Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

High Exogenous Antioxidant, Restorative Treatment for Prevention of Heart Failure: The Heart Diet

Version 1 : Received: 17 June 2022 / Approved: 20 June 2022 / Online: 20 June 2022 (03:38:07 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Singh, R.B.; Fedacko, J.; Pella, D.; Fatima, G.; Elkilany, G.; Moshiri, M.; Hristova, K.; Jakabcin, P.; Vaňova, N. High Exogenous Antioxidant, Restorative Treatment (Heart) for Prevention of the Six Stages of Heart Failure: The Heart Diet. Antioxidants 2022, 11, 1464. Singh, R.B.; Fedacko, J.; Pella, D.; Fatima, G.; Elkilany, G.; Moshiri, M.; Hristova, K.; Jakabcin, P.; Vaňova, N. High Exogenous Antioxidant, Restorative Treatment (Heart) for Prevention of the Six Stages of Heart Failure: The Heart Diet. Antioxidants 2022, 11, 1464.

Journal reference: Antioxidants 2022, 11, 1464
DOI: 10.3390/antiox11081464

Abstract

Heart failure (HF) has become a public health problem, but exact pathophysiology is still unknown. Western diet characterised with high sugar, high fat, red meat and processed meat, eggs, fried foods and sweetened beverages, may cause oxidative stress and inflammation, leading to oxidative dysfunction and adverse effects on cardiac-ultra-structure. However, only little is known about oxidative function of the of the myocardium and how oxidative dysfunction predispose Ca-overloading resulting in to physio-pathological remodelling leading to HF. Antioxidants such as flavonoids and polyphenolics, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins, minerals as well as essential and nonessential amino acids that are rich in Indo-Mediterranean type of diets, may have protective roles in maintaining oxidative functions of the heart. The cardiac cells use fatty acids and glucose for the metabolic functions depending upon physiological and metabolic requirements. Apart from glucotoxicity, lipotoxicity is also damaging to cardiac cells which worsen in presence of deficiency of endogenous antioxidants and lower exogenous antioxidants in the diet. There is increased production of ceramide, advanced glycation end products (AGE) and triamino-methyl-N-oxide (TMAO) due to high sugar and high fat diets, leading to oxidative dysfunction and Ca-overloading. The biological changes may begin with physiological remodelling to pathological remodelling due to oxidative damages. High fat diet in combination with inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOSi) via N-arginine methyl ester has been found to preserve ejection fraction in a mouse model of HF. It is possible that increased supplementation of High Exogenous Antioxidant Restorative Treatment (HEART) diet; polyphenolics and flavonoids, vitamins, minerals, arginine, with omega-3 fatty acids, and cessation of red meat and egg may further improve the oxidative function of cardiac cells, resulting in the prevention and improvement in the earliest of the Six Stages of HF. Cohort studies and randomised, controlled trials would be necessary for demonstration of the role of HEART diet in the management of HF.

Keywords

Western diet; oxidative stress; cardiomyocyte; micronutrients; dietary fat

Subject

MEDICINE & PHARMACOLOGY, Nutrition

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