Inflammation is considered an important target for stroke therapy because it induces secondary brain damage after the initial ischemic insult. Peripheral monocytes migrate to the brain parenchyma after a central insult. They then differentiate to macrophages in a positive feedback fashion contributing to damage instead of ischemic resolution and inflammation control. A cyclic diterpenoid, (1S,2E,4R,6R,7E,11E)-cembra-2,7,11-triene-4,6-diol (4R), decreases neurodegeneration after ischemia with central anti-inflammatory activity. This study aims to determine whether the central anti-inflammatory effect of 4R is effective against peripheral inflammation triggered by brain ischemia. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of 4R, we treated macrophages with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as an inflammatory model, followed by treatment with 4R. Microarray transcriptome analysis of over 30,000 genes identified the differential expression of 393 genes. Genes related to inflammation, cell adhesion, and transcription were validated with qPCR, and reduced expression was determined. Quantification of NF-kB phosphorylation served as a marker for the modulation of inflammation through gene transcription. Our results show that 4R was associated with a reduction in NFKB1 and ITGB5 gene expression, increased phosphorylation of NF-kB, and a decrease in macrophage adhesion in a blood-brain barrier model. These results indicate that 4R can partially modulate the peripheral immune response, making 4R a potential drug against post-ischemic inflammation.
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