Preprint Review Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Scaling Up Obesity and NCD Prevention in the Eastern Mediterranean Region through Fat Reduction Intake Strategies at Population Levels

Version 1 : Received: 16 April 2018 / Approved: 17 April 2018 / Online: 17 April 2018 (06:24:29 CEST)

How to cite: Al Jawaldeh, A.; Al-Jawaldeh, H. Scaling Up Obesity and NCD Prevention in the Eastern Mediterranean Region through Fat Reduction Intake Strategies at Population Levels. Preprints 2018, 2018040218 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201804.0218.v1). Al Jawaldeh, A.; Al-Jawaldeh, H. Scaling Up Obesity and NCD Prevention in the Eastern Mediterranean Region through Fat Reduction Intake Strategies at Population Levels. Preprints 2018, 2018040218 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201804.0218.v1).

Abstract

NCDs are the leading cause of mortality globally which estimated 40 million death per year (68% of total death), with cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes. In the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), around 60% of all deaths are attributed to NCDs. Two-thirds of NCD premature deaths are linked to 4 shared modifiable behavioural risk factors: tobacco use, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and harmful use of alcohol. These unhealthy behaviours lead to 4 key metabolic/biological changes that increase the risk of NCDs: raised blood pressure, overweight/obesity, high blood glucose levels/diabetes, and hyperlipidemia (high levels of fat in the blood). Globally, countries are already working towards agreed global goals on maternal and infant nutrition and on the prevention of NCDs, and both these include halting the increase in overweight and obesity and reducing NCD diet-related risk factors including reducing saturated fatty acids (SFA) and Trans fatty acid (TFA) intake. According to values reported for countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region, average SFA intake is estimated at 10.3% of energy intake (EI), thus exceeding the WHO recommended level of 10% EI. Average TFA intake in EMR countries is estimated at 1.9% EI, which also exceeds the WHO recommended levels of 1% EI. The EMR region was reported amongst the regions with the highest levels of TFA intake. The highest SFA intake was reported from Djibouti, Kuwait, Saudi-Arabia and Yemen, while the highest TFA intakes were reported from Egypt and Pakistan. If countries of the Eastern Mediterranean region receive immediate public health attention, that toll of NCD-related morbidity and mortality can be considerably decreased if evidence-based preventive interventions are implemented effectively. In this context, reductions in saturated fat and trans fat intakes have been highlighted as cost-effective strategies that may hamper the growth of the NCD epidemic.

Subject Areas

NCD; Eastern Mediterranean region; Fat; SFA; TFA

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