Insulin receptors are internalized by endothelial cells; however, the impact of hyperinsulinemia on this process is not known. Thus, the aim of this study is to determine the role of hyperinsulinemia on insulin receptor function and internalization, as well as the potential impact of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). To this end, hippocampal microvessels were isolated from male C57Bl/6J mice on either a control or high-fat diet and assessed for insulin receptor signaling. Cell surface insulin receptors in brain microvascular endothelial cells were labelled with biotin to assess the role hyperinsulinemia plays on receptor internalization in response to stimulation, with and without Claramine treatment, a potent PTP1B antagonist. Our results indicated that insulin receptor levels increased in tandem with insulin receptor dysfunction in the high-fat diet mouse hippocampal microvessels. Hyperinsulinemic cell-receptors demonstrate a shift in splice variation towards decreased IR-A/IR-B ratios and demonstrate a higher membrane-localized proportion. This corresponded with decreased autophosphorylation at sites critical for receptor internalization and signaling, however, Claramine restored signaling and receptor internalization in hyperinsulinemic cells. In conclusion, hyperinsulinemia negatively impacts brain microvascular endothelial cell insulin receptor function and internalization, likely through both alternative splicing and increased negative feedback from PTP1B.
Blood-Brain Barrier; Neurodegeneration; obesity; high-fat diet; protein tyrosine phosphatase 1b
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.