REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0288.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Diet; Obesity; Gut microbes; High-fiber diet; High fat diet
Online: 16 September 2021 (13:50:36 CEST)
With the ever-increasing rate, obesity has become an epidemiological problem throughout the globe comprising about 39% of the world population as of now. Among several reasons, disruption of the gut microbial ecosystem might contribute to the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders, including obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and other associated comorbidities. Though the mechanisms related to dysbiosis are unclear, diet might play a modulating role where different dietary approaches manipulate microbial richness and abundance as well as stability. For instance, shifting of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes ratio in the gut might have a role in association with the dietary approaches and ingestion duration. Along with altered gut microbial composition, microbial metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) after ingestion of non-digestible dietary starches may have an impact on host metabolism by regulating lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and inflammation with potential associations to health and obesity. The dietary approaches like carbohydrates, fibre, protein, and/or fat diet at various arrangements can make a shift in the composition of gut microbiota if introduced for a short period. However, the unique pattern of the gut microbes usually remains the same along with the longer period of habitual diet. Though the short-term dietary intervention or circadian rhythm influences a transient change in gut microbes, other than habitual diet, the understanding related to long-term dietary change-induced permanent alterations is minimum. Alternatively, the usage of prebiotics, probiotics as well as postbiotics could be beneficial to overcome dysbiosis. This review highlights the current knowledge and the interaction between the human intestinal microbiota and diet as a modifying factor, in obesity allowing the scientists to uncover novel targets and tools to use as customized therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0104.v1
Online: 2 March 2021 (16:02:07 CET)
Hepato-renal dysfunctions associated with hyperlipidemia necessitates continuous search for natural remedies. This study thus, evaluated the effect of dietary chitosan on diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (90 ± 5.2) g were randomly allotted into six (6) groups (n=5): Normal diet, High-fat diet (HFD), Normal diet + 5% chitosan. The three other groups received HFD, supplemented with 1%-, 3%-, and 5% of chitosan. The feeding lasted for 8 weeks, after which the rats were sacrificed. The liver and kidneys were harvested for Analyses. Hepatic alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and renal biomarkers (ALT, AST, urea, and creatinine) were assayed spectrophotometrically. Additionally, expression of hepatic and renal CD43 and p53 was estimated immunohistochemically. Hyperlipidemia caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the hepatic (AST, ALT, and ALP) and renal (AST and ALT) activities, while renal urea and creatinine increased. Furthermore, the HFD group showed an elevated level of hepatic and renal CD43 while p53 expression decreased. However, groups supplemented with chitosan showed improved hepatic and renal biomarkers, as well as corrected the aberrations in the expressions of p53 and CD43. Conclusively, dietary chitosan could effectively improve kidney and liver functionality via abatement of inflammatory responses.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: high fat diet; metabolic dysregulation; platelets; monocytes; hypercoagulation; inflammation
Online: 27 October 2019 (03:13:45 CET)
High fat-diet (HFD) feeding is known to induce metabolic dysregulation, however less is known on its impact in promoting the hypercoagulable state. The current study aimed to evaluate platelet-monocyte aggregate (PMA) formation following short-term HFD feeding. This is particularly important for understanding the link between inflammation and the hypercoagulable state during the early onset of metabolic dysregulation. To explore such a hypothesis, mice were fed a HFD for 8 weeks, with body weights as well as insulin and blood glucose levels monitored on weekly basis during this period. Basal hematological measurements were determined and the levels of spontaneous peripheral blood PMAs were assessed using whole blood flow cytometry. The results showed that although there were no significant differences in body weights, mice on HFD displayed impaired glucose tolerance and markedly raised insulin levels. These metabolic abnormalities were accompanied by elevated baseline PMA levels as an indication of hypercoagulation. Importantly, it was evident that baseline levels of monocytes, measured using the CD14 monocyte marker were significantly decreased in HFD-fed mice when compared to controls. In summary, the current evidence shows that in addition to causing glucose intolerance, such as that identified in a prediabetic state, HFD-feeding can promote undesirable hypercoagulation, the major consequence implicated in the development of cardiovascular complications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0219.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: High-Fat Diet, Dietary Supplement, Oxidative stress, Inflammation, Neurodegeneration.
Online: 12 July 2018 (15:45:18 CEST)
Obesity and metabolic disorders can be risk factors for the onset and development of neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects on dysmetabolism and neurodegeneration of a natural dietary supplement (NDS), containing Curcuma longa, silymarin, guggul, chlorogenic acid and inulin, on the brains of high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. A decreased expression of FACL-4, CerS-1 and CerS-4, reduced cholesterol concentration, increased IR expression and insulin signaling activation, were found in brains of NDS-treated HFD mice, suggesting that NDS is able to prevent brain lipid accumulation and central insulin resistance. In the brains of NDS-treated HFD mice, the levels of RNS, ROS and lipid peroxidation, the expression of p-ERK, H-Oxy, i-NOS, HSP60, NF-kB, GFAP, IL-1β, IL-6, and CD4 positive cell infiltration were lower than in untreated HFD mice, suggesting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of NDS. The decreased expression of p-ERK and GFAP in NDS-treated HFD mice was confirmed by immunofluorescence. Lastly, a lower number of apoptotic nuclei was found in cortical sections of NDS-treated HFD. All these data indicate that NDS exerts neuroprotective effects in HFD mice by reducing brain fat accumulation, oxidative stress and inflammation and improving brain insulin resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0180.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: GPETAFLR peptide; protein hydrolysate; liver; hepatic steatosis; high-fat diet
Online: 15 July 2019 (06:09:04 CEST)
Bioactive peptides are related to the prevention and treatment of many diseases. GPETAFLR is an octapeptide which was isolated from lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.) and showed anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential activity of GPETAFLR to prevent non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed a standard diet or an HFD. Two of the groups fed the HFD diet were treated with GPETAFLR in their drinking water at 0,5 mg/kg/d or 1 mg/kg/d. To determine the ability of GPETAFLR to improve the onset and progression of NAFLD, histological studies, hepatic enzyme profile, inflammatory cytokine and lipid metabolism-related genes and proteins were analyzed. Our results suggest that HFD-induced inflammatory metabolic disorders were alleviated by treatment with GPETAFLR. In conclusion, dietary lupine consumption could repair HFD-induced hepatic damage, possibly via modifications in the liver’s lipid signalling pathways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0201.v1
Online: 21 February 2019 (10:01:04 CET)
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) function may depend on its anatomical location and developmental origin. Interscapular BAT (iBAT) regulates acute macronutrient metabolism, whilst perivascular BAT (PVAT) regulates vascular function. Although phenotypically similar, whether these depots respond differently to acute nutrient excess is unclear. Given their distinct anatomical locations and developmental origins and we hypothesised that iBAT and PVAT would respond differently to brief period of nutrient excess. Sprague-Dawley rats aged 12 weeks (n = 12) were fed either a standard (10% fat, n = 6) or high fat diet (HFD: 45% fat, n = 6) for 72 h and housed at thermoneutrality. Following an assessment of whole body physiology, fat was collected from both depots for analysis of gene expression and the proteome. HFD consumption for 72 h induced rapid weight gain (c. 2.6%) and reduced serum NEFA with no change in either total adipose or depot mass. In iBAT, an upregulation of genes involved in insulin signalling and lipid metabolism was accompanied by enrichment of lipid-related processes and functions, plus glucagon and PPAR signalling pathways. In PVAT, HFD induced a pronounced down-regulation of multiple metabolic pathways which was accompanied with increased abundance of proteins involved in apoptosis (e.g. Hdgf and Ywaq) and toll-like receptor signalling (Ube2n). There was also an enrichment of DNA-related processes and functions (e.g., nucleosome assembly and histone exchange) and RNA degradation and cell adhesion pathways. In conclusion, we show that iBAT and PVAT elicit divergent responses to short-term nutrient excess highlighting early adaptations in these depots before changes in fat mass.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0239.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: adipose tissue; non-nutritive sweeteners; artificial sweeteners; high-fat diet; glucose intolerance
Online: 8 June 2021 (15:56:03 CEST)
Sugar-sweetened beverages are associated with metabolic dysfunction, particularly in those with increased risk factors. Artificial sweeteners (AS) are often promoted as a healthier alternative, yet findings remain conflicting as to their effects on metabolic function. Further, there is a lack of data exploring the interaction between AS and high-fat diets (HFD). We therefore examined the effects of HFD and the AS Acesulfame-potassium (Ace-K) on glucose intolerance and adipose tissue physiology in male and female C57BL/6 mice. 40 mice were randomised to receive either a) a control diet (CDCon; standard control diet/water), b) control diet and Ace-k (CDAS; CD/7.5mM AS in drinking water), c) HFD (HFCon; HFD (45%kcal from fat)/water), or d) HF and AS (HFAS; HFD/7.5mM AS in drinking water) for 6 weeks. A HFD increased body weight in male and female mice independently of AS supplementation. AS induced sex-specific effects protecting against HFD-induced hyperglycaemia and adipocyte hypertrophy in male mice and reducing inflammatory gene expression in the adipose tissue. Conversely in females, AS induced hyperinsulinemia in HFD mice and increased expression of immune-related genes. These findings suggest that supplementation of HFD with AS exacerbates metabolic dysfunction in female mice. This work supports the importance of studying sexually dimorphic responses to an altered nutritional environment and highlights the need for further investigation into the intake of AS, particularly in those already at risk of metabolic disease such as the obese or overweight.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0375.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: High fat diet; conditioned place preference; mu opioid receptor; knockout mice; wildtype mice; endogenous opioid system; oxycodone.
Online: 22 January 2023 (03:51:26 CET)
Excessive high fat diet (HFD) consumption can induce food addiction which is believed to involve the communication between the hypothalamus and mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons, originating in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and projecting to the nucleus accumbens (NAc). These brain regions are densely populated with opioid receptors, raising the possibility that these receptors, and particularly mu opioid receptors (MORs), are involved in mediating reward induced by palatable foods. This study sought to investigate the involvement of MORs in high fat diet (HFD)-induced reward and if there is any difference between male and female subjects in this response. We also assessed if exposure to HFD would potentiate the rewarding action of oxycodone, a relatively selective MOR agonist. The place conditioning paradigm was used to determine if conditioning for a short time (STC, 2 h) or long time (LTC, 16 h) with HFD induces reward or alters the rewarding action of oxycodone. Male and female C57BL/6J mice as well as MOR knockout and wildtype mice of both sexes were tested for basal place preference on day 1 and then conditioned with HFD in one chamber and regular chow diet (RCD) in another chamber and tested for place preference again after three sets of STC and again after a set of LTC. Each set consisted of two conditioning with RCD and two conditioning with HFD. Controls were conditioned with RCD in both conditioning chambers. Following the last place preference test, mice were treated with oxycodone and conditioned in the HFD-paired chamber and saline in the RCD-paired chamber for one hour once a day to explore the possibility if the HFD could alter oxycodone reward. The result showed that HFD induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in both male and female subjects following the LTC. This response was further potentiated after oxycodone conditioning. The latter response was mediated via MORs, as it was blunted in MOR knockout mice. However, HFD-induced CPP was observed following LTC in only female MOR knockout mice, suggesting for sexual dimorphism in this response.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Cordyceps militaris; crude polysaccharides; selenium-rich crude polysaccharides; high-fat diet (HFD); obesity; dyslipidemia; hypertriglyceridemia; gut microbiota
Online: 3 December 2020 (10:26:45 CET)
Administration of crude polysaccharides extract from natural product is a promising gut microbiota-targeted approach to preventing obesity and associated metabolic disorders. Dietary restrictions can change the type and number of gut bacteria, which is an important factor in delaying the onset and burden of diseases. This study aimed to investigate the effects of high-yield crude polysaccharides from Cordyceps militaris (CMP) on high-fat diet (HFD) mice model and the gut microbiota community assembly, and to identify whether selenium (Se) addition would improve CMP action mode during cultivation. We found that the CMP treatment ameliorated adipose and liver pathologic morphology and fat accumulation in obese mice, while, SeCMP intervention was not superior than CMP in body mass gain, but notably decreasing serum triglyceride level increased by HFD. The upregulated expression of gene Cyp7a1 in liver and protein UCP1 in brown adipose tissue (BAT) preliminary indicated that the effect might relate to bile acids (BAs) metabolism pathway and thermogenesis. In addition, CMP showed a drastic decrease in the gut microbes which positively correlated with dyslipidemia parameters. Our result reveals the potential of CMP to be used as functional food in the prevention of diet-induced adipose and liver steatosis, so does SeCMP has outstanding capacity of improving dyslipidemia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0505.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: mitochondria dysfunction; reactive oxygen species; hypoxic; D-galactose; high fat diet; aging; hearing loss; mechanisms of hearing loss
Online: 22 July 2020 (07:58:12 CEST)
Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) is the most common sensory disorder in the elderly. It is associated with aging and hair cell death due to oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Although transgenic mice and long-term cultures for induction of aging have been used to study ARHL, there are presently no ARHL animal models stimulated by intermittent environmental change for aging. In this study, an ARHL animal model was established by inducing continuous oxidative stress to promote short-term aging of cells, determined based on the expression of the hearing loss-induced phenotype and aging related factors in the short term. The incidence of hearing loss was significantly different among the groups subjected to intermittent hypoxic environment, high-fat diet (HFD), and injection with D-galactose. Continuous oxidative stress and HFD were factors that accelerated cellular aging. Increase in UCP2 affected oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. CDH23, SLC26A4, KCNQ4, Myo7a, and Myo6, which are ARHL-related factors, were modified by oxidative stress in cells of the hearing organ. We found that intermittent hypoxic, HFD, and galactose injection accelerated cellular aging in the short term. Thus, we anticipate that the development of this hearing loss animal model, which reflects intermittent environmental changes, will benefit future research on ARHL.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0257.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Western diet; oxidative stress; cardiomyocyte; micronutrients; dietary fat
Online: 20 June 2022 (03:38:07 CEST)
Heart failure (HF) has become a public health problem, but exact pathophysiology is still unknown. Western diet characterised with high sugar, high fat, red meat and processed meat, eggs, fried foods and sweetened beverages, may cause oxidative stress and inflammation, leading to oxidative dysfunction and adverse effects on cardiac-ultra-structure. However, only little is known about oxidative function of the of the myocardium and how oxidative dysfunction predispose Ca-overloading resulting in to physio-pathological remodelling leading to HF. Antioxidants such as flavonoids and polyphenolics, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins, minerals as well as essential and nonessential amino acids that are rich in Indo-Mediterranean type of diets, may have protective roles in maintaining oxidative functions of the heart. The cardiac cells use fatty acids and glucose for the metabolic functions depending upon physiological and metabolic requirements. Apart from glucotoxicity, lipotoxicity is also damaging to cardiac cells which worsen in presence of deficiency of endogenous antioxidants and lower exogenous antioxidants in the diet. There is increased production of ceramide, advanced glycation end products (AGE) and triamino-methyl-N-oxide (TMAO) due to high sugar and high fat diets, leading to oxidative dysfunction and Ca-overloading. The biological changes may begin with physiological remodelling to pathological remodelling due to oxidative damages. High fat diet in combination with inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOSi) via N-arginine methyl ester has been found to preserve ejection fraction in a mouse model of HF. It is possible that increased supplementation of High Exogenous Antioxidant Restorative Treatment (HEART) diet; polyphenolics and flavonoids, vitamins, minerals, arginine, with omega-3 fatty acids, and cessation of red meat and egg may further improve the oxidative function of cardiac cells, resulting in the prevention and improvement in the earliest of the Six Stages of HF. Cohort studies and randomised, controlled trials would be necessary for demonstration of the role of HEART diet in the management of HF.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0350.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: amidated alginate; tetrahydrolipstatin; fat; cholesterol; serum; liver; faeces
Online: 17 February 2021 (09:30:49 CET)
The effects of octadecylamide of alginic acid (amidated alginate) and tetrahydrolipstatin on serum and hepatic cholesterol, and the faecal output of fat and sterols were compared in rats. Amidated alginate is a sorbent of lipids, tetrahydrolipstatin is inhibitor of pancreatic lipase. Rats were fed diets containing cholesterol and palm fat at 10 and 70 g/kg, respectively. Palm fat was provided by coconut meal. Amidated alginate at 40 g/kg diet significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, LDL and hepatic cholesterol, hepatic lipids, and increased faecal output of fat and coprostanol. Tetrahydrolipstatin at 300 mg/kg diet significantly decreased LDL cholesterol, hepatic lipids and increased faecal output of fat. The intake of feed was not significantly influenced, however the weight gains in rats fed amidated alginate was lower than in rats of the control group. Both amidated alginate and tetrahydrolipstatin modified fatty acid profile in excreta lipids. Concentrations of saturated fatty acids were decreased and that of unsaturated fatty acids were increased. Despite different mode of action, amidated alginate and tetrahydrolipstatin were equally efficient in the removing dietary fat from the body.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0509.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: inflammation; coronary disease; mediterranean diet; low-fat diet; C-reactive protein; adiponectin; visceral fat; body composition
Online: 26 July 2018 (10:33:01 CEST)
The Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) is recognised to reduce risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), in part, via its anti-inflammatory properties. Diet efficacy via this mechanism is however unclear in patients with diagnosed CHD. This study aimed to determine the effect of MedDiet versus low-fat diet intervention on inflammatory biomarkers and adiposity in a pilot cohort of Australian patients post coronary event. Participants (62±9 years, 83% male) were randomised to the MedDiet (n=34) or low-fat diet (n=31). At 0-, 3- and 6-months, dietary counselling, anthropometry, body composition (Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry) and venepuncture was conducted. Participants adhered well to the MedDiet intervention, however, there were no significant changes in body composition or inflammatory biomarkers hs-C-reactive protein or hs-interleukin-6 in the MedDiet compared to the low-fat diet group after 6-months. Adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory adipokine, tended to increase in response to the MedDiet (+1.1±4.2ng/mL, p=0.11) and decrease in response to the low-fat diet (-0.9±3.3ng/mL, p=0.20). In the pooled cohort, participants with greatest improvement in MedDiet adherence score had significantly lower waist circumference and subcutaneous fat levels at 6-months. A clinically significant effect of the MedDiet on inflammation and adiposity in CHD patients may require a larger sample, adjunct exercise intervention and/or caloric restriction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0166.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: constitutive androstene receptor; cytochrome P450, fibrosis; gender difference; high-fat-cholesterol (HFC) diet; necrosis; stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive 5/Dmcr rats; sulfotransferase, pregnane X receptor; UGP-glucuronosyltransferase
Online: 23 May 2017 (07:54:46 CEST)
During middle age, women are less susceptible to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) than men. Thus, we investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms behind these sexual differences using an established rat model of NASH. Mature female and male stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive 5/Dmcr rats were fed control or high-fat-cholesterol (HFC) diets for 2, 8, and 14 weeks. Although HFC-induced hepatic fibrosis was markedly less severe in females than in males, only minor gender differences were observed in expression levels of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP)7A1, CYP8B1 CYP27A1, and CYP7B1, and multidrug resistance-associated protein 3, and bile salt export pump, which are involved in fibrosis-related bile acid (BA) kinetics. However, the BA detoxification-related enzymes UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and sulfotransferase (SULT) 2A1, and the nuclear receptors constitutive androstene receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR), were strongly suppressed in HFC fed males, and were only slightly changed in HFC-diet fed females. Expression levels of the farnesoid X receptor and its small heterodimer partner were similarly regulated in a gender-dependent fashion following HFC feeding. Hence, the pronounced female resistance to HFC-induced liver damage likely reflects sustained expression of the nuclear receptors CAR and PXR and the BA detoxification enzymes UGT and SULT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0540.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Probiotics; Dysbiosis; Obesity; High Fat Diet; Lactobacillus plantarum; Enterococcus faecium
Online: 29 November 2021 (12:59:43 CET)
Fat reduction and anti-inflammation are commonly claimed properties of probiotics. Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium were tested in high fat-induced obesity mice and in vitro experiments. After 16 weeks of probiotics, L. plantarum outperforms E. faecium on the anti-obesity property as indicated by body weight, regional fat accumulation, serum cholesterol, inflammatory cytokines (in blood and colon tissue), and gut barrier defect (FITC-dextran assay). With fecal microbiome analysis, L. plantarum but not E. faecium reduced fecal abundance of pathogenic Proteobacteria without an alteration in total Gram-negative bacteria when compared with non-probiotics obese mice. With palmitic acid induction, the condition media from both probiotics similarly attenuated supernatant IL-8, improved enterocyte integrity and down-regulated cholesterol absorption-associated genes in Caco-2 cell (an enterocyte cell line) and reduced supernatant cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) with normalization of cell energy status (extracellular flux analysis) in bone-marrow-derived macrophages. Because the anti-inflammatory effect of the condition media of both probiotics on palmitic acid-activated enterocytes was neutralized by amylase, the active anti-inflammatory molecules might, partly, be exopolysaccharides. As L. plantarum out-performed E. faecium in anti-obesity property, possibly through the reduced fecal Proteobacteria, with a similar anti-inflammatory exopolysaccharide; L. plantarum is a potentially better option for anti-obesity than E. faecium.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0479.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: Blood-Brain Barrier; Neurodegeneration; obesity; high-fat diet; protein tyrosine phosphatase 1b
Online: 25 November 2021 (13:54:27 CET)
Insulin receptors are internalized by endothelial cells; however, the impact of hyperinsulinemia on this process is not known. Thus, the aim of this study is to determine the role of hyperinsulinemia on insulin receptor function and internalization, as well as the potential impact of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). To this end, hippocampal microvessels were isolated from male C57Bl/6J mice on either a control or high-fat diet and assessed for insulin receptor signaling. Cell surface insulin receptors in brain microvascular endothelial cells were labelled with biotin to assess the role hyperinsulinemia plays on receptor internalization in response to stimulation, with and without Claramine treatment, a potent PTP1B antagonist. Our results indicated that insulin receptor levels increased in tandem with insulin receptor dysfunction in the high-fat diet mouse hippocampal microvessels. Hyperinsulinemic cell-receptors demonstrate a shift in splice variation towards decreased IR-A/IR-B ratios and demonstrate a higher membrane-localized proportion. This corresponded with decreased autophosphorylation at sites critical for receptor internalization and signaling, however, Claramine restored signaling and receptor internalization in hyperinsulinemic cells. In conclusion, hyperinsulinemia negatively impacts brain microvascular endothelial cell insulin receptor function and internalization, likely through both alternative splicing and increased negative feedback from PTP1B.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0041.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; high fat-sucrose diet; metabolomics; HPLC-QTOF-MS; quercetin
Online: 4 January 2019 (14:04:13 CET)
As metabolomics is widely used in the study of disease mechanisms, more and more studies have found that metabolites play an important role in the occurrence of diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects and mechanisms of quercetin in high-fat-sucrose diet (HFD)-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development using nontargeted metabolomics. A rat model of NAFLD was established by feeding with a HFD for 30 and 50 days. Results indicated quercetin exhibited hepatoprotective activity in HFD-induced NAFLD rats in 30 days by regulating fatty acids related metabolites (adrenic acid, etc.), inflammation related metabolites (arachidonic acid, etc.), oxidative stress related metabolites (2-hydroxybutyric acid) and other differential metabolites (citric acid, etc.). However, quercetin couldn’t improve NAFLD in 50 days maybe it couldn’t reverse the inflammation condition induced by long-term high-fat diet. These data indicate that dietary quercetin may be beneficial to NAFLD at early stages. Furthermore, combining metabolomics and experimental approaches opens up avenues of effects and mechanisms of drugs for complex diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0033.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: hepatic inflammation; high-fat-cholesterol diet; hypertension; mitogen-activated protein kinase; nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 pathway; nuclear factor-kappa B; spontaneously hypertensive rat; stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive5/Dmcr; Wistar Kyoto
Online: 14 July 2017 (10:54:38 CEST)
Populations with essential hypertension have a high risk of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In this study, we investigated the mechanism that underlies the progression of hypertension-associated NASH by comparing differences in the development of high fat and cholesterol (HFC) diet-induced NASH among three strains of rats, i.e., two hypertensive strains comprising spontaneously hypertensive rats and the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive 5/Dmcr, and the original Wistar Kyoto rats as the normotensive control. We investigated histopathological changes and molecular signals related to inflammation in the liver after feeding with the HFC diet for 8 weeks. The diet induced severe lobular inflammation and fibrosis in the livers of the hypertensive rats, whereas it only caused mild steatohepatitis in the normotensive rats. Increased activation of proinflammatory signaling (transforming growth factor-β1/mitogen-activated protein kinases pathway) was observed in the hypertensive strains fed with the HFC diet. In addition, the HFC diet suppressed the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 pathway in the hypertensive rats and led to lower increases in the hepatic expression of heme oxygenase-1, which has anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. In conclusion, these signaling pathways might play crucial roles in the development of hypertension-associated NASH.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0613.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: tempeh; lactic acid bacteria; short chain fatty acids; metabolic syndrome; high fat diet; feces
Online: 31 July 2018 (09:37:51 CEST)
The increased consumption of high fat-containing foods has been linked to the prevalence of obesity and abnormal metabolic syndromes. Rhizopus oligosporus, a fungus in the family Mucoraceae, is widely used as a starter for homemade tempeh. Although R. oligosporus can prevent the growth of other microorganisms, it grows well with lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactobacillus plantarum can produce β-glucosidase, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of glucoside isoflavones into aglycones (with greater bioavailability). Therefore, the development of a soybean-based functional food by the co-inoculation of R. oligosporus and L. plantarum is a promising approach to increase the bioactivity of tempeh. In this study, the ameliorative effect of L. plantarum in soy tempeh on abnormal carbohydrate metabolism in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperglycemic rats was evaluated. The co-incubation of L. plantarum with R. oligosporus during soy tempeh fermentation reduced the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, HbA1c, serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, free fatty acid, insulin, and low-density lipoprotein contents and significantly increased the high-density lipoprotein content in HFD rats. It also increased the LAB counts as well as the bile acid, cholesterol, triglyceride, and short-chain fatty acid contents in the feces of HFD rats. Our results suggested that the modulation of serum glucose and lipid levels by LAB occurs via alterations in the internal microbiota, leading to the inhibition of cholesterol synthesis and promotion of lipolysis. Tempeh, produced with both L. plantarum and R. oligosporus, may be a beneficial dietary supplement for individuals with abnormal carbohydrate metabolism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0147.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: gut microbiota; obesity; weight-loss; Mediterranean diet; 16S rRNA; High-throughput sequencing
Online: 8 July 2020 (11:07:10 CEST)
Although it is known that the gut microbiota (GM) can be modulated by diet, the efficacy of specific dietary interventions in determining its composition and diversity in obese patients remains to be ascertained. The present work aims to evaluate the impact of a moderately hypocaloric Mediterranean diet on the GM of obese and overweight patients (OB). The GM of 23 OB patients (F/M= 20/3) was compared before (T0) and after 3 months (T3) of the nutritional intervention (NI). Fecal samples were analyzed by Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. At baseline, the GM characterization confirmed the typical obesity-associated dysbiosis. After 3 months of NI, patients presented a statistically significant reduction of the body weight and fat mass, along with changes in the relative abundance of many microbial patterns. In fact, we observed an increased abundance in several Bacteroidetes taxa (i.e. Sphingobacteriaceae, Sphingobacterium, Bacteroides spp., Prevotella stercorea) and depletion of many Firmicutes taxa (i.e. Lachnospiraceae members, Ruminococcaceae and Ruminococcus, Veillonellaceae, Catenibacterium, Megamonas). In addition, the phylum Proteobacteria showed an increased abundance, while the genus Sutterella, within the same phylum, decreased after the intervention. Metabolic pathways, predicted by bioinformatic analyses, showed a decrease in membrane transport and cell motility after NI. The present study extends our knowledge of the GM profiles in OB, highlighting the potential benefit of a moderate caloric restriction in counteracting the gut dysbiosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0023.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: pSrc; Glutathione; Na/K-ATPase; metabolic prints; metabolomics; NAFLD; NASH; high-fat diet; fibrosis; inflammation
Online: 25 May 2022 (08:37:22 CEST)
BACKGROUND. Two sequelae of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), ESLD and HCC, have become the leading causes for liver transplantation in the Western. The present study aims to approach the cellular metabolic disturbances involved in NASH progression that are associated with microbiota community changes. METHODS. Metabolic effects and microbiota community changes were explored in the murine with NASH progression by blocking the Na/K-ATPase/Src/reactive oxygen amplification loop using the synthetic targeting peptide pNaKtide. DNA from the terminal ileum microbiota habitat was obtained and amplified by PCR to develop DNA bacterial phylogenic sequence analysis of wild type and treated animals at 12, 24 and 48 weeks. Induced changes by pSrc normalization at 24 weeks were correlated with liver morphological changes, intestinal CD4+/CD8+ ratio, and liver macrophage CD14+ expression. Differences among groups were evaluated by ANOVA/t-test and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). RESULTS. Microbiota communities varied significantly at all time points (12, 24 and 48 weeks), with an increase of Verrucomicrobia and a decrease of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes in the HFD group. Microbiota community changes regressed to their wild-type state at 24 weeks on treated animals, and those changes were associated with a decrease in liver inflammation and senescence, lower ileum CD4+/CD8+ T cells and higher liver CD14+ cells (p<0.05). Concomitantly, the metabolic disturbances in our diet-induced NASH model were normalized by NKA/Src signaling blockage and exercise with a paucity of apoptotic activity, mitigation of cell senescence, and regression of liver fibrosis (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS. pSrc inhibition at caveolar α1-Na/K-ATPase rescinded NASH-related metabolic disturbances establishing resident physiological microbiota communities with concomitant paucity on apoptotic activity and regression of liver fibrosis; effects that were associated with both gut and liver T-lymphocyte responses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0044.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: high and low molecular weight chitosan; lipid metabolism; liver lipid accumulation
Online: 3 July 2018 (12:13:20 CEST)
The present study examined and compared the effects of high- and low-molecular weight (MW) chitosan, a nutraceutical, on intestinal and liver lipid metabolism in rats fed with high-fat diet. Both high- and low-MW chitosan decreased liver weight, elongated small intestine, improved the dysregulation of blood lipids and liver fat accumulation, and increased fecal lipid excretion in high-fat diet-fed rats. Supplementation of both high- and low-MW chitosan significantly inhibited the decreased phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α protein expressions and the increased lipogenesis/cholesterogenesis-associated protein expressions (sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)1c, SREBP2, and PPARγ) and the decreased apolipoprotein (Apo)E and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP) protein expressions in the livers of high-fat diet-fed rats. Both high and low-MW chitosan supplementation could also suppress the increased MTTP protein expression and the decreased angiopoietin-like protein (Angptl)4 protein expression in the intestines of high-fat diet-fed rats. Comparison between high and low-MW chitosan, high-MW chitosan has a higher efficiency than low-MW chitosan on the inhibition of intestinal lipid absorption and the increase of hepatic fatty acid oxidation, which can improve liver lipid biosynthesis and accumulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0276.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Free-range; backfat layers; intramuscular fat; Iberian pig; subcutaneous fat.
Online: 12 August 2020 (08:11:09 CEST)
Twenty-four extensively-reared Iberian pigs were used to study the influence of fattening period length (30, 60 or 90 days) on the fatty acid profiles of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat and the relationships between both profiles. Regarding fatty acid (FA) percentage, PUFA was greater in backfat and MUFA was greater in intramuscular fat (IMF), regardless fattening period length. The longer fattening period increased MUFA content in backfat (which had a more marked change in oleic acid) and decreased PUFA content in backfat and IMF, but it did not affect SFA content. Within the 3-layers subcutaneous backfat, SFA content was greater in the inner layer, MUFA was greater in the outer layer and PUFA was greater in both of these layers. The few differences in FA composition between both adipose tissues suggest that the changes due to the feeding regime are slow and, therefore, although the length of the fattening phase was increased, the fatty acid profile did not change substantially. The strong relationship between the FA profiles of IMF and backfat might be used to predict one profile from the other one when this latter was more readily available for sampling or analytical reasons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0001.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; xylo-oligosaccharides; metabolites; gut microbiota; biclustering; high fat diet; microRNAs; rats
Online: 1 March 2021 (12:28:31 CET)
We have shown that prebiotic xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) increased beneficial gut microbiota (GM) and prevented high fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis, but the mechanisms behind these effects are not clear. We studied whether XOS affects adipose tissue inflammation and insulin signaling, and whether the GM and fecal metabolome explain associated patterns. XOS was supplemented or not with high (HFD) or low (LFD) fat diet for 12-weeks in male Wistar rats (n = 10/group). Previously analyzed GM and fecal metabolites were biclustered to reduce data dimensionality and identify interpretable groups of co-occurring genera and metabolites. Based on our findings, biclustering provides a useful algorithmic method for capturing such joint signatures. On the HFD, XOS-supplemented rats showed lower number of adipose tissue crown-like structures, increased phosphorylation of AKT in liver and adipose tissue as well as lower expression of hepatic miRNAs. XOS-supplemented rats had more fecal glycine and less hypoxanthine, isovalerate, branched chain amino acids and aromatic amino acids. Several bacterial genera were associated with the metabolic signatures. In conclusion, the beneficial effects of XOS on hepatic steatosis involved decreased adipose tissue inflammation and likely improved insulin signaling, which were further associated with fecal metabolites and GM.
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Amazonian fat; Ucuùba fat; Box Behnken Design; solid lipid nanoparticles; antifungal therapy; onychomycosis
Online: 23 April 2019 (12:57:42 CEST)
Ucuùba fat is fat obtained from a plant found in South America, mainly in Amazonian Brazil. Due to its biocompatibility and bioactivity, the Ucuùba fat was used for production of ketoconazole-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) in view of an application for the treatment of onychomycosis and other persistent fungal infections. The development and optimization of the Ucuùba fat based NLC were performed using a Box-Behnken design of experiment. The independent variables were surfactant concentration (% w/v), liquid lipids concentration (% w/v), solid lipids concentration (% w/v), while the outputs of interest were particle size, polydispersity index (PDI) and drug encapsulation efficiency (EE). The Ucuùba fat based NLC were produced and the process optimized determining a predictive mathematical model. Applying the model, two formulations with the pre-required particle size, i.e., 30 and 85 nm, were produced for further evaluation. The optimized formulations were characterized and showed a particle size in agreement to the predicted value, i.e. 33.6 nm and 74.6 nm, respectively. The optimized formulations were also characterized using multiple techniques in order to investigate the solid state of drug and excipients (DSC and XRD), particle morphology (TEM) and interactions between the formulation components (FTIR). Furthermore, particle size and surface charge of the formulations was studied during a one-month stability study and did not evidence any significative modification during storage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0187.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: insulin resistance; body weight; body fat; visceral fat; waist circumference; body mass index
Online: 28 February 2018 (04:43:50 CET)
The incidence of obesity which leads to insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic disorder increases in developing countries including Indonesia. Male adult has higher risk to have abdominal obesity than female which is associated with cardiometabolic disorders. Several anthropometric measurements have been proposed to predict IR. The aim of this study was to investigate whether body mass, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), body fat percentage (BF) or visceral fat percentage (VF) could become a better predictor of IR in healthy young male adult. Total of 140 healthy young male adults ranging from 18-25 years were recruited in the study. Insulin resistance was measured by calculating Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). Subjects with HOMA-IR value >75th percentile with cut off 3.75 were defined as IR. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, BMI, WC were performed whereas BF and VC were measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). IR had significant strong correlation with body weight, BMI, WC, BF and VF. The area under curve of body mass, BF, VF were greater than WC and BMI. Anthropometric measurements correlated strongly with IR but body weight, BF, VF have stronger correlation than WC and BMI in healthy young male adult.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: aerobic dance; electromyostimulation; percent fat; cytokine
Online: 16 February 2020 (14:06:49 CET)
Electromyostimulation (EMS) has been shown to improve body composition, but what biomarkers it affects has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare the EMS-effect of aerobic dance on fatness and biomarkers’ levels in obese elderly women. Methods: Twenty-five women with obesity were randomly classified into a control group (CON; n = 12) and EMS group (EMSG; n = 13). EMS suits used in this study enabled the simultaneous activation of eight muscles with selectable intensities. Program sessions of EMS were combined with aerobic dance three times a week for 8 weeks. Although both groups received the same program, CON did not receive electrical stimuli. Results: Compared with CON, a significant effect of the EMS intervention concerning decreased fatness, as well as an increased skeletal muscle mass and basal metabolic rate, were evident. Compared with CON, aerobic dancing with an EMS suit also improved biomarkers in EMSG. Cytokines, including interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor, C-reactive protein, resistin, and carcinoembryonic antigen were significantly changed in EMSG, whereas those of CON did not change from the baseline to the end of the experiment. These results showed significant differences between groups. Similarly, the changes caused by EMS were represented in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Conclusions: The results indicate that a significant effect due to the EMS intervention was found concerning body composition and biomarkers in obese elderly women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0422.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Fresh cassava root; pellet containing high sulfur; ruminal characteristics; blood thiocyanate; Thai native beef cattle
Online: 17 December 2020 (09:16:26 CET)
The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of feeding pellet containing high sulfur (PELFUR) diet and fresh cassava root (FCR) to Thai native beef cattle on feed use efficiency, ruminal characteristics, and blood metabolites. Four male Thai native beef cattle (150 ± 15.0 kg of body weight (BW)) were allocated with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Factor A was FCR supplementation at 15 and 20 g/kg of BW. Factor B was the sulfur level in the PELFUR ration at 15 and 30 g/kg of dry matter (DM). No interaction effect was found among FCR supplementation and PELFUR in terms of feed intake and nutrient intake (p > 0.05). Cyanide intake was significantly increased based on FCR supplementation (p < 0.05), whereas sulfur intake was increased by level addition of PELFUR levels (p < 0.05). There were interaction effects among FCR supplementation and PELFUR on digestibility coeﬃcients of DM and organic matter (OM) (p < 0.05). FCR supplementation at 20 g/kg BW with PELFUR 30 g/kg demonstrated the highest digestibility of DM and OM. Moreover, interactions were observed between FCR and PELFUR for bacterial populations (p < 0.01). The populations of bacteria were highest in FCR supplementation at 20 g/kg BW with PELFUR 30 g/kg at various feeding times. An interaction effects from among feeding FCR with PELFUR was found on blood thiocyanate concentrations at various feeding times (p < 0.01). The highest mean values of blood thiocyanate were observed when feeding FCR at 20 g/kg BW with PELFUR at 30 g/kg. No interaction effect was found between FCR and PELFUR on total volatile fatty acids (VFA) and their profiles (p >0.05). However, the proportions of the total VFA at 0 and 4 h post-feeding were increased when FCR at 20 g/kg BW was supplemented (p < 0.01). FCR at 20 g/kg BW could enhance propionate (C3) at 4 h post-feeding when compared with FCR at 15 g/kg BW (p < 0.01). Moreover, supplementation of PELFUR at 30 g/kg increased the total VFA at 0 and 4 h post-feeding, whereas the concentration of C3 at 4 h post-feeding was enhanced (p < 0.05). However, no significant changes were found for any parameters among treatments and between the main effect of FCR and PELFUR supplementation (p > 0.05). In conclusion, feeding of two combinations (FCR 20 g/kg BW with PELFUR 30 g/kg) could promote the nutrient digestibility, the bacterial populations, and the rate of disappearance of cyanide without having any adverse effect on rumen fermentation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0124.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2); liver; heart; pituitary; mitochondria; lipid metabolism; obesity; hypothyroidism; high fat diet; thyromimetic effects; canonical actions; HPTP axis
Online: 10 May 2022 (03:20:44 CEST)
Thyroid hormones, their metabolites and synthetic analogues are potential anti-steatotic drug candidates considering that subclinical and manifest hypothyroidism is associated with hepatic lipid accumulation, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and its pandemic sequelae. Thyromimetically active compounds stimulate hepatic lipogenesis, fatty acid beta-oxidation, cholesterol metabolism and metabolic pathways of glucose homeostasis. Many of these effects are mediated by T3 receptor β1-dependent modulation of transcription. However, rapid non-canonical mitochondrial effects have also been reported, especially for the metabolite 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2), which does not elicit the full spectrum of “thyromimetic” actions inherent to T3. Most preclinical studies in rodent models of obesity and first human clinical trials are promising with respect to the antisteatotic hepatic effects, but potent agents exhibit unwanted thyromimetic effects on the heart and/or suppress feedback regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid-periphery axis and the fine-tuned thyroid hormone system. This review focusses on 3,5-T2 effects on hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism and (non-)canonical mechanisms of action including its mitochondrial targets. Various high fat diet animal models with distinct thyroid hormone status indicate species- and dose-dependent efficiency of 3,5-T2 and its synthetic analogue TRC150094. No convincing evidence has been presented for their clinical use in prevention or treatment of obesity and related metabolic conditions.
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: intramuscular fat; prediction; image analysis; Bísaro pork
Online: 13 January 2021 (13:16:19 CET)
This work presents an analytical methodology to predict meat juiciness (discriminant semi-quantitative analysis using groups of intervals of intramuscular fat) and intramuscular fat (regression analysis) in Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle of Bísaro pigs using as independent variables the animal carcass weight and parameters from color and image analysis. These are non-invasive and non-destructive techniques which allow development of rapid, easy and inexpensive methodologies to evaluate pork meat quality in a slaughterhouse. The proposed predictive supervised multivariate models were non-linear. Discriminant mixture analysis to evaluate meat juiciness by classified samples into three groups—0.6 to 1.1%; 1.25 to 1.5%; and, greater than 1.5%. The obtained model allowed 100% of correct classifications (92% in cross-validation with seven-folds with five repetitions). Polynomial support vector machine regression to determine the intramuscular fat presented R2 and RMSE values of 0.88 and 0.12, respectively in cross-validation with seven-folds with five repetitions. This quantitative model (model’s polynomial kernel optimized to degree of three with a scale factor of 0.1 and a cost value of one) presented R2 and RSE values of 0.999 and 0.04, respectively. The overall predictive results demonstrated the relevance of photographic image and color measurements of the muscle to evaluate the intramuscular fat, rarther than the usual time-consuming and expensive chemical analysis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0321.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: fat; obesity; randomized controlled trials; meta-analysis
Online: 15 October 2020 (11:53:54 CEST)
Background: Overweight and obese adults seek effective exercise interventions to reduce accumulated fat, but the effectiveness of these interventions vary across studies. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to investigate the effectiveness of exercise interventions in overweight and obese adults based on measurement of accumulated fat distributions. (2) Methods: Databases were used to select eligible studies for this meta-analysis. Randomized controlled trials with a control and experimental group were included. Degrees of effectiveness of exercise interventions were computed to assess the benefits on reducing weight and subcutaneous, visceral, and ectopic fat accumulation. (3) Results: A total of twenty-one studies were included in this meta-analysis. Participation in exercise interventions showed beneficial effects in reducing weight and subcutaneous and visceral fat. The effectiveness of exercise interventions on ectopic fat accumulation could not be assessed due to the limited number of studies measuring ectopic fat. Additionally, effectiveness of exercise interventions that depended on measurements of accumulated fat varied. The average exercise intervention for overweight and obese individuals was moderate to vigorous intensity, 4 times per week, 50 minutes per session, and 22 weeks duration. (4) Conclusions: Participating in exercise interventions has favorable effects on reducing weight and accumulation of subcutaneous and visceral fat.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0017.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: cotton, vegetation antibroadleaf herbicides, cultivars, fat content
Online: 1 August 2018 (11:16:31 CEST)
In this study was investigate the effect of vegetative treatment with the herbicides Basagran 480 SL, Pulsar 40 and Express 50 WG on the fat content of seeds of different Bulgarian cotton cultivars. The experiment was carried out with twelve Bulgarian cotton cultivars - Chirpan-539, Helius, Trakia, Vicky, Philipopolis, IPK-Veno, Boyana, Avangard, Natalia, Darmy, Dorina and Nelina belonging to Gossypium hirsutum L. For the first time in the world, cotton cultivars resistant to herbicides Basagran 480 SL (bentazone), Pulsar 40 (imazamox) and Express 50 WG (Tribenuron-methyl) have been established. They are applied at the bud formation stage of cotton. Fat content in cotton seeds was determined by extraction - SR ISO 6492. For the first time in the world it has been established that in the vegetative treatment with herbicides the most valuable with regard to cottonseed fat content are all cultivars treated with Basagran 480 SL, except Chirpan-539 and Helius. It has been established for the first time that from the point of view of growing technology with vegetative treatment with the herbicide Express 50 WG, the most valuable are the cultivars Chirpan-539, Helius, Trakia, Vicky, Philipopolis, IPK-Veno, Boyana, Avangard, Natalia. None of the cultivars is highly rated when treated with the herbicide Pulsar 40 with regard to fat content in seeds.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0218.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: NCD; Eastern Mediterranean region; Fat; SFA; TFA
Online: 17 April 2018 (06:24:29 CEST)
NCDs are the leading cause of mortality globally which estimated 40 million death per year (68% of total death), with cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes. In the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), around 60% of all deaths are attributed to NCDs. Two-thirds of NCD premature deaths are linked to 4 shared modifiable behavioural risk factors: tobacco use, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and harmful use of alcohol. These unhealthy behaviours lead to 4 key metabolic/biological changes that increase the risk of NCDs: raised blood pressure, overweight/obesity, high blood glucose levels/diabetes, and hyperlipidemia (high levels of fat in the blood). Globally, countries are already working towards agreed global goals on maternal and infant nutrition and on the prevention of NCDs, and both these include halting the increase in overweight and obesity and reducing NCD diet-related risk factors including reducing saturated fatty acids (SFA) and Trans fatty acid (TFA) intake. According to values reported for countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region, average SFA intake is estimated at 10.3% of energy intake (EI), thus exceeding the WHO recommended level of 10% EI. Average TFA intake in EMR countries is estimated at 1.9% EI, which also exceeds the WHO recommended levels of 1% EI. The EMR region was reported amongst the regions with the highest levels of TFA intake. The highest SFA intake was reported from Djibouti, Kuwait, Saudi-Arabia and Yemen, while the highest TFA intakes were reported from Egypt and Pakistan. If countries of the Eastern Mediterranean region receive immediate public health attention, that toll of NCD-related morbidity and mortality can be considerably decreased if evidence-based preventive interventions are implemented effectively. In this context, reductions in saturated fat and trans fat intakes have been highlighted as cost-effective strategies that may hamper the growth of the NCD epidemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0065.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: low fat; salt reduction; meat product; sensory; beef
Online: 3 May 2018 (09:46:55 CEST)
The consumer’s acceptability of hamburgers elaborated with the flank of culling cows in which the content of salt or fat had been partially replaced was studied. A mixture of potassium chloride, potassium ferrocyanide and sodium ferrocyanide was used as substitutes for the salt. Oat flakes or a mixture of chia and flax seeds were used as substitutes for the fat. The hamburgers were tasted by 34 consumers. Consumers did not detect significant differences between the control and the rest of the formulations. Neither the gender nor the age of the consumers influenced the sensory appraisal. However, many comments regarding texture failures were recorded. Therefore, the substitution of salt and / or fat in the composition of hamburgers made with the flank of cows is a viable alternative for the commercialization of these pieces of low commercial value as long as the texture of the same is adjusted to resemble it to the control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0042.v1
Online: 11 September 2017 (09:59:48 CEST)
As a high fatal disease, fat embolism syndrome is complication, which brought great pain to patient and their family served as a serious social burden. The mechanism of FES remains unclear. Autophagy controls the cell survival and homeostasis by removing the mis-folded proteins and damaged organelles as well as intracellular pathogens through a lysosomal degradation pathway. Increasing research documented that autophagy was wildly involved in variety of human diseases and had huge therapeutic potential. In our study, we first established the rat model of FES with the liquid fat by tail vein injection. We observed the up-regulated MPO expression and activity, increased Wet-to-Dry (W/D) lung weight, promoted quantity of fat granules, and the dominant disorder in the lung rat model of FES, compared to the control group. These observations demonstrated that we successfully build the rat model of FES. Then, we sought to dissect the role of the autophagy in the rat model of FES. The western blots analysis showed that the autophagy was inhibited in the rat model of FES constructed with liquid fat. Furthermore, Rapamycin could restore the repression of autophagy in rat model of FES. These investigations illustrated that autophagy was involved in FES. In addition, our experiments showed that Rapamycin could alleviate the symptoms of FES. Taken together, our study demonstrated the participation of autophagy in FES and further, as a potential therapeutic target, the modulation of autophagy could affect the symptom of rat model of FES.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0120.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: aging; NMR spectroscopy; mice; energy metabolism; fat; intestine; metabolomics
Online: 8 December 2021 (12:03:07 CET)
Energy metabolism, including alterations in energy intake and expenditure, is closely related to aging and longevity. Metabolomics studies have recently unraveled changes in metabolite composition in plasma and tissues during aging and have provided critical information to elucidate the molecular basis of aging process. However, the metabolic changes in tissues responsible for food intake and lipid storage have remained unexplored. In this study, we aimed to investigate aging-related metabolic alterations in these tissues. To fill this gap, we employed NMR-based metabolomics in several tissues, including different parts of the intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum) and brown/white adipose tissues (BAT, WAT) of young (9-10 weeks) and old (96-104 weeks) wild-type (mixed genetic background of 129/J and C57BL/6) mice. We further included plasma and skeletal muscle of the same mice to verify previous results. Strikingly, we found that duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and WAT do not metabolically age. In contrast, plasma, skeletal muscle, and BAT show a strong metabolic aging phenotype. Overall, we provide first insights into the metabolic changes of tissues essential for nutrient uptake and lipid storage and have identified biomarkers for metabolites that could be further explored to study the molecular mechanisms of aging.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0283.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: fat replacer; octenyl succinic anhydride; OSA starch; starch properties
Online: 17 May 2020 (08:14:12 CEST)
Along with the rapid development of the trend in the health sector, various studies have been conducted to find alternative healthier foods, one of which is reducing fat consumption. Currently, many researchers focus on one of modified starches that can be utilized as a fat replacer is starch modified with OSA (octenyl succinic anhydride). In the last decade, there have been quite a lot of publications related to OSA starch, further the number is still increasing. This review discusses the synthesis method of OSA starch and its optimization, functional characteristics, and its application to be a fat replacer in many kinds of products daily consumed. Various pre-treatment methods could be applied to create OSA starch which has higher degree of substitution values. The presence of conjugate bonds with the OSA group in starch polymers could produce very amphiphilic starch characteristic so as to have an emulsifying function. Emulsions shaped from OSA starch were utilized as fat replacers in foods with high level of fat content. Partial OSA starch substitution was successfully utilized as a fat replacer for several types of food products with similar sensory attributes or even slightly better than the native product. The resulting product could be defined as a healthier choice because it had relatively lower fat and calorie content. Even so, adjustments through further study are still needed so that the food produced is able to have a higher level of sensory acceptance relative to native food without fat substitution.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0631.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: adipogenesis; bioactive compounds; fat accumulation; hibiscus sabdariffa; lipase inhibition
Online: 30 November 2018 (10:33:47 CET)
Obesity is a condition associated with the accumulation of excess fat in the body, energy imbalance, lipogenesis etc. which increases adipose tissue mass through adipogenesis and probes a health risk. Its prevalence has become a large burden on the world at large. One of the solutions to tackling obesity is with the use of bioactive compounds. We critically examined the effectiveness of hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) on various parameters associated with development of obesity such as; effect of HSE on body weight and energy expenditure, effect of HSE on fat accumulation, effect of HSE on lipase inhibition, effect of HSE on adipocyte differentiation/adipogenesis. This review has gathered reports on the various anti-obesity effects of HS bioactives in cell and animal models, as well as in humans. Reports have shown that hibiscus sabdariffa derived bioactives are potent in the treatment of obesity with evident reduction in body weight, inhibition of lipid accumulation and suppression of adipogenesis through PPARγ pathway and other transcriptional factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0127.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: hypertension; obesity; body composition; intra-abdominal fat; sleep apnea; obstructive
Online: 10 May 2022 (04:45:21 CEST)
Background: Elevated fasting plasma glucose and visceral fat area (VFA) is highly prevalent in obese adults. This study investigated the associations between systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) and laboratory, anthropometric, heart rate variability (HRV), and obstructive sleep apnea markers. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 95 obese patients treated at Obesity Treatment and Surgery Center, located in Salvador, BA, Brazil. SAH data were obtained from electronic medical records of patients. To evaluate the association of SAH with the predictor variables, the sample was stratified in Normotense Group (NG) and Hypertensive Group (HG), and laboratory markers, body composition, polysomnography data, and HRV were measured. Results: The average age of the NG was 36.3 ± 10.1 and HG 40.4 ± 10.6 years, 73.7% were women in the NG and 57.9% in HG; 82.4% in HG had insulin resistance. In the multivarious logistics regression model with adjustments age, sex, height, and oxyhemoglobin saturation, SAH was inversely associated with fasting plasma glucose mg/dL (odds ratio [OR] = 0.96; 95% interval confidence [CI] = 0.92 - 0.99) and VFA cm2 (OR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.97 - 0.99). The area under curve the VFA was 0.728; CI 95% (0.620 - 0.836) and fasting plasma glucose 0.693; CI 95% (0.582 - 0.804). Conclusions: Lower VFA and fasting plasma glucose concentrations were inversely associated with SAH. These results indicate opportunities to improve the outcome in obese patients through counseling and clinical interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0125.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: cows; milk fat; ruminal fluid; milk fatty acids; energy balance
Online: 8 December 2021 (14:08:31 CET)
The trials were performed on 20 multiparous cows of Holstein breed (39.7 ± 0.75 kg of milk) at the end of the first phase of lactation this different milk fat (4.1-2.8%). The aim of the research was to study the characteristics of nutrition, metabolism and biosynthesis of milk components in highly productive dairy cows with normal and low milk fat levels and the timing of their productive use. Study the characteristics of fermentation of scar formation substrates and their use in energy metabolism and biosynthesis of the milk components. Found that low fat milk is not associated with a lack of formation of acetate in the rumen (6.1 vs. 6.6 mmol/dl in the contents of the rumen, р>0.05) and the non change in the hormonal profile, but depends on the reduction of fatty acids synthesis de novo in mammary gland, regulated by conjugated higher fatty acids. The result is a reduction in the need of cows in the exchange energy (reduction of heat transfer by 6.2 MJ), a shorter service period (109.5 vs.139 days) and the prolongation of their productive use (the number of lactations correlated back with the level of fat in milk (r=-0.68, p<0.05, n=1300).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0398.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: statistical significance; confidence; medication tests; central limit theorem; fat tail
Online: 15 March 2021 (15:55:33 CET)
Statistical significance measures the reliability of a result obtained from a random experiment. We investigate the number of repetitions needed for a statistical result to have a certain significance. In the first step, we consider binomially distributed variables in the example of medication testing with fixed placebo efficacy, asking how many experiments are needed in order to achieve a significance of 95 %. In the next step, we take the probability distribution of the placebo efficacy into account, which to the best of our knowledge has not been done so far. Depending on the specifics, we show that in order to obtain identical significance, it may be necessary to perform twice as many experiments than in a setting where the placebo distribution is neglected. We proceed by considering more general probability distributions and close with comments on some erroneous assumptions on probability distributions which lead, for instance, to a trivial explanation of the fat tail.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0098.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: food composition tables; lipid profile; trans fat; fast food; spreads
Online: 20 June 2017 (11:34:57 CEST)
The lipid fraction of margarines and fast-food French-fries, two types of foods traditionally high in trans fatty acids (TFA), is assessed. TFA data reported worldwide during the last 20 years have been gathered, and show that some countries still report high TFA amounts in these products. The content of TFA was analysed in margarines (2 store and 4 premium brands) and French-fries from fast-food restaurants (5 chains). Margarines showed mean values of 0.68% and 0.43% (gTFA/100g fat) for store and premium brands, respectively. French-fries values ranged from 0.49% to 0.89%. All samples were lower than the 2% set by some European countries as the maximum legal content of TFA in fats, and contained less than 0.5g/serving, so they could also be considered “trans free products”. This work confirmed that the presence of TFA is not significant in the two analysed products and contributes to update food composition tables, key tools for epidemiological and nutrition studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0202.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: congenital breast asymmetry; PROM, autologous fat injections, fat grafting, lipograft, implant augmentation, breast augmentation, 3D volumetry, three-dimensional imaging, Breast-QTM; human adipose stem cells
Online: 9 August 2021 (15:06:09 CEST)
Congenital breast asymmetry represents a particular challenge to the classical techniques of plastic surgery due to a young group of patients. This study compares traditional breast augmentation using silicone implants to the more innovative lipograft technique regarding long-term results. To achieve this, we not only captured subjective parameters like satisfaction with outcome and symmetry, but also objective parameters such as breast volume and anthropometric measurements. Objective examination was performed manually and by using the Vectra® H2 photogrammetry scanning system. Patients who underwent implant augmentation and lipograft both showed no significant differences in patient´s satisfaction with surgical outcome (p = 0.55) and symmetry (p = 0.69). Furthermore, a breast symmetry of 93 % in both groups was reported. Likewise, no statistically significant volume difference between left and right breast was observed in both groups (p<0.41). However, on average, lipograft patients needed 1.3 procedures more until the desired result was achieved. In contrast, patients treated with implant-based breast augmentation usually need several implant changes during their life. In conclusion, both methods should be considered for patients with congenital breast asymmetry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0253.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Chlorella vulgaris; CAZymes; Finishing pigs; Growth performance; Pork quality; Fat composition
Online: 6 November 2020 (17:08:38 CET)
The influence of a high inclusion level of Chlorella vulgaris, individually and supplemented with two carbohydrase mixtures, in finishing pig diets was assessed on zootechnical performance, carcass characteristics, pork quality traits and nutritional value of pork fat. Forty crossbred entire male pigs, sons of Large White × Landrace sows crossed with Pietrain boars, with an initial live weight of 59.1 ± 5.69 kg were used in this trial. Swines were randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments (n=10): cereal and soybean meal-based diet (control), control diet with 5% C. vulgaris (CV), CV diet supplemented with 0.005% Rovabio® Excel AP (CV+R) and CV diet supplemented with 0.01% of a four-CAZyme mixture (CV+M). Animals were slaughtered, after the finishing period, with a BW of 101 ± 1.9 kg. Growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality traits were not influenced (p > 0.05) by the incorporation of C. vulgaris in the diets. However, the inclusion of the microalga in finishing pig diets increased some lipid-soluble antioxidant pigments and n-3 PUFA, and decreased the n-6:n-3 ratio of fatty acids, thus ameliorating the nutritional value of pork fat. Moreover, the supplementation of diets with the carbohydrase mixtures did not change (p > 0.05) neither animal performance nor meat quality traits, indicating their inefficacy in the increase of digestive utilization of C. vulgaris by pigs under these experimental conditions. It is concluded that the use of C. vulgaris in finishing pig diets, at this high incorporation level, improves the nutritional value of pork fat without compromising pig performance.
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS); post-GWAS; sheep; tail fat deposition
Online: 11 June 2019 (10:04:39 CEST)
The type of tail of sheep is an important economic trait. However, the candidate genes associated with the tail type are uncertain. The objective of this study was to identify the genetic region and genotype responsible for the tail type phenotype. Here we perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 40 large tailed Han sheep and 40 Altay sheep as case and 40 Tibetan sheep as control. The results indicated that a total 31 genome-wide significant SNPs associated with type of tail traits were detected. For significant SNPS loci, determine its physical location, and screening of candidate genes within section. By combining information of previously reported and annotated biological functional genes, we identified SPAG17, Tbx15, VRTN, NPC2, BMP2 and PDGFD as the most promising candidate genes for type of tail traits. Based on the above identified candidate genes on type of tail traits, we selected BMP2 and PDGFD to conduct the genetic effect analysis in a large Altay sheep and Tibetan sheep population. Rs119 T>C in the exon1 of BMP2 gene and 1 SNPs in the exon4 (rs69 C>A) of PDGFD gene were detected, rs119 that located on exon1 of BMP2 gene was TT genotype in Altay sheep, while with CC genotype in Tibetan sheep. On rs69 of PDGFD gene, Altay sheep with CC genotype, however, Tibetan sheep with AA genotype. These results indicated that the significant associations of SNPs detected in GWAS were indirectly caused by the genetic effects of BMP2 and PDGFD on sheep tail fat deposition.
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: dried Chinese sausage; fat replacement; mango peel pectin; microwave-assisted extraction technique
Online: 11 March 2020 (03:07:13 CET)
In this research, low-fat dried Chinese sausage was formulated with mango peel pectin (MPP) extracted by microwave assisted extraction (MAE) (0%, 5%, 10% and 15% (w/w). The extractable yield of pectin attained from peel of Nam Dok Mai variety was achieved at 13.85% using 700-watt power. The extracted MPP were of high equivalent weight (1,485.78 mg/mol), degree esterification (77.19%) and methoxyl content (19.33%) with the structure of more porosity as compared to that of the conventional method. Spectrum scans by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR) advised that the extracted MPP gave the similar wave number profiles as the commercial pectin. Quality attributes of the Chinese sausages were accessed and compared with the control formula (CTRL). At higher concentrations of MPP, the product had positively increased colour intensity. The texture profile of the sausage illustrated that only the hardness value was comparable with the CTRL, while springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness were statistically lower (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the sensory evaluation by experienced panellists (n=12) indicated that 5% MPP similarly represented overall acceptability with the CTRL. Consequently, MPP can be effectively applied at low level as fat replacement in Chinese sausage allowing colour improvement and product of healthier option.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0427.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: overweight; obesity; body fat; maximal oxygen uptake; double-blind; randomized controlled trial
Online: 24 August 2018 (07:40:00 CEST)
: Background: Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for many chronic diseases, and weight-loss interventions often include systematic exercising and nutritional supplements. The purpose of this study was to determine the independent/synergistic effects of Spirulina maxima supplementation (6-week, 4.5 g/day) and a systematic physical exercise program (6 weeks/ 2 times) on body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness of overweight and obese subjects. Methods: 27 overweight and 25 obese sedentary male subjects were assigned to four interventions through a randomized double-blind, crossover controlled trial: Physical exercise program with (SE) or without (Ex) Spirulina maxima or no-exercise program with (Sm) and without (C) Spirulina maxima. Body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness parameters were taken during a maximal intensity test. Results: As compared to C group, SE, Sm and Ex groups reduced (p < 0.05) their body fat percentage while improving their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max; r = −0.40), being obese subjects more benefited. Weight loss, time to reach fatigue and onset of blood lactate accumulation were improved in both Spirulina maxima supplemented groups, regardless the subjects’ body composition. Conclusions: Spirulina maxima supplementation synergistically improves the effects of systematic exercise in body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness parameters in overweight but mostly in obese adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0068.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: strawberry; high-temperature and high-light; AsA-GSH cycle
Online: 3 February 2023 (09:54:45 CET)
Chitosan (CTS) is widely used in agriculture as a soil amendment, plant growth regulator and promoter of cold resistance. However, the effects of CTS on strawberry seedlings under the combined stress of high-temperature and high-light are unclear. In this study, Xuelixiang strawberry was used as a test material, and 100 mg·kg-1 CTS solution was sprayed onto the leaves. We measured the chlorophyll content, membrane peroxidation, reactive oxygen species content, antioxidant enzyme content, AsA-GSH cycle activity and other related indicators of strawberry seedling leaves under the combined stress of high-temperature and high-light and found that CTS can increase the contents of antioxidants, increase the contents of osmotic adjustment substances, increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes activity,; remove reactive oxygen species over time, reduce the damage of reactive oxygen species to photosynthetic organs and cell membranes, and improve the photosynthesis efficiency of leaves of strawberry plants under high-temperature and high-light stress, thereby reducing damage to strawberry seedlings caused by high-temperature and high-light.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0158.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Oil shale; Permeability; Pyrolysis; High temperature and high pressure
Online: 10 September 2018 (09:14:56 CEST)
In-situ injection of steam for heating of the subsurface is an efficient method for the recovery of oil and gas from oil shale where permeability typically evolves with temperature. We reported measurements on Jimusar oil shales(Xinjiang, China) at different temperatures to 600℃ and under recreated in situ triaxial stresses to obtain permeability evolution with temperature and stress. Permeability of tight oil shales evolves with temperature to a threshold temperature and peak temperature. The threshold temperature was subjected to triaxial stresses. For Jimusar oil shale, the threshold temperature ranges from 200℃ to 250℃ at ground stress of buried depth of 500m and from 350℃ to 400℃ at buried depth of 1000m. The peak temperature was almost not subjected to triaxial stress and the range is from 450℃ to 500℃ for all Jimusar samples. Pyrolysis plays an important role in permeability evolution and fundamentally changes permeability tendency and magnitude. At high temperature permeability exhibits a little reduction due to stress effect but still remains a high level due to pyrolysis. The above results show that oil shale mass can change from tight porous media into highly permeable media and oil & gas can easily flow through oil shale stratum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0024.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; hypertension; blood pressure; low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; extremely high high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; body mass index; big data
Online: 1 July 2021 (11:53:04 CEST)
Background Although high-density lipoprotein has cardioprotective effects, the association between serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and hypertension is poorly understood. Objective We investigated whether low and high concentrations of HDL-C are associated with hypertension using a large healthcare dataset. Methods In a community-based cross-sectional study of 1,493,152 Japanese people aged 40–74 years who underwent a health checkup, blood pressures and clinical parameters, including nine HDL-C concentrations (20–110 mg/dL or over) were investigated. Results A crude U-shaped relationship was observed between the nine HDL-C concentrations and blood pressure in males (n = 830,669), while a left-to-right inverted J-shaped relationship was observed in females(n = 662,483). An age-adjusted logistic regression analysis showed J-shaped relationships (left-to-right inversion in females) between HDL-C and odds ratios for hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg), with lower limits of 60–79 mg/dL in males and 90–99 mg/dL in females, which were unchanged after adjusting for smoking, habitual exercise, alcohol consumption, and pharmacotherapy for hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. However, further adjustment for body mass index and serum triglyceride concentration revealed latent positive linear associations between HDL-C and hypertension, although the association between extremely high HDL-C (≥100 mg/dL) and hypertension was attenuated in non-alcohol drinkers. Conclusion Both low and extremely high HDL-C concentrations are associated with hypertension. The former association may be dependent on excess fat mass, which is often concomitant with low HDL-C, whereas the latter association may be dependent on frequent alcohol consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0658.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Pancreatic cancer; RNAseq; Humans; Weight loss; Prognosis; Rectus Abdominis; Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal; Adipose Tissue; Pancreatic Carcinoma; Pancreatic Neoplasms; Subcutaneous Fat; High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing; Body Composition; Muscles; Cachexia; Muscular Atrophy; Gene Expression
Online: 26 March 2021 (11:24:10 CET)
The vast majority of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) suffer cachexia. Although cachexia results from concurrent loss of adipose and muscle tissue, most studies focus on muscle alone. Emerging data demonstrate the prognostic value of fat loss in cachexia. Here we sought to identify the muscle and adipose gene profiles and pathways regulated in cachexia. Matched rectus abdominis muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue were obtained at surgery from patients with benign conditions (n=11) and patients with PDAC (n=24). Self-reported weight loss and body composition measurements defined cachexia status. Gene profiling was done using Ion proton sequencing. Results were queried against external datasets for validation. 961 DE genes were identified from muscle and 2000 from adipose tissue, demonstrating greater response of adipose than muscle. In addition to known cachexia genes such as FOXO1, novel genes from muscle, including PPP1R8 and AEN correlated with cancer weight loss. All the adipose correlated genes including SCGN and EDR17 are novel for PDAC cachexia. Pathway analysis demonstrated shared pathways but largely non-overlapping genes in both tissues. Age related muscle loss predominantly had a distinct gene profiles compared to cachexia. This analysis of matched, externally validate gene expression points to novel targets in cachexia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0098.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: spatiotemporal analysis; high to ultra high spatial resolution; high to very high temporal resolution; NDVI; NIR; neural network modelling, Bay of Mont-Saint-Michel
Online: 4 November 2021 (09:35:50 CET)
The salt marshes, lying at the land-sea temperate interface, furnish a plethora of ecosystems services such as biodiversity niche support, ocean-climate change regulation, ornithology recreo-tourism or plant gathering by hand. They undergo significant worldwide losses due to their conversion into crop fields and to their spatial compression between the rising sea-level and the armoring shoreline. Their monitoring however requires to use a suite of remote sensing sensors to embrace the regional scale while capturing the plant details. This research innovatively adopts a multiscale approach using a cascading spaceborne and airborne process, from the 10-m Sentinel-2, through the 3-m Dove, to the 0.03-m unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV) imageries. The high to very high temporal resolution of the Sentinel-2 and Dove enabled to cover twenties and tens of km2 over five and four years, respectively, in the form of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) classes, associated with microphytobenthos, low, medium and high salt marsh vegetation, including the opportunistic Elyma genus. The NDVI was then modelled at the UAV scale (a few km2) using a three-layered NN prediction, providing the final near-infrared (NIR), and the intermediate red, green and blue reflectance imageries, calibrated/validated/tested with the Dove reflectance imageries (R2NIR=0.98, R2red=0.88, R2green=0.84, and R2blue=0.90). The 100fold increase in pixel size allowed to detect the decimeter-scale objects of the tidal flats and salt marshes, to enlarge the NDVI class ranges, and hold great promise to model other spectral bands at the UAV scale for further deeply enhancing the salt marsh mapping.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0489.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Inorganic & Nuclear Chemistry Keywords: High pressure X-ray crystallography; high pressure magnetometry; high pressure absorption spectroscopy; high pressure EPR; molecule-based magnets; single-molecule magnets; single-ion magnets
Online: 21 July 2020 (12:48:58 CEST)
The cornerstone of molecular magnetism is a detailed understanding of the relationship between structure and magnetic behaviour, i.e. the development of magneto-structural correlations. Traditionally, the synthetic chemist approaches this challenge by making multiple compounds that share a similar magnetic core but differ in peripheral ligation. Changes in the ligand framework induce changes in the bond angles and distances around the metal ions which are manifested in changes to magnetic susceptibility and magnetisation data. This approach requires the synthesis of series of different ligands and assumes that the chemical/electronic nature of the ligands and their coordination to the metal, the nature and number of counter ions and how they are positioned in the crystal lattice, and the molecular and crystallographic symmetry have no effect on the measured magnetic properties. In short, the assumption is that everything outwith the magnetic core is innocent, which is a huge oversimplification. The ideal scenario would be to have the same complex available in multiple structural conformations, and this is something that can be achieved through the application of external hydrostatic pressure, correlating structural changes observed through high pressure single crystal X-ray crystallography with changes observed in high pressure magnetometry, in tandem with high pressure inelastic neutron scattering (INS), high pressure electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and high pressure absorption/emission/Raman spectroscopy. In this review, which summarises our work in this area over the last 15 years, we show that the application of pressure to molecule-based magnets can (reversibly): (1) lead to changes in bond angles, distances and Jahn-Teller orientations; (2) break and form bonds; (3) induce polymerisation/depolymerisation; (4) enforce multiple phase transitions; (5) instigate piezochromism; (6) change the magnitude and sign of pairwise exchange interactions and magnetic anisotropy and (7) lead to significant increases in magnetic ordering temperatures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0174.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: high-pressure water jet; high-pressure abrasive water- jet; rock processing
Online: 9 December 2022 (09:22:30 CET)
Rocks are materials with a wide variety of structures and properties. These can be unprocessed conglomerates of conglomerated minerals as well as crystallized outcrop or metamorphic rocks. Their processing, especially shaping, poses many technological difficulties. Therefore, it is very important to answer the question of how these natural materials yield to high-pressure water jet and abrasive water. It is equally important to determine the effect of key process parameters such as pressure, water nozzle diameter and feed rate on cutting efficiency. The first two parameters determine the water output and power of the jet, while the third determines the jet erosion time per unit volume of material. Their interdependence, using appropriate evaluation indicators, allows to determine the energy intensity of processing and directions for its minimization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0042.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: high volume fly ash, high fluidity concrete, early strength, field application
Online: 13 February 2017 (11:44:54 CET)
In the recent concrete industry, high fluidity concrete is being widely used for the pouring of dense reinforced concrete. Normally, in the case of high fluidity concrete, it includes high binder contents, so it is necessary to replace part of the cement through admixtures such as fly ash to procure economic feasibility and durability. This study shows the mechanical properties and field applicability of high fluidity concrete that using mass of fly ash as alternative materials of cement. The high fluidity concrete mixed with 50% fly ash was measured to manufacture concrete that applies low water/binder ratio to measure the mechanical characteristics as compressive strength and elastic modulus. Also, in order to evaluate the field applicability, high fluidity concrete containing high volume fly ash was evaluated that fluidity, compressive strength, heat of hydration and drying shrinkage of concrete.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0086.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Scum from fat box; Açaí seeds; Thermal processing; Biofuels; Economic analysis; Tech-nical feasibility
Online: 6 September 2022 (10:08:02 CEST)
This work aims to investigate systematically the tecno-economic feasibility of ther-mos-catalytic cracking process for two solid waste materials, a lipid-base material (re-sidual fat/scum from retention box of the University Restaurant of UFPA) and a lig-nin-cellulosic material Açaí seed (Euterpe oleracea. Mart). The thermo-catalytic process-es were carried out in pilot scale (THERMTEK/LEQ/UFPA/IME/RJ), and their economic feasibility analyzed. The yields of biofuels produced by fractional distillation were al-so studied. The physicochemical characteristics of the raw materials, the organic liquid product (bio-oil) and the chemical composition of kerosene, light-diesel and heavy-diesel from the lipid-base material, as well as those of kerosene and light-diesel from the Açaí seed were also determined. The economic indicators for the evaluation of the most viable cracking (pyrolysis) and distillation process of bio-oils were: a) the sim-ple payback criterion, b) discounted payback, c) net present value (NPV), d) internal rate of return (IRR), and e) index of profitability (IP). The analysis of the indicators showed the economic viability of crude palm oil (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq) and unfeasibil-ity for the palm oil neutralization. The minimum fuel selling price (MFSP) obtained is this work for the biofuels was of 1.34 US$/L) and the breakeven point obtained was of 1.28 US$/L. The sensibility analysis demonstrated that the pyrolysis and distillation yields are the most important variables to affect the minimum fuel selling price (MFSP).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0017.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Residual fat; Red Mud; Chemical activation; Thermal catalytic cracking; Fixed bed reactor; Liquid hydrocarbons
Online: 4 April 2022 (11:54:32 CEST)
This work aims to investigate the effect of catalyst content and reaction time by catalytic upgrading from pyrolysis vapors of residual fat at 450 °C and 1.0 atmosphere, on the yields of reaction products, physicochemical properties (density, kinematic viscosity, refractive index, and acid value) and chemical composition of organic liquid products (OLP), over a catalyst fixed bed reactor, in semi pilot scale. Pellets of Red Mud chemically activated with 1.0 M HCl were used as catalysts. The experiments were carried out at 450 °C and 1.0 atmosphere, using a process schema consisting of a thermal cracking reactor of 2.0 L coupled to a catalyst fixed bed reactor of 53 mL, without catalyst and using 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0% (wt.) Red Mud pellets activated with 1.0 M HCl, in batch mode. Samples of liquid phase products were withdrawn during the course of reaction at 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 min in order to analyze the process kinetics. The physicochemical properties (density, kinematic viscosity, acid value, and refractive index) of OLP were determined by official methods. The chemical functions present in OLP determined by FT-IR and the chemical composition by GC-MS. The thermal catalytic cracking of residual fat show OLP yields from 54.4 to 84.88 (wt.%), aqueous phase yields between 2.21 and 2.80 (wt.%), solid phase yields (coke) between 1.30 and 8.60 (wt.%), and gas yields from 11.61 to 34.22 (wt.%). The yields of OLP increases with increasing catalyst content while those of aqueous, gaseous and solid phase decreases. For all the thermal and thermal catalytic cracking experiments, the density, kinematic viscosity, and acid value of OLP decreases with increasing reaction time. The GC-MS of liquid reaction products identified the presence of hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics) and oxygenates (carboxylic acids, ketones, esters, alcohols, and aldehydes). For all the thermal and thermal catalytic cracking experiments, the hydrocarbon content within OLP increases with reaction time, while those of oxygenates decrease, reaching concentrations of hydrocarbons up to 95.35% (area.). The best results for the physicochemical properties (density, kinematic viscosity, and acid value) and the maximum hydrocarbon content of OLP were obtained at 450 °C and 1.0 atmosphere, using a catalyst fixed bed reactor, with 5.0% (wt.) Red Mud pellets activated with 1.0 M HCl as catalyst.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0703.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: tympanic membrane; chronic perforation; fat myringoplasty; success rate; middle ear packing; fibrin glue packing
Online: 30 July 2021 (13:25:54 CEST)
Background: To date, FM using middle ear packing has rarely reported. In this study, we hypothesized that middle ear packing with dexamethasone soaked gelfoam and fibrin glue over the fat graft could promote the success rate of TMP closure regardless of perforation size. Methods: Between January 2005 and July 2020, a total of 209 patients who underwent fat myringoplasty due to chronic TMP at tertiary referral center were encountered and analyzed. The success rate and audiologic outcome was analyzed. Results: The mean successful TM closure rate was 88.0 %. The success rate by different age generation was not significant difference. The size of the perforation grade showed no significant difference. The perforation site by anterior or posterior was not significant. The preoperative mean threshold of AC, BC and ABG were 55.71, 12.98 and 42.73 dB respectively. The postoperative mean threshold of AC, BC and ABG were 23.67, 12.98 and 10.69 dB. The change of preoperative and postoperative hearing showed statistically significant. Conclusion: From our results, the simple trimming of the perforation edge and middle ear packing with external ear canal packing using fibrin glue induced the stable adhesion between the remnant TM and the fat graft.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0202.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: DC-DC converter; photovoltaic energy storage system; high voltage gain; high efficiency
Online: 17 April 2019 (11:40:50 CEST)
Intended for the high voltage gain and wide-range operation of DC/DC converters for photovoltaic energy storage systems, a topology for four-phase interleaved DC/DC converters for photovoltaic power generation is proposed. This topology increases output voltage for output in series, and reduces the input current ripple by paralleling the input. Compared with traditional boost converter topology, the proposed topology reduces the output current and output voltage ripple, reduces the stress of the switching device, and reduces the withstanding voltage of the output capacitor under the premise of ensuring the boost ratio. Experimental results show that the maximum efficiency of the converter reaches 95.37%. Compared with traditional boost converters, the proposed converter offers obvious advantages in efficiency under the conditions that the output voltage and load are variable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0321.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: adipose-derived regenerative cells; flow cytometry; microfragmented fat; NucleoCounter; regenerative medicine; stem cells; UA-ADRCs
Online: 7 November 2022 (12:12:12 CET)
Uncultured, unmodified, autologous, adipose-derived regenerative cells (UA-ADRCs) are a safe and effective treatment option for various musculoskeletal pathologies. However, it is unknown whether the composition of the final cell suspension systematically varies with the subject's individual age, sex, body mass index and ethnicity. UA-ADRCs were isolated from lipoaspirate from n=232 subjects undergoing elective lipoplasty using the Transpose RT system (InGeneron, Inc.; Houston, TX, USA). The UA-ADRCs were assessed for the number of nucleated cells, cell viability and the number of viable nucleated cells per gram of adipose tissue harvested. Cells from n=37 subjects were further characterized using four-channel flow cytometry. The present study shows, for the first time, that key characteristics of UA-ADRCs can be independent of the subject's age, sex, BMI and ethnicity. This result has important implications for the general applicability of UA-ADRCs in regeneration of musculoskeletal tissue. Future studies must determine whether in-dependence of key characteristics of UA-ADRCs of the subject's individual age, sex, BMI and eth-nicity only applies to the system used in the present study, or also to others of the more than 25 different experimental methods and commercially available systems used to isolate UA-ADRCs from lipoaspirate that have been described in the literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0213.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: residual fat; activated carbon pellets; chemical activation; thermal catalytic cracking; catalyst bed reactor; liquid hydrocarbons
Online: 24 April 2022 (02:55:25 CEST)
This work aims to investigate the influence of reaction time and catalyst-to-residual fat ratio by catalytic upgrading from pyrolysis vapors of residual fat at 400 °C and 1.0 atmosphere, on the yields of reaction products, physicochemical properties (density, kinematic viscosity, and acid value) and chemical composition of bio-oils, over a catalyst fixed bed reactor of activated carbon pellets impregnated with 10.0 M NaOH, in semi pilot scale. The experiments were carried out at 400 °C and 1.0 atmosphere, using a process schema consisting of a thermal cracking reactor of 2.0 L coupled to a catalyst fixed bed reactor of 53 mL, without catalyst and using 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0% (wt.) activated carbon pellets impregnated with 10.0 M NaOH, in batch mode. Samples of liquid phase products were withdrawn during the course of reaction at 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100 and 120 minutes in order to investigate the process kinetics. The physicochemical properties (density, kinematic viscosity, and acid value) of bio-oils were determined by official methods. The chemical composition of bio-oils determined by GC-MS. The thermal catalytic cracking of residual fat show bio-oils yields from 55.55 to 30.22 (wt.%), aqueous phase yields between 2.83 and 3.19 (wt.%), solid phase yields between 13.56 and 9.75 (wt.%), and gas yields from 27.89 to 55.60 (wt.%). The yields of bio-oil decreases from 74.41 to 30.22% (wt.) with increasing catalyst-to-Tallow kernel oil ratio, while that of gaseous phase increases from 12.87 to 55.60% (wt.). For all the thermal and thermal catalytic cracking experiments, the density, kinematic viscosity, and acid value of bio-oils decreases as the reaction time increases varying from 0.9266 to 0.8220 g/cm³, 8.10 to 2.24 mm²/s, and 144.14 to 2.37 mg KOH/g. The GC-MS of liquid reaction products identified the presence of hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, ring-containing alkanes, ring-containing alkenes, and aromatics) and oxygenates (carboxylic acids, ketones, esters, alcohols, and aldehydes). For all the pyrolysis and catalytic cracking experiments, the hydrocarbon selectivity in bio-oil increases with increasing reaction time, while those of oxygenates decrease, reaching concentrations of hydrocarbons up to 95.35% (area.). The best results for the physicochemical properties density, kinematic viscosity, and acid value were 0.8220 g/cm³, 3.03 mm2/s, and 2.37 mg KOH/g, respectively, with a maximum hydrocarbon concentration of 97.194% (area.) and 2.806% ketones (area.) were obtained at 400 °C and 1.0 atmosphere, 80 minutes, without catalyst. For the catalytic cracking experiments, the maximum hydrocarbon content of 75.763% (area.) and 17.041% (area.) carboxylic acids, 4.702% (area.) ketones (area.), and 2.494% (area.) non-identified oxygenates was obtained at 400 °C and 1.0 atmosphere, 90 minutes, using a catalyst fixed bed reactor, with 10.0% (wt.) activated carbon pellets impregnated with 10.0 M NaOH as catalyst.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0240.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: high voltage alternating current; high voltage direct current; particle swarm optimization; power losses
Online: 16 September 2022 (07:52:57 CEST)
Indonesia's SUMBAGUT 150 kV transmission of High Voltage Alternating Current Network (HVAC) system has considerable power losses. These power losses are a critical problem in the transmission network system. Meanwhile, this study provides one solution to reduce power losses using a High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) network system. Determining the location to convert HVAC into HVDC is very important. The authors use Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) to get the optimal location on the 150 kV SUMBAGUT HVAC transmission network system. The study results showed that before using the HVDC network system, the power losses were 122.26 MW. Meanwhile, power losses with one transmission HVDC in the "Paya Pasir-Sei Rotan" are 84.16 MW, "Porsa-P. Siantar" 90.83 MW, "Paya Pasir-Paya Geli" 104.14 MW. Then power losses with two transmission HVDC in "Paya Pasir-Sei Rattan" and "Porsa-P. Siantar" is 71.24 MW, "Paya Pasir-Sei Rotan" and "Paya Pasir-Paya Geli" 77.46 MW, "Porsa-P. Siantar" and "Paya Pasir-Paya Geli" 78.52 MW. The last result, power losses with three transmission HVDC in "Paya Pasir-Sei Rotan," "Porsa-P. Siantar," and "Paya Pasir-Paya Geli" lost 64.57 MW.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0070.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Web app; Cloud computing; High Availability; High performance computing; Docker container; Horizontal Scaling
Online: 6 January 2022 (10:33:58 CET)
This study analyses some of the leading technologies for the construction and configuration of IT infrastructures to provide services to users. For modern applications, guaranteeing service continuity even in very high computational load or network problems is essential. Our configuration has among the main objectives of being highly available (HA) and horizontally scalable, that is, able to increase the computational resources that can be delivered when needed and reduce them when they are no longer necessary. Various architectural possibilities are analysed, and the central schemes used to tackle problems of this type are also described in terms of disaster recovery. The benefits offered by virtualisation technologies are highlighted and are bought with modern techniques for managing Docker containers that will be used to build the back-end of a sample infrastructure related to a use-case we have developed. In addition to this, an in-depth analysis is reported on the central autoscaling policies that can help manage high loads of requests from users to the services provided by the infrastructure. The results we have presented show an average response time of 21.7 milliseconds with a standard deviation of 76.3 milliseconds showing excellent responsiveness. Some peaks are associated with high-stress events for the infrastructure, but the response time does not exceed 2 seconds even in this case. The results of the considered use case studied for nine months are presented and discussed. In the study period, we improved the back-end configuration and defined the main metrics to deploy the web application efficiently.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0271.v1
Online: 18 July 2022 (11:07:08 CEST)
UHPC is a type of cement-based composite used in new construction and/or rehabilitation of existing buildings to extend service life. It is a novel composite material that can serve as an alternative to concrete construction in hostile climates. Following decades of study and production, a diverse variety of commercial UHPC compositions are now available globally to meet the rising number of applicants and demand for high-quality building materials. Although UHPC offers major benefits over normal concrete, its utilization is restricted due to restrictive design rules and exorbitant costs. As a result, a thorough examination of the durability properties of UHPC is required to give important information for material testing requirements and processes, as well as to broaden its practical uses. This report is aimed at increasing basic understanding of UHPC and supporting more UHPC research and applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0088.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: High-temperature superconductivity; critical temperature
Online: 6 January 2022 (12:36:26 CET)
The dependence of the critical temperature $T_c$ of high-temperature superconductors of various families on their composition and structure is proposed. A clear dependence of the critical temperature of high-temperature superconductors (hydrides, Hg- and Y-based cuprates) on the serial number of the constituent elements, their valence and crystal lattice structure has been revealed. For cuprates, it is shown that it is possible to obtain even higher temperatures of superconducting transitions at normal pressure by implanting mercury atoms into the crystal lattice of cuprate.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0174.v1
Online: 9 August 2018 (00:20:24 CEST)
The oral cavity harbors hundreds of microbial species that are present either as planktonic cells, or incorporated into biofilms. The majority of the oral microbes are commensal organisms. Those that are pathogenic microbes can result in oral infections, and at times initiate systemic diseases. Biofilms that contain pathogens have been challenging to control. Many conventional antimicrobials have proven to be ineffective. Recent advances in science and technology are providing new approaches for pathogen control and containment and methods to characterize biofilms. This perspective provides: 1) A general understanding of biofilm development; 2) A description of emerging chemical and biological methods to control oral biofilms; 3) An overview of high-throughput analytical approaches to analyze biofilms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0252.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Smart home electricity management system; bidirectional DC-AC converter; high power quality; high efficiency.
Online: 14 July 2018 (20:25:57 CEST)
The management of the electrical energy still raises a huge interest for end-users at the household level. Home electricity management systems (HEMS) have recently emerged both to warrant uninterruptible power and high power quality, and to decrease the cost of electricity consumption, by either shifting it in off peak time or smoothing it. Such a HEMS requires a bidirectional DC-AC converter, specifically when an energy transfer is required between a storage system and the AC-grid, and vice versa. This article points out the relevance of an innovative topology based on sinusoidal waveforms from the generation of sine half-waves. Such a topology is based on a DC-DC stage equivalent to an adjustable output voltage source and a DC-AC stage (H-bridge) which are in series. The results of a complete experimental procedure prove the feasibility to improve the power quality of the output signals in terms of total harmonic distortion (THD-values about 5%). The complexity of the proposed converter is minimized in comparison with multilevel topologies. Finally, wide band-gap semiconductor devices (SiC MOSFETs) are helpful both to warrant the compactness and the high efficiency (about 96%) of the bidirectional converter, whatever its operation mode (inverter or rectifier mode).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0297.v1
Subject: Keywords: Human Milk Fat; TAG; DHA; Fatty Acids; Nutrients; Food Industry; Structured Lipids; LCPUFA; Interesterification; Acidolysis; PA
Online: 18 May 2020 (05:47:46 CEST)
Maternal milk, from well-nourished and healthy mothers, is a source of several bioactive compounds and balanced nutrients required for proper growth and development of the infant. Hence it is regarded as the optimal form of nourishment. Human milk fat from human milk is the most crucial component and is a necessity for the growing infant. However, in certain cases, the breast milk may fulfill the nutritional needs or the breast-feeding of the infant is not feasible; infant formulae are then considered as the best alternative as nutritional support. It becomes essential for the infant formula to behave and provide nutritive support in the same way as human milk. In order to achieve so, the most crucial components of all should also be prepared precisely, i.e., the analogue of human milk fat. This analogue, which mimics the actual human milk fat, can be then used as a prime ingredient while designing the infant formula. Significant research and several advances have been made in preparing the infant formula enriched with adequate fat content, and more studies are still being conducted in order to achieve a more sound product in the most economical and simplest way possible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0271.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Biomarkers; dietary total fat; pentadecanoic acid; 15:0; heptadecanoic acid; 17:0; odd chain fatty acids.
Online: 15 September 2018 (17:49:08 CEST)
Pentadecanoic acid (C15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (C17:0) have been described as dietary biomarkers of dairy-fat consumption with varying degrees of reliability between studies. It remains unclear how the total amount of dietary fat; one of the main confounding factors in these biomarker investigations, affects C15:0 and C17:0 circulating compositions independently to their relative intake. Additionally, it is unknown how changes in the dietary total-fat affects other fatty acids in circulation. Through two dietary studies with different total-fat levels but maintaining individual fatty acid compositions we were able to see how the dietary total-fat affects the fatty acids in circulation. We saw that there was a significant, proportionate, and robust decrease in the endogenous C15:0 levels with an increase in dietary total-fat. However, there was an increase in the circulating C17:0 compositions as the total-fat increased. To conclude, the dietary total-fat content and fat-type have a very complex influence on the relative compositions of circulating fatty acids, which are independent to the actual dietary fatty acid composition. Knowing how to manipulate circulating C15:0 and C17:0 composition is far-reaching in nutritional/pathological research as they highlight a dietary route to attenuate the development of metabolic disease (both by reducing risk and improving prognosis).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0515.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: efficient ultrasonic transceivers, broadband piezoelectric transducers, industrial NDE, medical imaging, pulsed high-power spikes, HV capacitive-discharge pulsers, high-current driving, high dynamic range.
Online: 22 March 2021 (11:16:39 CET)
Ultrasonic imaging & NDE applications can greatly improve their signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) by driving each transducer (composing piezoelectric arrays) with a spike giving pulsed power of k-Watts, repetitively at a PRF = 5000 spikes/s, by using a HV capacitive-discharge generator. However very-high levels, of pulsed intensities (3-10 A) and voltages (300-700 V) must be considered for a rigorous spike modeling. Even though the consumed "average" power will be small, the intensity through each transducer achieves several amperes, so the pulsed powers delivered by each HV generator can attain levels higher than in CW high-power ultrasonic applications: e.g., up to 5 kW / spike. This is concluded here from a transient modeling of the loaded generator. Then, unforeseen phenomena rise: intense brief pulses of driving power & emitted force in transducers, and non-linearities in driver semiconductors, because their characteristic curves only include linear ranges. But fortunately, piezoelectric devices working in this intense regime do not show serious heating problems, because the average power remains being moderate. Intensity, power and voltage, driving a broadband transducer from a HV capacitive pulser, are calculated to drastically improve (in ≅ 40 dB) the ultrasonic net dynamic range available, with emitted forces ≅ 250 Newtons pp and E/R received pulses of 70 V pp.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0120.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: refractory high-entropy alloys; fused slurry method; silicide coating; Si-20Cr-20Fe; high-temperature oxidation
Online: 7 July 2020 (09:43:24 CEST)
The poor oxidation resistance of refractory high-entropy alloys (RHEAs) is a major obstacle for their use in high-temperature engineering applications. Anti-oxidation coating technology is an effective method for improving the oxidation resistance. In this paper, the Si-20Cr-20Fe coating was prepared on MoNbTaTiW RHEA by a fused slurry method. The microstructural evolution and compositions of the silicide coating under high-temperature oxidation environment were studied. The results show that the silicide coating could effectively prevent the oxidation of the MoNbTaTiW RHEA. The initial silicide coating had a double-layer structure; a high silicon-content layer mainly composed of MSi2 as the outer layer and a low silicon-content layer mainly contained M5Si3 as the inner layer. Under high-temperature oxidation conditions, the silicon element diffused from the silicide coating to the RHEA substrate while the oxidation of the coating occurred. After oxidation, the coating was composed of an outer oxide layer and an inner silicide layer. The silicide layer moved toward the inside of the substrate, led to the increase of its thickness. Compared with the initial silicified layer, its structure did not change significantly. The structure and compositions of the oxide layer on the outer surface strongly depended on the oxidation temperature. This paper provides a strategy for protecting RHEAs from oxidation at high-temperature environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0106.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Meta-analysis; Effect size; Precision; Ultra-high strength concrete; Ultra-high strength fiber reinforced concrete
Online: 7 April 2020 (13:28:16 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis that shows the influence of fiber on ultimate compressive strength and tensile strength of ultra-high performance concrete. The internet scholarly search engines and ScienceDirect article references were used to illustrate the papers concerning the experimental investigations of mechanical properties of ultra-high strength concrete with and without fiber with clearly, completely and comparative raw data. The normal concrete test results were dismissed from this search. Seven trials were identified based on the adopted inclusion and exclusion criteria above. The meta-analysis based on standardized mean difference was carried out on the basis of a fixed-effects model for the major outcomes of the ultimate compressive and tensile properties of ultra-high performance concrete. A total of 888 test specimens were enrolled in these seven trials. The combined analysis yielded a sign of a significant improvement in ultimate compressive strength and tensile strength of ultra-high strength concrete with fiber addition of 2% by concrete volume. The summary effect size of ultimate compressive strength was 2.34 while a more improvement in term of tensile strength with effect size of 2.64. By addition fiber of 2% provides a significant benefit in mechanical properties of ultra-high performance concrete.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0322.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: java virtual machine (jvm); high level programming languages; high performance computing (hpc); php framework; compiler
Online: 29 September 2019 (05:01:46 CEST)
With the existence of several programming languages such as C/C++, Java, C#, LISP, Prolog, Python, Simula, F#, Go, Haskell, Scala, Ruby, Dart, Swift, Groovy etc. and diverse paradigms like structured, object-oriented, list, aspect-oriented, service-oriented, web, mobile and logic programming, there is a need to perform an exhaustive comparative analysis of diverse compilers and environments before making a choice of implementation technology in software engineering. Optimization of compilers helps to reduce execution time by making use of high speed processor registers, thereby, eliminating redundant computation. This paper reports some series of performance analysis done with some popular programming languages including Java, C++, Python and PHP. Programs involving recursive and iterative functions like factorial of large numbers and binary search of large arrays were run on the various platforms with the execution time recorded in milliseconds and represented in a chart. This can aid in making a selection of the appropriate language to use for a given application domain.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0366.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Hibiscus sabdariffa L.; agricultural wastes; anthocyanins; ruminant nutrition; milk and meat production; fat milk and meat quality
Online: 17 May 2021 (07:52:05 CEST)
The objective was to analyze the effects of adding anthocyanin delphinidin-3-O-sambubioside and cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. in animal diets. Scientific articles published before 2021 in clinics, pharmacology, nutrition, and animal production were included. The grains/concentrate, metabolic exigency, and caloric stress contribute to increasing the reactive oxygen species (ROS); the excess of ROS unbalance the oxidants and antioxidants. Cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside and delphinidin-3-O-sambubioside have antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and anthelmintic activities. In the rumen, anthocyanin might show interactions and/or synergisms with substrates, microorganisms, and enzymes which could reduce the fiber degradability, but increase the potential methane (CH4) emissions; since anthocyanin interferes in the biohydrogenation of fats, they increase the fat milk and meat quality. Anthocyanins reduce plasma oxidation and deposit in tissues, increasing the milk and meat antioxidant activities. Cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside and delphinidin-3-O-sambubioside act as inhibitors of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACEi) and rennin expression which may improve milk yield (there is not enough evidence in ruminants, though). Polyphenols affect the reproductive potential. Sub products of HS contain as many amounts of polyphenols as calyces, and their inclusion in diets would positively affect the average daily gain and fat meat quality. Including HS in ruminant diets can improve the meat and milk quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0543.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; lean nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; visceral fat; non-obese; fatty liver; insulin resistance
Online: 23 July 2020 (09:38:15 CEST)
Asians are known to more likely than Westerners develop fatty liver and lifestyle-related diseases despite their weight. However, the relationship between fat accumulation and lifestyle-related diseases in non-obese Asians is unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze visceral fat and hepatic fat in participants with a normal body mass index (BMI) and examine their characteristics during a medical checkup. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 663 of 1,142 patients who underwent abdominal ultrasonography and who had an alcohol intake (converted to ethanol) of <30 g/day for males and <20 g/day for females and a BMI of <25 kg/m2 during a health checkup. Participants were classified into four groups: group A, visceral fat accumulation (VFA) (−) and fatty liver (FL) (−) (n = 549); group B, VFA (+) and FL(−) (n = 32); group C, VFA (−) and FL (+) (n = 58); and group D, VFA (+) and FL (+) (n = 24). The frequencies of lifestyle-related disease complications, liver function tests, and liver fibrosis were evaluated among the four groups. Compared with group A (control), groups B, C, and D had higher number of males; BMI; abdominal circumference, ALT, AST, γ-GTP, triglyceride, uric acid, fasting blood sugar levels; and incidence of hyperlipidemia. Groups C and D had higher ALT, HbA1c, cholinesterase, and triglyceride levels; FIB4 index; and number of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) than groups A and B; however, there was no difference between groups A and B. FL is a risk factor of DM and liver fibrosis in non-obese Japanese individuals; however, VFA only is not a risk factor of DM and liver fibrosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0017.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: LC-MS; mesenchymal stem cells; stromal cells; fat differentiation; lipidomics; metabolomics; proteomics; multiomics; network analysis; mathematical modelling
Online: 2 September 2019 (06:07:17 CEST)
The molecular study of fat cell development in the human body is essential for our understanding of obesity and related diseases. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are the ideal source to study fat formation as they are the progenitors of adipocytes. In this work, we used human MSCs, received from surgery waste, and differentiate them into fat adipocytes. The combination of several layers of information coming from lipidomics, metabolomics and proteomics enabled comprehensive analysis of the biochemical pathways in adipogenesis. Simultaneous analysis of metabolites, lipids and proteins in cell culture is challenging due to the compound’s chemical difference so that most studies involve separate analysis with unimolecular strategies. In this study, we employed a multimolecular approach using a two–phase extraction to monitor the crosstalk between lipid metabolism and protein-based signaling in a single sample (~105 cells). We developed an innovative analytical workflow including standardization with in-house produced 13C-isotopically labeled compounds, hyphenated high-end mass spectrometry (high-resolution Orbitrap MS) and chromatography (HILIC, RP) for simultaneous untargeted screening and targeted quantification. Metabolite and lipid concentrations ranged over 3-4 orders of magnitude and were detected down to the low fmol (absolute on column) level. Biological validation and data interpretation of the multiomics workflow was performed based on proteomics network reconstruction, metabolic modelling (MetaboAnalyst 4.0) and pathway analysis (OmicsNet). Comparing MSCs and adipocytes, we observed significant regulation of different metabolites and lipids such as triglycerides, gangliosides and carnitine with 113 fully reprogrammed pathways. The observed changes are in accordance with literature findings dealing with adipogenic differentiation of MSC. These results are a proof of principle for the power of multimolecular extraction combined with orthogonal LC-MS assays and network construction. Considering the analytical and biological validation performed in this study, we conclude that the proposed multiomics workflow is ideally suited for comprehensive follow-up studies on adipogenesis and is fit for purpose for different applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0212.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: plant polyphenol; EGCG; gelatin; bone formation; congenital bone defect; dedifferentiated fat cell; adipose-derived stem cell; scaffold
Online: 8 November 2018 (11:34:11 CET)
Cost-effective and functionalized scaffolds are in high demand for stem-cell-based regenerative medicine to treat refractory bone defects in craniofacial abnormalities and injuries. One potential strategy is to utilize pharmacological and cost-effective plant polyphenols and biocompatible proteins, such as gelatin. Nevertheless, the use of chemically modified proteins with plant polyphenols in this strategy has not been standardized. Here, we demonstrated that gelatin chemically modified with epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the major catechin isolated from green tea, can be a useful material for dedifferentiated fat cells and adipose-derived stem cells and can induce bone regeneration in a rat congenial cleft-jaw model in vivo. Vacuum-heated gelatin sponge modified with EGCG (vhEGCG-GS) induced superior osteogenesis from these two cell types compared with vacuum-heated gelatin sponge (vhGS). The EGCG-modification converted the water wettability of vhGS to a hydrophilic property (contact angle: 110° to 3.8°) and the zeta potential to a negative surface charge; the modification enhanced the cell adhesion property and promoted calcium phosphate precipitation. These results suggest that the EGCG-modification with chemical synthesis can be a useful platform to modify the physicochemical property of gelatin. This alteration is likely to provide a preferable microenvironment for multipotent progenitor cells, inducing superior bone formation in vivo.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0544.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Bodybuilding; Drug Free; Competing; Peaking; Carbohydrate Loading; Water Loading; Sodium Loading; Fat Loading: Vitamin C; Fibre Restriction
Online: 27 September 2018 (12:58:34 CEST)
Bodybuilders utilize peaking strategies in a bid to fine-tune their aesthetics for competition day. The most prevalent peaking strategies utilized by natural bodybuilders are unreported in the current literature. Eighty-one (M - 59, F - 22) natural bodybuilders were recruited from competitions during the 2016 and 2017 British Natural Bodybuilder Federation seasons. Competitors completed a 34-item questionnaire designed to investigate peaking and contest day strategies. The questionnaire listed commonly utilized peaking strategies and provided additional space for qualitative information. Analysis of the data indicated that carbohydrate (CHO), water and sodium manipulation were the most commonly utilized peak week strategies. The consumption of high glycemic index CHO was the most common competition day strategy. Only 6.2 % of competitors reported following their regular diet the week prior to competition. The CHO manipulation strategies were similar to classical CHO loading, whereby bodybuilders attempt to maximize muscle glycogen concentrations. Furthermore, bodybuilders attempted to remove superfluous water by exploiting the diuretic/polyuria effect associated with water loading/restriction. The potentially deleterious effects of peaking on bodybuilders' health is considered and the efficacy of these strategies to enhance appearance is discussed. The findings of the present investigation are likely to be of interest to bodybuilders and their coaches.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0486.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: high altitude, chronic hypobaric hypoxia, physiologic adaptation, travel to high altitude cities, high altitude physiology, pulmonary hypertension, lung disease, hemoglobin, tolerance to hypoxia, oxygen content.
Online: 18 June 2021 (15:22:04 CEST)
Acute high altitude illnesses are of great concern for physicians and people traveling to high altitude. High Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE) can be better understood through the Oxygen Transport Triad which involves the Pneumo-Dynamic Pump (Ventilation), the Hemo-Dynamic Pump (Heart and circulation), and Hemoglobin. The two pumps are the first physiologic response upon initial exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. Hemoglobin is the balancing energy-saving time-evolving equilibrating factor. The increased hemoglobin at high altitude reduces the percentage of dissolved oxygen in the arterial oxygen content with respect to sea level. At high altitude, the acid-base balance must be adequately interpreted using the high altitude Van-Slyke correction factors. Pulse-oximetry measurements during breath-holding at high altitude allow for the evaluation of high altitude diseases. The Tolerance to Hypoxia Formula shows that, paradoxically, the higher the altitude the more tolerance to hypoxia. All organisms adapt physiologically and optimally to a high-altitude environment to survive. Reduction of pulmonary hypertension in HAPE through oxygen administration results in a favorable outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0353.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: high blood pressure; Cancer; malignancies; hypertension
Online: 18 November 2022 (10:05:11 CET)
Background of the Study: We investigated the link between hypertension and cancer since it has been suggested that hypertension may raise the long-term risk of cancer. Previous large observational cohort studies found that greater blood pressure (BP) was related to a higher risk of cancer. Mendelian randomization (MR) was utilized to produce less confounded blood pressure estimates (BP) on overall and site-specific malignancies. The study aims to draw conclusions on the relationship between high blood pressure and cancer. Methods: Studies on high blood pressure and various malignancies are inconclusive, except for renal cell carcinoma. However, given that most meta-analyses only contained a limited number of trials, some relative risks had small to moderate magnitudes, and several may have been impacted by residual confounding, careful interpretation is necessary. The study was conducted using the meta-analysis technique. Cochran's Q test and I2 test were used to assess statistical heterogeneity between studies in the current investigation for research involving two or more cause and outcome combinations. Results: Positive correlations were also reported between high blood pressure and esophageal adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, liver, and squamous cell carcinoma. However, most studies lacked multivariable adjustments. Physical and numerical risk of cardiovascular disease is linked to bowel cancer but no other cancers. According to a meta-analysis, hypertensive persons could also be at increased danger of gastrointestinal and breast cancer. Most meta-analyses comprised several trials with moderate or mild hazard ratios.ConclusionDifferent types of cancers have been noted to be directly caused by hypertension. In addition, some treatments have also been associated with the side effects of cancer treatments to cause hypertension. Women facing hypertension have an increased risk of getting breast cancer. Although some cancers showed a real relationship with hypertension, others had no connection at all.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0598.v1
Online: 22 April 2021 (09:24:14 CEST)
This research work studies the characteristics of wear and wear resistance of composite powder coatings, deposited by high-velocity oxygen fuel, which contain composite mixtures Ni-Cr-B-Si having different chromium concentrations – 9.9%; 13.2%; 14%; 16% and 20% , at one and the same size of the particles and the same content of the remaining elements. The coating of 20% Cr does not contain B and Si. Out of each powder, composite coatings have been prepared without any preliminary thermal treatment of the substrate and with preliminary thermal treatment of the substrate up to 650оС. The coatings have been tested under identical conditions of dry friction over a surface of solid firmly attached abrasive particles using the tribological testing device „Pin-on-disk“. Results have been obtained and the dependences of the hardness, mass wear, intensity of the wearing process, absolute and relative wear resistance on the Cr concentration under identical conditions of friction. It has been found out that for all the coatings the preliminary thermal treatment of the substrate leads to a decrease in the wear intensity. Upon increasing Cr concentration the wear intensity diminishes and it reaches minimal values at 16% Cr. In the case of coatings having 20% Cr concentration, the wear intensity is increased, which is due to the absence of the components B and Si in the composite mixture, whereupon no inter-metallic structures are formed having high hardness and wear resistance. The obtained results have no analogues in the current literature and they have not been published by the authors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0493.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: microcombs; filters; high bandwidth; RF photonics
Online: 19 April 2021 (13:51:34 CEST)
Soliton crystal micro-combs are powerful tools as sources of multiple wavelength channels for radio frequency (RF) signal processing. They offer a compact device footprint, large numbers of wavelengths, very high versatility, and wide Nyquist bandwidths. Here, we demonstrate integral order RF signal processing functions based on a soliton crystal micro-comb, including a Hilbert transformer and first- to third-order differentiators. We compare and contrast results achieved and the tradeoffs involved with varying comb spacing, tap design methods, as well as shaping methods.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0178.v1
Online: 6 April 2021 (13:30:25 CEST)
Background Pregnancy is a process of maturity for women that requires adaptation to the changes in their new roles. Adjustment to a new role is not easy, especially if the pregnancy is accompanied by risks, so it is necessary to get treatment to minimize complications. Dyad models that optimize husband or family support are very important to prevent the risk of complications and adapt mothers to their new roles. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the dyad model on high-risk pregnancies. The method used with a literature review is through the collection of articles from Scopus, ebsco, ProQuest and PubMed. The results obtained were articles from Scopus 9, Ebsco 107, PubMed 214 and ProQuest 85 which carried out identification, screening and eligibility for 25 articles. Overall results mention. Journals are categorized into 4 groups, Dyad Model and social support, high-risk pregnancy, maternal role and Self Efficacy. Conclusion, there is an effect of the dyad model on care for high-risk pregnancies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0162.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: microcombs; filters; high bandwidth; RF photonics
Online: 6 April 2021 (10:06:50 CEST)
We demonstrate an RF photonic fractional Hilbert transformer based on an integrated Kerr micro-comb source featuring a record low free spectral range of 49 GHz. By programming and shaping the comb lines according to calculated tap weights for up to 39 wavelengths across the C-band, we achieve tunable bandwidths ranging from 1.2 to 15.3 GHz as well as variable center frequencies from baseband to 9.5 GHz, for both standard integral and arbitrary fractional orders. We experimentally characterize the RF amplitude and phase response of the tunable bandpass and lowpass Hilbert transformers with 90 and 45-degree phase shifts. The experimental results show good agreement with theory, confirming the effectiveness of our approach as a powerful way to implement standard and fractional order Hilbert transformers with broad and variable bandwidths and center frequencies, with high reconfigurability and greatly reduced size and complexity. Tan, and D. J. Moss are with the Optical Sciences Centre, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC 3122, Australia. (Corresponding e-mail: email@example.com). Xu is with the Electro-Photonics Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer System Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, 3800 VIC, Australia
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0069.v3
Online: 18 May 2018 (05:54:20 CEST)
The aim of this research is to determine the factors that may prevent high school students from participating in recreational activities and to investigate whether these factors differ within the scope of various variables. This study consisted of total 1459 (681 women and 778 men) student volunteers who educated in high school level. Sampling method was preferred for easy sampling. The face-to-face survey method was used to collect the data. The "Leisure Constraints Scale" developed by Alexandris and Carroll (1997) and adapted to Turkish by Gürbüz, Öncü, and Emir (2012) was used to determine the factors that might prevent individuals from participating in leisure activities. The data obtained for the research were first transferred to the computer and then analyzed by SPSS packet program. The error margin level in the study was taken as p<0.05. The cronbach alpha of the study was found to be 0.91. As a result, it was found that women participated in the leisure time more than men. It was also observed that the participants met with more leisure constrain in Turkey's eastern regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0062.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: survivin; high expression; gastrointestinal cancer; prognostic
Online: 11 April 2017 (10:51:06 CEST)
Previous studies on the prognostic impact of survivin expression in gastrointestinal (GI) cancer have yielded inconsistent results. This study was initiated to assess the relationship between survivin expression and overall survival (OS) or disease free survival (DFS) in GI cancer patients. We applied system literature searches on EMBASE, PubMed, Web of science, and the Cochrane library to conduct this up-to-date meta-analysis. Thirty studies with totally 3622 GI cancer patients were collected. The prevalence of high survivin expression in GI cancer was 0.57 (95% CI: 0.51-0.63). High survivin expression was significantly associated with shorter OS (HR 1.57, 95% CI: 1.42-1.74) and DFS (HR 1.38, 95% CI: 1.21-1.58). Subgroup analysis also showed significant association between high survivin expression and poorer OS or DFS in gastric cancer or colorectal cancer. In summary, our study indicated that high survivin expression was related to poor prognosis in GI cancer. Well-designed studies with large sample and more convincing data are needed to confirm our conclusion.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0496.v1
Subject: Biology, Horticulture Keywords: Vaccinium corymbosum interspecific hybrids; high tunnel; greenhouse; plant factory; non-dormant; substrate; container; evergreen; high density
Online: 24 August 2020 (02:56:10 CEST)
Southern highbush blueberry plantations have been expanded into worldwide non-traditional growing areas with elite cultivars and improved horticultural practices. This article presents a comprehensive review of current production systems – alternatives to traditional open field production – such as production in protected environments, high-density plantings, evergreen production, and container-based production. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each system and compare their differences to the open field production. In addition, potential solutions have been provided for some of the disadvantages. We also highlight some of the gaps existing between academic studies and production in industry, providing a guide for future academic research. All these alternative systems have shown the potential to produce high yields with high quality berries. Alternative systems, compared to the field production, require higher establishment investments and thus create an entry barrier for new producers. Nevertheless, with their advantages, alternative productions have potential to be profitable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0050.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: mefenamic acid; diamond anvil cell; high-pressure; polymorphism; high-pressure crystallization; non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Online: 8 March 2017 (08:58:38 CET)
High pressure crystallization technique has been successfully used to prepare an elusive form II of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Mefenamic acid. Single crystal of form II was grown at 0.3 GPa from an 4:1 methanol/ ethanol mixture as a solvent using Diamond Anvil Cell. Comparison of crystal structures show that the efficient packing of MA molecules in Form II results from the structural flexibility of MA acid molecules. Compression studies performed on the single crystal of form I resulted in 14 % decrease of unit cell volume up to 2.5 GPa. No phase transition was observed up to this pressure. A reconstructive phase transition is required to induce conformational changes in the structure, which is confirmed by crystallization at high pressure results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0390.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: cancer; DNA damage; digestive tract diseases; fat profile; lipids; Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase; PARP; poly(ADP-ribose); PAR
Online: 30 December 2019 (04:09:03 CET)
Background: Beyond risk factors such as smoking, obesity and others, gastrointestinal cancer often occurs in families and the risk of getting cancer is passed down from parents to offspring. About 5%-10% of gastrointestinal cancers are hereditary (inherited by a gene mutation from one or both parents, predisposing them to develop cancer in their lifetime). Here we describe the clinical history of family members affected by gastrointestinal pathologies which often leaded to cancer. Methods: The subjects were monitored from May 2006 to December 2017 by collecting periodically clinical and endoscopic data, and performing molecular analyses by assaying two biomarkers , auto-modification of lymphocyte Poly(ADP-ribose)Polymerase as early signal of DNA damage, and erythrocyte membrane lipid composition (Fat Profile). First we focused on the oldest members, nine brothers, and thereafter we considered their offspring. Results: Both groups of subjects developed gastrointestinal pathologies of different kind and seriousness. Some diseases evolved to cancer, sometimes as a sudden and lethal event. The results of the two molecular approaches auto-modification of Poly(ADP-ribose)Polymerase and Fat Profile), were in agreement and even predicted the clinical and imaging paths. Conclusions: Both non-invasive molecular analyses can be used preliminarly to predict altered physiological states and support clinical and imaging analyses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0053.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Intra-body communication; path loss; microwave probes; channel characterization; fat tissue; ex-vivo; phantom; dielectric properties; topology optimization.
Online: 3 July 2018 (15:08:56 CEST)
In this paper, we investigate the use of fat tissue as a communication channel between in-body, implanted devices at R-band frequencies (1.7–2.6 GHz). The proposed fat channel is based on an anatomical model of the human body. We propose a novel probe that is optimized to efficiently radiate the R-band frequencies into the fat tissue. We use our probe to evaluate the path loss of the fat channel by studying the channel transmission coefficient over the R-band frequencies. We conduct extensive simulation studies and validate our results by experimentation on phantom and ex-vivo porcine tissue, with good agreement between simulations and experiments. We demonstrate a performance comparison between the fat channel and similar waveguide structures. Our characterization of the fat channel reveals propagation path loss of 1.4 dB and 3.8 dB per 20 mm for phantom and ex-vivo porcine tissue, respectively. These results demonstrate that fat tissue can be used as a communication channel for high data rate intra-body networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0393.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Corona Effect; Monitoring; Maintenance; High voltage Line
Online: 21 December 2022 (08:05:12 CET)
The investigation consists of taking data from the insulator chains of the 220 kV voltage for lines located in the coastal areas of Peru, in this case line 2212 from Huacho to Zapallal was chosen and the data consists of audios and images taken in hours at night when there is low temperature and high relative humidity, with the objective of identifying the characteristics that show the occurrence of effluvia that are atmospheric discharges due to the voltage of the line and the environmental conditions, this phenomenon is known as the Corona effect. Data were taken during the months of October 2020 June and July 2022, being more than 20 thousand archives of video, audio, and data (collected in csv type files), allowing to determine that the Corona effect does not manifest itself during the moments of lowest temperature. This allows redefining the maintenance strategy to be more effective in combating the damage to the insulators.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0228.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: vegetables; high throughput phenotyping; genomic assisted breeding
Online: 26 April 2022 (06:00:45 CEST)
Conventional phenotyping breeding approaches for vegetable crops like Solanaceae, Bulb, Root crops, have made a significant contribution by developing many varieties. Despite this, conventional phenotyping approaches are not sufficient due to the longer time taken to develop a variety, low genetic gain, environmental factors and some other externalities that affect the phenotype-based selection. To address the challenges of conventional phenotype, a new recent method of high throughput phenotyping (HTP) is considered a promising tool. The development of high-throughput phenotyping technology began in the preceding decade as advancements in sensor, computer vision, automation, and advanced machine learning technologies. HTP platforms are being utilized to undertake non-destructive assessments of the complete plant system in a range of crops. HTP provides the precise measurements and suggests the collection of high-quality and accurate data which is necessary for standardizing phenotyping for the collection of genetic dissection and genomic assisted breeding such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS), linkage mapping, marker-assisted selection (MAS), genomic selection (GS). The remainder of this chapter discusses how high-throughput phenotyping technologies can be used in genomic-assisted breeding for vegetable crops
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0044.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Radiation & Radiography Keywords: energetic material; plasma; detonation; electromagnetism; high temperature
Online: 2 March 2022 (10:39:48 CET)
In the process of deflagration of energetic materials, strong electromagnetic radiation is to be generated, which causes the surrounding electronic equipment to fail to work normally. To solve this problem, it is necessary to clarify the mechanism of electromagnetic radiation generated by energetic materials. The mechanism of plasma changed by the deflagration of energetic materials is an important topic in the aerospace and geophysics fields. The academic community holds two main viewpoints on the mechanism of electromagnetic radiation generated by energetic materials: one is that the solid material is squeezed and deformed during the deflagration of energetic materials, and the charges of different polarities rub in space to form effective electric dipoles, which eventually generate electromagnetic radiation. Another view is that the deflagration of energetic materials causes the temperature of the medium to rise sharply, and bremsstrahlung is formed during the compression and diffusion of the high-temperature wave front, resulting in the generation of electromagnetic radiation. This paper, based on theoretical analysis and experimental data, holds the view that electromagnetic radiation is generated by the high-temperature thermal effect. It studies the relationship between temperature and electromagnetic radiation and obtains quantitative analysis conclusions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0151.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: high-performance; heritable; multi-environments; credibility interval
Online: 10 February 2022 (11:14:21 CET)
The giant challenge breeding flood-irrigated rice is to identify superior genotypes that present high-yielding with specific grain qualities, resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses, excellent adaptation to the target environment. Thus, the objectives of this study were to propose a bayesian multi-trait model, estimate genetic parameters, and select flood-irrigated rice genotypes with better genetic potentials in different evaluation environments. For this, twenty-five rice genotypes belonging to the flood-irrigated rice improvement program were evaluated. The grain yields, grain length, width and thickness, grain length, and grain width and weight of 100 grains in the agricultural year 2016/2017. The experimental design used in all experiments was a randomized block design with three replications. The Monte Carlo Markov Chain algorithm estimated genetic parameters and genetic values. The grain thickness trait was considered highly heritable, with a credibility interval ranging from: h^2: 0.9480; 0.9440; 0.8610, in environments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The grain yields showed a low correlation estimate between grain thickness and 100-grain weight, in all environments, with a credibility interval ranging from (ρ= 0.5477; 0.5762; 0.5618 and 0.5973; 0.5247; 0.5632, grain thickness and 100-grain weight, in environments 1, 2, and 3, respectively). The Bayesian multi-trait model proved to be an adequate strategy for the genetic improvement of flood-irrigated. Genotypes 2 and 15 had similar potential in the three environments, they should be selected as high-performance multi-trait genotypes for the genetic breeding of flood-irrigated rice in the program.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0330.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: Supernova remnants; Stellar evolution; High-energy astrophysics
Online: 22 October 2021 (12:11:22 CEST)
A supernova close enough to the Earth is a spectacular event: it can appear as a \new star" as luminous as Venus, or even more, visible for several days. The rate of Galactic supernovae is expected to be of about one in 30 years, with a fraction visible at naked eye; however in all the history of human civilization only seven supernovae in the Milky Way have been reported, the last two (1572 and 1604) during Galilei's life. The supernova of 1604, today called Kepler's Supernova, was observed by Galilei, Kepler and other astronomers in Europe, Korea, and China. Like the supernova SN1572, today called Tycho's supernova, it has been the subject of extensive studies, and inspired observational measurements and philosophical considerations on the nature of the heavens. The remnant of SN1604 has been indicated by recent X- and gamma-ray data to be a likely site of cosmic ray acceleration. The first recorded data of optical observations, together with new data, can still tell us a lot about the early evolution of this supernova.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0426.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: bionanocomposites; collagen; high magnetic field; silica particles
Online: 15 April 2021 (18:12:26 CEST)
Major progress in the field of regenerative medicine are expected from the design of artificial scaffolds that mimic both the structural and functional properties of the ECM. The bionanocomposites approach is particularly well fitted to meet this challenge as it can combine ECM-based matrices and colloidal carriers of biological cues that regulate cell behavior. Here we have prepared bionanocomposites under high magnetic field from Tilapia fish scale collagen and multifunctional silica nanoparticles (SiNPs). We show that scaffolding cues (collagen), multiple display of signaling peptides (SiNPs) and control over the global structuration (magnetic field) can be combined into a unique bionanocomposite for the engineering of biomaterials with improved cell performances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0122.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: satellite communication, antenna optimization, high gain antenna
Online: 3 March 2021 (09:59:04 CET)
Patch antennas are compact, less complex, planar structures and therefore, widely used in small satellite missions for telecommand, data link, and intersatellite link, particularly in S- band and X- band. Improved performance of these patch antennas in terms of gain and compactness will di-rectly affect the communication efficiency of small satellite missions. Especially the coming IoT (Internet of Things) constellations require high gain and efficient antenna arrays. An optimization of single patch antenna elements is an important cornerstone for the missions. Therefore, the ef-fects of various antenna enhancement techniques, such as slotted ground plane, resistor and ca-pacitor integration, parasitic patch elements, are analyzed. These techniques were applied on a rectangular patch antenna with parameter variation to identify the optimal performances with respect to bandwidth, operating frequency, gain, polarization, and power flow. Finally, the techniques were combined to obtain an optimized antenna in terms of gain and compactness. The results were compared to a slotted reference antenna. For the scenario of a 2.4 GHz patch antenna, a gain optimization of 27 % (from 7.09 to 8.14 dBi) or size reduction of 52 % (from 96.04 to 46.2 cm²) could be achieved. Overall, our study revealed an effective way to increase the patch antenna performance, which can directly contribute to more efficient communication links and design of antenna arrays.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0550.v1
Online: 24 February 2021 (12:59:47 CET)
We report world record high data transmission over standard optical fiber from a single optical source. We achieve a line rate of 44.2 Terabits per second (Tb/s) employing only the C-band at 1550nm, resulting in a spectral efficiency of 10.4 bits/s/Hz. We use a new and powerful class of micro-comb called soliton crystals that exhibit robust operation and stable generation as well as a high intrinsic efficiency that, together with an extremely low spacing of 48.9 GHz enables a very high coherent data modulation format of 64 QAM. We achieve error free transmission across 75 km of standard optical fiber in the lab and over a field trial with a metropolitan optical fiber network. This work demonstrates the ability of optical micro-combs to exceed other approaches in performance for the most demanding practical optical communications applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0507.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: microcombs, data transmission, filters, high bandwidth, optical
Online: 23 February 2021 (09:49:59 CET)
Microcombs provide a potential compact and efficient light source for multi-Terabit-per-second optical superchannels. However, as the bandwidth of these multi-wavelength light sources is increased, this can result in low per-line power. Optical amplifiers can be used to overcome power limitations, but the accompanying spontaneous optical noise can degrade performance in optical systems. To overcome this issue, we propose wideband noise reduction for comb lines using a high-Q microring resonator, whose resonances align with comb lines. When applying the proposed distillation to a superchannel system with 18 Gbaud, 64-QAM sub-channels in a > 10 Tb/s optical superchannel, we find that noise-corrupted comb lines can reduce the optical signal-to-noise ratio required for the comb by ~ 9 dB when used as optical carriers at the transmitter side, and by ~ 12 dB when used as a local oscillator at the receiver side.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0333.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: LIDAR; UV laser; high spectral resolution; aerosols
Online: 14 December 2020 (13:11:08 CET)
ATLID (ATmospheric LIDar) is the atmospheric backscatter LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) on board of the EarthCARE (Earth Cloud, Aerosol and Radiation Explorer) mission, the sixth Earth Explorer Mission of the ESA (European Space Agency) Living Planet Programme [1-5]. ATLID’s purpose is to provide vertical profiles of optically thin cloud and aerosol layers, as well as the altitude of cloud boundaries [6-10]. In order to achieve this objective ATLID emits short duration laser pulses in the UV, at a repetition rate of 51 Hz, while pointing in a near nadir direction along track of the satellite trajectory. The atmospheric backscatter signal is then collected by its 620 mm aperture telescope, filtered through the optics of the instrument focal plane assembly, in order to separate and measure the atmospheric Mie and Rayleigh scattering signals. With the completion of the full instrument assembly in 2019, ATLID has been subjected to an ambient performance test campaign, followed by a successful environmental qualification test campaign, including performance calibration and characterization in thermal vacuum conditions. In this paper the design and operational principle of ATLID is recalled and the major performance test results are presented, addressing the main key receiver and emitter characteristics. Finally, the estimated instrument, in-orbit, flight predictions are presented; these indicate compliance of the ALTID instrument performance against its specification and that it will meet its mission science objectives for the EarthCARE mission, to be launched in 2023.