, these two levels are anatomically distinct—with the cervical region possessing a greater vascular supply, grey-white matter ratio and sympathetic outflow relative to the thoracic region. As such, there exists a significant knowledge gap in the secondary pathology at these levels following SCI. In this study, we characterized the systemic plasma markers of inflammation over time (1, 3, 7, 14, 56 days post-SCI) after moderate-severe, clip-compression cervical and thoracic SCI in the rat. Using high-throughput ELISA panels, we observed a clear level-specific difference in plasma levels of VEGF, leptin, IP10, IL18, GCSF, and fractalkine. Overall, cervical SCI had reduced expressions of both pro- and anti-inflammatory proteins relative to thoracic SCI, likely due to sympathetic dysregulation associated with higher level SCIs. However, contrary to the literature, we did not observe level-dependent splenic atrophy with our incomplete SCI model. This is the first study to compare the systemic plasma-level changes following cervical and thoracic SCI using level-matched and time-matched controls. The results of this study provide the first evidence in support of level-targeted intervention and also challenge the phenomenon of high SCI-induced splenic atrophy in incomplete SCI models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0124.v1
Online: 10 April 2018 (09:50:20 CEST)
Inflammation is known to be risk factors for metabolic diseases. The purpose of this study was to develop a Food-based Index of Dietary Inflammatory Potential (FBDI) and conduct its validation assessment. This study analyzed raw data from Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study 2012–2014 data of 17,771 people. We carried out the correlation analysis between 51 food groups and hs-CRP. The FBDI was developed by multiple regression method with hs-CRP and selected 17 food group. For the validation of FBDI, 7795 people in the 6th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHAES) was used. Binary logistic regression analysis was used for risk analysis of metabolic syndrome and FBDI. The FBDI model included that 7 were composed of anti-inflammatory food groups and 3 of inflammatory food groups. The FBDI was calculated by multiplying the intake of food group by β coefficients. KNHAES were included in the validation of FBDI. The risk of metabolic syndrome was found to be 2.152 times higher in the group with the highest FBDI than in the group with the lowest one (95% Cl:1.458–3.178, p for trend = 0.000). This study developed FBDI reflecting food intake for Koreans, which showed a significant relationship with the risk of metabolic syndrome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0136.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: keloids; fibroproliferative disorder; HtrA1; inflammation
Online: 20 October 2017 (06:22:35 CEST)
1) Background: Keloids occur after the failure during the wound-healing process, persist the inflammation and are refractory to various treatments. The pathogenesis of keloids is still unclear. We previously analyzed the gene expression profiles in keloid tissue using microarray and Northern blot analysis and found that HtrA1 was markedly upregulated in the keloid lesions. HtrA1 is a member of the HtrA family of serine protease, has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of various diseases including age-related macular degeneration and osteoarthritis by modulating proteins in extracellular matrix or cell surface. We focused on HtrA1, analyzed the localization and the role in keloid pathogenesis. 2) Methods: Twenty seven keloid patients and seven unrelated patients were enrolled in this study. We performed in situ hybridization analysis, immunohistochemical analysis, western blot analysis and cell proliferation assay. 3) Results: First, the fibroblast-like cells expressed HtrA1 higher in the active keloid lesions than in the surrounding lesions in situ hybridization. Second, the proportion of HtrA1-positive cells in keloid was higher than that of in normal skin significantly in immunohistochemical analysis. Third, HtrA1 protein was up-regulated, relative to normal skin tissue samples in western blot analysis. Finally, silencing of HtrA1 gene expression suppressed the cell proliferation significantly. 4) Conclusion: HtrA1 was highly expressed in keloid tissues and the suppression of HtrA1 gene inhibited the proliferation of keloid-derived fibroblasts. HtrA1 may promote keloid development through accelerating cell proliferation and remodeling keloid-specific extracellular matrix or cell surface molecules. HtrA1 is suggested to have an important role in keloid pathogenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0451.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: HIV; tobacco; electronic cigarettes; inflammation; biomarkers
Online: 29 September 2022 (03:54:56 CEST)
People with HIV (PWH) experience higher rates of cardiovascular events (CVEs) compared with the general population. A substantial body of evidence supports that select biomarkers of inflammation (soluble CD14 [sCD14], soluble CD163 [sCD163], highly sensitive C-reactive protein [hs-CRP], interleukin-6 [IL-6]), and coagulation (D-dimer) are elevated in PWH and related to increased rates of CVEs. Our previous work showed that smoking compared with nonsmoking was associated with significantly elevated sCD14, a biomarker of monocyte activation. We aimed to explore the effect of electronic cigarette (EC) provision on inflammatory biomarkers in PWH who smoked daily and then switched to an EC. Nineteen PWH were enrolled in a pilot study in which an EC and e-liquid were provided weekly or 8 weeks. Blood specimens for inflammatory biomarker analysis were obtained at baseline (BL) and at week 8. Biomarker levels were high at BL and did not differ significantly at week 8. There were small nonsignificant reductions in sCD163 and CRP levels. Non-significant increases in IL-6, D-dimer and sCD14 levels were also noted. Use of ECs for 8 weeks does not appear to significantly increase or decrease inflammatory biomarker levels in SWH. Further research with larger samples and a control group is needed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0380.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Osteoarthritis; pathophysiology; subchondral bone; synovium; inflammation
Online: 22 August 2022 (10:44:18 CEST)
ABSTRACT: Understanding the basis of osteoarthritis (OA) has seen some interesting advancements in recent years. It has been observed that cartilage degeneration is preceded by subchondral bone lesions, suggesting a key role of this mechanism within the pathogenesis and progression of OA, including the formation of ectopic bone and osteophytes. Moreover, low-grade, chronic inflammation of the synovial lining has gained a central role in the definition of OA pathophysiology, and central immunological mechanisms, innate but also adaptive, are now considered crucial in driving inflammation and tissue destruction. In addition, the role of neuroinflammation and central sensitization mechanisms has been characterized as underlying causes of pain chronicity. This has led to a renewed definition of OA, which is now intended as a complex multifactorial joint pathology caused by inflammatory and metabolic factors underlying joint damage. Since this evidence can directly affect the definition of the correct therapeutic approach to OA, an improved understanding of these pathophysiological mechanisms is fundamental. This review provides an overview of the most updated evidence on OA pathogenesis; it presents the most recent insight on the pathophysiology of OA, describing the interplay between immunological and biochemical mechanisms proposed to drive inflammation and tissue destruction, as well as central sensitization mechanisms. Moreover, although the therapeutic implications consequent to the renewed definition of OA are beyond this review scope, some suggestions for intervention have been addressed.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: purinergic signaling; regulatory role; neutrophils; inflammation
Online: 8 September 2021 (13:16:11 CEST)
Purinergic signaling is that nucleotides (especially ATP) and adenosine are utilized as transmitter molecules, which play an important role in the immune system. In the extracellular ventricle, ATP plays a significant role of pro-inflammatory molecules mainly through activating P2 receptors, while adenosine plays the role as anti-inflammatory molecule mainly through activating P1 receptors. As we know，neutrophils are the most abundant immune cells in our circulation and have become an essential part of coordinating a series of complex events during inflammatory diseases. However, due to the destruction of inflammatory substances from neutrophils, the activation of neutrophils is fine-tuned, and purinergic signaling is associated with this process. As a matter of fact, altering the balance between P2 and P1 signals is of great importance for neutrophils to exert immune activities properly. Here, we review the role of purinergic signaling in regulatory function of neutrophils during inflammatory disease, and then discuss the potential contribution of targeted purinergic signals in the treatment of the neutrophil during inflammatory diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0501.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: inflammation; Luminex; volumetric neuroimaging, cognitive impairment
Online: 21 May 2021 (08:24:47 CEST)
Background: HIV is accompanied by production of proinflammatory cytokines which are regarded as critical in neuronal damage, leading to brain dysfunction, hence the need to identify cytokine biomarkers sensitive to brain damage. Methods: We applied MRI volumetric neuroimaging and high throughput Luminex based immunoassays to examine the relationship between cortical white matter, subcortical gray matter and total gray matter brain volumes and plasma cytokines in HIV indviduals using generalised linear models and Partial least square regression model. Results: Higher plasma inflammatory cytokines CCL5/RANTES and MCP-1 were significantly associated with lower cortical white matter volume. Higher IL-6 was associated with both lower subcortical gray matter and lower total gray matter, whereas higher IL-8 and GM-CSF were associated with lower total gray matter only. Higher VEGF, PDGF-BB and IL-9 were associated with higher cortical white matter volumes. After standardisation and adjusting for clinical and demographic variables, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1 remained associated with lower volumes of the three brain regions whereas IL-9, VEGF and PDGF-BB were associated with higher volumes. Conclusions: Association proinflammatory cytokines RANTES, MCP-1 and IL-6 with lower brain volumes could imply possible involvement in neurodegerative processes in HIV infection while IL-9, VEGF and PDGF may have a neuroprotective or neurotrophic role.
Online: 12 March 2021 (08:43:06 CET)
Metformin（Met） is a commonly used drug in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Currently, it has been found that Met can effectively reduce the incidence of stroke and exert anti-inflammatory effects. However, its role in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) induced nerve injury remains unclear. This study aims to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Met in I/R-induced neuron injury as well as the underlying mechanism.A middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was established in SD rats, which were then treated with different doses of Met.Neurological deficits of rats were measured at different times post-surgery. TTC staining to observe the volume of cerebral infarction.HE staining was performed to observe pathological changes of brain tissues .Immunohistochemistry was performed to observe the expression of inflammatory factors in the cerebral tissues .qRT-PCR method was used to detect the relative expression of PI3K、Akt mRNA in cells after 24 h of drug action.Western blot method was used to detect the expression of PI3K、p-PI3K、Akt and p-Akt in hippocampus.What’s more, in vitro experiments were performed on BV2 microglia to verify the role of Met against oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). As a result, Met dose-dependently attenuated neurological deficits and neuronal apoptosis. Besides, Met administration also significantly reduced BV2 cells apoptosis and inflammatory response. Mechanistically, Met inactivated PI3K/Akt pathway induced by I/R and OGD, while upregulated PI3K. In conclusion, Met protected rats from cerebral I/R injury via reducing neuronal apoptosis and microglial inflammation through PI3K/Akt pathway.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0183.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: obesity; prediabetes; inflammation; microRNAs; cardiovascular function
Online: 8 December 2020 (07:56:14 CET)
Background: obese pre-diabetics have altered expression of cytokines, and sirtuin-1, that might influence myocardial function via microRNAs (miRs) expression. Objectives: to evaluate inflammatory/oxidative stress, miRs’ expression and cardiovascular function in obese pre-diabetics randomly assigned to metformin therapy vs. placebo vs. normo-glycemics at 12 months of follow-up. Materials and methods: eighty-three obese patients enrolled for abdominoplastic surgery, were divided in pre-diabetics (n 55), normo-glycemics (n 28), and assigned to hypocaloric diet. Pre-diabetics were randomly assigned to metformin (n 23) or to placebo (n 22) plus hypocaloric diet. Results: at enrollment, pre-diabetics obese vs. normo-glycemic presented higher values of glucose, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), inflammatory/oxidative stress markers, miR-195 and miR-27, and lower values of sirtuin-1 (p<0.05). At 12 months of follow up, obese pre-diabetics with metformin vs. placebo experienced significant reduction of glucose values, HOMA-IR, and inflammatory/oxidative stress markers, with significant reduction of intima-media thickness (IMT), septum and posterior wall thickness, and left ventricle mass (LVM), (p <0.05). At 12 months of follow-up, obese pre-diabetics with placebo vs. normo-glycemics had higher values of inflammatory/oxidative stress markers, higher values of IMT, septum and posterior wall thickness, LVM, and myocardial performance index (MPI), (p<0.05). Obese pre-diabetics in metformin vs. placebo, and obese pre-diabetics with placebo vs. normoglycemics, had significant differences about IMT, MPI, and LVM (p<0.05). Obese pre-diabetics in metformin vs. placebo showed significant reduction of serum miR-195 and miR-27 (p<0.05). Obese pre-diabetics in metformin vs. normoglycemics showed higher expression of serum miR-195 and miR-27 ( p<0.05). Finally, we found inverse relation between IMT and insulin (R -0.351), HOMA-IR (R -0.340), miR-195 (R -0.355), miR-27 (R -0.181); between LVEF and Insulin (R -0.332), HOMA-IR (R -0.142), miR-195 (R -0.297) and miR-27 (R -0.163). We found inverse correlation between LVM and sirtuin-1 (R -0.272), Insulin (R -0.810), HOMA-IR (R-0.183), miR-195 (R -0.446) and miR-27 (R-0.433), and direct correlation with interleukin-6 (R 0.195). MPI inversely linked to miR-195 (R -0.260) and miR-27 (R -0.591). Conclusion: in obese pre-diabetics metformin therapy significantly reduces inflammation/oxidative stress, circulating miR-195 and miR-27, causing reduction of LVM, IMT and amelioration of cardiac performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0092.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Acute coronary syndrome; inflammation; neutrophil; outcome
Online: 7 April 2020 (11:18:03 CEST)
Aims: Clinical evidence indicates that innate immune cells may contribute to the onset and outcome of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Our prospective study aimed at analysing neutrophil phenotypes in ACS and their role in predicting 1-year major cardiovascular events. Methods: Blood neutrophil phenotypes were analysed by flow cytometry. Differential blood cell count and plasma levels of soluble markers were recorded at admission and at 6-month follow-up. Results: 108 patients categorized in chronic stable coronary artery disease (n=37), unstable angina (UA) (n=19), Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI) (n=25), and ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) (n=27) were included. STEMI and NSTEMI patients displayed higher neutrophil count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) than stable and UA patients (P<0.0001), which normalized at 6-month after MI. STEMI patients were characterized by elevated percentages of band cells in low-density neutrophils (P=0.007) and in high-density neutrophils (P=0.019) compared to the other patients. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that plasma levels of total MPO was associated with STEMI when compared to stable (OR: 1.434; 95% CI: 1.119-1.837; P<0.0001), UA (1.47; 1.146-1.886; P=0.002), and NSTEMI (1.213; 1.1-1.134; P=0.0001) patients, while increased neutrophil SSC signal intensity was associated with NSTEMI compared to stable patients (3.828; 1.033-14.184; P=0.045). Based on multivariable Cox regression analysis, elevated plasma levels of PCSK9 and low-density neutrophil percentage predicted 1-year outcome independently of cardiovascular risk factors (c-index: 0.915; IQR: 0.908-0.929). Conclusions: Changes in neutrophil phenotype are concomitant to ACS. These changes may differ between STEMI and NSTEMI. They may also contribute to ACS risk and patient outcome.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: ganglioside; knockout; neurodegeneration; glycosphingolipid; inflammation; microdomain
Online: 3 February 2020 (06:00:23 CET)
Acidic glycosphingolipids, gangliosides are highly and consistently expressed in nervous tissues of vertebrates at high levels. Therefore, they have been believed to be largely involved in the development and function of nervous systems. Recent studies with genetic engineering of glycosyltransferase genes have revealed novel aspects of roles of gangliosides in the regulation of nervous tissues with substantial basis. In this review, novel findings on the ganglioside functions and their modes of action elucidated mainly by studies of gene knockout mice have been summarized. In particular, roles of gangliosides in the regulation of lipid rafts to maintain the integrity of nervous systems have been reported with a focus on the roles in the regulation of neuro-inflammation and neurodegeneration via complement systems. In addition, recent advances in the studies of congenital neurodisorders due to the genetic mutaions of ganglioside synthase genes, and also in the techniques for the analysis of ganglioside functions have been introduced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0138.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: inflammation; Schizophrenia; treatment resistance; neurocognition; neuroimmunomodulation
Online: 13 January 2020 (04:15:01 CET)
Background: Activation of the immune-inflammatory response system (IRS) and the compensatory immune-regulatory system (CIRS) play a key role in SCZ and treatment resistant SCZ. There are only few data on immune and endogenous opioid system (EOS) interactions in SCZ and treatment resistant SCZ.Aim of the study: We examined serum β-endorphin, endomorphin-2 (EM2), mu-opioid (MOR) and kappa-opioid (KOR) receptors, and interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 in 60 non responders to treatment (NRTT), 55 partial RTT (PRTT) and 43 normal controls.Results: Serum EM2, KOR, MOR, IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly increased in SCZ as compared with controls. β-endorphin, EM2, MOR and IL-6 were significantly higher in NRTT than in PRTT. There were significant correlations between IL-6, on the one hand, and β-endorphin, EM2, KOR, and MOR, on the other, while IL-10 was significantly correlated with MOR only. A large part of the variance in negative symptoms, psychosis, hostility, excitation, mannerism, psychomotor retardation and formal thought disorders was explained by the combined effects of EM2 and MOR with or without IL-6 while increased KOR was significantly associated with all symptom dimensions. Increased MOR, KOR, EM2 and IL-6 were also associated with neurocognitive impairments including in episodic, semantic and working memory and executive functions.Conclusion: The EOS contributes to SCZ symptomatology, neurocognitive impairments and a non-response to treatment. In SCZ, EOS peptides/receptors may exert CIRS functions, whereas increased KOR levels may contribute to the pathophysiology of SCZ and EM2 and KOR to a non-response to treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0406.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Sutherlandia frutescens, RNA sequencing, inflammation, TNF
Online: 20 September 2018 (10:16:04 CEST)
Sutherlandia frutescens (S. frutescens) has been traditionally used as an herbal medicine to ameliorate symptoms associated with cancer, infectious diseases, as well as inflammation. The objective of this investigation was to explore the impact of S. frutescens on the expression of genes in a murine macrophage cell line (i.e., RAW 264.7). We found that treatment with an ethanolic-extract of S. frutescens (SFE) 1 h prior to the stimulation with LPS and IFNγ for 24 h significantly affected the expression of 715 genes in RAW 264.7 cells. When the post-stimulation period was shortened to 8 h, the number of genes that were significantly impacted by SFE diminished to 50. Pathway analysis revealed that inflammatory signaling pathways, such as NF-κB, MAPK, and TNF, as well as signaling pathways associated with immune-related responses, were inhibited by SFE treatment. These findings are consistent with previously reported anti-inflammatory activity of SFE and enable better understanding of the immune-modulating properties of this botanical. To our knowledge, this represents the first report on the impact of S. frutescens on global gene expression in an immune cell population.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0375.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: LPS; microbiota; inflammation; intestinal permeability; obesity
Online: 20 July 2018 (04:56:08 CEST)
Obesity and chronic low-grade inflammation are becoming global epidemics. The dysbiosis has a specific role in the metabolism and energy stocks of the host. The discovery that a low-grade of inflammation could be directly connected to the intestinal microbiota metabolic endotoxemia (elevated levels of plasma lipopolysaccharides) has allowed the identification of novel mechanisms involved in the control of the intestinal barrier. In this review, it will analyze the latest news to explain how human symbiotic microorganisms participate in the growth of the fat reserves and promote insulin resistance as a low-grade inflammation. Besides, it will discuss new treatments with probiotics and prebiotics as a promising therapeutic approach to reverse the host's metabolic changes linked to dysbiosis observed in obesity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0170.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Scandoside; NF-κB; MAPK; Anti-inflammation
Online: 18 January 2018 (07:03:53 CET)
The iridoids of H. diffusa play an important role in the anti-inflammatory process, but the specific iridoid with anti-inflammatory effect and its mechanism is lack of study. An iridoid compound named scandoside (SCA) was isolated from H. diffusa and its anti-inflammatory effect was investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Its anti-inflammatory mechanism was confirmed by in intro experiment and molecular docking analysis. As results, SCA significantly decreased the productions of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and inhibited the levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. SCA treatment suppressed the phosphorylation of inhibitor of nuclear transcription factor kappa-B alpaha (IκB-α), p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). The docking data suggested that SCA had great binding abilities to COX-2, iNOS and IκB. Taken together, the results indicated that the anti-inflammatory effect of SCA is due to inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators via suppressing the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, which provided useful information for its application and development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0208.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Disease; fibroid; micronutrients; inflammation; antioxidants; cytokines; diets
Online: 15 June 2022 (02:24:41 CEST)
Uterine fibroid (UF) is a tumour in some parts of the uterus, which introduces health challenges or death due to failed surgery among women globally. This study was designed to ascertain the involvement of micro-nutrients, inflammation, and antioxidant enzymes in the UF development to gain further insights and provide a strategy for managing the disease. One hundred ninety reproductive-aged women were recruited and classified equally into case and control subjects. The supernatant obtained from excised tissues from the fibroid and the normal samples from the adjacent myometrium were assessed for the selected biochemical parameters with standard methods. The levels of vitamin A and sodium between 26-35 years; vitamins D, E, zinc, and selenium between 46-55 years; and vitamin E at 56 years and above significantly decreased (p<0.05). Interleukin-2 (IL-2) level significantly increased (P < 0.05) among the case between 36-45 years. An increase in the activity of glutathione-s-transferase and the reduction in glutathione peroxidase activity and vitamin A level in the uterus between 26-45 years were the most pronounced significant findings (p<0.05) recorded. Prolonged vitamin A deficiency coupled with excess sodium salts facilitating inflammation induced by IL-2 are critical factors for UF development.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0124.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Senescence; EMT; NF-κB; Inflammation; Epigenetics; Aging
Online: 13 April 2022 (10:22:37 CEST)
The origin of cancer remains one of the most important enigmas in modern biology. This paper presents a hypothesis for the origin of carcinomas in which cellular aging and inflammation enable the recovery of cellular plasticity that may ultimately result in cancer. The process is described as the result of dedifferentiation undergone by epithelial cells in hyperplasia due to replicative senescence towards a mesenchymal cell state with potential cancerous behavior. In support of the hypothesis, the molecular, cellular, and histopathological evidence was critically reviewed and reinterpreted when necessary to postulate a plausible generic model for the origin and progression of carcinomas. In addition, the implications of this theoretical framework for the current strategies of cancer treatment are discussed against recent evidence of the molecular events underlying the epigenetic switches involved in the resistance of breast carcinomas. Subsequently, is proposed an epigenetic landscape for their progression and a potential mechanism to restrain the degree of dedifferentiation and malignant behavior. Finally, is suggested a novel understanding of the involution and carcinogenesis of tissues associated with aging as a perspective that might inspire integrative approaches in the study and management of chronic diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0172.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: monocyte subset; heart failure; inflammation; cytokine; macrophage
Online: 10 December 2021 (11:54:31 CET)
Chronic heart failure (CHF) results when heart cannot constantly supply the body tissues with oxygen and required nutrients, and it can be categorized as heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). There are different causes and mechanisms of the HF pathogenesis; however, the inflammation can be regarded as one of the factors promoting both HFrEF and HFpEF. Monocytes, a subgroup of leucocytes, are known as cellular mediators in response to cardiovascular injury and are closely related to inflammatory reactions. These cells are a vital component of the immune system and are the source of macrophages, which participate in cardiac tissue repair after injury. However, the monocytes are not homogenous as thought, and thus can present different functions under different cardiovascular disease conditions. In addition, there is still an open question whether the functions of monocytes and macrophages should be regarded as a cause or a consequence in CHF development. Therefore, our aim was to summarize the current studies on the function of various monocyte subsets in CHF with a focus on the role of a certain monocyte subset in HFpEF and HFrEF patients, and the relation to inflammatory markers.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0354.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: mastitis; staphylococci; inflammation; memory cells; dairy cattle.
Online: 19 November 2021 (13:02:18 CET)
The present study explored the expression of CD62L and CD44 by bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and WC1.1+ γδ T cells under Staphylococcus aureus cell culture stimu-lation. In this study, peripheral blood cells were isolated from ten dairy cows and cocultured with S. aureus. Afterward, the γδ T cell subpopulation and the expression of CD44, CD62L and prolif-erative (Ki67+) cells were evaluated by flow cytometry. Our results showed that the percentages of proliferative PBMCs and WC1.1+ γδ T cells were higher when stimulated with S. aureus. The percentage of CD44+ cells increased in S. aureus-stimulated cultured PMBCs and WC1.1+ γδ T cells, as did the CD44 geometric mean fluorescence intensity (GMFI). The rate of CD62L cells did not differ among groups for either PBMCs or WC1.1+ γδ T cells. A higher GMFI of CD62L in prolif-erative PBMCs than nonproliferative PBMCs upon stimulation with S. aureus was detected, whereas no impact on the GMFI of CD62L was observed in WC1.1+ cells. In summary, our study identified that S. aureus was associated with high expression of CD44 in overall PBMCs and WC1.1+ γδ T cells, and they could generate memory WC1.1+ γδ T cells, preferably central memory cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0579.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: IRAK1; IRAK4; endothelial cells; inflammation; cardiovascular disease
Online: 24 May 2021 (15:09:08 CEST)
Inflammation associated endothelial dysfunction represents a pivotal contributor to atherosclerosis. Increasingly evidence has demonstrated that interleukin 1 receptor (IL1-R) / toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling participated in the development of atherosclerosis. Previous studies indicated the therapeutic potential of anti-inflammatory therapy in anti-atherosclerosis. The present study examined the effect of IL-1R-associated kinase 1 and 4 inhibitors (IRAK1/4i) in regulating endothelial dysfunction. IRAK1/4i showed little endothelial toxicity at concentrations from 1 to 10 μM. Inhibition of IRAK1/4 alleviated endothelial activation induced by LPS in vitro evidenced by attenuated monocyte adhesion to the endothelium. Mechanistically, blockade of IRAK1/4 ameliorated the transcriptional activity of NF-κB. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that dual inhibition of IRAK1 and IRAK4 attenuates endothelial dysfunction, suggesting pharmaceutical inhibition of IRAK1/4 might be a potential strategy to combat endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0059.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: trace element; inflammation; ceruloplasmin; micronutrient; COVID-19
Online: 5 May 2021 (13:10:13 CEST)
The trace element copper (Cu) is part of our nutrition and essentially needed for several cuproenzymes that control redox status and support the immune system. In blood, the ferroxidase ceruloplasmin (CP) accounts for the majority of circulating Cu and serves as transport protein. Both Cu and CP behave as positive, whereas serum selenium (Se) and its transporter selenoprotein P (SELENOP) behave as negative acute phase reactants. In view that coronavirus disease (COVID-19) causes systemic inflammation, we hypothesized that biomarkers of Cu and Se status are regulated inversely, in relation to disease severity and mortality risk. Serum samples from COVID-19 patients were analysed for Cu by total reflection X-ray fluorescence and CP was quantified by a validated sandwich ELISA. The two Cu biomarkers correlated positively in serum from patients with COVID-19 (R=0.42, p<0.001). Surviving patients showed higher mean serum Cu and CP concentrations in comparison to non-survivors ([mean+/-SEM], Cu; 1475.9+/-22.7 vs. 1317.9+/-43.9 µg/L; p<0.001, CP; 547.2.5 +/- 19.5 vs. 438.8+/-32.9 mg/L, p=0.086). In contrast to expectations, total serum Cu and Se concentrations displayed a positive linear correlation in the patient samples analysed (R=0.23, p=0.003). Serum CP and SELENOP levels were not interrelated. Applying receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis, the combination of Cu and SELENOP with age outperformed other combinations of parameters for predicting risk of death, yielding an AUC of 95.0%. We conclude that the alterations in serum biomarkers of Cu and Se status in COVID-19 are not compatible with a simple acute phase response, and that serum Cu and SELENOP levels contribute to a good prediction of survival. Adjuvant supplementation in patients with diagnostically proven deficits in Cu or Se may positively influence disease course, as both increase in survivors and are of crucial importance for the immune response and antioxidative defence systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0619.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: monoclonal antibodies; ARDS; cytokine storm syndrome; inflammation
Online: 22 April 2021 (20:58:22 CEST)
Background: Cytokine storm in COVID-19 is heterogenous. There are at least three subtypes: cytokine release syndrome (CRS), macrophage activation syndrome (MAS), and sepsis. Methods: A retrospective study comprising 276 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. All patients were tested for ferritin, interleukin-6, D-Dimer, fibrinogen, calcitonin, and C-reactive protein. According to the diagnostic criteria, three groups of patients with different subtypes of cytokine storm syndrome were identified: MAS, CRS or sepsis. In each group, treatment results were assessed depending on whether or not tocilizumab was used. Results: MAS was diagnosed in 9.1% of the patients examined, CRS in 81.8%, and sepsis in 9.1%. Median serum ferritin in patients with MAS was significantly higher (5894 vs. 984 vs. 957 ng/ml, p <0.001) than in those with CRS or sepsis. Hypofibrinogenemia and pancytopenia were also observed in MAS patients. In CRS patients, a higher mortality rate was observed among those who received tocilizumab, 21 vs. 10 patients (p=0.043), RR = 2.1 (95% CI 1.0-4.3). In MAS patients, tocilizumab decreased the mortality, 13 vs. 6 patients (p=0.013), RR = 0.50 (95% CI 0.25-0.99). Сonclusions: Tocilizumab therapy in patients with COVID-19 and CRS was associated with increased mortality, while in MAS patients it contributed to reduced mortality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0014.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: delirium; inflammation; neuro-immune; biomarkers; oxidative stress
Online: 4 January 2021 (11:26:34 CET)
Background: Post-operative delirium in elderly with hip fracture is associated with various adverse clinical outcomes. Nevertheless, the pathophysiological processes underpinning delirium have remained elusive. The aim of this study is to explore the associations between delirium and its features and immune-inflammatory and blood gas biomarkers.Methods: In this prospective study we examined 65 patients who underwent a hip fracture surgery and assessed the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU), Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS), and Delirium Rating Scale Revised-98 (DRS-R-98) before and during 4 days after the surgery. Complete Blood Count (CBC) and venous blood gas markers were obtained at the same time points.Results: Delirium was observed in 19 patients and was accompanied by significantly increased pO2, number of white blood cells, neutrophil percentage, and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, and lower mean platelet volume (MPV) (after adjusting for age, central nervous system (CNS) disease, blood loss during surgery, sleep disorders, and body mass index. The severity of delirium was associated with lowered number of platelets and MPV. Psychomotor disorders were associated with lower bicarbonate levels. The requirement of physical restraint of the patients was predicted by increased percentages of neutrophils and lymphocytes. Prior CNS disease was together with these biomarkers a significant predictor of delirium and severity of delirium. Conclusion: Delirium and psychomotor disorders following hip fracture and surgery may be caused by immune-inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways probably attributable to an aseptic inflammatory process. Oxygen administration may aggravate these pathways.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: Inflammation; Cytokine Storm; ⍵-3; ⍵-6; SPMs; Resolvins
Online: 30 August 2020 (16:47:53 CEST)
Inflammation is an essential protective response against injury or infection. Physiological inflammation eliminates the pathogen, promotes tissue repair and healing. An exaggerated, out of control inflammation, however, can become pathological. Inflammation can generate secondary cell damage, inflame the vessels (endothelitis), activate coagulation processes. Among these pathogenetic factors (cell damage, inflammation, endothelitis, coagulopathies), self-amplification mechanisms can be created, spreading beyond the initial site, up to Multiple Organ Failure (MOF) and host death. If the inflammation does not resolve in a physiological way, the remodeling of the tissues can be maladaptive and lead to the onset of chronic inflammatory degenerative diseases. Diseases such as sepsis, burns, polytrauma, severe forms of influenza or COVID-19, are characterized by a condition of hyperinflammation, associated with a condition of immunosuppression. The initial events triggered by the pathogen (cell damage, interferon response in the case of viruses) ignite the inflammation by activating the inflammasome, the transcription factor NFkB, the release of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids (Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, Thromboxanes) by neutrophils and macrophages. Hence, the cells of the innate immune system produce pro-inflammatory cytokines. Indeed, the ‘’eicosanoid storm’’ precedes the ‘’cytokine storm’’. Eicosanoids are a group of potent endogenous lipid mediators derived from omega-6 fatty acids Arachidonic Acid (AA). Eicosanoids include a group of molecules with pro-inflammatory (Prostaglandins, Leukotriens) and pro-coagulant (Thromboxanes) action. In addition, Arachidonic Acid (AA) is the source of Lipoxins (LXs). Lipoxins belong to a group of molecules collectively referred to as specialized pro-solving mediators (SPMs) which also include molecules derived from w-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA): Resolvins (ReV-E sieres) and w-3 docohexanoic (DHA): Resolvins D-series (ReV D-series); Protectins (PTs); Maresins (MaRs). SPMs are important for the resolution phase of inflammation to take place properly. Their deficiency could be involved in both acute uncontrolled inflammation and chronic inflammation. The active regulation of the acute inflammatory process, integrating the precursors of Specialized Pro-resolving Mediators (SPMs), such as ⍵-6 and ⍵-3 in balanced ratio, or the SPMs themselves, could be a complementary therapeutic approach useful for taming the "storm of cytokines '' which characterizes exaggerated forms of inflammation. ⍵-3 and ⍵-6 are part of already widely used, readily available, inexpensive and safe supplements. Resolvins have already been included in clinical trials for various other inflammatory diseases (eye diseases, periodontal diseases).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0011.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: diabetes mellitus; insulin resistance; inflammation; biomarkers; atherogenicity
Online: 3 June 2020 (05:41:03 CEST)
Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with increased atherogenicity and inflammatory responses, which may be related to increased levels of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1). Objective: The role of HMGB1 and DKK1 in T2DM is examined in association with lipid and insulin profiles. Methods: Serum HMGB1 and DKK1 were measured in T2DM with and without hypertension and compared with controls. Results: HMGB1 and DKK1 are significantly higher in T2DM irrespective of hypertension. T2DM was also accompanied by increased atherogenicity indices. HMGB1 and DKK1 are significantly correlated with HbA1c, glucose, indices of insulin resistance, β-cell function, and glucose toxicity, and different atherogenic indices. A large part of the variance in the β-cell index (30.5%) and glucose toxicity (34.8%) was explained by the combined effects of HMGB1 and DKK1 and hypertension. We found that 18.3% of the variance of the atherogenic index of plasma was explained by HMGB1 and DKK1 levels and that 31.2% was explained by glucose toxicity, HMGB1 and body weight. Conclusion: The higher serum HMGB1 and DKK1 levels in T2DM patients and the associations with atherogenicity indicate that low grade inflammation and disorders in the Wnt pathways are associated with T2DM and that both HMGB1 and DKK1 may contribute to increased atherogenicity in T2DM. Moreover, both biomarkers may cause more deficits in β-cell function and increase glucose toxicity leading to the development of more inflammation and diabetic complications. HMGB1 and the Wnt pathways are new drug targets in the treatment of T2DM.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0363.v2
Online: 22 April 2020 (06:23:01 CEST)
Covid-19 is often related to hyperinflammation that drives lung or multi-organ injury. The immunopathological mechanisms that cause excessive inflammation following SARS-Cov-2 infection are under investigation while different approaches to limit hyperinflammation in affected patients are being proposed. Here, a computational protein-protein interaction network approach was used on recently available data to identify possible Covid-19 inflammatory mechanisms and bioactive genes. First, network analysis of putative SARS-Cov-2 cellular receptors and their directly associated proteins, led to the mining of a robust neutrophil response signature and multiple relevant inflammatory genes. Second, analysis of RNA-seq datasets of lung epithelial cells infected with SARS-Cov-2 revealed that infected cells specifically expressed neutrophil-attracting chemokines, further supporting the likely role of neutrophils in Covid-19 inflammation. Third, analysis of RNA-seq datasets of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from Covid-19 patients, identified neutrophil-specific genes and chemokines. Different immunoregulatory and neutrophil-relevant molecules mined here such as, TNFR, IL8, CXCR1, CXCR2, ADAM10, GPR84, MME-neprilysin, ANPEP and LAP3 are druggable and might be therapeutic targets in efforts to limit SARS-Cov-2 inflammation in severe clinical cases. The role of neutrophils in Covid-19 needs to be studied further.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0186.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: bipolar depression; inflammation; neuroimmunomodulation; cytokines; psychoneuroimmunology; staging
Online: 11 March 2020 (10:45:16 CET)
There is now evidence that, based on cytokine profiles, bipolar disorder (BD) is accompanied by simultaneous activation of the immune-inflammatory response system (IRS) and the compensatory immune-regulatory system (CIRS), and that both components may be associated with the staging of illness. Nevertheless, no BD studies have evaluated the IRS/CIRS ratio using CD (cluster of differentiation) molecules expressed by peripheral blood activated T effector (Teff) and T regulatory (Treg) subpopulations. This study examined T cell subsets both before and after ex vivo anti CD3/CD28 stimulation using flow cytometric immunophenotyping in 25 euthymic BD patients and 21 healthy controls as well as human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-specific IgG antibodies. BD is associated with a significantly lowered frequency of baseline (unstimulated) CD3+CD8+CD71+ and CD4+CD25+FOXP3 and increased CD4+CD25+FOXP3+CD152+ frequencies and with lowered stimulated frequencies of CD3+CD8+CD71+, CD4+CD25+FOXP3+CD152+ and CD4+CD25+FOXP3+GARP cells and, consequently, by an increased stimulated Teff/Treg ratio. Moreover, the number of manic, but not hypomanic or depressive episodes, is significantly and negatively associated with the stimulated proportions of CD3+CD4+CD154+, and CD69+ and CD71+ expression on CD4+ and CD8+ cells, while duration of illness (≥ 10 years) is accompanied by a depleted frequency of stimulated CD152+ Treg, and CD154+ and CD71+ CD4+ T cells. BD and anti-human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) IgG levels significantly interact to decrease the expression of CD4+CD25+FOXP+GARP T phenotypes. In conclusion, BD is characterized by deficits in immune-regulatory functions while the staging of illness is characterized by additional impairments is Teff and Treg activation. HCMV seropositivity may contribute to an immune-risk phenotype associated with BD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0360.v1
Online: 25 February 2020 (05:23:17 CET)
Although man is still rapidly evolving, he has not co-evolved with all of the modern chemicals made by man, including those in cosmetic products. Care must be taken when formulating products so that commonly used ingredients, such as polyethylene glycol, can be substituted with safer ingredients to which man has adapted and that will not cause irritation and inflammation. This is especially important given that induction of skin inflammation will cause systemic inflammation. A review of the literature and of commercially available products was made to highlight techniques and products that remediate inflammation or induce inflammation. Many skin care products contain chemicals that induce irritation and inflammation that may lead to chronic, systemic inflammation. Well studied natural products, especially skin identical chemicals, may offer an advantage compared to recent man-made chemicals in cosmetic and topical formulations and help to reduce skin inflammation as well as skin derived systemic chronic inflammation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0105.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: osteoarthritis; carnosine; hyaluronic acid; inflammation; oxidative stress
Online: 11 January 2020 (11:17:18 CET)
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease that currently has no cure. There are numerous studies showing that carnosine and hyaluronic acid (HA) have a positive pharmacological action during joint inflammation. For this reason, the goal of this research was to discover the protective effect of a new HA+Carnosine formulation (FidHycarn) on the inflammatory response and on the cartilage degradation in in vivo experimental model of OA. This model was induced by a single intra-articular (i.ar.) injection of 25µl normal saline having 1mg of monosodium iodoacetate solution (MIA) in the knee joint. MIA injection caused histological alterations and degradation of cartilage as well as behavioral changes. Oral treatment with FidHycarn ameliorated the macroscopic signs, improved thermal hyperalgesia and weight distribution of hind paw as well as decreased histological and radiographic alterations. The oxidative damage was analyzed by evaluating the levels of nitrotyrosine and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) that were significantly reduced in FidHycarn rats. Moreover, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were also significantly reduced by FidHycarn. However, interestingly, in more cases, the effects of FidHycarn were not statistically different to Naproxen used as positive control. Thus, the new formulation containing Carnosine and HA could represent an interesting therapeutic strategy to combat osteoarthritis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0329.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: premenstrual syndrome; chemokines; inflammation; neuro-immune; depression
Online: 29 September 2019 (06:29:54 CEST)
Objective: To examine associations between chemokines and menstrual cycle associated symptoms (MCAS). Methods: Forty-one women completed the Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP) rating scale during 28 consecutive days of the menstrual cycle. MCAS is diagnosed when the total daily DRSP score during the menstrual cycle is > 0.666 percentile. We assayed plasma CCL2, CCL5, CCL11, CXCL8, CXCL10, EGF, IGF-1, and PAI-1 at days 7, 14, 21 and 28 of the menstrual cycle. Results: CCL2, CCL5, CCL11 and EGF are significantly higher in women with MCAS than in those without. Increased CCL2, CXCL10, CXCL8, CCL11 and CCL5 levels are significantly associated with DRSP scores while CCL2 is the most significant predictor explaining 39.6% of the variance. The sum of the neurotoxic chemokines CCL2, CCL11 and CCL5 is significantly associated with the DRSP score and depression, physiosomatic, breast-craving and anxiety symptoms. The impact of chemokines on MCAS symptoms may differ between consecutive weeks of the menstrual cycle with CCL2 being the most important predictor of increased DRSP levels during the first two weeks, and CXCL10 or a combination of CCL2, CCL11 and CCL5 being the best predictors during week 3 and 4, respectively. Discussion: The novel case definition “MCAS” is externally validated by increased levels of uterus-associated chemokines and EGF. Those chemokines are involved in MCAS and are regulated by sex hormones and modulate endometrium functions and brain neuro-immune responses, which may underpin MCAS symptoms. As such, uterine-related chemokines may link the uterus with brain functions via a putative uterine-chemokine-brain axis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0176.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: depression; cytokines; inflammation; endogenous opioid; opioid receptor
Online: 16 April 2019 (09:49:14 CEST)
Background: There is now evidence that immune and opioid systems show functional reciprocal relationships and that both systems may participate in the pathophysiology of major depression (MDD). Objective: The present study was carried out to delineate differences between MDD patients and healthy controls in dynorphin and kappa opioid receptor (KORs) in association with levels of β-endorphins and mu opioid receptors (MORs), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10. Method: The present study recruited 60 drug-free male participants with MDD aged 24-70 year and 30 age-matched healthy males as control group and measured serum levels of dynorphin, KOR, β-endorphin, MOR, IL-6 and IL-10. Results: Serum dynorphin, KOR, β-endorphin and MOR are significantly increased in MDD as compared with controls. The increases in the dynorphin/KOR system and β-endorhin/MOR system are significantly intercorrelated and are both strongly associated with increased IL-6 and IL-10 levels. Dynorphin, β-endorphin, KOR and both cytokines showed a good diagnostic performance for MDD versus controls, whereby both opioid peptides and cytokines show a bootstrapped (n=2000) area under the receiver operating curve of 0.972. KOR and the dynorphin/KOR system are both significantly decreased in depressed subjects with comorbid nicotine dependence. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that in MDD, immune activation is associated with a simultaneous activation of dynorphin/KOR and β-endorhin/MOR signaling and that these opioid systems may participate in the pathophysiology of depression by a) exerting immune regulatory activities attenuating the primary immune response; and b) modulating reward responses and mood as well as emotional and behavioral responses to stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Depression, inflammation, neuro-immune, interleukins, ketoprofen, zinc
Online: 14 January 2019 (11:47:42 CET)
There is now evidence that major depression is accompanied by lowered serum zinc, an immune-inflammatory biomarker. However, the effect of anti-inflammatory drugs as adjuvant to antidepressants on serum zinc and copper in relation to pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines are not studied. The aim of the present work is to examine the effects of treatment with sertraline with and without ketoprofen on serum levels of zinc and copper in association with immune-inflammatory biomarkers in drug-naïve major depressed patients. We measured serum zinc and copper, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-18, interferon (IFN)-γ, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in 40 controls and 133 depressed patients. The clinical efficacy of the treatment was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) at baseline and 8 weeks later. In drug-naïve major depressed patients we found significantly reduced baseline levels of serum zinc and copper in association with upregulation of all cytokines, indicating activation of the immune-inflammatory responses system (IRS) as well as the compensatory immune regulatory system (CIRS). Treatment with sertraline significantly increased zinc and decreased copper levels, while ketoprofen did not have a significant add-on effect on zinc but attenuated the suppressant effects of sertraline on copper levels. During treatment, there was a significant inverse association between serum zinc and activation of the IRS/CIRS. The improvement in the BDI-II during treatment was significantly associated with increments in serum zinc coupled with attenuation of the IRS/CIRS. In conclusion, lower serum zinc is a hallmark of depression, while increments in serum zinc and attenuation of the immune-inflammatory response during treatment appear to play a role in the clinical efficacy of sertraline. Intertwined changes in zinc levels and the immune response play a role in the pathophysiology of major depression and participate in the mechanisms underpinning the clinical efficacy of antidepressants.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0063.v1
Online: 5 December 2018 (07:40:27 CET)
Chaenomeles plants are adapted to diverse ecological zones particularly the temperate areas of Korea, Japan and China. In China, Chaenomeles speciosa mainly planted in Chongqing, Anhui and Hubei provinces. Most of the studies till date have been focused on the anti-inflammatory activities of C. speciosa fractions. The present study aimed to review the maximum literature reported for the presence of various phytochemicals in C. speciosa. In addition, the pharmacological properties of these chemical compounds of this plant shall also be discussed. The extracts of the various parts of the plant are rich in diversity of antioxidants, organic acids, phenolics, terpenoides and many different phytochemicals that bear strong anticancer, antioxidant, anti-viral, antibacterial properties, anti-inflammation, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-hyperglycemic and anti-parkinson properties. C. speciosa fruits have broad scope in industry as well as in medicines. Not only the leaves and fruits of C. speciosa plant, but various other parts including roots, seeds, bark twigs, and flowers all have long history of clinical trials in curing many human ailments. However, the maximum accessible data concerning the chemical composition and their broad pharmacological properties of C. speciosa plant parts is pretty restricted that make it more appealing for indepth investigations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0404.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: microbiota; kynurenine pathway; serotonin; inflammation; gut motility
Online: 22 June 2018 (06:29:42 CEST)
The human gastrointestinal tract is inhabited by trillions of commensal bacteria collectively known as the gut microbiota. Our recognition of the significance of the complex interaction between the microbiota, and its host has grown dramatically over the past years. A balanced microbial community is a key regulator of the immune response, and metabolism of dietary components, which in turn, modulates several brain processes impacting mood and behavior. Consequently, it is likely that disruptions within the composition of the microbiota would remotely affect the mental state of the host. Here, we discuss how intestinal bacteria and their metabolites can orchestrate gut-associated neuroimmune mechanisms that influence mood and behavior leading to depression. In particular, we focus on microbiota-triggered gut inflammation and its implications in shifting the tryptophan metabolism towards kynurenine biosynthesis while disrupting the serotonergic signaling. We further investigate the gaps to be bridged in this exciting field of research in order to clarify our understanding of the multifaceted crosstalk in the microbiota-gut-brain interphase, bringing about a novel microbiota-targeted therapeutics for mental illnesses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0337.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Periostracum cicadae; IgA nephropathy; inflammation; fibrosis; apoptosis
Online: 24 May 2018 (06:32:22 CEST)
Periostracum cicadae, the cast-off shell of the cicada Cryptotympana pustulata Fabricius, is used in traditional Chinese medicine for its diaphoretic, anticonvulsive, sedative, antipyretic, and antiallergic effects. However, the exact pathogenesis of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) remains unclear, thereby hindering investigations to identify novel therapeutic agents. A rat IgAN model was established by administration of bovine serum albumin, lipopolysaccharide, and carbon tetrachloride, which simultaneously established blood stasis and a heat syndrome model. The animals were sacrificed to detect changes in protein levels in urine and blood. Immunofluorescence was performed to assess IgA deposition in the glomeruli. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hematology and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, TUNEL, and immunohistochemical staining were performed to evaluate histopathological changes in kidney tissues. Additionally, target-related proteins were measured by western blotting. Periostracum cicadae resulted in a reduction in blood and urine protein levels. Serum TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels significantly decreased in the periostracum cicadae-treated groups compared to the IgAN group. Furthermore, a reduction in MCP-1, TLR4, and IgA expression levels and a dose- dependent increase in caspace-3 expression were observed in response to periostracum cicadae treatment. TGF-β1 levels decreased, whereas that of Fas increased in the kidney tissues of the periostracum cicadae-treated groups. The findings of the present study indicate that periostracum cicadae induces apoptosis and improves kidney inflammation and fibrosis in IgA nephropathy rat models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0266.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: genetics; injury; sport; soccer; DNA; inflammation; football
Online: 9 February 2018 (02:24:40 CET)
Genetics plays an integral role in athletic performance and is increasingly becoming recognised as an important risk factor for injury. Ankle and knee injuries are the most common injuries sustained by soccer players. Often these injuries result in players missing training and matches, which can incur significant costs to clubs. This study aimed to identify genotypes associated with ankle and knee injuries in soccer players and how these impacted the number of matches played. 289 soccer players including 46 professional, 98 semi-professional and 145 amateur players were genetically tested. Ankle and knee injuries and the number of matches played were recorded during the 2014/15 season. Four genes were assessed in relation to injury. Genotypes found to be associated with injury included the TT genotype of the GDF5 gene, TT and CT genotypes of AMPD1 gene, TT genotype of COL5A1 and GG genotype of IGF2 gene. These genes were also associated with a decrease in the number of matches played.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0208.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: oligonol; diabetes; pancreas; antioxidative stress; anti-inflammation
Online: 30 May 2017 (06:29:46 CEST)
Oligonol is a low-molecular-weight polyphenol derived from lychee fruit. This study was conducted to examine whether oligonol has an ameliorative effect on diabetes-induced pancreatic damage via oxidative stress-induced inflammation. Oligonol was orally administered at 10 or 20 mg/kg body weight/day for 10 days to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, and changes in serum glucose, C-peptide, insulin, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels as well as body weight and food and water consumption were assessed. Furthermore, rat pancreases were analyzed for weight, ROS generation, TBARS level, insulin content, and protein expressions of phosphor (p)-p38, p-extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2, p-inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa Bα, nuclear factor-kappa Bp65, cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6. Markers of diabetes were shown to be decreased by oligonol administration and histological damage in the pancreas was also ameliorated. These results indicate that oligonol exerts antidiabetic activities, which may be mediated via antioxidative, stress-related, anti-inflammatory signaling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0102.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: salidroside; inflammation; alcoholic liver injury; TLR4; TAK1
Online: 27 September 2016 (10:45:06 CEST)
The current study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of salidroside (SDS) and the underlying mechanism by using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages in vitro and a mouse model of binge drinking induced liver injury in vivo. SDS downregulated protein expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CD14. SDS inhibited LPS-triggered phosphorylation of LPS-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), p38, c-Jun terminal kinase (JNK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Degradation of IκB-α and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB were effectively blocked by SDS. SDS concentration-dependently suppressed LPS mediated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein levels, as well as their downstream products, NO. SDS significantly inhibited protein secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β. Additionally C57BL/6 mice were orally administrated SDS for continuous 5 days, followed by three gavages of ethanol every 30 min. Alcohol binge drinking caused the increasing of hepatic lipid accumulation and serum transaminases levels. SDS pretreatment significantly alleviated liver inflammatory changes and serum transaminases levels. Further investigation indicated that SDS markedly decreased protein level of IL-1β in serum. Taken together, these data implied that SDS inhibits liver inflammation both in vitro and in vivo, and may be a promising candidate for the treatment of inflammatory liver injury.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0458.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: kynurenine pathway; inflammatory biomarkers; inflammation; ADHD; neurobiology; kynurenine
Online: 29 September 2022 (08:11:33 CEST)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder that can diminish the quality of life of both children and adults in academic, occupational, and social contexts. The kynurenine pathway (KP) contains a set of enzymatic reactions involved in tryptophan (TRP) degradation. It is known to be associated with the risk of developing ADHD. This review will address the KP and underlying mechanism of inflammation in ADHD. Potential inflammatory biomarkers reported in the most recent studies are summarized. Although a strong neuroimmunological basis has been established due to advances of recent neurobiological research, the pathophysiology of ADHD remains unclear.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0204.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; inflammation; non-coding RNAs; exosomes vesicles
Online: 14 September 2022 (09:20:29 CEST)
Alzheimer´s Disease (AD) has currently no effective treatment; however, preventive measures can significantly delay the progress/onset of the disease. Thus, accurate and early prediction of risk is an important strategy to alleviate the AD burden. Neuroinflammation is a major factor prompting the onset of the disease. Inflammation exerts its toxic effect via multiple mechanisms. Amongst others, it is affecting gene expression via modulation of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), such as miRNAs. Recent evidence supports that inflammation can also affect long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) expression. While the association between miRNAs and inflammation in AD has been extensively studied, the role of lncRNAs in neurodegenerative diseases has been less explored. In this review, we focus on lncRNAs and inflammation in the context of AD. Furthermore, since plasma-isolated extracellular vesicles (EVs) are increasingly recognized as an effective monitoring strategy of brain pathologies, we have focused on the studies reporting dysregulated lncRNAs in EVs isolated from AD patients and controls. The revised literature shows a positive association between pro-inflammatory lncRNAs and AD. However, the reports evaluating lncRNAs alterations in EVs isolated from plasma of patients and controls, although still limited confirm the value of specific lncRNAs associated with AD as reliable biomarkers. This is an emerging field that will open new avenues to improve risk prediction, patients’ stratification and may lead to the discovery of potential novel therapeutic targets for AD
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0091.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: calorie restriction; aging; inflammation; autophagy; senescence.; skeletal muscle
Online: 6 September 2022 (11:01:40 CEST)
Calorie restriction (CR), defined as a reduction of the total calorie intake of 30% to 60% without malnutrition, is the only nutritional strategy that has proven to extend lifespan, prevent or delay the onset of age-associated diseases, and delay the functional decline in a wide range of species. However, little is known about the effects of CR when started early in life. We sought to analyze the effects of CR in the skeletal muscle of young Wistar rats. For this, 3-month-old male and female rats were subjected to 40% CR or fed ad libitum for 3 months. Gastrocnemius muscles were used to extract RNA and total protein. Western blot and RT-qPCR were performed to evaluate the expression of key markers/pathways modulated by CR and affected by aging. CR decreased body and skeletal muscle weight in both sexes. No differences were found in most senescence, antioxidant, and nutrient sensing pathways analyzed. However, we found a sexual dimorphism in markers of oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and mitochondrial function in response to CR. Our data show that young female rats treated with CR exhibit similar expression patterns of key genes/pathways associated with healthy aging when compared to old animals treated with CR, while in male rats these effects are reduced. Additional studies are needed to understand how early or later life CR exerts positive effects on health- and lifespan.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0212.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: COVID-19; Drug targets; Inflammation; Treatment Options; Vaccines
Online: 11 August 2022 (08:07:05 CEST)
Background: A novel virulent coronavirus is what causes Novel Corona-virus Disease 2019 (nCOVID 19). It results in severe respiratory distress syndrome and potentially fatal infectious pneumonia. On March 12, 2020, the World Health Organization first labeled it a pandemic, which was then followed on the same day by a community health emergency of global concern. Vaccines against this deadly virus are now being created. Many drugs with different uses have been repurposed and tested for the prevention and treatment of the infection. Objective: The purpose of this review is to provide an in-depth analysis of data on possible pharmacological targets and available coronavirus treatments. Methods: Following the review protocol, a literature search was conducted. Results: Chloroquine phosphate and hydroxychloroquine, Remdesivir, and Lopinavir-Ritonavir in combination with or without interferon and convalescent plasma therapy are the main treatment candidates, according to the World Health Organization. This review article has elaborated on the current evidence of prospective pharmacological targets and related ongoing research, including inflammatory chemicals, bioactive peptides, beta cells, platelets, and the Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme 2 Receptor. This information was gathered from published journals. In addition, stories of medications and biological products like interferons and vaccinations that are utilized or could be utilized have been provided. Conclusion: There are a variety of pharmacological targets and therapeutic strategies that need more study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0158.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: dauricine; STAT5; NF-κB; Inflammation; Ischemia-reperfusion injury
Online: 8 August 2022 (13:18:00 CEST)
Inflammatory reaction after ischemia-reperfusion contributes significantly to prognosis, and microglia activation is the main resource of inflammation in nervous system. STAT5 is proving to be a highly effective anti-inflammatory therapy with great potential, and inhibition of STAT5 has demonstrated significant anti-inflammation and therapeutic effects, but rarely focus on mechanism of neuroinflammation and brain injury from ischemia-reperfusion. It is the first time to found that the anti-inflammation of dauricine is mainly through STAT5-NF-κB pathway, might act as a STAT5 inhibitor. Dauricine suppressed the inflammation cytokines Eotaxin, KC, TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12β, IL-17α, and also inhibited the microglia activation. STAT5b mutant at Tyr-699 reversed the protective effect of dauricine on oxygen-glucose deprivation-reperfusion injury of neurons, and reactivated the suppression of dauricine on P-NF-κB of microglia. These results suggest that dauricine might suppress the neuroinflammation and protect the neuron from the injury of post-ischemia-reperfusion via mediating the microglia activation through STAT5-NF-κB pathway, and ss a potential therapeutic target for neuroinflammation, STAT5 needs to be raised concern in ischemic stroke.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0269.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: inflammation; calcium-sensing receptor; burns; chemokines; NLRP3 inflammasome
Online: 20 May 2022 (04:01:33 CEST)
Burn injury serves as an example of a condition with a robust inflammatory response. The elevation of circulating interleukins (IL)- 1 beta and -6 in children with severe burn injury up-regulate the parathyroid calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) resulting in hypocalcemic hypoparathyroidism with urinary calcium wasting. This effect protects the body from the hypercalcemia resulting from bone resorption liberating calcium into the circulation. Extracellular calcium can exacerbate and prolong the inflammatory response by stimulating mononuclear cell chemokine production as well as the NLRP3 inflammasome of the innate immune system, resulting in increased IL-1 production by monocytes and macrophages. Interestingly, the CaSR response to inflammatory cytokines disappears with age, potentially trapping calcium from bone resorption in the circulation and allowing it to contribute to increased inflammation and possibly increased calcium deposition in small arteries, , such as the coronaries, as conditions with increased chronic inflammation, such as spinal cord injury, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis have an incidence of cardiovascular disease and coronary artery calcium deposition significantly higher than the unaffected age-matched population.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0013.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Organoids; IBD; Inflammation; Target therapy; microbiota; immune system
Online: 4 April 2022 (10:35:01 CEST)
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic and relapsing disease caused by a dysregulated immune response to host intestinal microbiota that occurs in genetically predisposed individuals. IBD encompasses two major clinical entities: ulcerative colitis (UC), which is limited to the colonic mucosa, and Crohn disease (CD), which might affect any segment of the gastrointestinal tract. Despite the prevalence of IBD is increasing worldwide, therapy remains suboptimal, largely because the variability of causative mechanisms, raising the need to develop individualized therapeutic approaches targeted to each individual patient. In this context, patients-derived intestinal organoids represent an effective tool for advancing our understanding on IBD’ s pathogenesis. Organoid 3D culture systems offer a unique model for dissecting epithelial mechanisms involved IBDs and test individualized therapy, although the lack of a functional immune system and a microbiota, two driving components of the IBD pathogenesis, represent a major barrier for their exploitation in clinical medicine. In this review we have examined how to improve the translational utility of intestinal organoids in IBD and how co-coltures of 3D or 2D organoids and immune cells and/or intestinal microbiota might help to overcome these limitations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0350.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: HMGB1; trauma; hemorrhagic shock; inflammation; multiple organ failure
Online: 22 December 2021 (10:36:56 CET)
Several preclinical and clinical reports have demonstrated that levels of circulating high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) are increased early after trauma and are associated with systemic inflammation and clinical outcomes. However, the mechanisms of the interaction between HMGB1 and inflammatory mediators that lead to the development of remote organ damage after trauma remain obscure. HMGB1 and inflammatory mediators were analyzed in plasma from 54 combat casualties, collected on admission to a military hospital in Iraq, and at 8 and 24 hours after admission. Forty-five (83%) of these patients had traumatic brain injury (TBI). Nine healthy volunteers were enrolled as controls. HMGB1 plasma levels were significantly increased in the first 8 hours after admission, and were found to be associated with systemic inflammatory responses, injury severity score, and presence of TBI. These data provided the rationale for designing experiments in rats subjected to blast injury and hemorrhage, to explore the effect of HMGB1 inhibition by CX-01. Animals were cannulated, then recovered for 5-7 days before blast injury in a shock tube and volume-controlled hemorrhage. Blast injury and hemorrhage induced an early increase in HMGB1 plasma levels that coincided with severity of tissue damage and mortality. CX-01 inhibited systemic HMGB1 release, decreased local and systemic inflammatory responses, significantly reduced tissue and organ damage, and tended to increase survival. These data suggest that CX-01 has potential as an adjuvant treatment for traumatic hemorrhage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0202.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: helminth; self-treatment; clinical trials; inflammation; dose escalation
Online: 13 December 2021 (12:46:41 CET)
The virtually complete loss of intestinal worms, known as helminths, from Western society has resulted in elimination of a range of helminth-induced morbidities. Unfortunately, that loss has also led to inflammation-associated deficiencies in immune function, ultimately contributing to widespread pandemics of allergies, autoimmunity, and neuropsychiatric disorders. Several socio-medical studies have examined the effects of intentional reworming, or self-treatment with helminths, on a variety of inflammation-related disorders. In this study, the latest results from ongoing socio-medical studies are described. The results point toward two important factors that appear to be overlooked in some if not most clinical trials. Specifically, (a) the method of preparation of the helminth can have a profound effect on its therapeutic efficacy, and (b) variation between individuals in the effective therapeutic dosage apparently covers a 10-fold range, regardless of the helminth used. These results highlight current limits in our understanding of the biology of both hosts and helminths, and suggest that information from self-treatment may be critical for clinical evaluation of the benefits and limits of helminth therapy.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0148.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Cancer related Inflammation; miRNA; LncRNA; Epigenetics, immune polarization
Online: 8 September 2021 (12:07:58 CEST)
Accumulating evidences demonstrate that the host genome's epigenetic modificationsare essential for living organisms to adapt extreme conditions.DNA methylation, covalent modifications of histone, andinter-association of non-coding RNAs facilitate the cellular manifestation ofepigenetic changes in the genome. Out of various factors involved in the epigenetic programming of the host, miRNA (microRNA) and LncRNA (Long non-coding RNA) are new generationnon-coding molecules that influence a variety of cellular processes like immunity, cellular differentiation, and tumor development. During tumor development, temporal changes in miRNA/LncRNA rheostat influence sterile inflammatory responses accompanied by the changes in the carcinogenic signalling in the host. At the cellular level, this is manifested by the up-regulation of Inflammasome and inflammatory pathways, which promotes cancer-related inflammation. In view of this, we discuss the potential of lncRNA and miRNA directed interventions in regulating inflammation and tumor development in the host.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0473.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: PCOS; obesity; inflammation; specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs)
Online: 24 August 2021 (14:07:27 CEST)
Introduction: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrinologic disorder that affects 5-15 % of women of their reproductive age and is a frequent cause of infertility. Major symptoms include hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, a characteristic multi-follicular morphology of the ovary, an elevated ratio of LH/FSH, and often obesity and/or insulin resistance. PCOS also represents a state of chronic low-grade inflammation that is closely interlinked with the metabolic features. Inflammatory processes consist of the acute inflammatory response and resolution processes initiated concomitantly. "Classical" pro-inflammatory lipid mediators like prostaglandins (PG), leukotrienes (LT), or thromboxanes (TX) are derived from arachidonic acid (AA) and are crucial for the initial response. Resolution processes are driven by four families of so-called specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs): resolvins, maresins, lipoxins, and protectins. SPM biosynthesis starts from the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids DHA, DPA, or EPA via certain hydroxylated intermediates (18-HEPE, 17-HDHA, 14-HDHA). The present study aimed to establish lipid mediator profiles of PCOS patients compared to healthy women to identify differences in their resolutive and pro-inflammatory lipid parameters. Material and Methods: Blood samples were taken (20 ml), separated into plasma and serum, and analyzed by HPLC/MS-QQQ. Fifteen female patients (18-45 years) were diagnosed with PCOS according to Rotterdam criteria, and five healthy women, as comparator group, were recruited for the study. The main outcome measures were: Pro-inflammatory lipid mediators (PG, LT, TX) and their precursor AA; SPMs (Resolvins, Maresins, Protectins, Lipoxins), their precursors EPA, DHA, DPA, and their active biosynthesis pathway intermediates (18-HEPE, 17-HDHA, 14-HDHA). Ratio [(sum of pro-inflammatory molecules)/sum of SPMs]. Results: The level of pro-inflammatory parameters in serum was significantly higher in PCOS-affected women. The ratio [(sum of pro-inflammatory molecules) / (sum of SPMs plus hydroxylated intermediates)] reflecting the inflammatory state was significantly lower in the group of healthy women. Conclusion: There is a strong pro-inflammatory state in PCOS patients. Further research will clarify whether supplementation with SPMs or their precursors may improve this state.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0162.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: vertigo; migraine; cytokines; inflammation; vestibular disorders; hearing loss
Online: 6 August 2021 (12:29:43 CEST)
Background: Meniere disease (MD) is an inner ear disorder associated with comorbidities such as autoimmune diseases or migraine. This study describes clinical and cytokine profile in MD according to the age of onset of the condition. Methods: A cross-sectional study including 83 MD patients: 44 with early onset MD (EOMD, <35 years old), and 39 with late onset MD (LOMD, > 50 years old), 64 patients with migraine and 55 controls was carried out. Clinical variables and cytokines levels of CCL3, CCL4, CCL18, CCL22, CXCL1 and IL-1β were compared among the different groups. Results: CCL18 levels were higher in patients with migraine or MD than in controls. Elevated levels of IL-1β were observed in 11.4% EOMD and in 10.3% LOMD patients and these levels were not dependent on the age of individuals. EOMD had a longer duration of the disease (p=0.004) and a higher prevalence of migraine than LOMD (p=0.045). Conclusions: Patients with EOMD have a higher prevalence of migraine than LOMD, but migraine is not associated with any cytokine profile in patients with MD. The levels of CCL18, CCL3 and CXCL4 were different between patients with MD or migraine and controls.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0116.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: 6-OHDA, NF-κB, Mangiferin, Inflammation, Cox, Caspases
Online: 4 August 2021 (13:22:51 CEST)
Background: Persistent up regulation of NF-κB leads to chronic inflammation and subsequent microglial activation and takes neurons towards death by activating death receptor domains and the p53 pathway. Thus, inhibition of NF-κB may lead to more effective treatment for Parkinson’s disease. Therefore, we have used mangiferin, specific inhibitor of NF-κB in this study. Method: The study utilized male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 gm (n=8 in each group). Stereotactic surgery of rats was done to induce 6-OHDA lesioning in rats. On day 42, rats were subjected to behavioural studies to evaluate effect of mangiferin and their brains were taken out after euthanasia to perform biochemical and molecular studies. Results: Mangiferin significantly increases locomotor parameters in 6-OHDA lesioned rats. It also decreases activity of Cyclooxygenase enzyme which then leads to decrease concentration of inflammatory cytokines. Microglial inflammation was also substantially reduced by reducing MPO concentration. Oxidative stress burden was also reduced after treatment with mangiferin as indicated by increase in Total Antioxidant Capacity, SOD and Catalase and reduction in concentration of MDA. Treatment with mangiferin also reduces burden of oxidative stress by increasing the activity of NRF2/ARE pathway. Activity of Caspase 3 and 9 was also significantly reduced after treatment with mangiferin. Significant decrease in activity of both Cox1 and Cox 2 was also observed. Maximum improvement in all parameters was observed in rats treated with grouping of mangiferin 45mg.kg-1 and levodopa 10mg.kg-1. Treatment with levodopa alone has no significant effect on biochemical and molecular parameters though it significantly improves behavioural parameters. Conclusion and Implications: Results of this study suggest that mangiferin has protective effect in hemi-parkinsonian rats by inhibiting NF-κB. Current treatment of Parkinson’s disease does not target the underlying problem of the disease. Therefore, combination therapy of mangiferin and levodopa can be helpful in better management of Parkison’s.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0460.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: sepsis; renal tubulointerstitial injury; resolvin; ATRvD1; inflammation; kidney
Online: 20 July 2021 (15:47:50 CEST)
Current interventions are not effectives in preventing sepsis-induced acute kidney injury and its long-term outcomes or even after second renal insult. Therapeutic strategies using lipid mediators, as aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 (ATRvD1), can contribute for resolution of acute and chronic inflammation. In this study, we examined the potential effect of ATRvD1 on long-term kidney dysfunction after severe sepsis. Fifteen days after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), sepsis-surviving BALB/c mice were subjected to a tubulointerstitial injury through intraperitoneal injections of bovine serum albumin (BSA) for 7 days, called subclinical acute kidney injury (subAKI) animal model. ATRvD1 treatment was performed right before BSA injections. On day 22 after CLP, urinary protein/creatinine ratio (UPC), histologic parameters, fibrosis, cellular infiltration, apoptosis, inflammatory markers levels, and mRNA expression were determined. ATRvD1 treatment mitigated tubulointerstitial injury by reducing the proteinuria excretion, UPC ratio, glomerular cell number and extracellular matrix deposition. Pro-fibrotic markers, as transforming growth factor β (TGFb), type 3 collagen and metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 and -9 were reduced after ATRvD1 administration. Post-septic mice treated with ATRvD1 were protected from renal apoptosis and recruitment of F4/80+ cells. Interleukin-1b (IL-1b) levels were increased in subAKI animal model, being attenuated by ATRvD1. Tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a), IL-10 and IL-4 mRNA expression was increased in the kidney of BSA-challenged post-septic mice and it was also reduced after ATRvD1. These results suggest that ATRvD1 protects the kidney against a second insult as BSA-induced tubulointerstitial injury and fibrosis by suppressing inflammatory and pro-fibrotic mediators in renal dysfunction after sepsis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0543.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: depression; metabolic syndrome; probiotics; microbiota; inflammation; oxidative stress
Online: 24 February 2021 (11:20:26 CET)
There is a huge need to search for new treatment options and potential biomarkers of therapeutic response to antidepressant treatment. Depression and metabolic syndrome often coexist while pathophysiological overlap, including microbiota changes, may play a role. The aim of the study is to assess the effect of probiotic supplementation on symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress, metabolic parameters, inflammation and oxidative stress markers, and faecal microbiota in adult patients with depressive disorders depending on the co-occurance of MetS. The trial will be a four-arm, parallel group, prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled design that will include 200 participants and will last 20 weeks. The probiotic preparation will contain Lactobacillus helveticus Rosell®-52, Bifidobacterium longum Rosell®-175. We will assess the level of depression, anxiety and stress, quality of life, blood pressure, body mass index and waist circumference, white blood cells count, serum levels of C-reactive protein, HDL cholesterol, triglicerides, fasting glucose, faecal microbiota composition and the level of some faecal microbiota metabolites, as well as inflammation markers and oxidative stress parameters in serum. The trial may establish a safe and easy-to-use treatment option as an adjunct in a subpopulation of depressive patients only partially responsive to pharmacologic treatment. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: ).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0289.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Cytokine, Depression, Ischemia, Stroke, Apoptosis, Excitotoxicity, Onecosis, Inflammation,
Online: 11 February 2021 (16:46:06 CET)
Ischemic Stroke precedes depression . Post Stroke Depression (PSD) is a major driver for poor recovery, negative quality of life, poor rehabilitation outcomes and poor functional ability. This systematic reviews confirmed the post stroke depression as the norm as complex ischemic cascade involve the bioenergetic failure, deranged iron homeostasis ( calcium influx, Na influx, potassium efflux etc) excitotoxicity, acidotoxicity,disruption of the blood brain barrier, cytokine mediated cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen mediated toxicity , activation of cyclooxygenase pathway and generation of toxic products, infiltration of immune mediated cells resulting the cell death and deranged neuronal networks in mood related brain regions. This review focus on the pathobiology of stroke in the context and make the argument that PSD is the norm after a stroke rather than the exception.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0340.v1
Subject: Keywords: helminth; helminthic therapy; biological therapy; inflammation; anti-inflammatory
Online: 14 December 2020 (13:40:28 CET)
The virtually complete loss of intestinal worms, known as helminths, from Western society has resulted in elimination of a range of helminth-induced morbidities. Unfortunately, that loss has also led to inflammation-associated deficiencies in immune function, ultimately contributing to widespread pandemics of allergies, autoimmunity, and neuropsychiatric disorders. Several socio-medical studies have examined the effects of intentional reworming, or self-treatment with helminths, on a variety of inflammation-related disorders. In this study, the latest results from ongoing socio-medical studies are described. The results point toward two important factors that appear to be overlooked in some if not most clinical trials. Specifically, (a) the method of preparation of the helminth can have a profound effect on its therapeutic efficacy, and (b) variation between individuals in the effective therapeutic dosage apparently covers a 10-fold range, regardless of the helminth used. These results highlight current limits in our understanding of the biology of both hosts and helminths, and suggest that information from self-treatment may be critical in moving the field forward into mainstream medicine.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0066.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: polyphenols; autophagy; mechanisms; oxidative stress; inflammation; disease models
Online: 2 November 2020 (17:30:15 CET)
Polyphenols represent a group of secondary metabolites of plants which have been analyzed as potent regulators of multiple biological processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis and autophagy, among others. These natural compounds exhibit beneficial effects and protection against inflammation, oxidative stress and related injuries including metabolic diseases, such as cardiovascular damage, obesity and diabetes and neurodegeneration. In the present review, we report the main biological effects in relationship to autophagy regulation in response to different dietary polyphenols and its impact on metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0214.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: endothelial cells; SARS-CoV-2; ACE2; inflammation; coagulation
Online: 12 October 2020 (09:41:20 CEST)
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is an important player of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in regulating the conversion of angiotensin II into angiotensin (1-7). While expressed on the surface of human cells, such as lung, heart, kidney, neurons, and endothelial cells (EC), ACE2 is the entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2. Here, we would like to highlight that ACE2 is predominant on the EC membrane. Many of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms have been associated with the large recruitment of immune cells, directly affecting EC. Additionally, cytokines, hypoxia, and complement activation can trigger the activation of EC leading to the coagulation cascade. The EC dysfunction plus the inflammation due to SARS-CoV-2 infection may lead to abnormal coagulation, actively participating in thrombo-inflammatory processes resulting in vasculopathy and indicating poor prognosis in patients with COVID-19. Considering the intrinsic relationship between EC and the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2, EC-associated therapies such as anticoagulants, fibrinolytic drugs, immunomodulators, and molecular therapies have been proposed. In this review, we will discuss the role of EC in the lung inflammation and edema, in the disseminate coagulation process, ACE2 positive cancer patients, and current and future EC-associated therapies to treat COVID-19.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0084.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: programmed cell death; inflammation; intestinal disease; cancer; inhibitors
Online: 4 September 2020 (07:21:17 CEST)
Necroptosis is a caspases-independent form of programmed cell death exhibiting intermediate features between necrosis and apoptosis. Albeit some physiological roles during embryonic development, tissue homeostasis and innate immune response are documented, necroptosis is mainly considered a pro-inflammatory cell death. Key actors of necroptosis are the receptor-interacting-protein-kinases, RIPK1 and RIPK3, and their target, the mixed-lineage-kinase-domain-like protein, MLKL. The intestinal epithelium has one of the highest rates of cellular turnover in a process that is tightly regulated. Altered necroptosis at the intestinal epithelium leads to uncontrolled microbial translocation and deleterious inflammation. Indeed, necroptosis has been associated to chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. Drugs that inhibit necroptosis could, therefore, be used therapeutically for the treatment of these diseases, and researches to develop such inhibitors are already underway. In this Review, we outline pathways for necroptosis and its role in chronic inflammation and cancer. We also discuss current and developing therapies that target necroptosis machinery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0083.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: scavenger receptor CD36; inflammation; vascular calcification; diabetes; atherosclerosis
Online: 4 August 2020 (10:37:01 CEST)
Diabetes mellitus entails increased atherosclerotic burden and medial arterial calcification but the precise mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Our aim was to investigate the implication of CD36 in inflammation and calcification processes orchestrated by vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) under hyperglycemic and atherogenic conditions. We examined the expression of CD36, pro-inflammatory cytokines, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers and mineralization-regulating enzymes by RT-PCR in human VSMCs, cultured in medium containing normal (5 mM) or high glucose (22 mM) for 72 h with or without oxLDL (24 h). The uptake of DiI-labelled oxLDL was quantified by flow citometry and fluorimetry and calcification assays were performed in VSMC cultured in osteogenic medium and stained by alizarin red. We observed an induction in the expression of CD36, cytokines, calcification markers and ER stress markers under high glucose that was exacerbated by oxLDL. These results were confirmed in carotid plaques from subjects with diabetes versus non-diabetic subjects. Accordingly, the uptake of DiI-labelled oxLDL was increased after exposure to high glucose. Silencing of CD36 abolished the induction of CD36 and reduced the expression of calcification enzymes and mineralization of VSMC. Our results indicate that CD36 signaling is involved in hyperglycemia and oxLDL-induced vascular calcification in diabetes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0347.v1
Online: 16 July 2020 (10:49:20 CEST)
Patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia (TDT) show disorders in calcium metabolism. The α-klotho protein is predominantly expressed in tissues that are involved in calcium homeostasis, and lowered levels are associated with bone disease. Aim of the study. To study the associations between low α-klotho status and calcium metabolism in relation to iron status in children with TDT. Methods. α-klotho, calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcyphosin, vitamin D3, phosphorous, fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2), as well as iron and erythron biomarkers were measured in 60 children with TDT and 30 healthy control children. Results. A meaningful part of TDT patients showed lowered α-klotho levels, and those children also showed low serum total and ionized calcium concentrations. TDT patients showed increased PTH, FGFR2, and calcyphosin and lowered vitamin D3 as compared with healthy children. The α-klotho levels were significantly correlated with total and ionized calcium (positively) and with iron overload biomarkers and the number of blood transfusions (inversely). Partial Least Squares path analysis showed that 40.1% of the variance in serum total calcium could be explained by the regression on α-klotho, vitamin D3 (both positively), and calcyphosin (inversely) and that the effects of the latter are mediated by iron overload and the number of blood transfusions. Conclusion. In TDT, iron overload and its consequences may induce lowered levels of α-klotho which in turn may lead to lower calcium thereby explaining at least in part the effects of TDT on bone metabolism including spontaneous pathological fractures, osteoporosis, osteopenia, and skeletal deformities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0343.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: protein; exercise; muscle damage; creatine kinase; myoglobin; inflammation
Online: 16 July 2020 (06:33:18 CEST)
This randomized trial compared pea protein, whey protein, and water-only supplementation on muscle damage, inflammation, delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS), and physical fitness test performance during a 5-day period after a 90-minute eccentric exercise bout in non-athletic, non-obese males (n=92, ages 18-55 years). The two protein sources (0.9 g protein/kg divided into three doses/day) were administered under double blind procedures. The eccentric exercise protocol induced significant muscle damage and soreness, and reduced bench press and 30-second Wingate performance. Whey protein supplementation significantly attenuated post-exercise blood levels for biomarkers of muscle damage compared to water-only, with large effect sizes for creatine kinase and myoglobin during the 4th and 5th days of recovery (Cohen's d >0.80); pea protein versus water supplementation had an intermediate, non-significant effect (Cohen's d <0.50); and no significant differences between whey and pea protein were found. Whey and pea protein compared to water supplementation had no significant effects on post-exercise DOMS and the fitness tests. In conclusion, high intake of whey protein for 5 days after intensive eccentric exercise mitigated efflux of muscle damage biomarkers, with intake of pea protein having an intermediate effect in part due to the 24% lower leucine amino acid content.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0385.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: COVID-19; Thrombosis; Inflammation; ADAMTS13; Von Willebrand Factor
Online: 15 July 2020 (03:36:29 CEST)
Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) is the clinical manifestation of the respiratory infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). While primarily recognized as a respiratory disease, it is clear that COVID-19 is systemic illness impacting multiple organ systems. One defining clinical feature of COVID-19 has been the high incidence of thrombotic events. The underlying processes and risk factors for the occurrence of thrombotic events in COVID-19 remain inadequately understood. While severe bacterial, viral or fungal infections are well recognized to activate the coagulation system, COVID-19 associated coagulopathy is likely to have unique mechanistic features. Inflammatory-driven processes are likely primary drivers of coagulopathy in COVID-19, but the exact mechanisms linking inflammation to dysregulated hemostasis and thrombosis are yet to be delineated. Cumulative findings of microvascular thrombosis has raised question if the endothelium and microvasculature should be a point of investigative focus. Von Willebrand Factor (VWF) and its protease, ADAMTS13 play important role in the maintenance of microvascular hemostasis. In inflammatory conditions, imbalanced VWF-ADAMTS13 characterized by elevated VWF levels and inhibited and/or reduced activity of ADAMTS13 has been reported. Also, an imbalance between ADAMTS13 activity and VWF antigen is associated with organ dysfunction and death in patients with systemic inflammation. A thorough understanding of VWF-ADAMTS13 interactions during early and advanced phases of COVID-19 could help better define the pathophysiology, guide thromboprophylaxis and treatment and improve clinical prognosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0260.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: unstable angina; atherogenicity; inflammation; antioxidants; oxidative stress; biomarkers
Online: 12 July 2020 (15:11:16 CEST)
Background: Aberrations in endothelial cells, immune and oxidative pathways are associated with atherosclerosis (ATS) and unstable angina (UA). The role of trace elements, minerals, and the endogenous opioid system (EOS) in UA are less well established. Methods: We measured lipid, insulin resistance (IR), and immune, trace element (copper and zinc), mineral (magnesium, calcium), EOS (β-endorphin and mu-opioid receptor (MOR)) and antioxidant (vitamin D3) biomarkers in patients with ATS (n=60) and UA (n=60) and healthy controls (n=58). Results: ATS patients showed increased atherogenic and IR indices, IL-6, IL-10, β-endorphin, copper and magnesium, and lower zinc than healthy controls. Logistic regression showed that UA was significantly discriminated from ATS without UA with an accuracy of 85.5% using calcium, IL-10, β-endorphin, MOR, triglycerides, IR (all positively), and copper and vitamin D3 (inversely). Neural networks showed that UA was discriminated from ATS without UA with an area under the ROC curve of 0.942 using MOR, β-endorphin, calcium, insulin resistance, vitamin D3 and copper as input variables. We found that 50.0% of the variance in IR was explained by the regression on copper, IL-10, IL-6 (all positively), and zinc (inversely), while 32.9% of the variance in the atherogenic index of plasma was explained by copper, IL-10 (both positively), and magnesium (inversely). Conclusion: UA is not only mediated by insulin resistance, atherogenicity, and immune disorders, but also by aberrations in the endogenous opioid system and trace elements as well as lowered antioxidant levels. Copper appears to play a key role in IR and atherogenicity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0113.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: trace element; inflammation; selenoprotein P; micronutrient; COVID-19
Online: 7 July 2020 (08:15:45 CEST)
SARS-CoV-2 infections underlie the current Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and are causative for a high death toll particularly among elderly subjects and those with comorbidities. Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element of high importance for human health and particularly for a well-balanced immune response. Mortality risk from severe disease like sepsis or polytrauma is inversely related to Se status. We hypothesized that this relation also applies to COVID-19. Serum samples (n=166) from COVID-19 patients (n=33) were collected consecutively and analysed for total Se by X-ray fluorescence and selenoprotein P (SELENOP) by a validated ELISA. Both biomarkers showed the expected strong correlation (r=0.7758, p<0.001), pointing to an insufficient Se status for optimal selenoprotein expression. In comparison to reference data from a European cross sectional analysis (EPIC, n=1915), the patients showed a pronounced deficit in total serum Se (mean±SD, 50.8±15.7 vs. 84.4±23.4 µg/L) and SELENOP (3.0±1.4 vs. 4.3±1.0 mg/L). A Se status below the 2.5th percentile of the reference population, i.e., [Se] < 45.7 µg/L and [SELENOP] < 2.56 mg/L was present in 43.4% and 39.2% of COVID samples, respectively. The Se status was significantly higher in samples from surviving COVID patients as compared to non-survivors (Se; 53.3±16.2 vs. 40.8±8.1 µg/L, SELENOP; 3.3±1.3 vs. 2.1±0.9 mg/L). We conclude that Se status analysis in COVID patients provides diagnostic information. However, causality remains unknown due to the observational nature of this study. Nevertheless, the findings strengthen the notion on a relevant role of Se for COVID convalescence, and support the discussion on adjuvant Se supplementation in severely diseased and Se-deficient patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0231.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: schizophrenia; neuroimmunomodulation; inflammation; biomarkers; major depression; treatment resistance
Online: 15 April 2020 (08:19:08 CEST)
Objective: About a third of schizophrenia patients are treatment-resistant to antipsychotic therapy. No studies established the fingerprints or pathway-phenotypes of treatment-resistant schizophrenia. The present study aimed to delineate the pathway-phenotypes of non-responders (NRTT) and partial responders (PRTT) to treatment using machine learning. Methods: We recruited 115 schizophrenia patients and 43 healthy controls and measured schizophrenia symptom dimensions, neurocognitive tests, plasma CCL11, interleukin-(IL)-6, IL-10, Dickkopf protein 1 (DKK1), high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1), κ- and µ-opioid receptors (KOR and MOR, respectively), endomorphin-2 (EM-2), and β-endorphin. Results: Machine learning showed that the NRTT group is a qualitatively distinct class and is significantly discriminated from PRTT with an accuracy of 100% using a neuro-immune-opioid-cognitive (NIOC) pathway-phenotype with as main determinants list learning, controlled word association, and Tower of London test scores, CCL11, IL-6, and EM2. The top-5 symptom domains separating NRTT from PRTT were in descending order: psychomotor retardation, negative symptoms, psychosis, depression, and mannerism. Moreover, a NIOC pathway also discriminated PRTT from healthy controls with an accuracy of 100% while all PRTT and controls were authenticated as belonging to their respective classes. Conclusion: A non-response to treatment with antipsychotics is determined by increased severity of specific symptom profiles coupled with deficits in executive functions, and episodic and semantic memory, and aberrations in neuro-immune and opioid pathways. No patients showed complete remission after treatment indicating that non-remitting in PRTT is attributable to increased HMGB1 and residual deficits in attention, executive functions, and semantic memory.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0396.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; sirtuins; mitochondria; leaky gut; inflammation; neuroimmune
Online: 27 February 2020 (10:52:33 CET)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been the subject of extensive investigation as to its biological underpinnings. However, this has produced little of therapeutic benefit or indeed provided any accepted biomarkers that could tailor treatment. This chapter reviews data on the main pathophysiologic processes that have been widely shown to be altered in AD, including circadian dysregulation, mitochondrial dysfunction, gut dysbiosis, and immune-glia-platelet activation. It is proposed that alterations in the gut microbiome, including gut dysbiosis and increased gut permeability drive changes in mitochondrial function that are intimately associated with significant variations in sirtuin expression. Both mitochondria-located and nucleus/cytoplasm located sirtuins can act on mitochondrial function in different cells and body systems to co-ordinate the ageing-associated changes that underpin AD. The sirtuins are therefore key aspect to a developmental model of AD that is more 'holistic' in perspective, thereby providing a framework for the detection of earlier biomarkers and more successful treatment for the heterogenous nature of AD pathoetiology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0285.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: oxidative stress; neuroimmunomodulation; major depression; inflammation; neurotoxicity; schizophrenia
Online: 24 January 2020 (14:46:17 CET)
Oxidative stress toxicity (OSTOX), as well as lowered antioxidant defenses (ANTIOX), play a role in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Nevertheless, the associations between OSTOX/ANTIOX and psychiatric comorbidities in TLE are largely unknown.Thus, this study examines plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), total radical trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) and sulfhydryl (-SH) groups in Depression due to TLE (n=25); Anxiety Disorders due to TLE (n=27); Psychotic Disorder due to TLE (n=25); “pure TLE” (n=27); and healthy controls (n=40).TLE and mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) were characterized by significant increases in OSTOX (MDA, AOPP, LOOH) and lowered ANTIOX (-SH groups, TRAP). The discrimination of pure TLE from controls yielded a significant area under the ROC curve for MDA (0.999), AOPP (0.851), -SH groups (0.899) and the OSTOX/ANTIOX ratio (0.996). Seizure frequency is significantly associated with increased MDA and lowered LOOH and NOx levels. Increased MDA was associated with the severity of depressive and physiosomatic symptoms, whilst increased AOPP levels predicted suicidal ideation. Depression and anxiety disorders co-occurring with TLE showed significantly lower MDA levels than TLE without any comorbidities. The psychotic and negative symptoms of TLE are associated with increased MDA levels and excitation with increased LOOH and lowered TRAP levels.These results indicate that oxidative stress toxicity especially protein oxidation and aldehyde formation coupled with lowered -SH groups play a key role in the pathophysiology of TLE/MTS. Increased aldehyde formation also impacts psychopathology, psychosis, as well as negative and depressive symptoms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0100.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: schizophrenia; treatment resistance; neuro-immune; inflammation; cytokines; neurocognition
Online: 8 December 2019 (16:04:52 CET)
Background: Schizophrenia and treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) are associated with aberrations in immune-inflammatory pathways. Increased High Mobility Group Protein 1 (HMGB1), an inflammatory mediator, and Dickkopf-Related Protein (DKK1), a Wnt/β-catenin signaling antagonist, affect the blood-brain-barrier and induce neurotoxic effects and neurocognitive deficits.Aim of the study: The present study aims to examine HMGB1 and DDK1 in non-responders to treatments with antipsychotics (NRTT, n=60), partial RTT (PRTT, n=55) and healthy controls (n=43) in relation to established markers of schizophrenia including IL-6, IL-10 and CLL11 (eotaxin); and to delineate whether these proteins are associated with the schizophrenia symptom subdomains and neurocognitive impairments.Results: HMGB1, DKK1, IL-6 and CCL11 were significantly higher in schizophrenia patients than in controls. DKK1 and IL-6 were significantly higher in NRTT than in PRTT and controls while IL-10 was higher in NRTT than in controls. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that schizophrenia was best predicted by increased DDK1 and HMGB1 while NRTT (versus PRTT) was best predicted by increased IL-6 and CCL11 levels. A large part of the variance in psychosis, hostility, excitation, mannerism and negative (PHEMN) symptoms, and formal thought disorders was explained by HMGB1, IL-6, and CCL11 while most neurocognitive functions were predicted by HMGB1, DDK1 and CCL11. Conclusion: The neurotoxic effects of HMGB1, DKK1, IL-6 and CCL11 including effects on the blood-brain-barrier and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway may cause impairments in executive functions, and working, episodic and semantic memory and explain, in part, PHEMN symptoms and a non-response to treatment with antipsychotic drugs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0030.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: red grape polyphenols; immunity; inflammation, obesity; allergy; cancer
Online: 3 December 2019 (12:12:14 CET)
In this review, special emphasis will be placed on red grape polyphenols for their anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Therefore, their capacity to inhibit major pathways responsible for activation of oxidative systems and expression and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines will be discussed. Furthermore, regulation of immune cells by polyphenols will be illustrated with special reference to the activation of T regulatory cells which support a tolerogenic pathway at intestinal level. Furthermore, the effects of red grape polyphenols will be analyzed in obesity, as a low grade systemic inflammation. Also, possible modifications of inflammatory bowel disease biomarkers and clinical course have been studied upon polyphenol administration, either in animal models or in clinical trials. Moreover, the ability of polyphenols to cross the blood-brain barrier has been exploited to investigate their neuroprotective properties. In cancer, polyphenols seem to exert several beneficial effects, even if conflicting data are reported about their influence on T regulatory cells. Finally, the effects of polyphenols have been evaluated in experimental models of allergy and autoimmune diseases. Conclusively, red grape polyphenols are endowed with a great anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory potential but some issues, such as polyphenol bioavailability, activity of metabolites and interaction with microbiota, deserve deeper studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0012.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: premenstrual; depression; inflammation; neuro-immune; oxidative stress; antioxidants
Online: 2 December 2019 (14:12:33 CET)
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) frequently occurs in women of childbearing age. There are different case definitions of PMS, one proposed by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and another based on the Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP) scores. Here we review our recent papers indicating that the discovery of biomarkers of menstrual cycle-related symptoms is strongly dependent on the case definitions used and that the gold standard methods used to asses PMS, including the ACOG case definition, induce a high degree of false-negative findings. We propose a new case definition of the menstrual cycle-associated syndrome (MCAS), which is characterized by increased DRSP scores during the menstrual cycle and additionally by an exaggerated increase in symptoms the week prior to the menses. This case definition performed well and was externally validated by diverse biomarkers including plasma levels of progesterone and estradiol, chemokines (e.g. CCL2, CCL5 and CCL11), epidermal growth factor, hydroperoxides, paraoxonase 1 activity and complement C4. In conclusion, when evaluating menstrual cycle-related symptoms and their associations with biomarkers, we propose to assess daily measurements of the DRSP and based on those scores to a) use the diagnosis of MCAS as an indicant of menstrual cycle-related symptoms; and b) examine the associations of the time series in the DRSP and its subdomains (e.g. depression, physio-somatic, anxiety) and those in biomarkers including distributed lag models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0169.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: TCT; cytological abnormality; cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; inflammation; progression
Online: 16 September 2019 (16:39:01 CEST)
Inflammation has been reported as a facilitator in cervical oncogenesis, but the correlation between inflammation and cytology abnormality including Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between them with ThinPrep cytological test (TCT) as a screening tool for cervical cancer and CIN, which can identify abnormal morphology of cervical mucosa epithelium and inflammation degrees. A retrospective analysis of clinical data from 48101 women undergoing TCT in the affiliated hospitals of Sun Yat-Sen University (SYSU) revealed that among the 8.87% (4102 cases) total positive rate of ASC, LSIL and HSIL, 67.7% (2777/4102) of TCT positive samples had inflammatory infection. The rate of severe inflammation was significantly higher in cytological abnormality group than the control group (15.1% vs. 2%, P=0.000). Our results showed that severe inflammation significantly increased incidence of cytological abnormality by 12.59 times and elevated the risk of HSIL by 756.47 times. In conclusion, severe inflammation increased the risk of cytological abnormality, and should be viewed as an important risk of HISL. These results of our study remind clinicians to be more watchful for women with severe cervical inflammation in TCT reports for earlier prevention of the HSIL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0033.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: depression; cytokines; neuro-immune; inflammation; oxidative stress; antioxidants
Online: 3 September 2019 (16:20:18 CEST)
Beta-thalassemia major (β-TM) patients are treated with repeated blood transfusions, which may cause iron overload (IO), which in turn may induce immune aberrations. Patients with β-TM have an increased risk of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aims of the present study are to examine whether repeated blood transfusions, IO and immune-inflammatory responses are associated with MDD in children (6-12 years) with β-TM. The Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), iron status (serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, TS%) and serum levels of CCL11, IL-1β, IL-10, and TNF-α were measured in β-TM with (n=54) and without (n=57) MDD and in healthy children (n=55). The results show that MDD in β-TM is associated with a greater number of blood transfusions, increased IO and IL-1β levels. Partial Least Squares path analysis shows that 68.8% of the variance in the CDI score is explained by the number of blood transfusions, IO, and increased levels of IL-1β and TNF-α. The latter two cytokines partly mediate the effects of IO on the CDI score, while the effects of blood transfusions on the CDI score are partly mediated by IO and the path from IO to immune activation. IO is also associated with increased IL-10 and lower CCL11 levels but these alterations are not significantly associated with MDD. In conclusion, blood transfusions may be causally related to MDD in β-TM children and their effects are in part mediated by increased IO and the consequent immune-inflammatory response. The results suggest that not only IO and its consequences including inflammation and ferroptosis, but also other factors related to the number of transfusions may cause MDD including psychosocial stressors. Current treatment modalities with folic acid and vitamin C are insufficient to attenuate IO and immune-inflammatory responses and to prevent MDD is children with β-TM undergoing blood transfusions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0178.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: DHA; reconstructed human models; filaggrin; skin barrier; inflammation
Online: 16 August 2019 (08:17:51 CEST)
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, which can cause skin barrier function damaged. Although co-incubation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) exerts a positive effect in deficient skin model, there is no study to investigate the effects of topical treatment with DHA in inflammatory reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) model. The effects of DHA on monolayer normal human epidermal keratinocyte (NHEK) cells were evaluated via CCK-8, qPCR and ELISA. The skin related barrier function was assessed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, western blot (WB), Immunohistofluorescence (IF) and ELISA in normal and inflammatory RHE models. DHA upregulated filaggrin and loricrin expression at mRNA levels in addition to suppress overexpression of TNF-α，IL-1α and IL-6 stimulated by poly I:C plus LPS (stimulation cocktail) in cultured NHEK cells. After topical treatment with DHA, cocktail induced inflammatory characteristics of skin diseases including barrier morphological, differentiation proteins and TSLP secretion, which were alleviated in RHE models. Supplementation with DHA can improved related barrier function and have anti-inflammation effects in monolayer keratinocytes and RHE models, which indicated that DHA may have a potential value for the treatment of inflammation-associate skin diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0044.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: hypertensive nephropathy; oxidative stress; fibrosis; inflammation; Cx43; Fasudil
Online: 5 August 2019 (05:02:36 CEST)
In various models of chronic kidney disease, the amount and localization of Cx43 in the nephron is known to increase, but the intracellular pathways that regulate these changes have not been identified. Therefore, we proposed that: "In the model of renal damage induced by infusion of angiotensin II (AngII), a RhoA/ROCK-dependent pathway, is activated and regulates the abundance of renal Cx43”. In rats, we evaluated: 1) the time-point where the renal damage induced by AngII is no longer reversible; and 2) the involvement of a RhoA/ROCK-dependent pathway and its relationship with the amount of Cx43 in this irreversible stage. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and renal function (urinary protein/urinary creatinine: Uprot/UCrea) were evaluated as systemic and organ outcomes, respectively. In kidney tissue, we also evaluated: 1) oxidative stress (amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive species), 2) inflammation (immunoperoxidase detection of the inflammatory markers ED-1 and IL-1β), 3) fibrosis (immune detection of type III collagen; Col III) and 4) activity of RhoA/ROCK (amount of phosphorylated MYPT1; p-MYPT1). The ratio Uprot/UCrea, SBP, oxidative stress, inflammation, amount of Cx43 and p-MYPT1 remained high 2 weeks after suspending AngII treatment in rats treated for 4 weeks with AngII. These responses were not observed in rats treated with AngII for less than 4 weeks, in which all measurements returned spontaneously close to the control values after suspending AngII treatment. Rats treated with AngII for 6 weeks and co-treated for the last 4 weeks with Fasudil, an inhibitor of ROCK, showed high SBP but did not present renal damage or increased amount of renal Cx43. Therefore, renal damage induced by AngII correlates with the activation of RhoA/ROCK and the increase in Cx43 amounts and can be prevented by inhibitors of this pathway.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0243.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: major depression; chronic fatigue; fibromyalgia; neuro-immune; inflammation
Online: 24 June 2019 (10:19:29 CEST)
Chronic fatigue and fibromyalgia symptoms frequently occur in major depressive disorder (MDD). The pathophysiology of these symptoms may in part, be ascribed to activated immune pathways, although it is unclear whether muscular factors play a role in their onset. The aim of the present study is to examine the role of muscle proteins in major depression in association with symptoms of chronic fatigue and fibromyalgia. We measured serum levels of agrin, talin-2, titin, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) as well as the FibroFatigue (FF), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) in 60 MDD patients and 30 healthy controls. The results show a significant increase in agrin and talin-2 in MDD patients as compared with controls. There were highly significant correlations between agrin and HAM-D, BDI-II and FF scores. Agrin, but not talin or titin, was significantly and positively associated with all 12 items of the FF scale. We found that a large part of the variance in HAM-D (47.4%), BDI-II (43.4%) and FF (43.5%) scores was explained by the regression on agrin, smoking, female sex (positively associated) and education (inversely associated). CPK was significantly and inversely associated with the total FF score and with muscle and gastro-intestinal symptoms, fatigue, a flu-like malaise, headache and memory, autonomic and sleep disturbances. These results suggest that aberrations in neuromuscular (NMJs) and myotendinous junctions may play a role in MDD and that the aberrations in NMJs coupled with lowered CPK may play a role in symptoms of chronic fatigue and fibromyalgia in MDD. Moreover, the increase of agrin in MDD probably functions as part of the compensatory immune-regulatory system (CIRS).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0116.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: beetroot; betanins; cancer chemoprevention; anti-oxidant; inflammation; apoptosis
Online: 11 March 2019 (08:00:34 CET)
Carcinogenesis is the process whereby a normal cell is transformed into a neoplastic cell. This action involves several steps starting with initiation and followed by promotion and progression. Driving these stages are oxidative stress and inflammation, which in turn encompasses a myriad of aberrant gene expressions, both within the transforming cell population and the cells within the surrounding lesion. Chemoprevention of cancer with bioreactive foods or their extracted/purified components occurs via normalizing these inappropriate gene activities. Various foods/agents have been shown to affect different gene expressions. In this review we discuss whereby the chemoprevention activities of the red beetroot itself may disrupt carcinogenesis and the activities of the water soluble betalains extracted from the plant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0236.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: depression; neuro-immune; cytokines; inflammation; indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase
Online: 26 February 2019 (11:05:49 CET)
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with changes in the levels of the cations calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) as well as circulating pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The immune-inflammatory nature of MDD has encouraged researchers to use anti-inflammatory drugs as an adjuvant treatment for MDD. However, the effect of this treatment on cation levels has not been studied. The present study examined a) differences in both cations between drug-naïve MDD patients and controls, and b) the effects of a combination of sertraline and ketoprofen, an anti-inflammatory drug, on Ca and Mg (both total and ionized). In the same patients we also examined the associations between both cations and IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-18, IFN-γ, TGF-β1, zinc and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Clinical improvement was estimated using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) at baseline and after follow up for two months. Serum Ca and Mg (total and ionized) were significantly lower in MDD patients as compared with controls, while treatment significantly increased calcium but decreased magnesium levels. There were significant and inverse correlations between the BDI-II scores from baseline to endpoint and Ca (both total and ionized), but not Mg, levels. The effects of calcium on the BDI-II score remained significant after considering the effects of zinc, IDO and an immune activation z unit weighted composite score based on the sum of all cytokines. There was a significant and inverse association between this immune activation index and calcium levels from baseline to endpoint. In conclusion, reduced levels of both cations play a role in the pathophysiology of major depression. Increased calcium levels are coupled to the clinical efficacy of antidepressants and attenuation of immune activation. The suppressant effect of antidepressants on Mg levels may be a side effect of those drugs. New antidepressant treatments should be developed that increase the levels both Ca and Mg.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0296.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: episodic memory, apolipoprotein, dementia, biomarkers, anion gap, inflammation
Online: 29 January 2019 (16:52:14 CET)
Background: The Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) genotype is strongly associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), although the presence of the ApoE4 allele alone is not sufficient to explain AD. The pathophysiology of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) remains unclear. This study aims to examine associations between peripheral blood biomarkers coupled with ApoE4 and episodic and semantic memory. Methods: The CERAD battery was completed and various biomarkers were assayed in 60 subjects with aMCI, 60 with AD and 62 healthy controls. Results: Deficits in semantic and episodic memory were significantly predicted by anion gap and bicarbonate, albumin and glucose coupled with Apo E4. Furthermore, these peripheral biomarkers interacted with ApoE to predict greater memory impairments. Conclusions: Peripheral blood biomarkers may interact with pathways related to ApoE4 to predict greater semantic and episodic memory impairments, thus contributing to the pathophysiology of aMCI and AD. Our data suggest that the transition from aMCI to AD could at least in some cases be associated with significant interactions between ApoE4 and those peripheral blood biomarkers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0488.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: diabetes kidney; oxidative stress; inflammation; resveratrol; insulin signaling
Online: 4 January 2019 (11:43:35 CET)
Background and objectives: Diabetes mellitus is a disease of insulin deficiency or its inability of usage by the target tissues leading to impairment of carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolisms. Resveratrol, having robust anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties, has a high potential to treat or prevent the pathogenesis of diseases. This study was conducted to reveal the relationship between diabetes-induced oxidative stress and tissue inflammation with changes in main enzymatic antioxidants (cat, sod, gpx, and gst) and the components of the insulin signaling pathway (insulin Rβ, irs-1, pi3k, akt, mtor) in kidney tissues. Additionally, the effects of resveratrol on these parameters were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups; (1) control/vehicle; (2) control/20 mg/kg resveratrol; (3) diabetic/vehicle; (4) diabetic/20 mg/kg resveratrol. Gene and protein expressions of antioxidant enzymes and insulin signaling elements were evaluated in renal tissues. Results: Downregulation of antioxidant enzymes’ gene expression in the kidney tissues of diabetic rats was demonstrated and this situation was devoted partially to the reduced gene expression of nfκb. Moreover, the components of renal insulin signaling elements were upregulated at both gene and protein expression levels in diabetic rats, and resveratrol treatment decreased this sensitization towards the control state. Conclusion: Resveratrol partially improved diabetes-induced renal oxidative stress and inflammation due to healing action on renal antioxidant enzymes and insulin signaling pathway components.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0746.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: aryl hydrocarbon receptor; polyphenols; inflammation; urolithin; AHR antagonist
Online: 31 October 2018 (10:08:59 CET)
Urolithins (e.g., UroA and B) are gut microbiota-derived metabolites of the natural polyphenol ellagic acid. Urolithins are associated with various health benefits, including attenuation of inflammatory signaling, anti-cancer effects and repression of lipid accumulation. The molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of urolithins remain unclear. We hypothesize that some of the human health benefits of urolithins are mediated through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Utilizing a cell-based reporter system, we tested urolithins for the capacity to modulate AHR activity. Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) mRNA levels were assessed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Competitive ligand binding assays were performed to determine whether UroA is a direct ligand for the AHR. Subcellular AHR protein levels were examined utilizing immunoblotting analysis. AHR expression was repressed in Caco-2 cells by siRNA transfection to investigate AHR-dependency. UroA and B were able to antagonize 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced AHR-mediated transcriptional activity. Furthermore, UroA and B attenuated TCCD-mediated stimulation of CYP1A1 mRNA levels. In addition, competitive ligand binding assays characterized UroA as a direct AHR ligand. Consistent with other AHR antagonists, UroA failed to induce AHR retention in the nucleus. AHR is necessary for UroA-mediated attenuation of cytokine-induced interleukin 6 (IL6) and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) expression in Caco-2 cells. Here we identified UroA as the first dietary-derived human selective AHR antagonist produced by the gut microbiota through multi-step metabolism. Furthermore, previously reported anti-inflammatory activity of UroA may at least in part be mediated through AHR.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0731.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: neuroimmune semaphorins; plexins; cancer; angiogenesis; inflammation; VEGF; Sema4A
Online: 31 October 2018 (04:45:19 CET)
Neuroimmune semaphorin 4A (Sema4A), a member of semaphorin family of transmembrane and secreted proteins, is an important regulator of neuronal and immune functions. In the nervous system, Sema4A primarily regulates the functional activity of neurons serving as an axon guidance molecule. In the immune system, Sema4A regulates immune cell activation and function granting a fine tuning of immune response. Recent studies have shown a dysregulation of Sema4A expression in several types of cancer such as hepatocellular carcinoma, colorectal and breast cancers. Cancers have been associated with abnormal angiogenesis. The function of Sema4A in angiogenesis and cancer is not defined. Recent studies have demonstrated Sema4A expression and function in endothelial cells. However, the results of these studies are controversial as they report either pro – or anti-angiogenic Sema4A effects depending on the experimental settings. In this mini-review, we discuss these findings as well as our data on Sema4A regulation of inflammation and angiogenesis, which both are important pathologic processes underlining tumorigenesis and tumor metastasis. Understanding the role of Sema4A in those processes may guide the development of improved therapeutic treatments for cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0144.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Cnidii Rhizoma; DSS; inflammation; NF-Κb; MAPKs; TFF3
Online: 8 October 2018 (12:19:03 CEST)
In this study, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced in vivo model and LPS-stimulated in vitro model were used to confirm whether ethanol extract of Cnidii Rhizoma (EtCR) could ameliorate UC. EtCR improved symptoms of UC, including body weight loss, colon length shortening, disease activity index (DAI), and colon mucosal damage. In addition, EtCR decreased inflammatory mediators, including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), in colon tissue. To further confirm the UC improving mechanism, RAW 264.7 cells and HT29 human epithelial cells were used. EtCR reduced expression of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6) and inflammatory mediators (nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2) via JNK and NF-κB signaling pathway in RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, EtCR increased expression of trefoil factor 3 (TFF3), which is an epithelial cell protective factor, in HT29 cells. Taken together, our study suggests that EtCR has treatment effect on UC and can be a therapeutic agent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0431.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: hesperidin; L-NAME; cardiovascular remodeling; oxidative stress; inflammation
Online: 21 September 2018 (08:15:47 CEST)
Hesperidin is a major flavonoid isolated from citrus fruits that exhibits several biological activities. This study aims to evaluate the effect of hesperidin on cardiovascular remodeling induced by N-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with L-NAME (40 mg/kg); L-NAME plus hesperidin (15 mg/kg), or hesperidin (30 mg/kg), or captopril (2.5 mg/kg) for five weeks (n = 8/group). Hesperidin or captopril significantly prevented the development of hypertension in L-NAME rats. Moreover, hesperidin or captopril alleviated L-NAME-induced cardiac remodeling; increases in wall thickness, cross sectional area (CSA) and fibrosis of left ventricular (LV), and vascular remodeling; increases in wall thickness, CSA, vascular smooth muscle cells and collagen deposition in the aorta. These were associated with reduced oxidative stress markers, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and enhancing plasma nitric oxide metabolite (NOx) in L-NAME treated groups. Furthermore, up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1 (TNF-R1) and TGF-β1 protein expression and the over-expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were suppressed in L-NAME rats treated with hesperidin or captopril. These data suggested that hesperidin had cardioprotective effects in L-NAME hypertensive rats. The possible mechanism may involve its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0314.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: schizophrenia; first episode psychosis; antipsychotic; immune; inflammation; cytokines
Online: 17 September 2018 (14:13:38 CEST)
Background: First episode psychosis (FEP), schizophrenia and affective disorders are accompanied by activation of the immune inflammatory response system (IRS). The compensatory immune-regulatory reflex system (CIRS) is a regulatory immune response that is induced by the IRS but exerts negative feedback through, for example, increased levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-4, IL-13 and IL-10. Different phenotypes of schizophrenia may exhibit distinct IRS and CIRS immune profiles.Aims: This study aims to examine the IRS and CIRS components, including macrophagic M1, T-helper (Th)-1, Th-2, Th-17 and T-regulatory (Treg) phenotypes, in antipsychotic-naïve FEP patients before and after risperidone treatment.Methods: We included 31 antipsychotic-naïve FEP patients who had measurements of IRS and CIRS biomarkers before and after treatment with risperidone for 10 weeks, and 22 healthy controls.Results: Antipsychotic-naive FEP patients showed interrelated increments in M1, Th-1, Th-2, Th-17 and Treg phenotypes and a relatively greater IRS response (especially granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-12) as compared with the CIRS response (IL-4, IL-13, IL-5 and IL-10). Inflammatory markers, especially IL-6 and IL-8, were significantly correlated with negative, psychotic, affective and excitation symptom dimensions. Treatment with risperidone significantly suppressed the IRS and CIRS. Baseline levels of CIRS biomarkers, especially higher soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 and IL-10 predicted clinical improvement during treatment.Discussion: Our findings indicate that FEP is characterized by robust IRS (M1 + Th-1 + Th-17) and CIRS responses, suggesting that monocytes, macrophages, Th-1, Th-2, Th-17 and Treg cells are activated. The findings indicate that a) FEP patients are prone to the detrimental effects of M1, Th-1, Th-17 and Th-2 cells, which may contribute to long-lasting abnormalities in brain circuitry; and b) in FEP, the CIRS may contribute to recovery from the acute phase of illness. Enhancing the CIRS is a new drug target to treat FEP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0046.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Keywords: zoantharia; tropical Eastern Pacific; Zoanthus pulchellus; zoanthamine; inflammation
Online: 3 July 2018 (12:29:14 CEST)
Two new zoanthamine alkaloids, namely 3-acetoxynorzoanthamine (1) and 3-acetoxyzoanthamine (2), have been isolated from the zoantharian Zoanthus cf. pulchellus collected off the coast of the Peninsula of Santa Elena – Ecuador, together with three known alkaloids zoanthamine, norzoanthamine and 3-hydroxynorzoanthamine. The chemical structures of 1 and 2 were determined by interpretation of their 1D and 2D NMR data and comparison with literature data. This is the first report of zoanthamine-type alkaloids from Zoanthus cf. pulchellus collected in the Tropical Eastern Pacific. The neuroinflammatory activity of all the isolated compounds were evaluated in microglia BV-2 cells and high inhibitory effects were observed in ROS and NO generation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0398.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: retinal degeneration; DNA methylation; epigenetics; oxidative stress; inflammation
Online: 28 May 2018 (10:33:13 CEST)
The role of epigenetic alterations in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has been pending so far. Our study investigated the effect of oxidative stress and inflammation on DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) functions, as well as on long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) methylation, in human retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells. Therefore, we evaluated whether treatment with resveratrol may restore changes in LINE-1 methylation by modulating DNMTs and SIRT1 functions. Cells were treated with 25 mU/ml glucose oxidase (GOx) or 10 µg/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mimic oxidative or inflammatory conditions, respectively. Oxidative stress decreased DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b and SIRT1 expression (p-values <0.05), as well as total DNMTs (-28.5%; p<0.0001) and SIRT1 (-29.0%;p<0.0001) activities. Similarly, inflammatory condition decreased DNMT1 and SIRT1 expression (p-values<0.05), as well as total DNMTs (-14.9%;p=0.007) and SIRT1 (-20.1%;p<0.002) activities. Interestingly, GOx- and LPS-treated cells exhibited lower LINE-1 methylation compared to controls (p-values<0.0001). We also demonstrated that treatment with 10 μM resveratrol for 24 hours counteracted the detrimental effect on LINE-1 methylation via increasing DNMTs and SIRT1 functions in cells upon oxidative and inflammatory conditions. However, further studies should explore the perspectives of resveratrol as a suitable strategy for the prevention and/or treatment of AMD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0319.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: annexins; inflammation; wound healing; drug target; translational research
Online: 23 May 2018 (08:19:42 CEST)
The vertebrate annexin superfamily (AnxA) consists of 12 calcium (Ca2+) and phospholipid binding proteins which share a high structural homology. In keeping with this hallmark feature, annexins have been implicated in the Ca2+-controlled regulation of membrane events. In this review, we discuss several themes of potential therapeutic value, namely the regulation of the immune response and the control of tissue homeostasis, that repeatedly surface in the annexin action profile. Our aim is to identify and discuss those annexin properties which might be exploited from a translational science and specifically clinical point of view.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0064.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: western diet; microbiome; food processing; inflammation; metabolic diasease
Online: 19 March 2018 (07:31:47 CET)
The dietary pattern that characterizes the Western diet is strongly associated with obesity and related metabolic diseases, but biological mechanisms supporting these associations remain largely unknown. We argue that the Western diet promotes inflammation that arises from both structural and behavioral changes in the resident microbiome. The environment created in the gut by ultra-processed foods, a hallmark of the Western diet, is an evolutionarily unique selection ground for microbes that can promote diverse forms of inflammatory disease. Recognizing the importance of the microbiome in the development of diet-related disease has implications for future research, public dietary advice as well as food production practices. Research into food patterns suggests that whole foods are a common denominator of diets associated with a low level of diet-related disease. Hence, by studying how ultra-processing changes the properties of whole foods and how these foods affect the gut microbiome, more useful dietary guidelines can be made. Innovations in food production should be focusing on enabling health in the super-organism of man and microbe, and stronger regulation of potentially hazardous components of food products is warranted.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0062.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: microbiome; probiotics, dietary supplements; nutrition; HIV infection, inflammation
Online: 8 May 2017 (12:10:17 CEST)
Microbiota plays a key role in various body’s functions, physiological, metabolic and immunological processes, through different mechanisms such as the regulation of the development and/or functions of different types of immune cells in the intestines. Several evidences indicate that alteration in the gut microbiota can influence infectious and non-infectious diseases. Bacteria that resides on the mucosal surface or within the mucus layer participate in interactions with the host immune system, and a healthy gut microbiota is essential for the development of mucosal immunity. The immunomodulatory activity of probiotics has been proposed in several bowel disorders or in aging-related dysfunctions. In HIV infected patients, the intestinal immune system is affected and inflammation persists during ART therapy too. Several studies are in progress to investigate the ability of probiotics to modulate epithelial barrier functions, microbiota composition and microbial translocation in HIV infection. This mini-review aims to suggest how the use of probiotics is beneficial not only in maintaining a healthy status but also to improve conditions in HIV subjects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0221.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Keywords: Tripterygium regelii; dimacrolide sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloids; anti-inflammation
Online: 29 August 2016 (10:46:49 CEST)
Two new dimacrolide sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloids (DMSPAs), dimacroregelines A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the stems of Tripterygium regelii. The structures of both compounds were characterized by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses, as well as HRESIMS data. Compounds 1 and 2 are two rare DMSPAs possessing unique 2-(3′-carboxybutyl)-3-furanoic acid units forming the second macrocyclic ring, representing the first example of DMSPAs bearing an extra furan ring in their second macrocyclic ring system. Compound 2 showed inhibitory effects on the proliferation of human rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblast cell (MH7A) at a concentration of 20 μM.