Pekkala, S. Fecal Metagenomics and Metabolomics Identifying Microbial Signatures in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci.2023, 24, 4855.
Pekkala, S. Fecal Metagenomics and Metabolomics Identifying Microbial Signatures in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24, 4855.
The frequency of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has exacerbated setting diagnostic challenges, which increases the need for reliable non-invasive diagnostic tools. Due to the importance of gut-liver axis in the progression of NAFLD, studies try to reveal microbial signatures in NAFLD, evaluate them as diagnostic biomarkers and to predict the disease progression. The gut microbiome affects human physiology by processing the ingested food to bioactive metabolites. These molecules can penetrate the portal vein and the liver to promote or prevent hepatic fat accumulation. Here findings of human fecal metagenomic and metabolomic studies in relation to NAFLD are reviewed. The studies present mostly distinct and even contradictory findings on microbial metabolites and functional genes in NAFLD. The most reproducing microbial biomarkers are increased lipopolysaccharides and peptidoglycan biosynthesis, enhanced degradation of lysine, increased levels of branched chain amino acids as well as altered lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Among other causes, the discrepancies between the studies may be related to the obesity status of the patients and severity of NAFLD. In none of the studies except one, diet was considered, though it is an important factor driving the gut microbiota metabolism. The future studies should consider diet in the analyses.
gut microbiota; metabolomics; metagenomics; liver fat; NAFLD; diet; metabolic pathways
LIFE SCIENCES, Endocrinology & Metabolomics
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