Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Proinflammatory Cytokines and Chemokines are Related to MRI Measures of White and Gray Matter in HIV Infection

Version 1 : Received: 19 May 2021 / Approved: 21 May 2021 / Online: 21 May 2021 (08:24:47 CEST)

How to cite: Ruhanya, V.; Jacobs, G.B.; Paul, R.; Joska, J.; Seedat, S.; Nyandoro, G.; Engelbrecht, S.; Glashoff, R.H. Proinflammatory Cytokines and Chemokines are Related to MRI Measures of White and Gray Matter in HIV Infection. Preprints 2021, 2021050501 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202105.0501.v1). Ruhanya, V.; Jacobs, G.B.; Paul, R.; Joska, J.; Seedat, S.; Nyandoro, G.; Engelbrecht, S.; Glashoff, R.H. Proinflammatory Cytokines and Chemokines are Related to MRI Measures of White and Gray Matter in HIV Infection. Preprints 2021, 2021050501 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202105.0501.v1).

Abstract

Background: HIV is accompanied by production of proinflammatory cytokines which are regarded as critical in neuronal damage, leading to brain dysfunction, hence the need to identify cytokine biomarkers sensitive to brain damage. Methods: We applied MRI volumetric neuroimaging and high throughput Luminex based immunoassays to examine the relationship between cortical white matter, subcortical gray matter and total gray matter brain volumes and plasma cytokines in HIV indviduals using generalised linear models and Partial least square regression model. Results: Higher plasma inflammatory cytokines CCL5/RANTES and MCP-1 were significantly associated with lower cortical white matter volume. Higher IL-6 was associated with both lower subcortical gray matter and lower total gray matter, whereas higher IL-8 and GM-CSF were associated with lower total gray matter only. Higher VEGF, PDGF-BB and IL-9 were associated with higher cortical white matter volumes. After standardisation and adjusting for clinical and demographic variables, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1 remained associated with lower volumes of the three brain regions whereas IL-9, VEGF and PDGF-BB were associated with higher volumes. Conclusions: Association proinflammatory cytokines RANTES, MCP-1 and IL-6 with lower brain volumes could imply possible involvement in neurodegerative processes in HIV infection while IL-9, VEGF and PDGF may have a neuroprotective or neurotrophic role.

Keywords

inflammation; Luminex; volumetric neuroimaging, cognitive impairment

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