REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0457.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Dental stem cells; Mesenchymal Stem Cells; Dental Pulp Stem Cells; Dental Bud Stem Cells; bone regeneration; osteogenic differentiation
Online: 8 May 2023 (05:33:58 CEST)
Teeth include mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are multipotent cells that promote tooth growth and repair. Dental tissues, specifically the dental pulp and the dental bud, constitute a relevant source of multipotent stem cells, known as dental-derived stem cells (d-DSCs): dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and dental bud stem cells (DBSCs). Cell treatment with bone-associated factors and stimulation with small molecule compounds are, among the available methods, the ones who show excellent advantages promoting stem cell differentiation and osteogenesis. Recently, attention has been paid to studies on natural and non-natural compounds. Many fruits, vegetables and some drugs contain molecules that can enhance MSC osteogenic differentiation and therefore bone formation. The purpose of this review is to examine research work over the past 7 years that has investigated two different types of MSCs from dental tissues that are attractive targets for bone tissue engineering: DPSCs and DBSCs. We focused on articles hypothesizing the identification and study of compounds that induce proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of the two d-DSC populations, representing an interesting issue for regenerative medicine. The reconstruction of bone defects in fact is still a challenge for personalized medicine.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0434.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: colorectal cancer, cancer stem cells, mesenchymal stromal cells, stem cell markers, chemoresistance, treatment personalization, biomarkers, cancer stem cell markers
Online: 21 September 2018 (10:07:54 CEST)
BACKGROUND: Treatment failure in primary as well as metastatic cancer patients, caused by chemo and radio resistance, has truncated the research for the applicability of personalized medicine. The use of stem cells and cancer stem cells in such a treatment approach will be reviewed in this study. RESULTS: CRC stem cells prove to be a promising asset for CRC treatment optimization both by serving as biomarkers for the current therapy modalities by means of treatment personalization and patient/tumor stratification, as well as in the development of targeted therapies, selective for the stem cell population. Similar conclusions are drawn, regarding mesenchymal stromal cells and their effect in CRC therapy; while resident stromal cells of tumor microenvironment seem to promote the tumorigenic and metastatic processes in addition to conferring to the chemo- and radio resistance, under certain conditions they are able to improve the treatment outcome of CRC chemotherapy, e.g. by targeted enzyme/prodrug treatment of CRC cells. CONCLUSION: This review, truncates the dynamic potential of cancer stem cells and other stem cell types in CRC treatment personalization as well as, in the improvement of current treatment approaches opting to a higher therapeutic rate, improved prognosis, survival and quality of life for CRC patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0421.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: Infertility; mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs); reproductive system; Stem-cell therapy
Online: 18 September 2020 (07:09:31 CEST)
Female infertility is a global medical condition that can be caused by various disorders of the reproductive system, including premature ovarian failure (POF), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), endometriosis, Asherman syndrome, and preeclampsia. It affects the quality of life of both patients and couples. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have received increasing attention as a potential cell-based therapy with several advantages over other cell sources, including greater abundance, fewer ethical considerations, and high capacity for self-renewal and differentiation. Clinical researchers have examined the therapeutic use of MSCs in female infertility. In this review, we discuss recent studies on the use of MSCs in various reproductive disorders that lead to infertility. We also describe the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) and exosomal miRNAs in controlling MSC gene expression and driving MSC therapeutic outcomes. The clinical application of MSCs holds great promise for the treatment of infertility or ovarian insufficiency and to improve reproductive health for a significant number of women worldwide.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0744.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: Infertility; assisted reproductive technologies (ART); human embryonic stem cells (ESCs); Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs); Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs); Ovarian Stem Cells (OSCs); Spermatogonial Stem Cells (SSCs); ethics and legal implications
Online: 11 October 2023 (13:20:49 CEST)
Infertility” is a condition defined by the failure to establish a clinical pregnancy after 12 months of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse or due to an impairment of a person’s capacity to reproduce either as an individual or with his/her partner’. The authors have set out to succinctly investigate, explore and assess infertility treatments harnessing the potential of stem cells to effectively and safely treat infertility, in addition to the legal and regulatory complexities at the heart of stem cell research, with an overview of the legislative state of affairs in six major European countries. In couples who cannot benefit from assisted reproductive technologies (ART) to treat their infertility, stem cells-based approaches have been shown to be a highly promising approach. Nonetheless, lingering ethical and immunological uncertainties require more conclusive findings and data before such treatment avenues can become mainstream and applied large scale. The isolation of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is ethically controversial, since their collection involves the destruction of human embryonic tissue. Overall, stem cell research has resulted in important new breakthroughs in the treatment of infertility. The effort to untangle the complex web of ethical and legal issues associated with such therapeutic approaches will have to rely on evidence-based, broadly shared standards, guidelines and best practices to make sure that the procreative rights of patients can be effectively reconciled with the core values at the heart of medical ethics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0268.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: diabetic retinopathy; mesenchymal stem cells; neural precursor cells; stem cell.
Online: 9 June 2021 (13:44:48 CEST)
This study aimed to evaluate cell therapy with human neural precursor cells (hNPCs) in diabetic retinopathy (DR) Wistar rats, induced to diabetes by intraperitoneal injection with streptozotocin. Wharton's Jelly Mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs) were isolated, expanded, and seeded onto a biopolymer substrate without growth factors to develop neurospheres to obtain the hNPCs, characterized by immunocytochemistry. The animals were divided into three groups; non-diabetic (ND) n = four; diabetic without treatment (DM) n = nine; and diabetic with cell therapy (DM + hNPCs) n = nine. After eight weeks of diabetes induction and verified DR, intravitreal injection of hNPCs (1 x 106 cel/µL) was performed in the DM + hNPCs group. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Electroretinography (ERG) evaluations were done before and after diabetes induction and after cell therapy. Eye enucleation occurred four weeks after treatment for the histopathological and immunohistochemistry analyses. In the treated group, there was the repair of the retinal structures and their arrangements. hNPCs increased the thickness of neuroretina layers, especially in the ganglion cell and photoreceptor layers. The results indicate that hNPCs reduced DR progression by a neuroprotective effect and promoted retinal repair, making them potential candidates for regeneration of the neuroretinal tissue.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0263.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Neural stem cells; Reprogramming; Neurons; MicroRNA; Somatic cells; Trans-Differentiation; miRNA
Online: 15 August 2022 (12:00:33 CEST)
Brain stem cells (neural stem cells or NSCs) and neurons of a chosen kind reprogramming is a potential technique for cell therapy. It is possible to reprogram non-neuronal cells, for example, by using a predetermined group of factors, nuclear transfer, and the induced transcriptional factors (TFs) expression in a related lineage of cells, and non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs). Researchers have additionally been attempting to improve reprogramming methods, whether it is by employing unique sets of biomolecules and particular TFs or by delivering relevant miRNA and Biomolecules. The technique of miRNA mediated is intriguing for its capability to quickly create a range of biologically desirable cell types for therapy from different lineages of cells. Current findings have made significant advancements towards changing the somatic cells to diverse particular neuronal subgroups with greater efficiency, using reprogramming of miRNA-mediated neural cells, despite the fact that the precise processes need to be discovered. To further understand how miRNAs might direct somatic cells to become neural, we need to look at the latest research on their function in neural reprogramming over the differentiated cells. Recent findings on the role of miRNAs in the initiation of cell reprogramming and the determination of the neuronal subtype's destiny are the primary focus of this comprehensive overview. Furthermore, we cover the far more latest results concerning certain miRNAs' activity in controlling different phases of neuronal differentiation, which contributes in comprehending the interaction network of miRNAs and their receptors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0149.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: atherosclerosis, mesenchymal stem cells, inflammation
Online: 7 August 2018 (23:22:20 CEST)
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease which results in thickening of the vessel wall and narrowing of the lumen. It is a leading cause of death worldwide. Preventive treatment is taken into prioritized consideration since currently no effective approaches to cure atherosclerosis are available. These treatments mainly focus on lowering blood cholesterol levels, especially LDL-C, by statins. Even so, lowering lipid levels is not sufficient to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in all patients. Recently, atherosclerosis has increasingly been recognized as a chronic inflammatory disease involving the immune system, initiating new therapeutic approaches which could alleviate or prevent atherosclerosis by modulating inflammation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as a promising option to relieve inflammation and balance immune responses in inflammatory diseases. Several studies including our group also reported that MSCs may be a new therapeutic option for atherosclerosis. This review summarizes the updated state of our knowledge in the administration of MSCs to alleviate atherosclerosis and discusses some of the key unresolved challenges that need to be solved in future studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0984.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Anoikis; Adult stem cells; Somatic cells; Reprograming; suspension-induced stem cell transition; single cell RNA sequence
Online: 18 September 2023 (03:58:54 CEST)
Adult stem cells (ASCs) can be cultured with difficulty from most tissues, often requiring chemical or transgenic modification to achieve adequate quantities. We show here that mouse primary fibroblasts grown in suspension change from the elongated and flattened morphology observed under standard adherent culture conditions generating rounded cells with large nuclei and scant cytoplasm expressing the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) marker (Sca1; Ly6A) within 24hrs. Based on this initial observation, we describe here a suspension culture method that, irrespective of the lineage used, mouse fibroblast, primary human somatic cells (fibroblasts, hepatocytes and keratinocytes), is capable of generating a high yield of cells in spheroid form which display expression of ASCs surface markers, circumventing the anoikis which often occurs at this stage. Moreover, mouse fibroblasts-derived spheroids can be differentiated into adipogenic and osteogenic lineages. Analysis of single cell RNA sequence data identified 8 distinct cell clusters with one in particular comprising approximately 10% of the cells showing high levels of proliferative capacity expressing high levels of genes related to MSCs and self-renewal as well as extracellular matrix (ECM). We believe the rapid, high-yield generation of proliferative, multi-potent ASC-like cells by the process we term suspension-induced stem cell transition (SIST) could have significant implications for regenerative medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0070.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: adipocyte-derived mesenchymal stem cells; cardiomyocyte-like cells; platelet rich fibrin; growth factor; stem cell therapy
Online: 3 August 2022 (03:31:51 CEST)
Background: There is several challenges to solve irreversible loss of cardiomyocytes due to myocardial infarction. Cell therapy is believed as an ideal treatment for cardiac regeneration in the infarct area. Obtaining adipose-derived stem cells increases seems to be promising, however it is limited by the capacity to differentiate. Stimulation by injectable platelet-rich fibrin appears to have the beneficial effects to accelerate cardiomyocyte-like cells differentiation. Objective: To analyse the benefit of injectable platelet-rich fibrin to accelerate differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells into cardiomyocyte-like cells. Methods: This study is a true experimental randomized post-test design study. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from adipose tissues and cultured until 4 passages. The characteristics of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells were measured by the expression of CD 34-, CD 45-, and CD 105+ using flowcytometry. The samples were divided into 3 groups, i.e. negative control (α-MEM), positive control (differentiation medium) and treatment group (platelet-rich fibrin). The assessment of GATA-4 marker expression was conducted using flowcytometry on the fifth day and troponin was conducted using immunocytochemistry on the tenth day to determine the differentiation to cardiomyocyte. Data analysis was conducted using T-test and One-Way ANOVA on normally distributed data determined through Shapiro-Wilk test. Results: Flowcytometry on GATA-4 expression revealed significant difference on addition of platelet-rich fibrin compared with negative and positive controls (68.20 ± 6.82 vs 58.15 ± 1.23; p<0.05; 68.20 ± 6.82 vs 52.96 ± 2.02; p<0.05). This was supported by the results of immunocytochemistry on troponin expression which revealed significant difference between platelet-rich fibrin group compared with negative and positive controls (50.66 ± 7.2 vs 10.73 ± 2.39; p<0.05; 50.66 ± 7.2 vs 26.00 ± 0.4; p<0.05). Conclusion: Injectable platelet-rich fibrin has beneficial effect to accelerate differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells into cardiomyocyte-like cells.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2130.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Human Pluripotent Stem Cells; Mitotic Fidelity; Aneuploidy
Online: 29 June 2023 (11:37:18 CEST)
Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), which include both embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells, are widely used in fundamental and applied biomedical research. They have been instrumental for better understanding development and cell differentiation processes, disease origin and progression, and can aid in the discovery of new drugs. PSCs also hold great potential in regenerative medicine to treat or diminish the effects of certain debilitating diseases, such as degenerative disorders. However, some concerns have recently been raised over their safety for the use in regenerative medicine. One of the major concerns is the fact that PSCs are prone to errors in passing the correct number of chromosomes to daughter cells, resulting in aneuploid cells. Aneuploidy, characterised by an imbalance in chromosome number, elicits the upregulation of different stress pathways that are deleterious to cell homeostasis, impair proper embryo development and can potentiate cancer development. In this review we will summarise known molecular mechanisms recently revealed to impair mitotic fidelity in human PSCs and the consequences of the decreased mitotic fidelity of these cells. We will finish with speculative views on how the physiological characteristics of PSCs can affect the mitotic machinery and how their suboptimal mitotic fidelity may be circumvented.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0294.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Synthetic embryo; embryogenesis; gastrulation; Stem cells
Online: 3 August 2023 (07:16:46 CEST)
During early embryonic development, fertilized one-cell embryos develop into preimplantation blastocysts and subsequently establish three germ layers through gastrulation during post-implantation development. In recent years, stem cells have emerged as a powerful tool to study embryogenesis and gastrulation without the need for eggs, allowing the generation of embryo-like structures known as synthetic embryos or embryoids. These in vitro models closely resemble early embryos in terms of morphology and gene expression and provide a faithful recapitulation of early pre- and post-implantation embryonic development. Synthetic embryos can be generated through a combinatorial culture of three blastocyst-derived stem cell types, such as embryonic stem cells, trophoblast stem cells, and extraembryonic endoderm cells, or totipotent-like stem cells alone. This review provides an overview of the progress and various approaches in studying in vitro embryogenesis and gastrulation using stem cells. Furthermore, recent findings and breakthroughs in synthetic embryos and gastruloids are outlined. Despite ethical considerations, synthetic embryo models hold promise for understanding mammalian (including human) embryonic development and have potential implications for regenerative medicine and developmental research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0308.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Glioma; Glioblastoma; Glioma stem-like cells; CHRDL1; BMP4
Online: 20 October 2022 (11:20:23 CEST)
Glioblastoma (GBM) still presents as one of the most aggressive tumors in the brain, which despite enormous research efforts remains incurable until today. As many theories evolve around the persistent recurrence of this malignancy the assumption of a small population of cells with a stem-like phenotype remains as a key driver of its infiltrative nature. In this article we research Chordin-like 1 (CHRDL1), a secreted protein, as a potential key regulator of the glioma stem-like cell (GSC) phenotype. It has been shown that CHRDL1 antagonizes the function of Bone Morphogenic Protein 4 (BMP4), which induces GSC differentiation and hence reduces tumorigenicity. We therefore employed two previously described GSCs spheroid cultures and depleted them of CHRDL1 using stable transduction of a CHRDL1-targeting shRNA. We show with in vitro cell based assays (MTT, limiting dilution and sphere formation assays), western blots, irradiation procedures and quantitative real-time PCR that depletion of the secreted BMP4 antagonist CHRDL1 prominently decreases functional and molecular stemness traits resulting in enhanced radiation sensitivity. As a result, we postulate CHRDL1 as an enforcer of stemness in GSCs and find additional evidence that high CHRDL1-expression might also serve as a marker protein to determine BMP4-susceptibility.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1620.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: diagnostic; stem cells; human body; transplantations; regenerative medicine
Online: 23 August 2023 (04:33:23 CEST)
Stem cells can be used in cellular therapy. This happended in order to replace damaged cells or having aim to regenerate organs. The definition of stem cells can be extended. From this point of view, we can mention taking in consideration the idea in which it is known that these cells form the base of the building body. More than, we can mention that stem cells are characterized by two knowing properties namely differentiation and selfrenewal. Based on the observation that differentiation of adult stem cells into specific derivativescan be controlled by laboratory techniques, it is anticipated that adult stem cells may become the basis of therapies for many, and various types of medical conditions. Taking on stem cells, regenerative medicine (RM) it is known as being one of the hottest topics in biotechnology nowadays. From this purpose, stem cells can be used in regenerative medicine (RM). The principles of regeneration are found in different types of cultures, from long time ago, centuries etc.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0391.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Proteomics, Induced pluripotent stem cells, Differentiation, Neural Stem Cells, Motor Neurons, 26S proteasome, Proteasome.
Online: 9 October 2023 (10:51:37 CEST)
Background: Proteins targeted by the Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS) are identified for degradation by the proteasome, which has been implicated in the development of neuro-degenerative diseases. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules present peptides broken down by the proteasome and are involved in neuronal plasticity, regulating synapse number and axon regeneration in the central or peripheral nervous system during develop-ment and in brain diseases. The mechanisms governing these effects are mostly unknown, but evidence from different compartments of the cerebral cortex indicates the presence of im-mune-like MHC receptors in the central nervous system. Methods: We have used human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) differentiated to neural stem cells and then to motor neurons as a developmental model to better understand the structure of the proteasome in developing motor neurons. We perform a proteomic analysis of starting human skin fibroblasts, their matching iPSC, differentiated neural stem cells and motor neurons that highlighted significant differences in the constitutive proteasome and immunoproteasome subunits during development towards motor neurons from iPSC. Results: Proteomic analysis showed that the catalytic proteasome subunits expressed in fi-broblasts differ to those in neural stem cells and motor neurons. Western blot analysis con-firmed the proteomic data, particularly the decreased expression of Beta5i (PSMB8) subunit immunoproteasome. Conclusion: The constitutive proteasome subunits are upregulated in iPSC from HFF and the immunoproteasome subunit beta 5i expression is higher in MN than NSC suggesting a im-munoproteasome phenotype in MN. The immunoproteasome may have implications on motor neuron development and neurodevelopmental diseases that warrants further investi-gation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0089.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: placenta-derived stem cells; placenta; stem cells; proteostasis; heat-shock; chaperones; HSPA1B; HSPA1A
Online: 7 May 2022 (03:37:17 CEST)
Placenta-derived stem cells (PDSCs) offer the advantages of possessing mesenchymal and embryonic traits, broad differentiation potential, large-scale availability, and no ethical constraints in their utilization in therapeutic applications. Elevated protein synthesis and consequently enhanced protein maintenance networks become necessary both due to the requirement to maintain stemness and respond to different stresses. This study aimed to identify the primary determinants of proteotoxic stress response in PDSCs. We generated heat-induced dose-responsive proteotoxic stress models of three stem cell types DBMSCs, DPMSCs, and pMSCs, and measured stress induction through biochemical and cell proliferation assays. RT-PCR array analysis of 84 genes involved in protein folding and protein quality control led to the identification of Hsp70 isoforms HSPA1A and HSPA1B as the prominent ones among 17 significantly expressed genes and with further analysis at the protein level through western blotting. A 24-hours’ time series analysis of stress-response allowed a detailed kinetic analysis of HSPA1A and HSPA1B gene and protein expression. More prominent differences between the two Hsp70 isoforms were detected at the translational level eluding to a potential higher requirement for HSPA1B during proteotoxic stress in PDSCs. To conclude, consideration should be given to the manipulation of definitely characterized chaperones at their expression or functional levels when utilizing PDSCs in therapeutic and regenerative applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0865.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: adipocyte-derived mesenchymal stem cells; cardiomyocyte-like cells; platelet rich fibrin; growth factor; stem cell therapy
Online: 10 August 2023 (13:18:57 CEST)
Background: Obtaining adipose-derived stem cells is limited by its capacity to differentiate. Stimulation by platelet-rich fibrin appears to have the beneficial effects to accelerate differentiation. Objective: To obtain immunohistochemistry evidence of platelet-rich fibrin to accelerate differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells. Methods: We used post-test only controlled-group design. Adipose-derived stem cells were isolated and cultured until 4 passages in α-MEM culture medium. Results: GATA-4 expression increased in platelet-rich fibrin group compared with control group (68.20±6.82 vs 58.15±1.23 counts; p<0.05; 68.20±6.82 vs 52.96±2.02 counts; p<0.05). Troponin expression also increased in platelet-rich fibrin group (50.66±7.2 vs 10.73±2.39 counts; p<0.05; 50.66±7.2 vs 26.00±0.4 counts; p<0.05). Conclusion: There is an immunohistochemistry benefit of platelet-rich fibrin to accelerate differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells into cardiomyocyte-like cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1605.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: equine metabolic syndrome; hyperinsulinemia; miRNA; mitochondrial metabolism; laminitis; stem cells; HPC; ASC; hoof
Online: 25 September 2023 (10:12:43 CEST)
Recently, we isolated and characterized a new pool of mesenchymal stem cells- HPC (Hoof Progenitor Cells), which reside in the coronary corium of equine hooves. We hypothesize, that due to their location, HPC may be involved in the pathogenesis of laminitis, and could possibly be utilized in its treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the newly described HPC to a well-established cell pool-ASC (Adipose Stem Cells). The two cell populations were maintained either in standard culture conditions or under a hyperinsulinemic milieu as hyperinsulinemia is often observed alongside laminitis. Cell cycle dynamics, mitochondrial membrane potential and oxidative stress were analyzed with microcapillary cytometry. Furthermore, the expression of key markers of mitochondrial metabolism, oxidative stress, apoptosis, immunomodulation and insulin signalling were analyzed with the RT-qPCR method. Additionally, a selected panel of miRNA was analyzed with the RT-qPCR method. In standard culture conditions, ASC exhibit higher proliferation than HPC while in hyperinsulinemia a shift towards S phase was observed in both populations. As for the mitochondrial membrane potential, in standard culture conditions, HPC was characterized by a higher percent of live cells. Hyperinsulinemia did not strongly affect the mitochondrial membrane potential of the analyzed populations. Our findings indicate that HPC are characterized by higher activity in terms of mitochondrial dynamics, mitophagy, and mitochondrial biogenesis under standard culture conditions. Yet in both populations, a diminished mitochondrial dynamic and metabolism was observed in hyperinsulinemia. The analysis of oxidative stress revealed, that HPC might possess somewhat higher resistance towards oxidative stress than ASC. Minimal change was observed in the expression of key markers of apoptosis in ASC and HPC under hyperinsulinemia. The analysis of key immunomodulatory markers indicated that HPC may help the cytokine storm for a more effective phenotype change to an immunosuppressing pool of cells with better migratory and healing abilities under hyperinsulinemia than ASC. As for insulin signalling, the obtained data suggests that HPC might be more resistant to hyperinsulinemia and may have greater therapeutic potential in reducing laminitis. Obtained results demonstrated that HPC possesses better potential to modulate the PTEN-AKT pathway by miR-21 and reverse high glucose and high insulin-induced insulin resistance. Taken together, the obtained results indicate that HPC may be a very promising cell pool with therapeutic potential in laminitis treatment, and could be more effective than ASC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0353.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: cancer stem cells; competing endogenous RNAs; ceRNA; lncRNA; micro-RNA; miRNA
Online: 25 July 2022 (06:18:30 CEST)
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are one of the cell types that account for cancer heterogeneity. They arrest in the G0 phase and generate non-CSC progeny by self-renewing and pluripotency activity, resulting in tumor recurrence, metastasis, and chemoresistance. One CSC can stimulate tumor relapse and can re-grow a metastatic tumor. So, CSC is a promising target for eradicating tumors, and developing an anti-CSC method has become a top priority in cancer therapy. In recent years competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) have emerged as an important class of post-transcriptional regulators that affect gene expression via competition for microRNA (miRNA) binding. Furthermore, aberrant ceRNA expression is associated with tumor progression. To overcome therapeutic resistance due to CSCs, we need to improve our existing understanding of the mechanisms by which ceRNAs are implicated in CSC-related relapse. Thus, this review was designed in order to discuss the role of ceRNAs in CSCs function. We reviewed the role of ceRNAs in acquiring CSCs characteristics in the form of different pathways including Rho GTPase/F-actin_ Yes-associated protein (YAP)/transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) (Hippo), Wnt/β-catenin pathway, transforming growth factor (TGF)-b–urothelial carcinoma-associated 1 (UCA1)–Slug pathway, etc. Finally, considering the comprehensive impacts of the ceRNA network on different pathways, a treatment strategy driving the ceRNA network might be effective. Targeting ceRNAs may open the path for new cancer therapeutic targets and can be used in clinical research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0088.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Adipose derived stem cell (ASC); Regenerative medicine; embryonic stem cell marker network
Online: 20 January 2017 (04:56:06 CET)
The stromal vascular cell fraction (SVF) of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT and SAT) has increasingly come into focus in stem cell research, since these compartments represent a rich source of multipotent adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). ASCs exhibit a self- renewal potential and differentiation capacity. Our aim was to study the different expression of embryonic stem cell markers NANOG, SOX2 and OCT3/4 and to evaluate if there exists a hierarchal role in this network in ASCs derived from both SAT and VAT. ASCs were isolated from SAT and VAT biopsies of 72 consenting patients (23 men, 47 women; age 45 ± 10; BMI between 25 and 30 range) undergoing elective open-abdominal surgery. Sphere-forming capability was evaluated by plating cells in low adhesion plastic. Stem cell markers CD90 and CD105 were analyzed by flow cytometry and stem cell transcription factors NANOG, SOX2 and OCT3/4 were detected by immunoblotting and Real-Time PCR. NANOG, SOX2 and OCT3/4 interplay was explored by gene silencing. ASCs from VAT and SAT confirmed their mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) phenotype expressing the specific MSC markers CD90, CD105, NANOG, SOX2 and OCT3/4. NANOG silencing induced a significant OCT 3/4 (70% ± 0.05) and SOX2 (75% ± 0.03) down-regulation whereas SOX2 silencing did not affect NANOG gene expression. Adipose tissue is an important source of MSC, and siRNA experiments endorse a hierarchical role of NANOG in the complex transcription network that regulates pluripotency and plasticity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1361.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: induced pluripotent stem cells; disease modeling, neurodegenerative diseases
Online: 22 November 2023 (09:39:09 CET)
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) are derived from reprogrammed adult somatic cells. These adult cells are manipulated in vitro to express genes and factors essential for acquiring and maintaining embryonic stem cell (ESC) properties. This technology is widely applied in many fields, and there has been much attention to developing iPSC-based disease models to validate drug discovery platforms and study pathophysiological molecular processes underlying disease onset. Especially in neurological diseases, there is a great need for iPSC-based technological research, as these cells can be obtained from each patient and carry the individual’s bulk of genetic mutations and properties. Moreover, iPSC can differentiate into multiple cell types. These are essential characteristics since the study of neurological diseases is affected by limited access to injured sites, in vitro models composed of various cell types, the complexity of reproducing the brain’s anatomy, ethical issues, and the fact that post-mortem cell culture is challenging. Neurodegenerative diseases enormously impact global health due to their high incidence, symptoms severity, and usually lack of effective therapies. Recently, analyses using disease-specific iPSC-based models confirmed their efficacy for testing multiple drugs. This review summarizes the advances in iPSC technology used in disease modeling and drug testing with a primary focus on neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0020.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: limb girdle muscular dystrophies; induced pluripotent stem cells; skeletal muscle cells; pathological modeling
Online: 5 May 2022 (03:44:03 CEST)
Limb girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD), caused by mutations in 29 different genes, are the fourth most prevalent group of genetic muscle diseases, leading to progressive weakness and atrophy of the skeletal muscles. Although the link between LGMD and their genetic origins has been determined, LGMD still represent an unmet medical need. In this paper, we describe a platform for modeling LGMD based on the use of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC). Thanks to the self-renewing and pluripotency properties of hiPSC, this platform provides an alternative and renewable source of skeletal muscle cells (skMC) to primary, immortalized or overexpressing cells. We report that skMC derived from hiPSC express the majority of the genes and proteins causing LGMD. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate the importance of this cellular model for studying LGMDR9 by evaluating disease-specific phenotypes in skMC derived from hiPSC obtained from four patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0623.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Glioblastoma; Neural Stem Cells; Mesenchymal Stem Cells; Stem Cell Therapy; Enzyme/Prodrug Therapy; Oncolytic Virotherapy; Nanoparticles; TRAIL; Cytokine Therapy
Online: 29 October 2020 (15:51:04 CET)
The potential of Neural Stem Cells (NSCs) to provide therapeutic benefit for a variety of neurological disorders, including brain malignancies, has been long recognized and has inspired many scientists to design, test and successfully demonstrate that NSCs are efficient and effective therapeutic agents. Glioblastoma, the deadliest form of primary brain tumor, despite extensive and sustained efforts to find better therapies, remains a disease without cure, with a median survival after diagnosis of less than two years. Treatment resistance in glioblastoma is in large part attributed to limitations in the delivery and distribution of therapeutic agents administered either systemically or directly into the tumor due to the highly invasive nature of this cancer and its abnormal intratumoral vasculature. Stem Cells (SCs) have an innate tumor-tropic migratory behavior, can be modified to deliver a variety of therapeutic agents and efficiently distribute their cargo into brain tumors, pursuing invading streams of tumor cells, deep into the brain parenchyma. Over the last twenty years, numerous preclinical trials have demonstrated the feasibility and efficacy of SCs as antiglioma agents, leading to the development of trials to test these therapies in the clinic. In this review we present and analyze these studies and discuss mechanisms underlying their beneficial effect, highlighting experimental progress, limitations and the emergence of promising new therapeutic avenues. We hope to increase awareness of the advantages of using SCs for the treatment of glioblastoma and inspire further studies that will lead to accelerated implementation of effective therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0427.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Isolation; Neural Crest-derived Stem Cells; Mechanical Dissociation; Regenerative Periodontology, Enzymatic Digestion
Online: 2 November 2020 (11:35:16 CET)
Periodontitis is microbial infection affecting periodontium, the tooth supporting structure and affects >743 million people worldwide. Neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) hold the promise to regenerate the damaged periodontium. These cells have been identified within adult adipose tissue, periodontal ligament, and palatal tissue. Typical enzymatic isolation protocols are expensive, time consuming and often not clinically compliant. Enzyme-free, mechanical dissociation has been suggested as an alternative method of generating cell suspensions required for cell separation and subsequent expansion ex vivo. In our study, samples of rat skeletal muscle tissue were used to appraise the suitability of a novel mincing method of mechanical dissociation against enzymatic digestion with collagenase and dispase. Skeletal muscle is readily available and has been shown to contain NCSC populations. We used a Rigenera-Human Brain Wave® prototype mincer to produce a suspension of skeletal muscle-derived cells modeling NCSCs. We have compared the resulting cell cultures produced via mechanical dissociation and enzymatic dissociation, producing single cell suspensions suitable for Magnetic Cell Sorting (MACs) and Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Despite the Countess Automated Cytometry data demonstrating that cell suspensions produced by mechanical dissociation (n=24) contain on average 26.8 times as many viable cells as enzymatic cell suspensions (n=18), enzymatic suspensions produced more successful cell cultures. Spheroids and subsequently adherent cells formed from 4 enzymatic cell suspensions (44.4%) vs. 1 mechanical cell suspension (8.3%). Enzymatic digestion protocols formed spheroids faster and more plentifully than mechanical cell suspensions. Adherent cells and spheroids isolated via both methods appear morphologically similarly to NCSCs from our previous studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0158.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: intravenous leiomyomatosis; leiomyoma; leiomyosarcoma; tumor stem-like cells
Online: 8 September 2021 (20:00:08 CEST)
Background/Aim: Uterine leiomyoma, also known as fibroids, is the most common benign neoplasm of the female genital tract. Leiomyoma, including its subtypes, is the most common uterine tumor. The subtypes account for approximately 10% of leiomyomas. Intravenous leiomyomatosis, a uterine leiomyoma subtype, is an intravascular growth of benign smooth muscle cells, occasionally with pelvic or extrapelvic extension. Uterine leiomyosarcoma, a malignant tumor, tends to metastasize hematogenously, and distant metastasis to the lungs and liver is common. Therefore, this intravenous leiomyomatosis’ oncological features resemble those of the malignant tumor uterine leiomyosarcoma. Cancer stem cells migrate to distant organs via intravascular infiltration, leading to micrometastases. Materials and Methods: We examined the oncological properties of intravenous leiomyomatosis using molecular pathological techniques on tissue excised from patients with uterine leiomyoma. Result: CD44-positive mesenchymal tumor stem-like cells were detected in both intravenous leiomyomatosis and uterine leiomyosarcoma. The oncological nature of intravenous leiomyomatosis was found to be similar to the oncological properties of uterine leiomyosarcoma. However, in intravenous leiomyomatosis, Cyclin E and Ki-67-positive cells were rare, and no pathological findings suspected to be malignant were observed. Conclusion: It is expected that establishing a treatment method targeting cancer stem cells will lead to the treatment of malignant tumors with a low risk of recurrence and metastasis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0988.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Colorectal cancer stem cells; LGR5; Wnt signaling pathway; Single-cell omics technology
Online: 17 October 2023 (05:48:24 CEST)
Once discovered, cancer stem cells have become a hot topic in the research of cancer therapy. These cells possess stem cell-like self-renewal and differentiation capacities and are important factors that dominate cancer metastasis, therapy- resistance and recurrence. What's worse, their own characteristics make them difficult to be eliminated. Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Targeting colorectal cancer stem cells (CRCSCs) can inhibit colorectal cancer metastasis, enhance therapeutic efficacy, and reduce recurrence. Here, we introduced the origin, marker proteins, identification, cultivation and research techniques of CRCSCs, summarized the signaling pathways that regulate the stemness of CRCSCs, such as Wnt, JAK/STAT3, Notch, and Hh signaling pathway. In addition to these, we also reviewed anti-CRCSC drugs targeting signaling pathways，markers，and other regulators in recent years. These will help researchers gain insight into the current agents targeting to CRCSCs, explore new cancer drugs, and propose potential therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0552.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Mucopolysaccharidoses; Disease Modeling; in vitro models; induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs); Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSC)
Online: 31 March 2023 (14:43:34 CEST)
Despite extensive research, the links between the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and the clinical features seen in patients suffering from various forms of Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) have yet to be further elucidated. This is particularly true for the neuropathology of these disorders, even though the neurological symptoms are currently incurable, even in the cases where a dis-ease-specific therapeutic approach does exist. One of the best ways to get insights on the molecular mechanisms driving that pathogenesis is the analysis of patient-derived cells. Yet, not every pa-tient-derived cell holds potential to recapitulate relevant disease features. For the neurodegenerative forms of these diseases in particular, it is challenging to grow neuronal cultures that accurately represent them because of the obvious inability to access live neurons. This scenario changed sig-nificantly since Yamanaka et al. published their protocol for induction of pluripotent stem cells (SC) from adult human fibroblasts. From then on, a series of differentiation protocols to generate neurons from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) was developed and extensively used for disease mod-eling. Currently, human iPSC and iPSC-derived cell models have been generated for several MPS and numerous lessons were learnt from their analysis. Here we review most of those studies, not only listing the currently available MPS iPSC lines and their derived models, but also summarizing how they were generated and the major information different groups have gathered from their analysis. Finally, and taking into account that iPSC generation is a laborious/expensive protocol that holds significant limitations, we also comment on a tempting alternative to establish MPS pa-tient-derived neuronal cells in a much more expedite way by taking advantage of the existence of a population of multipotent SC in human dental pulp, to establish mixed neuronal and glial cultures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1203.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: microRNA; stem cells; differentiation; endothelial progenitor cells; smooth muscle progenitor cells
Online: 22 November 2023 (15:08:37 CET)
Epigenetic modifications play a significant role in determining the fate of AFSC in terms of differentiation into multiple lineages. There is a tight correlation among DNA methylation, histone modifications, and small noncoding RNAs during the epigenetic control of stem cells differentiation. The present study investigates the role of miRNAs in differentiation of AFSC and addresses how their unique signatures contribute to lineage-specific differentiation. miRNAs profile was assessed in AFSC after 4 weeks of endothelial and muscular differentiation. Our results showed a decreased expression of for 5 miRNAs (miR-125b-5p, hsa-miR-18a-5p, hsa-miR-137, hsa-miR-21-5p and hsa-let-7a-5p) and an increased expression for 12 miRNAs (miR-134-5p, miR-103a-3p, let-7i-5p, miR-214-3p, let-7c-5p, miR-129-5p, miR-210-3p, let-7d-5p, miR-375, miR-181-5p, miR-125a-5p, hsa-let-7e-5p) in EPC compared with undifferentiated AFSC. Smooth muscle differentiation of AFSC revealed significant changes in 9 miRNAs from total of 84 tested; 3 were downregulated (miR-18a-5p, miR-137, sa-miR-21-5p) and 6 were upregulated (miR-155-5p, miR-20a-5p, let-7i-5p, hsa-miR-134-5p, hsa-miR-214-3p, hsa-miR-375). miRNAs are molecular regulators of cell fate and differentiation, recent advances in molecular biology techniques revealed miRNA regulatory networks that can provide us information of endothelial and muscle cell biology in terms of homeostasis, growth, differentiation, and vascular function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0122.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: neurogenic potential; neurites; SCAPs; sphere; stem cells
Online: 5 August 2022 (09:59:07 CEST)
Abstract: Cell-based neural regeneration is challenging due to the difficulty in obtaining sufficient neural stem cells with clinical applicability. SCAPs originating from embryonic neural crest with high neurogenic potential could be a promising cell source for neural regeneration. This study aimed to investigate whether the formation of 3D spheres can promote SCAPs neurogenic potential. Material and methods: 3D SCAPs spheres were first generated in 256-well agarose microtissue mold. The spheres and single cells were individually cultured on collagen I coated μ-Slide for 4 and 7 days. Cell morphological changes, neural marker expression, and neurite outgrowth were evaluated under a confocal microscope. Secretion of BDNF and NGF-β was measured by ELISA kits. Results: Pronounced morphological changes were noticed in a time-dependent manner. The migrating cells’ morphology changed from fibroblast-like cells to neuron-like cells. Compared to the 2D culture, neurite length, number, and the expression of neural markers, including Nestin, β-tubulin III, NeuN, and MAP-2 were significantly increased in the 3D spheres, while the secretion of BDNF and NGF-β was markedly downregulated at day 7. Conclusion: The formation of 3D spheres enhanced the neurogenic potential of SCAPs, suggesting the advantage of using the 3D spheres of SCAPs for the treatment of neural diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0349.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: mesenchymal stem cell; beta-tricalcium phosphate; hydroxyapatite; osteogenesis.
Online: 12 November 2020 (13:16:15 CET)
Bone innate ability to repair without scaring is surpassed by major bone damage. Current gold-standard strategies do not achieve a full recovery of bone biomechanical properties. To bypass these limitations, tissue engineering techniques based on hybrid materials made up of osteoprogenitor cells, like mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and bioactive ceramic scaffolds, like calcium phosphate-based (CaPs), are promising. Biological properties of the MSCs, are influenced by the tissue source. The aim of this study is to define the MSC source and construct (MSC and scaffold combination) most interesting for its clinical application in bone regeneration. iTRAQ generated the hypothesis that anatomical proximity to bone has a direct effect on MSC phenotype. MSCs were isolated from adipose tissue, bone marrow and dental pulp. MSCs were cultured both on plastic surface and on CaPs (hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate) to compare their biological features. On plastic, MSCs isolated from dental pulp (DPSCs) were the MSCs with the highest proliferation capacity and the greatest osteogenic potential. On both CaPs, DPSCs are the MSCs with the greatest capacity to colonize bioceramics. Furthermore, results show a trend for DPSCs are the MSCs with the most robust increase in the ALP activity. We propose DPSCs as a suitable MSCs for bone regeneration cell-based strategies.What do you want to do ?New mailCopy
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0444.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: actin cytoskeleton; super-resolution microscopy; embryonic stem cells; primed embryonic stem cells; micro-rheology; cell culturing; optical tweezers
Online: 23 August 2021 (13:31:33 CEST)
The cellular cytoskeleton provides the cell with a mechanical rigidity which allows mechanical interaction between cells and the extracellular environment. The actin structure plays a key role in mechanical events like motility, or establishment of cell polarity. From the earliest stages of development, as represented by ex vivo expansion of naïve embryonic stem cells (ESCs), the critical mechanical role of the actin structure is becoming recognized as a vital cue for correct segregation and lineage control of cells and as a regulatory structure that controls several transcription factors. Naïve ESCs have a characteristic morphology and the ultrastructure that underlies this condition remains to be further investigated. Here, we investigate the 3D actin cytoskeleton of naïve mouse ESCs using super resolution optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM). We investigate the morphological, cytoskeletal and mechanical changes in cells cultured in 2i or Serum/LIF media reflecting a homogenous preimplantation cell state and a state that is closer to embarking on differentiation. STORM imaging showed that the peripheral actin structure undergoes a dramatic change between the two media conditions. We also detected micro-rheological differences in the cell periphery between the cells cultured in these two media correlating well with the observed nano-architecture of the ESCs in the two different culture conditions. These results pave the way for linking physical properties and cytoskeletal architecture to cell morphology during early development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0637.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: glioblastoma; neural stem cells; replicative senescence; metastasis
Online: 28 August 2020 (11:33:23 CEST)
Due to its aggressive and invasive nature glioblastoma (GBM), the most common and aggressive primary brain tumour in adults, remains almost invariably lethal. Significant advances in the last several years have elucidated much of the molecular and genetic complexities of GBM. However, GBM exhibits a vast genetic variation and a wide diversity of phenotypes that has complicated the development of effective therapeutic strategies. This complex pathogenesis makes it necessary the development of experimental models that could be used to further understand the disease, and also to provide a more realistic testing ground for potential therapies. In this report, we describe the process of transformation of primary mouse embryo astrocytes into immortalized cultures with neural stem cell characteristics, that are able to generate of GBM when injected in the brain of C57BL/6 mice, or heterotopic tumours when injected iv. Overall, our results show that oncogenic transformation is a fate for NSC if cultured for long periods in vitro. In addition, since no additional hit is necessary to induce the oncogenic transformation, our model may be used to investigate the pathogenesis of gliomagenesis and to test the effectiveness of different drugs throughout the natural history of GBM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0276.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Mesenchymal stem cells; collagen type I; remodeling; oxidation
Online: 19 October 2021 (12:19:16 CEST)
Abstract: The effect of collagen type 1 (Col I) oxidation on Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (ADMSCs) remodeling is described as a model for acute oxidative stress. Morphologically, remodeling was presented by a mechanical rearrangement of adsorbed FITC-Col I and a trend for its organization in a fibril-like pattern - a process strongly abrogated in oxidized samples, but without visible changes in cell morphology. The cellular proteolytic activity was quantified in multiple samples utilizing fluorescence de-quenching (FRET effect). In the presence of ADMSCs a significant increase of native FITC-Col I fluorescence was observed, almost absent in the oxidized samples. Parallel studies in cell-free systems confirmed the enzymatic de-quenching of native FITC-Col I by Clostridial collagenase, again showing significant inhibition in oxidized samples. The structural changes in the oxidized Col I was further studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry: an additional endotherm at 33.6°C along with the typical for native Col I at 40.5°C with sustained enthalpy (∆H) was observed in oxidized samples. Collectively, it has been evidenced that remodeling of Col I by ADMSCs is altered upon oxidation due to the intrinsic changes in the protein structure, thus presenting a novel mechanism for the control of stem cells' behavior toward collagen.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0691.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Calcitriol; Vitamin D3; Glioblastoma; Glioblastoma stem-like cells
Online: 29 June 2021 (08:37:43 CEST)
: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and most aggressive primary brain tumor with a very high rate of recurrence and a median survival of 15 months after diagnosis. Abundant evi-dence suggests that a certain sub-population of cancer cells harbors a stem-like phenotype and is likely responsible for disease recurrence, treatment resistance and potentially even for the infil-trative growth of GBM. GBM incidence has been negatively correlated with the serum levels of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3, while the low pH within tumors has been shown to promote the ex-pression of the vitamin D3-degrading enzyme 24-hydroxylase, encoded by the CYP24A1 gene. Therefore, we hypothesized that calcitriol can specifically target stem-like glioblastoma cells and induce their differentiation. Here, we show using in vitro limiting dilution assays, quantita-tive real-time PCR and ex vivo adult organotypic brain slice transplantation cultures that thera-peutic doses of calcitriol, the hormonally active form of vitamin D3, reduces stemness to varying extent in a panel of investigated GSC lines and effectively hinders tumor growth of responding GSCs ex vivo. We further show that calcitriol synergizes with Temozolomide ex vivo to com-pletely eliminate some GSC tumors. These findings indicate that calcitriol carries potential as an adjuvant therapy for a subgroup of GBM patients and should be analyzed in more detail in fol-low-up studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0099.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: biomedical model; hearing impairment; regeneration; stem cells; zebrafish
Online: 5 January 2021 (14:23:23 CET)
Zebrafish is an excellent model for observing human genetic disorders. Hearing impairment is the most common genetic disorder including syndromic & non-syndromic hearing loss. Stem cell therapies are considered a new hope in case of hearing impairment. Stem cells are the master cells of the human body and having the capability to differentiate into any other form of cells in more than 200 types of cells (regeneration). This review article describes zebrafish as a biomedical model for stem cell research in hearing impairment, which revolutionized the biomedical arena to compete for the challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1529.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: microgravity; space flight; human neural stem cells; autophagy; intracranial hypertension
Online: 24 November 2023 (02:36:02 CET)
Mammalian cells have evolved to function under Earth’s gravity, but how they respond to microgravity remains largely unknown. Neural stem cells (NSCs) are essential for the maintenance of central nervous system (CNS) functions during development and the regeneration of all CNS cell populations. Here, we examined the behavior of space (SPC)-flown NSCs as they readapted to Earth’s gravity. We found that most of these cells survived the space flight and self-renewed. Yet, some showed autophagy-like behaviors (ALB). To ascertain if the secretome from SPC-flown NSCs contained molecules inducing this behavior, we incubated naïve, non-starved NSCs in a medium containing SPC-NSCs secretome. We found a four-fold increase in the ALB rate. Proteomic analysis of the secretome revealed that the protein of highest content produced by SPC-NSCs was secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), which triggers endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress leading to lethal ALB. These results offer novel knowledge on the response of neural cells, particularly NSCs, subjected to space microgravity. Moreover, some secreted proteins have been identified as microgravity sensing, paving a new venue for future research aiming at targeting SPARC metabolism. Although we did not establish a direct relationship between ALB and SPARC as a potential marker, these results represent the first step in the identification of gravity sensing molecules as targets to be modulated and to design effective countermeasures to mitigate intracranial hypertension in astronauts using structure-based-protein design.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0711.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Cancer Stem Cell; Androgen Receptor; Prostate Cancer; Breast Cancer; Glioblastoma
Online: 12 September 2023 (03:15:45 CEST)
The cancer stem cell hypothesis suggests that neoplastic cells with stem characteristics hierarchically regulate tumor generation and its high cellular heterogeneity. These cells have been detected in all cancer types, and specific signaling pathways give the regulation of self-renewal and differentiation. In prostate cancer, androgen receptor signaling has been extensively studied, and in non-stem cells, it promotes cell proliferation and tumor progression, but in the cancer stem cell population, it negatively regulates processes such as self-renewal. However, in other types of cancer, such as breast and glioblastoma, the androgen receptor seems to favor the maintenance of cancer stem cells, suggesting that androgen signaling has different effects depending on the tumor context. This review discusses the role of androgen receptor in maintaining cancer stem cells by regulating proliferation, self-renewal, and differentiation, as well as the possible signaling pathways involved in these processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0637.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: stem cells; microsecond electric pulses stimulation; cell proliferation; gene expression
Online: 11 September 2023 (07:30:21 CEST)
In the tissue regeneration field, stem cell transplantation and the control of their differentiation represent a promising therapeutic strategy. The second aspect can be achieved using electrical stimulation. This study aims to characterize the effect of a microsecond electrical stimulation on MSCs and iNSCs, in the context of the RISEUP FET-OPEN project (n. 964562) that seeks to control these cells differentiation for the spinal cord injury treatments. Here, the effect of a specific microsecond electric pulses stimulation, characterized by bipolar pulses of 100 µs + 100 µs, delivered for 30 minutes at an intensity of 250 V/cm, on i) cell proliferation, ii) cell cycle, iii) gene expression and iv) apoptosis was evaluated. Results show that the stimulation does not affect cell proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis, but induced some variations in gene expression, in particular in EGR1, FOS, and POU5F1. These ob-servations led us to deeply investigate the cell proliferation until 72h from the stimulation observing an increase in the iNSCs. The main outcome of this study is that the chosen stimulation protocol is safe and not toxic for MSCs and iNSCs. The observed variations in the gene expression need to be deeply investigated to assess the molecular mechanisms involved.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0161.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: stem cell; stromal cell; mesenchymal stromal cell; regeneration; cell sheet; cell delivery
Online: 16 January 2019 (09:39:55 CET)
Regeneration is a fundamental process much attributed to functions of adult stem cells. In last decades delivery of suspended adult stem cells is widely adopted in regenerative medicine as a leading mean of cell therapy. However, adult stem cells can not complete the task of human body regeneration effectively by themselves as far as they need a receptive microenvironment (the niche) to engraft and perform properly. Understanding of mechanisms underlying mammalian regeneration lead us to an assumption that improved outcomes of cell therapy requires a specific microenvironment generated in damaged area prior to stem cell delivery. To certain extent it may be achieved by delivery of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), not in dispersed form, but rather self-organized in cell sheets (CS) – tissue-like structures comprising of viable cells and microenvironment components: extracellular matrix and soluble factors deposited in the matrix. In this communication we highlight a potential role of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) as regeneration organizers and speculate that this function emerges in CS. This concept shifts our understanding of therapeutic mechanism underlying a widely known CS-based delivery method for regenerative medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0403.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: sickle cell disease; hematopoietic stem cells; hydroxyurea; transfusion
Online: 19 August 2020 (08:38:35 CEST)
The consequences of Sickle Cell Disease (SCD), including ongoing hematopoietic stress and hemolysis, vascular damage and chronic therapies , such as blood transfusions and Hydroxyurea on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) have not been characterized. We have quantified the frequencies of nine HSPC populations by flow cytometry in the peripheral blood of pediatric and adult patients stratified by treatment and controls. We observed broad differences between SCD patients and healthy controls. SCD is associated with 10 to 20-fold increase in CD34dim cells, and two to five-fold more CD34bright cells, a depletion in Megakaryocyte-Erythroid Progenitors and an increase in hematopoietic stem cells, when compared to controls. SCD is also associated with abnormal expression of CD235a and by very high levels of expression of the CD49f antigen. These findings were present to varying degrees in all patients, whether or not they were naïve or on chronic therapy. HU treatment tended to normalizes many of these parameters. Chronic stress erythropoiesis, inflammation caused by SCD and hydroxyurea therapy have long been suspected of causing premature aging of the hematopoietic system, and potentially increasing the risk of hematological malignancies. An important finding of this study was that the observed concentration of CD34bright cells and of all the HSPCs decreased logarithmically with time of treatment with HU. This correlation was independent of age and specific to HU treatment. Although the number of circulating HSPCs is influenced by many parameters, our findings suggest that HU treatment may decrease premature aging and hematologic malignancy risk compared to the other therapeutic modalities in SCD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0758.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: marigold; callus; cell suspension; growth parameters; cell viability; stem cell
Online: 23 April 2023 (04:05:25 CEST)
Plant stem cell cultures have so far been established in only a few plant species using cambial meristematic cells. The presence of stem cells or stem cell-like cells in other organs and tissues of the plant body, as well as the possibility of de novo generation of meristematic cells from differentiated cells, allows to consider the establishment of stem cell cultures in a broader range of species. Therefore, this study aimed to establish a stem cell culture of the medicinal plant Calendula officinalis L. Callus tissues were induced from explants taken from leaves and roots. Appropriate combinations of plant growth regulators and light parameters for in vitro cultivation were selected. Already at this stage, stem and dedifferentiated cells could be identified, and cell suspension cultures were established from specific parts of the formed callus. Cell suspension cultures with a high proportion of stem cells originating from roots (92–93%) or leaves (72–73%) were developed. The amount of stem cells derived from the roots in the cell suspension reached a plateau at a level of 5.60–5.72105.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0159.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells; mechanotransduction; collagen; oxidation; YAP/TAZ; focal adhesion
Online: 9 January 2023 (09:53:23 CET)
ECM provides various mechanical cues that are able to affect the self‑renewal and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Little is known however how these ques work in a pathological environment, such as acute oxidative stress. To better understand the behavior of human adipose tissue-derived MSC (ADMSC) in such conditions here we provide morphological and quantitative evidence for significantly altered early steps of mechanotransduction when adhering to oxidized collagen (Col-Oxi). This affects both focal adhesion (FA) formation and YAP/TAZ signaling events. Representative morphological images show that ADMSCs spread better within 2 h of adhesion on native collagen (Col), while they tended to round up on Col-Oxi. It correlates also with the less development of the actin cytoskeleton and FA formation, confirmed quantitatively by morpho-metric analysis using ImageJ. As shown by immunofluorescence analysis, oxidation also affected the ratio of cytosolic to nuclear YAP/TAZ activity, concentrating in the nucleus for Col while remaining in the cytosol for Col-Oxi, suggesting abrogated signal transduction. Comparative AFM studies show that native collagen forms relatively coarse aggregates, much thinner with Col-Oxi, possibly reflecting its altered ability to aggregate. On the other hand, the corresponding Young's moduli were only slightly changed, so viscoelastic properties cannot explain the observed biological differences. However, the roughness of the protein layer decreases dramatically, from RRMS equal to 27.95 + 5.1 nm for Col to 5.51 + 0.8 nm for Col-Oxi (p<0.05), which dictates our conclusion that it is the most altered parameter in oxidation. Thus, it appears to be a predominantly topo-graphic response that affects the mechanotransduction of ADMSCs by oxidized collagen.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0167.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: European mink; ex situ conservation; biobank; mesenchymal stem/stromal cells
Online: 12 July 2022 (04:04:08 CEST)
The European mink (Mustela lutreola) is one of Europe's most endangered species, and it is on the brink of extinction in the Iberian Peninsula. The species' precarious situation requires the application of new ex-situ conservation methodologies that complement the existing ex-situ and in-situ conservation measures. Here, we report for the first time the establishment of a biobank of European mink mesenchymal stem cells (emMSC) and oocytes from specimens found dead in the Iberian Peninsula, either free or in captivity. New emMSC lines were isolated from different tissues: bone marrow (emBM-MSC), oral mucosa (emOM-MSc), dermal skin (emDS-MSC), oviduct (emO-MSc), endometrium (emE-MSC), testicular (emT-MSC), and adipose tissue from two different adipose depots: subcutaneous (emSCA-MSC) and ovarian (emOA-MSC). All the eight emMSC lines showed plastic adhesion, detectable expression of characteristic markers of MSCs and, when cultured under osteogenic and adipogenic conditions, differentiation capacity to these lineages. Additionally, we were able to keep 227 Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) in the biobank, 97 of which are grade I or II. The European mink MSC and oocyte biobank will allow for the conservation of the species' genetic variability, the application of assisted reproduction techniques, and the development of in vitro models for studying the molecular mechanisms of infectious diseases that threaten the species' precarious situation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0596.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Cell-based therapy; Regenerative medicine; Pluripotency; Mesenchymal stem cells; Stromal Vascular Fraction
Online: 9 May 2023 (08:16:25 CEST)
Cell-based therapy in regenerative medicine is a powerful tool that can be used both to restore various cell lost in a wide range of human disorders, and in renewal processes. Stem cells show promise for universal use in clinical medicine, potentially enabling the regeneration of numerous organs and tissues in the human body. This is possible due to their self-renewal capacity, and their ability to differentiate into various cell types. To date, pluripotent stem cells seem to be the most promising regeneration tool. Recently, a novel stem cell niche, called multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells, is emerging. These cells are of particular interest because they are pluripotent and are found in adult human mesenchymal tissues. One of their most significant features is that they can produce cells representative of all the three germ layers. Furthermore, they can be easily harvested from fat, and isolated from the mesenchymal stem cells. This makes them very promising, allowing autologous treatments and avoiding the problems of rejection, typical of transplants. Muse cells have recently been employed, with encouraging results, in numerous preclinical studies, performed to test their efficacy in the treatment of various pathologies, exploiting their regenerative potential in different tissues. This systematic review aimed to 1) highlight the specific potential of Muse cells, and provide a better understanding of this niche, and 2) originate the first organized review of already tested applications of Muse cells in regenerative medicine. The obtained results could be useful to extend the possible therapeutic applications of Muse cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1633.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: neurotrophins; p75 receptor; steroidal synthetic analogs; TrkB receptor; cell death; neural stem cells; human induced pluripotent stem cells
Online: 22 June 2023 (13:00:08 CEST)
Neuronal cell fate is predominantly controlled by the effects of growth factors, such as neurotrophins, and the activation of a variety of signaling pathways acting through neurotrophin receptors, namely Trk and p75 (p75NTR). Despite their beneficial effects on brain function, their therapeutic use is compromised, due to their polypeptidic nature and blood–brain-barrier impermeability. To overcome these limitations, our previous studies have proven that DHEA-derived synthetic analogs can act like neurotrophins, lacking endocrine side effects. The present study focuses on the biological characterization of a newly synthesized analog, ENT-A044, and its role on inducing cell specific functions of p75NTR. We show that ENT-A044 can induce cell death and phosphorylation of JNK protein by activating p75NTR. Additionally, ENT-A044 can induce the phosphorylation of TrkB receptor, indicating that our molecule can activate both neurotrophin receptors, leading towards the protection of neuronal populations that express both receptors. Furthermore, the present study demonstrates for the first time the expression of p75NTR in human induced Pluripotent Stem Cells - derived Neural Progenitor Cells (hiPSCs - derived NPCs) and receptor-dependent cell death induced by ENT-A044 treatment. In conclusion, ENT-A044 could be proven a lead molecule for the development of novel pharmacological agents, aiming on new therapeutic approaches and research tools, by controlling p75NTR actions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0047.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Triple Negative Breast Cancer; Cancer Stem Cell; TGF-β
Online: 8 September 2021 (20:53:29 CEST)
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of breast cancer that disproportionally accounts for the majority of breast cancer-related deaths due to the lack of specific targets for effective treatments. In this review, we highlight the complexity of the transforming growth factor-beta family (TGF-β) pathway and discuss how the dysregulation of the TGF-β pathway promotes oncogenic attributes in TNBC which negatively affects patient prognosis. Moreover, we discuss recent findings highlighting TGF-β inhibition as a potent method to target mesenchymal (CD44+/CD24-) and epithelial (ALDHhigh) cancer stem cell (CSC) populations. CSCs are associated with tumorigenesis, metastasis, relapse, resistance, and diminished patient prognosis; however, due to differential signal pathway enrichment and plasticity, these populations remain difficult to target and persist as a major barrier barring successful therapy. This review highlights the importance of TGF-β as a driver of chemoresistance, radioresistance and reduced patient prognosis in breast cancer and highlights novel treatment strategies which modulate TGF-β, impede cancer progression and reduce the rate of resistance generation via targeting the CSC populations in TNBC and thus reducing tumorigenicity. Potential TGF-β inhibitors targeting based on clinical trials are summarized for further investigation which may lead to the development of novel therapies to improve TNBC patient prognosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0035.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: neural; stem cells; compressed; spinal cord; injury; regeneration; rat
Online: 2 August 2018 (06:26:46 CEST)
Background: In spinal cord injury, radical treatment is still a persistent hope for patients and clinicians. Our study aimed to determine the different histological changes in central, cranial and caudal sites of compressed spinal cord as a result of neuroectodermal stem cells (NESCs) transplantation in rats. Material and methods: For extraction of NESCs, future brains were extracted from mice embryos (10-days old) and cultured. Eighty, male rats were divided randomly into control, sham (20 rats each); while 40 rats were subjected to compressed spinal cord injury (CSCI). Seven days after spinal cord injury, rats were subdivided into 2 groups (20 rats each); an untreated and treated with NESCs injected cranial and caudal to the site of the spinal cord injury. Rats were sacrificed 4 weeks after transplantations of NESCs and specimens from the spinal cord at the central, cranial and caudal to site of spinal cord injury were proceeded to be stained with haematoxylin & eosin, osmic acid and Immunohistochemistry of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Results: Sections of CSCI revealed areas of hemorrhages, necrosis and cavitation limited by reactive astrocytosis, with upregulation of GFAP expression. Evidence of remyelination and mitigation of histopathological features, reactive astrocytosis in CSCI sections were more pronounced in cranial than in caudal region. Conclusions: NESCs transplantation ameliorated the pathological changes, promoted remyelination.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0336.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Mesenchymal stem cells; Approved therapies; Cell therapy medical products; Regulatory agencies.
Online: 14 April 2023 (03:16:41 CEST)
Cell therapy has used mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) which in cell culture are multipotent progenitors, capable of producing a variety of cells limited to the mesoderm layer. There are two types of MSCs sources: 1) adult MSCs, which are obtained from the bone marrow, adipose tissue, peripheral blood, and dental pulp; and 2) neonatal tissue-derived MSCs, obtained from extra-embryonic tissues such as the placenta, amnion, and umbilical cord. Until April 2023, there are 1,120 registered clinical trials using MSCs therapies worldwide, but there are only 12 MSCs therapies that have been approved by regulatory agencies for commercialization. Nine of the twelve approved MSCs products are from Asia, with South Korea being the country with the most approved therapies. In the future, MSCs will play an important role in the treatment of many diseases. However, there are many issues to deal with before their application and usage in medical practice. Some strategies have been proposed to face these problems with the hope of reaching the objective of applying these MSCs therapies at optimal therapeutic levels.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0229.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: skin regeneration; wound healing; skin stem cells; skin vascularization; 3D printing.
Online: 8 March 2021 (15:26:04 CET)
In the past decades, regenerative medicine applied on skin lesions has been a field of constant improvement for both human and veterinary medicine. The process of healing cutaneous wound injuries implicates a well-organized cascade of molecular and biological processes. However, sometimes the normal process fails and can result in a chronic lesion. In addition, wounds are considered an increasing clinical impairment, due to the progressive ageing of the population, as well as the prevalence of concomitant diseases, such as diabetes and obesity, that represent risk aggravating factors for the development of chronic skin lesions. Stem cells regenerative potential has been recognized worldwide, including towards skin lesion repair, Tissue engineering techniques have long been successfully associated with stem cell therapies, namely the application of 3D bioprinted scaffolds. With this review we intend to explore several stem cell sources with promising aptitude towards skin regeneration, as well as different techniques used to deliver those cells and provide a supporting extracellular matrix environment, with effective outcomes. Furthermore, different studies are discussed, both in vitro and in vivo, towards their relevance in the skin regeneration field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0561.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: embryonic stem cells; pluripotency; HUSH complex
Online: 10 July 2023 (08:34:39 CEST)
Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) possess remarkable characteristics of unlimited self-renewal and pluripotency, which render them highly valuable for both fundamental research and clinical applications. A comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying mESC function is of utmost importance. The Human Silence Hub (HUSH) complex, comprising FAM208A, MPP8, and periphilin, constitutes an epigenetic silencing complex involved in suppressing retroviruses and transposons during early embryonic development. However, its precise role in regulating mESC pluripotency and differentiation remains elusive. In this study, we generated homogenous miniIAA7 tagged Mpp8 mouse ES cell lines. Upon induction of MPP8 protein degradation, we observed impaired proliferation and reduced colony formation ability of mESCs. Furthermore, this study unveils the involvement of MPP8 in regulating the activity of the LIF/STAT3 signaling pathway and Nanog expression in mESCs. Finally, we provide compelling evidence that degradation of the MPP8 protein impairs the differentiation of mESC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0185.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: allogenic; cell-based therapies; clinical trials; ligament; mesenchymal stem cells; sport horses; syn-ovial mesenchymal stem cell; tendon
Online: 10 March 2023 (02:53:15 CET)
Tendons and ligaments injuries are frequent in sport horses and humans, representing a great therapeutic challenge. Tissue regeneration and function recovery are the paramount of tendon and ligament lesions management. Nowadays, several regenerative treatments are being developed, based on the use of stem cell and stem cell-based therapies. In the present study, the preparation of equine synovial membrane mesenchymal stem cells (eSM-MSCs) for clinical use - collection, transport, isolation, differentiation, characterization, and application is described. These cells are fibroblast-like and grow in clusters. They retain an osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential. 16 clinical cases of tendonitis and desmitis, treated with allogenic eSM-MSCs and autologous serum are also presented, including their evaluation, treatment and follow-up. The use of autologous serum as a vehicle concern to a decreased immunogenic response after the administration of this combination and to its healing properties, due to the presence of growth factors and immunoglobulins. Most of the cases (14/16), healed in 30 days and presented a good outcome. Treatment of tendon and ligament lesions with the mixture of eSM-MSCs and autologous serum appears to be a promising clinical option for this category of lesions in equine patients.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0452.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: alignments, dental pulp stem cells, nanofiber, neurogenesis, reduced graphene oxide
Online: 27 June 2018 (15:53:18 CEST)
Stem cells derived from dental tissues—dental stem cells—are flavored due to their easy acquisition. Among them, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) extracted from the dental pulp have many advantages such as high proliferation and highly purified population. Although their ability for neurogenic differentiation has been highlighted and neurogenic differentiation using electrospun nanofibers (NFs) has been performed, graphene-incorporated NFs have never been applied for DPSC neurogenic differentiation. Here reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-polycaprolactone (PCL) hybrid electrospun NFs were developed and applied for enhanced neurogenesis of DPSCs. First, RGO-PCL NFs were fabricated by electrospinning with incorporation of RGO and alignments, and their chemical and morphological characteristics were evaluated. Furthermore, in vitro NF properties such as influence on the cellular alignments and cell viability of DPSCs were also analyzed. The influences of NFs on DPSCs neurogenesis was also analyzed. The results confirmed that an appropriate concentration of RGO promoted better DPSC neurogenesis. Furthermore, the use of random NFs facilitated contiguous junctions of differentiated cells, whereas the use of aligned NFs facilitated aligned junction of differentiated cells along the direction of NF alignments. Our findings showed that RGO-PCL NFs can be a useful tool for DPSC neurogenesis, which will help regeneration in neurodegenerative and neurodefective diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1010.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: pediatric AML; immunotherapy; targeted therapy; leukemia stem cell (LSC)
Online: 16 November 2023 (02:22:24 CET)
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a rare subtype of acute leukemia in the pediatric and adolescent population but causes disproportionate morbidity and mortality in this age group. Standard chemotherapeutic regimens for AML have changed very little in the past 3-4 decades, but addition of targeted agents in recent years have led to improved survival in select subsets of patients as well as a better biologic understanding of the disease. One key paradigm of bench-to-bedside practice in the context of adult AML currently is the focus on leukemia stem cell (LSC)-targeted therapies. Here we review current and emerging immunotherapies and other targeted agents that are in clinical use for pediatric AML, through the lens of what is known (and not known) about their LSC-targeting capability. Based on a growing understanding of pediatric LSC biology, we also briefly discuss potential future agents on the horizon.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0327.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: glioblastoma; renin-angiotensin system; cancer stem cells; drug repurposing
Online: 29 September 2019 (06:21:26 CEST)
Patients with glioblastoma (GB), a highly aggressive brain tumor, have a median survival of 14.6 months following neurosurgical resection with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Quiescent GB cancer stem cells (CSCs) invariably cause local recurrence. These GB CSCs that can be identified by embryonic stem cell markers express components of the renin-angiotensin system and are associated with circulating CSCs. Despite the presence of circulating CSCs, GB rarely develops distant metastasis outside the central nervous system. This paper reviews the current literature on GB growth inhibition in relation to CSCs, circulating CSCs, the RAS and the novel therapeutic approach by repurposing drugs that target the renin-angiotensin system to improve overall symptom-free survival and maintain quality of life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0135.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Skin; Cell culture; Stem cells; Differentiation; Camel
Online: 10 May 2019 (15:04:59 CEST)
Elite camels often suffer from massive injuries. Thus, there is a pivotal need for a cheap and readily available regenerative medicine source. We isolated novel stem-like cells from camel skin and investigated their multipotency and resistance against various stresses. Skin samples were isolated from ears of five camels. Fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and spheroid progenitors were extracted. After separation of different cell lines by trypsinization, all cell lines were exposed to heat shock. Then, fibroblasts and dermal cyst-forming cells were examined under cryopreservation. Dermal cyst-forming cells were evaluated for resistance against osmotic pressure. The results revealed that resistance periods against trypsin were 1.5, 4, and 7 minutes for fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and spheroid progenitors, respectively. Furthermore, complete recovery of different cell lines after heat shock along with the differentiation of spheroid progenitors into neurons was observed. Fibroblasts and spheroid progenitors retained cell proliferation after cryopreservation. Dermal cyst-forming cells regained their normal structure after collapsing by osmotic pressure. The spheroid progenitors incubated in the adipogenic, osteogenic, and neurogenic media differentiated into the adipocytes, osteoblasts, and neurons, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, we isolated different unique cellular differons and stem-like cells from the camel skin and examined their multipotency for the first time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0374.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Mesenchymal Stem Cells 1; Cell Migration 2; Xenogeneic Wound Repair 3.
Online: 14 June 2021 (15:06:48 CEST)
Bone marrow derived adult human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) possess therapeutic qualities that enable them to enhance wound repair. However, the mechanisms by which this occurs remains poorly understood. Basic mechanisms may include the directed migration of delivered cells to target sites and/or the production and release of soluble factors that act at a distance. Allogeneic and even xenogeneic cells may effectively participate in wound repair. Labeled hMSCs were delivered to full-thickness skin wounds that were created in immunologically competent mice. The delivery occurred on day 3 post-wounding using two different carriers; one which released cells and one which retained cells. The fates of the delivered cells were tracked for up to 25 days. During this period, released cells migrated as a tight cohort deep into the wound to reach the subdermal vascular plexus. Simultaneously, enhanced formation of granulation tissue was evident. This migration of hMSCs was not essential in that enhanced granulation tissue formation and wound contraction occurred when cells were retained in the carrier matrix. This provided further evidence for the release of therapeutic factors by hMSCs to sites of injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0045.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Cirrhosis; Bone marrow; Mesenchymal stem cells; Characteristics; Liver regeneration
Online: 5 June 2019 (15:43:03 CEST)
Liver cirrhosis leads to hepatic dysfunction and life-threatening conditions. Though clinical efficacy of autologous bone marrow-drived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) transplantation in alcoholic cirrhosis (AC) was demonstrated, the relevant mechanism has not been elucidated. We aimed to identify predictive factors and gene/pathways for responders after autologous BM-MSC transplantation. Fifty-five patients with biopsy-proven AC underwent autologous BM-MSC transplantation. The characteristics of responders who showed improvement in fibrosis score (≥ 1) after transplantation were compared with those of non-responders. BM-MSCs were analyzed with cDNA microarrays to identify genes and pathways that were differentially expressed in responder after transplantation. Thirty-three patients (66%) were responders. In the multivariate analysis, initial high Laennec score (p=0.007, odds ratio 3.73) and performance of BM-MSC transplantation (p=0.033, odds ratio 5.75) were predictive factors for responder. Three genes (olfactory receptor 2L8, microRNA4520-2, and chloride intracellular channel protein 3) were upregulated in responders and 11 metabolic pathways (inositol phosphate, ATP-binding cassette transporters, protein kinase signaling, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, endocytosis, phagosome, hematopoietic cell lineage, adipocytokine, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, fat digestion/absorption, and insulin resistance) were upregulated in non-responders (p<0.05). BM-MSC transplantation is warranted treatment for AC patients with high Laennec score. Cell-based therapy utilizing response-relating genes or pathway can be treatment candidate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1783.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: human mesenchymal stem cells; mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET); epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT); HAND2; HAND2-AS1; senescence; stem cell plasticity
Online: 26 September 2023 (10:46:24 CEST)
We have previously developed several successful decellularization strategies yielding porcine cardiac extracellular matrices (pcECMs), which exhibit tissue-specific bioactivity and bioinductive capacity when cultured with various pluri- and multipotent stem cells. Here, we studied the tissue-specific effects of the pcECM on seeded human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) phenotype using reverse transcribed quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) arrays for cardio-vascular related genes. We further corroborated interesting findings at the protein level (flow cytometry and immunological stains) as well as bioinformatically using several mRNA sequencing and protein databases of normal and pathologic adult tissue expression, as well as during human embryonic organogenesis. We discovered that upon seeding of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on the pcECM they displayed partial MET toward endothelial phenotypes (CD31+) and morphologies, which were preceded by an early spike (~day 3 onward after seeding) in HAND2 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels compared to plate controls. CRISPR-Cas9 knockout (KO) of HAND2 and its associated antisense long non-coding RNA (HAND2-AS1) regulatory region resulted in proliferation arrest, hypertrophy, and senescent-like morphology. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that HAND2 and HAND2-AS1 are highly correlated in expression, are expressed in many different tissue types albeit at distinct yet tightly regulated expression levels. Deviation (down or up regulation) from these basal tissue expression levels are associated with a long list of pathologies. We thus suggest that HAND2 expression levels may finetune cell plasticity possibly affecting senescence and mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition states, through yet unknown mechanisms. Targeting this pathway may represent a promising new therapeutic approach for a wide range of diseases, including cancer, degenerative disorders, and aging. Nevertheless, further investigations are required to better understand the molecular players involved, potential inducers and inhibitors of this pathway, and eventually potential therapeutic applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0351.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Cell therapy; MCAO; Stroke; Genetic engineering; Growth factors; Stem cells
Online: 12 November 2020 (14:25:43 CET)
The last two decades have witnessed a surge in investigations proposing stem cells as a promising strategy to treat stroke. Since growth factor release is considered as one of the most important aspects of cell-based therapy, stem cells over-expressing growth factors are hypothesized to yield higher levels of therapeutic efficiency. In pre-clinical studies of the last 15 years that were investigating the efficiency of stem cell therapy for stroke, a variety of stem cell types were genetically modified to over-express various factors. In this review we summarize the current knowledge on the therapeutic efficiency of stem cell-derived growth factors, encompassing techniques employed and time points to evaluate. In addition, we discuss several types of stem cells, including the recently developed model of epidermal neural crest stem cells, and genetically modified stem cells over-expressing specific factors, which could elevate the restorative potential of naive stem cells. The restorative potential is based on enhanced survival/differentiation potential of transplanted cells, apoptosis inhibition, infarct volume reduction, neovascularization or functional improvement. Since the majority of studies have focused on the short-term curative effects of genetically engineered stem cells, we emphasize the need to address their long-term impact.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0031.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Community-Acquired Pneumonia; Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia; COVID-19; Antibiotics; Mes-enchymal Stem Cells; Corticosteroids
Online: 1 April 2021 (16:18:25 CEST)
Pneumonia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially during COVID-19 pandemic. With the significant global health burden that pneumonia poses, it is es-sential to improve therapeutic and management strategies. The increasing emergence of antibiotic resistant bacterial strains limits options for effective antibiotic use. New antibiotics for treatment of pneumonia may address deficits in current antimicrobial drugs, with an ability to cover both typical, atypical, and resistance pathogen. Several of these newer drugs also have structural characteristics that allow for a decreased propensity in development of bacterial resistance. Po-tential use of stem cell therapies in place of corticosteroid treatments may also offer an im-provement in patient outcomes. Human mesenchymal stem cell treatments have shown efficacy and safety in treating COVID-19 induced pneumonia. Combined treatment with both stem cells and antibiotics in pneumonia in a rabbit model has also shown significantly increased efficacy in comparison to antibiotic treatment alone, presenting yet another possible route for a novel strategy in treating pneumonia, though additional future studies are necessary before clinical implementation. While pneumonia remains a major disease of concern, having newer approved antibiotics as well as novel therapies such as stem cell treatments in the pipeline offers clinicians more options in effectively treating pneumonia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0143.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: human pluripotent stem cells; human embryonic stem cells; human induced pluripotent stem cells; cellular metabolism; oxygen; self-renewal; pluripotency; differentiation; volatile organic compounds; Selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry
Online: 10 March 2022 (10:23:46 CET)
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have widespread potential biomedical applications. There is a need for large-scale in vitro production of hPSCs, and optimal culture methods are vital in achieving this. Physiological oxygen (2% O2) improves key hPSCs attributes, including genomic integrity, viability, and clonogenicity, however, its impact on hPSC metabolism remains un-clear. Here, Selected Ion Flow Tube-Mass Spectrometry (SIFT-MS) was used to detect and quantify metabolic Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in the headspace of hPSCs and their differentiated progeny. hPSCs were cultured in either 2% O2 or 21% O2. Media was collected from cell cultures and transferred into glass bottles for SIFT-MS measurement. The VOCs acetaldehyde and dimethyl sulfide (DMS)/ethanethiol were significantly increased in undifferentiated hPSCs compared to their differentiating counterparts, and these observations were more apparent in 2% O2. Pluripotent marker expression was consistent across both O2 concentrations tested. Transcript levels of ADH4, ADH5, and CYP2E1, encoding enzymes involved in converting ethanol to acetaldehyde, were upregulated in 2% O2, and chemical inhibition of ADH and CYP2E1 decreased acetaldehyde levels in hPSCs. Acetaldehyde and DMS/ethanethiol may be indicators of altered metabolism pathways in physiological oxygen culture conditions. The identification of non-destructive biomarkers for hPSC characterization has the potential to facilitate large-scale in vitro manufacture for future biomedical application.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0479.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Stem cells banks; Cancer; Cytosine deaminase; Tumor; Gene therapy
Online: 27 April 2020 (04:49:54 CEST)
Stem cells are currently being used in many clinical trials for regenerative purposes. These are promising results for stem cells in the treatment of several diseases, including cancer. Nevertheless, there are still many variables which should be addressed before the application of stem cells for cancer treatment. One approach should be to establish well-characterized therapeutic stem cell banks to minimize the variation in results from different clinical trials and facilitate their effective use in basic and translational research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0482.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: polycaprolactone; oxygen plasma; Wharton’s Jelly mesenchymal stem cells
Online: 20 November 2018 (05:26:00 CET)
Cell-based therapies and tissue engineering applications require biocompatible substrates that support and regulate the growth, survival, and differentiation of specific cell types. Extensive research efforts in regenerative medicine are devoted to the development of tunable biomaterials which support various cell types including stem cells. In this research, the non-cytotoxic biopolymer polycaprolactone (PCL) was fabricated into 2D and 3D scaffolds with or without the low-pressure oxygen plasma treatment to enhance hydrophilicity. Cellular responses and biocompatibility were evaluated using a human Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cell line (BCP-K1). The 2D PCL scaffolds enhanced initial cell attachment compared to the 3Ds indicated by a higher expression of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Whilst, the 3D scaffolds promoted cell proliferation and migration as evidenced by higher cyclin A expression and filopodial protrusion, respectively. The 3D scaffolds potentially protected the cell entering to apoptosis/necrosis program and induced cell differentiation, evaluated by gene expression. Both 2D and 3D PCL appeared to have stronger effects on cell behavior than a control substrate (polystyrene). In summarize, the different configuration and surface properties of PCL scaffolds provide various options for modulation of stem cell behaviors, including attachment, proliferation, survival, and differentiation, when combined with specific growth factors and culture conditions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0136.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: meta-analyses; primary knee osteoarthritis; stem cells; systematic review
Online: 9 February 2022 (10:57:45 CET)
Background: Conclusions of meta-analyses of clinical studies may substantially influence opinions of perspective patients and stakeholders in health care. Nineteen meta-analyses of clinical studies on the management of primary knee osteoarthritis (pkOA) with stem cells, published between January 2020 and July 2021, came to inconsistent conclusions regarding the efficacy of this treatment modality. It is possible that a separate meta-analysis based on an independent, systematic assessment of clinical studies on the management of pkOA with stem cells may reach a different conclusion. Methods: PubMed, Web of Science and the Cochrane library were systematically searched for clinical studies and meta-analyses of clinical studies on the management of pkOA with stem cells. All clinical studies and meta-analyses identified were evaluated in detail, as were all sub-analyses included in the meta-analyses. Results: The inconsistent conclusions regarding the efficacy of treating pkOA with stem cells in the 19 assessed meta-analyses were most probably based on substantial differences in literature search strategies among different authors, misconceptions about meta-analyses themselves, and misconceptions about the biology of stem cells. An independent, systematic review of the literature yielded a total of 183 studies, of which 33 were randomized clinical trials, including a total of 6860 patients with pkOA. However, it was not possible to perform a scientifically sound meta-analysis. Conclusion: Clinicians should interpret the results of the 19 assessed meta-analyses of clinical studies on the management of pkOA with stem cells with caution, and should be cautious of the conclusions drawn therein. Clinicians and researchers should strive to participate in FDA and/or EMA reviewed and approved clinical trials to provide clinically and statistically valid efficacy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0017.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: minicircle; induced pluripotent stem cells; chondrogenesis; chondrocyte; bone morphogenetic proteins; transforming growth factors
Online: 2 April 2018 (09:59:50 CEST)
The human degenerative cartilage has low regenerative potential. Chondrocyte transplantation offers a promising strategy for cartilage treatment and regeneration. Currently chondrogenesis using human pluripotent stem cells are accomplished using human recombinant growth factors. Here, we differentiated human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into chondrocytes and cartilage pellet using minicircle vectors. Minicircles are used as a non-viral gene delivery system for gene therapy in various diseases. Non-viral gene delivery can produce growth factors without integrating into the host genome. Minicircle vectors containing bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and transforming growth factor, beta 3 (TGFβ3) were successfully generated and delivered to hiPSC-derived outgrowth (OG) cells. Cell pellets generated using minicircle-transfected OG cells successfully differentiated into chondrogenic lineage. Chondrogenic pellets transfected with growth factor-encoding minicircles effectively recovered osteochondral defect in rat models. Taken together, this work shows the potential application of minicircles in cartilage regeneration using hiPSCs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0527.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Triple Negative Breast Cancer; Cancer Stem Cell; Hypoxia; EGFR; Cisplatin; PDX
Online: 22 July 2020 (11:32:30 CEST)
Development of targeted therapies for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an unmet medical need. Cisplatin has demonstrated its promising potential for the treatment of TNBC in clinical trials; however, cisplatin treatment is associated with hypoxia that in turn promotes cancer stem cell (CSC) enrichment and drug resistance. Therapeutic approaches to attenuate this may lead to increased cisplatin efficacy in the clinic for the treatment of TNBC. In this report, we analyzed clinical dataset of TNBC and found that TNBC patients possessed higher levels of EGFR and hypoxia gene expression. A similar expression pattern was also observed in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells. We thus developed a new therapeutic approach to inhibit EGFR and hypoxia by combination of metformin and gefitinib that sensitized TNBC cells to cisplatin and led to the inhibition of both CD44+/CD24- and ALDH+ CSCs. We demonstrated a similar inhibition efficacy on organotypic cultures of TNBC patient samples ex vivo. Since these drugs have already been used frequently in the clinic, this study illustrates a novel, clinically translatable therapeutic approach to treat patients with TNBC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0033.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: tissue engineering; lumen; stem cells, interstitial cells of Cajal; hydrogel scaffolds
Online: 5 January 2018 (09:36:18 CET)
Gastroparesis (GP) is associated with depletion of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and enteric neurons, which leads to pyloric dysfunction followed by severe nausea, vomiting and delayed gastric-emptying. Regenerating these fundamental structures with stem cell therapy, would be helpful to restore gastric function in GP. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been successfully used in animal models of other gastrointestinal (GI) diseases including colitis. However, no study has been performed with these cells on GP animals. In this study, we explored if mouse MSC can be delivered from a hydrogel-scaffold to the luminal surfaces of GP mice stomach. Mouse MSC was seeded atop alginate-gelatin, coated with poly-L-lysine. These cell-gel constructs were placed atop stomach explants facing the luminal side. MSC grew uniformly all across the gel surface within 48 hr. When placed atop the lumen of the stomach, MSC migrated from the gels to the tissues as confirmed by positive staining with Vimentin and N-cadherin. The feasibility of transplanting a cell-gel construct to deliver stem cells in the stomach wall was successfully shown in a mice GP model, thereby making a significant advance towards envisioning the transplantation of an entire tissue-engineered ‘gastric patch’ or ‘microgels’ with stem cells, and growth factors.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: embryogenesis; blastocyst; trophoblast; stem cell; differentiation; placenta; Ovo-like 2
Online: 8 March 2020 (04:11:35 CET)
Trophoblasts are the first cell-type to be specified during embryogenesis, and they are essential for placental morphogenesis and function. Trophoblast stem (TS) cells are the progenitor cells for all trophoblast lineages; control of TS cell differentiation into distinct trophoblast subtypes is not well understood. Mice lacking the transcription factor OVO-like 2 (OVOL2) fail to produce a functioning placenta, and die around embryonic day 10.5, suggesting that OVOL2 may be critical for trophoblast development. Therefore, our objective was to determine the role of OVOL2 in mouse TS cell fate. We found that OVOL2 was highly expressed in mouse placenta and differentiating TS cells. Placentas and TS cells lacking OVOL2 showed poor trophoblast differentiation potential, including increased expression of stem-state associated genes (Eomes, Esrrb, Id2) and decreased levels of differentiation-associated transcripts (Gcm1, Tpbpa, Prl3b1, Syna). Ectopic OVOL2 expression in TS cells elicited precocious differentiation. OVOL2 bound proximate to the gene encoding inhibitor of differentiation 2 (ID2), a dominant negative helix-loop-helix protein, and directly repressed its activity. Overexpression of ID2 was sufficient to reinforce the TS cell stem state. Our findings reveal a critical role of OVOL2 as a regulator of TS cell differentiation and placental development, in-part by coordinating repression of ID2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0100.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: mesenchymal stem cell; drug delivery; surface modification; electrostatic interaction; magnetic liposome
Online: 6 February 2023 (10:07:55 CET)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the tumor-homing capacity, and therefore MSCs are considered to be a promising drug delivery carrier for cancer therapy. To maintain the viability and activity of MSCs, anti-cancer drugs are preferably modified on the surface of MSCs, rather than directly introduced into MSCs. In this study, we attempted to construct surface-modified MSCs with liposomes as a drug carrier by using magnetic anionic liposome/atelocollagen complexes we previously developed. We observed that large-sized magnetic anionic liposome/atelocollagen complexes were abundantly associated with MSCs via electrostatic interactions under a magnetic field, and its cellular internalization was lower than that of the small-sized complexes. Moreover, the complexes with higher atelocollagen concentration showed lower cellular internalization than the complexes with lower atelocollagen concentration. Based on these results, we succeeded in the efficient surface modification of MSCs with liposome by using large-sized magnetic anionic liposomes complexed with high concentration of atelocollagen. The constructed liposome-modified MSCs showed comparable proliferation rate and differentiation potential to unmodified MSCs. Furthermore, liposome-modified MSCs efficiently adhered to vascular endothelial cells and migrated toward the conditioned medium from cancer cells in vitro. These findings suggest that liposome-modified MSCs could serve as an efficient cell-based drug carrier for tumor targeted delivery.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0108.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), Grainyhead-like 3 (Grhl3), interfollicular epidermis (IFE), supra-basal epidermis, involucrin (IVL), cancer-initiating cell (CIC), cancer stem cell (CSC).
Online: 12 May 2017 (18:15:31 CEST)
Non-melanomatous skin cancers (NMSCs), which include basal and squamous cell carcinoma (BCC and SCC respectively), represent a significant burden on the population as well as an economic load to the health care system, yet treatments of these preventable cancers remain ineffective. Although primary prevention is possible through minimising sunlight exposure, the World Health Organisation estimates that between 2 and 3 million new cases of NMSCs are diagnosed each year, accounting for 1 in 3 of all newly diagnosed cancers. Furthermore, studies have estimated there has been a 2-fold increase in the incidence of NMSCs between 1960s and 1980s. The increase in cases of NMSCs as well as the lack of effective treatments makes the need for novel therapeutic approaches all the more necessary. To rationally develop more targeted treatments for NMSCs, a better understanding of the cell of origin, in addition to the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms that govern the development of these cancers, is urgent. NMSCs are generally thought to arise from specific types of stem cells that become the source of clonal expansion of tumourigenic cells. Previous research on SCC has alluded to these stem cells being localised in the basal compartment of the skin, which ordinarily houses the progenitor cells that contribute towards wound healing and normal cell turnover of overlying epidermal skin layers. More recent research has suggested that commitment to differentiation, which requires exiting the basal, progenitor-cell compartment, is a reversible mechanism. Genetic modifications engage differentiated cells into dedifferentiation, converting them into cancer-initiating cells (CICs) and thereby promoting a tumourigenic environment. Here we explore the most recent developments in the understanding of skin SCC cell of origin, and discuss a case study illustrating the loss of the Grainy-head like 3 (GRHL3) transcription factor in suprabasal layers, which confers a tendency towards tumour development and thereby challenging the “stem cell” theory of tumourigenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0503.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: microdevice; tensile stimulation; adipose-derived stem cells; self-renewal; differentiation
Online: 26 September 2018 (08:33:37 CEST)
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) were suggested for treating degenerative osteoarthritis, suppressing inflammatory responses, and repairing damaged soft tissues. Moreover, the ADSCs have the potential to undergo self-renewal and differentiate into bone, tendon, cartilage, and ligament. Recently, investigation of the self-renewal and differentiation of the ADSCs becomes an attractive area. In this work, a pneumatic microdevice has been developed to study the gene expression of the ADSCs after the stimulation of multi-axial tensile strain. The ADSCs were cultured on the microdevice and experienced multi-axial tensile strain during a 3-day culture course. Self-renewal and differentiation abilities were investigated by mRNA expressions of NANOG, SOX2, OCT4, SOX9, PPAR-γ, and RUNX2. The result showed that the genes related self-renewal were significantly up-regulated after the tensile stimulation. Higher proliferation ratio of the ADSCs was also shown by cell viability assay. The microdevice provides a promising platform for cell-based study under mechanical tensile stimulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: adipose-derived; bone regeneration; cartilage regeneration; clinical application; clinical studies; differentiation; hair loss; induced pluripotent stem cells; maxillary sinus augmentation; osteoarthritis; pluripotency; regenerative
Online: 17 April 2019 (11:25:14 CEST)
Various tissue resident stem cells are receiving attention from basic scientists and clinicians as they hold certain promise for regenerative medicine. This paper is intended to clarify and facilitate the understanding, development and adoption of regenerative medicine in general and specifically of therapies based on unmodified, autologous adipose-derived regenerative cells (UA-ADRCs). To this end, results of landmark experiments on stem cells and stem cell therapy performed in the labs of the authors are summarized, the most intriguing of which are the following: (i) vascular associated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be isolated from different organs (adipose tissue, heart, skin, bone marrow and skeletal muscle) and differentiated into ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm, providing significant support for the hypothesis of the existence of a small, ubiquitously distributed, universal vascular associated stem cell with full pluripotency; (ii) the orientation and differentiation of MSCs are driven by signals of the respective microenvironment; and (iii) these stem cells irrespective of the tissue origin exhibit full pluripotent differentiation potential without any prior genetic modification or the need for culturing. They can be obtained from a small amount of adipose tissue when using the appropriate technology for isolating the cells, and can be harvested from and re-applied to the same patient at the point of care without the need for complicated processing, manipulation, culturing, expensive equipment, or repeat interventions. These findings demonstrate the potential of UA-ADRCs for triggering the development of an entire new generation of medicine for the benefit of patients and of healthcare systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0264.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: human adipose stem cell; NANOG; cell cycle regulation; DNMT1; lentiviral transduction
Online: 24 April 2019 (10:45:01 CEST)
The core components of regenerative medicine are stem cells with high self-renewal and tissue regeneration potentials. Adult stem cells can be obtained from many organs and tissues. NANOG, SOX2 and OCT4 represent the core regulatory network that suppresses differentiation-associated genes, maintaining the pluripotency of mesenchymal stem cells. The roles of NANOG in maintaining self-renewal and undifferentiated status of adult stem cells are still not perfectly established. In this study we define the effects of downregulation of NANOG in maintaining self-renewal and undifferentiated state in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from subcutaneous adipose tissue (hASCs). hASCs were expanded and transfected in vitro with short hairpin Lentivirus targeting NANOG. Gene suppressions were achieved at both transcript and proteome levels. The effect of NANOG knockdown on proliferation after 10 passages and on the cell cycle was evaluated by proliferation assay, colony forming unit (CFU), qRT-PCR and cell cycle analysis by flow-cytometry. Moreover, NANOG involvement in differentiation ability was evaluated. We report that downregulation of NANOG revealed a decrease in the proliferation and differentiation rate, inducing cell cycle arrest by increasing p27/CDKN1B (Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B) and p21/CDKN1A(Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A) through p53 and regulate DLK1/PREF1. Furthermore, NANOG induced downregulation of DNMT1, a major DNA methyltransferase responsible for maintaining methylation status during DNA replication probably involved in cell cycle regulation. Our study confirms that NANOG regulates the complex transcription network of plasticity of the cells, inducing cell cycle arrest and reducing differentiation potential.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0315.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: cancer stem cells; tumor microenvironment; metastasis; chemoresistance; epithelial to mesenchymal transition; clinical trials
Online: 19 May 2020 (14:01:27 CEST)
Despite great strides being achieved in improving cancer patients’ outcomes through better therapies and combinatorial treatment, several hurdles still remain due to therapy resistance, cancer recurrence and metastasis. Drug resistance, culminating in relapse and metastatic disease continue to be associated with fatal disease. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of cancer cells known to be resistant to therapy and cause metastasis. Whilst the debate on whether CSCs are the origins of the primary tumor rages on, CSCs have been further characterised in many cancers with data illustrating that CSCs display great abilities to self-renew, withstand therapies due to enhanced epithelial to mesenchymal (EMT) properties, enhanced expression of ABC membrane transporters, activation of several survival signaling pathways and increased immune evasion DNA repair mechanisms. CSCs also display great heterogeneity with the consequential lack of specific CSC markers presenting a great challenge to their targeting. In this updated review we re-visit CSCs within the tumor microenvironment (TME) and present novel treatment strategies targeting CSCs. These promising strategies include targeting CSCs-specific properties using small molecule inhibitors, immunotherapy, microRNA mediated inhibitors, epigenetic methods as well as targeting CSC niche-microenvironmental factors and differentiation. Lastly, we present recent clinical trials undertaken to try to turn the tide against cancer by targeting CSC-associated drug resistance and metastasis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0009.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: choline transporter; neural stem cells; self-renewal; differentiation; choline deficiency
Online: 1 February 2021 (11:20:53 CET)
Choline and choline metabolites are essential for all cellular functions. They have also been reported to be crucial for neural development. In this work, we studied the functional characteristics of the choline uptake system in human neural stem cells (hNSCs). Additionally, we investigated the effect of extracellular choline uptake inhibition on the cellular activities in hNSCs. We found that the mRNAs and proteins of choline transporter-like protein 1 (CTL1) and CTL2 were expressed at high levels. Immunostaining showed that CTL1 and CTL2 were localized in the cell membrane and partly in the mitochondria, respectively. The uptake of extracellular choline was saturable and performed by a single uptake mechanism, which was Na+-independent and pH-dependent. We conclude that CTL1 is responsible for extracellular choline uptake, and CTL2 may uptake choline in the mitochondria and be involved in DNA methylation via choline oxidation. Extracellular choline uptake inhibition caused intracellular choline deficiency in hNSCs, which suppressed cell proliferation, cell viability, and neurite outgrowth. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the role of choline in neural development as well as the pathogenesis of various neurological diseases caused by choline deficiency or choline uptake impairment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0064.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells; intraperitoneal therapy; biodistribution; efficacy; colitis
Online: 5 June 2018 (11:33:18 CEST)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as a promising treatment for inflammatory diseases. It is described that the immunomodulatory effect of MSCs takes place both by direct cell-to-cell contact and by means of soluble factors that leads to an increased accumulation of regulatory immune cells at the sites of inflammation. Similar efficacy of MSCs has been described regardless the route of administration used, the inflammation conditions and the MHC context. These observations arise the question as to whether the migration of the MSCs to the inflamed tissues is a pre-requisite to achieve their beneficial effect. To address this, we examined the biodistribution and the efficacy of intraperitoneal luciferase-expressing human expanded adipose derived stem cells (Luci-eASCs) in a mouse model of colitis. Luci-eASC-infused mice were stratified according to their response to the Luci-eASC treatment. According to the stratification criteria, there was a tendency to increase the bioluminescence signal in the intestine at the expense of a decrease in the bioluminescence signal in the liver in the `responder´ mice. These data thus suggest that the accumulation of the eASCs to the inflamed tissues is beneficial to achieve an optimal modulation of inflammation.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0070.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: 3D cell culture; patch-clamp; spheroids; single-channel recording; ion channels; mesenchymal stem cells
Online: 8 April 2022 (03:29:15 CEST)
Tri-dimensional (3D) cell aggregates or spheroids are considered to be closer to physiological conditions than traditional 2D cell culture. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) assembling in spheroids have increased the survival of transplanted cells. The regulation of the biological processes that maintain crucial physiological reactions of MSCs is closely related to the functioning of ion channels. The pattern of expression, role and regulatory mechanisms of ion channels could be significantly different in 3D compared to 2D culture, and, thus, needed to be properly analyzed on the level of ionic currents. We developed a specific approach that allowed us to register, for the first time, endogenous ion channels in endometrial MSCs (eMSCs) assembled in spheroids. Particularly, using the single-channel patch-clamp technique, we have recorded the activity of ion channels and observed their functional interplay in mechanosensitive clusters. Our experimental protocol could be applied for identification and studying of ion channels in 3D cell cultures.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Rainbow trout; intestinal epithelium; intestinal stem cells; self-renewal; fish nutrition; brush border proteins
Online: 5 November 2020 (09:28:19 CET)
We previously showed that, based on the frequency and distribution of specific cell types, rainbow trout (RT) intestinal mucosa is divided in two regions that form a complex nonlinear 3D pattern and have a different renewal rate. This work had two aims. First, to investigate whether the unusual distribution of cell populations reflects a similar distribution of functional activities. To this end, we determined the protein expression pattern of three well defined enterocytes functional markers: Peptide Transporter 1 (PepT1), Sodium-Glucose/Galactose Transporter 1 (SGLT-1) and fatty acid-binding protein 2 (Fabp2). Second, to characterize the structure of RT intestinal stem cells (ISC) niche and to determine whether the different proliferative rates correlate with a different organization and/or extension of the stem cells population. We studied the expression and localization of well-characterized mammal ISC markers: LGR5, HOPX, SOX9, NOTCH1, DLL1 and WNT3A. Our results indicate that morphological similarity is associated with similar function only between the first portion of the mid-intestine and the apical part of the complex folds in the second portion. Mammal ISC markers are all expressed in RT but their localization is completely different suggesting also substantial functional differences. Finally, higher renewal rates are supported by a more abundant ISC population.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1441.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: bovine embryonic stem cells (bESCs); pluripotent; H3K4me1 modification; DNA methylation modification
Online: 20 June 2023 (12:21:40 CEST)
Mixed lineage leukemia 1 (MLL1) introduces 1-, 2- and 3-methylation into histone H3K4 through the evolutionarily conserved set domain. In this study, bovine embryonic stem cells (bESCs, named bESCs-F7) were established from the in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos by Wnt signaling inhibition, while its contribution to endoderm in vivo is limited. To improve the quality of bESCs, MM-102, an inhibitor of MLL1, was applied to the culture. The results showed that MLL1 inhibition along with GSK3 and MAP2K inhibition (3i) at the embryonic stage did not affect bESCs establishment and pluripotency. MLL1 inhibition improves the pluripotency and differentiation potentials of bESCs via up-regulation of stem cell signaling pathways such as PI3K-Akt and WNT. MLL1 inhibition decreases H3K4me1 modification at promoters in bESCs and altered the distribution of DNA methylation in bESCs. In summary, MLL1 inhibition enables bESCs to acquire better pluripotency, and its application may provide high quality pluripotent stem cells for domestic animals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0517.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: pluripotency; naïve; stem; imprinting; primordial germ cells; trophoblast; CDK8; Mediator; enhancers
Online: 22 March 2021 (11:19:21 CET)
Keywords: pluripotency; naïve; stem; imprinting; primordial germ cells; trophoblast; CDK8; Mediator; enhancers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1844.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: excitotoxicity; human induced pluripotent stem cell; neuron; astrocyte; L-glutamate transporter; EAAT1; EAAT2
Online: 26 May 2023 (04:22:41 CEST)
Human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neural cells have been used at the preclinical stage of drug development. As previously reported, hiPSC-derived neurons exhibit greater tolerance to excitotoxicity than that of primary cultures of rodent neurons; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We therefore investigated the functions of L-glutamate (L-Glu) transporters, the most important machinery used to maintain low extracellular L-Glu concentrations, in hiPSC-derived neural cells. We also clarified the contribution of each L-Glu transporter subtype. At 63 days in vitro (DIV), we detected neuronal circuit functions in hiPSC-derived neural cells by a microelectrode array system (MEA). Exposure to 100 μM L-Glu for 24 hrs did not affect the viability of these 63 DIV neural cells. Pharmacological inhibition of excitatory amino acid transporter 1 (EAAT1) and EAAT2 blocked almost 100% of L-Glu uptake. In this condition, L-Glu exposure dramatically decreased cell viability. These results suggest that in hiPSC-derived neural cells, EAAT1 and EAAT2 are predominant L-Glu transporters, and their uptake potentials are stronger than those of primary cultures of rodent neurons. Furthermore, hiPSC-derived neural cells may be useful for screening drugs that target L-Glu transporters.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0097.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: acute respiratory distress syndrome; mesenchymal stem/stromal cells,; exosome; COVID-19; Clinical trials
Online: 4 December 2020 (10:10:11 CET)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has reached a global epidemic across the world after first reported in Wuhan, China’s Hubei province in December 2019. The pandemic is also associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) characterized by excess inflammation, progressive arterial hypoxemia and dyspnea. Mesenchymal stem/ stromal cells (MSCs) have been investigated as treatment for ARDS due to immunomodulatory property. Exosomes derived from MSCs play an important role in paracrine signaling of MSCs, thereby contributed to immunomodulation of the immune microenvironment. Exosomes are emerged as potential alternative to MSC cell therapy with superiority of safety. In this review, we will introduce MSC-derived exosomes and briefly discuss current progress on MSCs and exosomes in ARDS, which may have clinical implications in pathogenesis and treatment of COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0110.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Fluorescent reporter; E2-Crimson; mouse embryonic stem cells; knock-in; in vivo imaging
Online: 16 November 2017 (17:46:53 CET)
Far-red fluorescent reporter genes can be used for tracking cells non-invasively in vivo using fluorescence imaging. Here, we investigate the effectiveness of the far-red fluorescent protein, E2-Crimson (E2C), for tracking mouse embryonic cells (mESCs) in vivo following subcutaneous administration into mice. Using a knock-in strategy, we introduced E2C into the Rosa26 locus of an E14-Bra-GFP mESC line, and after confirming that the E2C had no obvious effect on the phenotype of the mESCs, we injected them into mice and imaged them over 9 days. The results showed that fluorescence intensity was weak, and cells could only be detected when injected at high densities. Furthermore, intensity peaked on day 4 and then started to decrease, despite the fact that tumour volume continued to increase beyond day 4. Histopathological analysis showed that although E2C fluorescence could barely be detected in vivo at day 9, analysis of frozen sections indicated that all mESCs within the tumours continued to express E2C. We hypothesise that the decrease in fluorescence intensity in vivo was probably due to the fact that the mESC tumours became more vascular with time, thus leading to increased absorbance of E2C fluorescence by haemoglobin. We conclude that the E2C reporter has limited use for tracking cells in vivo, at least when introduced as a single copy into the Rosa26 locus.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1058.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Allogenic; Case study; Ligament; Mesenchymal stem cells; MSC-based therapies; Secretome; Sport horses; Synovial membrane mesenchymal stem cell; Umbilical cord conditioned medium
Online: 15 September 2023 (12:44:31 CEST)
Horses are high performance athletes prone to sportive injuries such as tendonitis and desmitis. Fibrous tissue formation with loss of mechanical properties occurs in tendon repair, becoming a therapeutic challenge to overcome. This impels regenerative medicine to develop innovative therapies that enhance tissue regeneration retrieving original tissue properties. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been successfully used to develop therapeutic products. They secrete a variety of bioactive molecules that play a pivotal role in tissue regeneration. These factors are released in culture media producing conditioned media (CM). The aforementioned assumptions impelled us to formulate equine synovial membrane stem cells (eSM-MSCs) – the cellular pool that naturally regenerates joint tissue, combined with medium enriched in immunomodulatory factors produced by umbilical cord stroma-derived MSCs (eUC-MSCs), that naturally contribute to suppress the immune rejection in the maternal-fetal frontier. A clinical case of an equine acute desmitis, treated with the abovementioned formulation is presented. Ligament regeneration occurred in a reduced time frame, reducing stoppage time, allowing return to unrestricted competition after completion of a physical rehabilitation program. This study focus was determination of the formulation therapeutic potential and the evaluation of its synergistic effect in an equine desmitis treatment, utilizing the cells themselves and its secretome.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: liver failure; microRNAs (miRNAs); placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PD-MSCs); phosphatase of regenerating liver-1 (PRL-1); regenerative medicine; stem cells homing; vascular remodeling
Online: 1 July 2019 (17:00:18 CEST)
Placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PD-MSCs) have been highlighted as therapeutic sources in several degenerative diseases. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) were mediated one of the therapeutic mechanisms of PD-MSCs in regenerative medicine. To enhance the therapeutic effects of PD-MSCs, we established functionally enhanced PD-MSCs with phosphatase of regenerating liver-1 overexpression (PRL-1(+)). However, the profile and functions of miRNAs induced by PRL-1(+) PD-MSCs in a rat model with hepatic failure prepared by bile duct ligation (BDL) remained unclear. Hence, the objectives of the present study were to analyze the expression of miRNAs and investigate their therapeutic mechanisms for hepatic regeneration via PRL-1(+) in a rat model with BDL. We selected candidate miRNAs based on microarray analysis. Under hypoxic conditions, compared with invaded naïve PD-MSCs, invaded PRL-1(+) PD-MSCs showed improved integrin-dependent migration ability through RHO family-targeted miRNA expression (e.g., hsa-miR-30a-5p, 340-5p, and 146a-3p). Moreover, rno-miR-30a-5p and 340-5p regulated engraftment into injured rat liver by transplanted PRL-1(+) PD-MSCs through the integrin family. Additionally, an increase in PDGFRA by suppressing rno-miR-27a-3p improved vascular structure in rat liver tissues after PRL-1(+) PD-MSCs transplantation. Furthermore, decreased rno-miR-122-5p was significantly correlated with increased proliferation of hepatocytes in liver tissues by PRL-1(+) PD-MSCs by activating IL-6 signaling pathway through the repression of rno-miR-21-5p. Taken together, these findings improve the understanding of therapeutic mechanisms based on miRNA-mediated stem cell therapy in liver diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0096.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Aggressiveness; biomarker; cancer stem cells; diagnosis; colon cancer; glycan; immunohistochemistry; lectin; prognosis
Online: 4 November 2021 (09:23:14 CET)
Nowadays, colon cancer prognosis still difficult to predict, especially in the early stages. Recurrences remain elevated, even in the early stages after curative surgery. Carcidiag Biotechnologies has developed an immunohistochemistry (IHC) kit called ColoSTEM Dx, based on a MIX of biotinylated plant lectins that specifically detects colon cancer stem cells (CSCs) through glycan patterns that they specifically (over)express. A retrospective clinical study was carried out on tumor tissues from 208 non-treated and 21 treated patients with colon cancer, that were stained by IHC with the MIX. Clinical performances of the kit were determined, and prognostic and predictive values were evaluated. With 78.3% and 70.6% of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity respectively, our kit shows great clinical performances. Moreover, patient prognosis is significantly poorer when the MIX staining is “High” compared to “Low”, especially at 5-years of overall survival and for early stages. The ColoSTEM Dx kit allows an earlier and a more precise determination of patients’ outcome. Thus, it affords an innovating clinical tool for predicting tumor aggressiveness earlier and determining prognosis value regarding therapeutic response in colon cancer patients.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0220.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: aging; bioactive molecules; blue biotechnology; cancer; cell culture; COST Action; Europe; marine/aquatic invertebrates; regeneration; stem cells
Online: 24 January 2018 (04:14:56 CET)
The “stem cells” discipline represents one of the most dynamic areas in biomedicine. While adult marine/aquatic invertebrate stem cell (MISC) biology is of prime research and medical interest, studies on stem cells from organisms outside the classical vertebrate (e.g., human, mouse, zebrafish) and invertebrate (e.g., Drosophila, Caenorhabditis) models have not been pursued vigorously. Marine/aquatic invertebrates constitute the largest biodiversity and the widest phylogenetic radiation on Earth, from morphologically simple organisms (e.g. sponges, cnidarians), to the more complex mollusks, crustaceans, echinoderms and protochordates. These organisms illustrate a kaleidoscope of MISC-types that participate in the production of a large number of novel bioactive-molecules, many of which are of significant potential interest for human health. MISCs further participate in aging and regeneration phenomena, including whole-body regeneration. For years, the European MISC-community has been highly fragmented and scarce ties were established with biomedical industries in attempts to harness MISCs for human welfare. Thus, it is important to: i) consolidate the fragmented European community working on MISCs; ii) promote and coordinate European research on MISC biology; iii) stimulate young researchers to embark on research in MISC-biology; iv) develop, validate, and network novel MISC tools and methodologies; v) establish the MISC discipline as a forefront interest of biomedical disciplines, including nanobiomedicine; vi) establish collaborations with industries to exploit MISCs as sources of bioactive molecules. In order to fill the recognised gaps, the EC-COST Action 16203 “MARISTEM”, has recently been launched. At its initial stage the consortium unites 26 scientists from EC countries, Cooperating countries and Near Neighbor Countries.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0090.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: adipose-derived regenerative cells; ADRCs; adipose-derived stem cells; ADSCs; bone regeneration, cartilage regeneration; efficacy; point of care treatment; stem cell; tendon healing without scar formation; tendon regeneration; vaPS cells
Online: 12 November 2021 (11:44:31 CET)
Background: Recently, the management of musculoskeletal disorders with the patients' own stem cells, isolated from the walls of small blood vessels, which can be found in great numbers in the adipose tissue, has received considerable attention. On the other hand, there are still misconceptions about these adipose-derived regenerative cells (ADRCs) that contain vascular-associated pluripotent stem cells (vaPS cells) in regenerative medicine. Methods: Based on our previous publications on this topic, we have developed a concept to describe the significance of the ADRCs/vaPS cells in the field of orthobiologics as briefly as possible and at the same time as precisely as possible. Results: The ADRCs/vaPS cells belong to the group of orthobiologics that are based on autologous cells. Because the latter can both stimulate a patient’s body's localized self-healing power and provide new cells that can integrate into the host tissue during the healing response when the localized self-healing power is exhausted, this group of orthobiologics appears more advantageous than cell-free orthobiologics and orthobiologics that are based on allogeneic cells. Within the group of orthobiologics that are based on autologous cells, enzymatically isolated, uncultured ADRCs/vaPS cells have several advantages over non-enzymatically isolated cells/microfragmented fat as well as over uncultured bone marrow aspirate concentrate and cultured cells (adipose-derived stem cells, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells). Conclusions: The use of ADRCs/vaPS cells can be seamlessly integrated into modern orthopedic treatment concepts, which can be understood as the optimization of a process which - albeit less efficiently - also takes place physiologically. Accordingly, this new safe and effective type of treatment is attractive in terms of holistic thinking and personalized medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0408.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Wharton’s Jelly human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hWJ-MSCs); Growth Differentiation Factor-5; human bone marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hBM-MSCs); tenogenic commitment; gene expression; immunofluorescence assay
Online: 19 July 2020 (11:02:01 CEST)
Mesenchymal Stem Cells derived from bone marrow (hBM-MSCs) are utilized in tendon tissue‐engineering protocols while extra-embryonic cord-derived, including from Wharton’s Jelly (hWJ-MSC), are emerging as useful alternatives. To explore the tenogenic responsiveness of hBM-MSCs and hWJ-MSCs to hGDF-5 we supplemented each at doses of 1, 10, and 100 ng/mL and determined proliferation, morphology and time-dependent expression of tenogenic markers. We evaluated expression of Collagen types 1 (COL1A1) and 3 (COL3A1), Decorin (DCN), Scleraxis A (SCX-A), Tenascin-C (TNC) and Tenomodulin (TNMD) noting the earliest and largest increase with 100 ng/mL. With 100 ng/mL, hBM-MSCs showed upregulation of SCX-A (1.7-fold) at day 1, TNC (1.3-fold) and TNMD (12-fold) at Day 8. hWJ-MSCs, at the same dose, showed up-regulation of COL1A1 (3-fold), DCN (2.7-fold), SCX (3.8-fold) and TNC (2.3-fold) after 3 days of culture. hWJ-MSCs also showed larger proliferation rate and marked aggregation into a tubular shaped system at Day 7 (with 100 ng/mL of hGDF-5). Simultaneous to this we explored expression of pro-inflammatory (IL-6, TNF, IL-12A, IL-1β) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10, TGF-β1) cytokines across for both cell types. hBM-MSCs exhibited a better balance of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines upregulating IL-1β (11-fold) and IL-10 (10-fold) at Day 8; hWJ-MSCs, had a slight expression of IL-12A (1.5-fold) but a greater up-regulation of IL-10 (2.5-fold). Collagen type I and tenomodulin proteins, detected by immunofluorescence, confirming the greater protein expression when 100 ng/mL were supplemented. In the same conditions, both cell types showed specific alignment and shape modification (fibroblast-like) with a Lenght/Width ratio increase at value higher than 1, suggesting their response in activating tenogenic commitment events, and they both potential use in 3D in vitro tissue engineering protocols.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0101.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Transplantation Keywords: spleen; islet transplantation; transplant site; immunity; tolerance; regeneration; diabetes mellitus; mesenchymal stem cell; Sjogren’s syndrome; HOX
Online: 2 April 2018 (11:05:40 CEST)
In this review, we show the unique potential of spleen as an optimal site for islet transplantation and a source of mesenchymal stem cells. Islet transplantation is a cellular replacement therapy to treat severe diabetes mellitus, but its clinical outcome is unsatisfactory at present. One factor in clinical success of this therapy is selection of the most appropriate transplantation site. The spleen has been studied for a long time as a candidate site for islet transplantation. Its advantages include physiological insulin drainage and regulation of immunity. Recently it has also been shown that the spleen contributes to the regeneration of transplanted islets. The efficacy of transplantation is not as high as that obtained with intraportal transplantation, which is the current representative method of clinical islet transplantation. Safer and more effective methods of islet transplantation need to be established before the spleen can be effectively used in the clinic. Spleen also has an interesting aspect as a mesenchymal stem cell reservoir. The splenic mesenchymal stem cells contribute to tissue repair in damaged tissue, and thus, the infusion can be a promising therapy for autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes mellitus and Sjogren’s syndrome.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0321.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: human induced pluripotent stem cells; inner ear disorders; disease modeling; sensorineural hearing loss; Meniere disease; biomedical applications
Online: 20 February 2023 (06:17:44 CET)
Genetic sensorineural hearing loss and Meniere disease have been associated with rare variations in the coding and non-coding region of the human genome. Most of these variants are classified as likely pathogenic or variants of unknown significance and require functional validation in cellular or animal models. Given the difficulties to obtain human samples and the raising concerns about animal experimentation, human induced pluripotent stem cells emerge as cellular models to investigate the interaction of genetic and environmental factors in the pathogenesis of inner ear disorders. The generation of human sensory epithelia and neuron-like cells carrying the variants of interest may facilitate a better understanding of their role during differentiation. These cellular models will allow us to explore new strategies for restoring hearing and vestibular sensory epithelia as well as neurons. This review summarizes the use of human induced pluripotent stem cells in sensorineural hearing loss and Meniere disease and proposes some strategies for its application in clinical practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0082.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer; cancer stem cell; therapy resistance; cationic amphiphilic drug; lysosome-dependent cell death
Online: 6 January 2022 (11:51:28 CET)
The resistance of cancer cell subpopulations, including cancer stem cell (CSC) populations, to apoptosis-inducing chemotherapeutic agents is a key barrier to improved outcomes for cancer patients. The cationic amphiphilic drug hexamethylene amiloride (HMA) has been previously demonstrated to efficiently kill bulk breast cancer cells independent of tumor subtype or species, but acts poorly toward non-transformed cells derived from multiple tissues. Here we demonstrate that HMA is similarly cytotoxic toward breast CSC-related subpopulations that are resistant to conventional chemotherapeutic agents, but poorly cytotoxic toward normal mammary stem cells. HMA inhibits the sphere-forming capacity of FACS-sorted human and mouse mammary CSC-related cells in vitro, specifically kills tumor but not normal mammary organoids ex vivo, and inhibits metastatic outgrowth in vivo, consistent with CSC suppression. Moreover, HMA inhibits viability and sphere formation by lung, colon, pancreatic, brain, liver, prostate and bladder tumor cell lines, suggesting that its effects may be applicable to multiple malignancies. Mechanistically, HMA elicits the permeabilization of the limiting lysosomal membrane, a hallmark feature of the lysosome-dependent cell death pathway. Our observations expose a key vulnerability intrinsic to cancer stem cells, and point to novel strategies for the exploitation of cationic amphiphilic drugs in cancer treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0298.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell; collagen type I; EGCG; oxidation; remodeling
Online: 17 August 2022 (04:11:29 CEST)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are involved in the process of extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling where collagens play a pivotal role. We recently demonstrated that the remodeling of adsorbed collagen type I might be disordered upon oxidation following its fate in the presence of human adipose-derived MSC (ADMSCs). With the present study, we intended to learn more about the effect of polyphenolic antioxidant Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) attempting to mimic the conditions of oxidative stress in vivo and its putative prevention by antioxidants. Collagen Type I was isolated from mouse tail tendon (MTC) and labeled with FITC before oxidizing according to Fe2+/H2O2 protocol. FITC-collagen remodeling by ADMSC was assessed morphologically before and after EGCG pretreatment and confirmed via detailed morphometry analysis measuring the anisotropy index (AI) and fluorescence intensity (FI) in selected regions of interest (ROI), namely: outside the cells; over the cells and central (nuclear perinuclear) region, whereas the pericellular proteolytic activity was measured by de-quenching of fluorescent collagen probes (FRET effect). Here we provide morphological evidence that MTC undergoes significant reorganization by the adhering ADMSC along with the substantial activation of pericellular proteolysis, and further confirm that both processes are suppressed upon collagen oxidation. An important observation was that this abrogated remodeling cannot be prevented by the EGCG pretreatment. Conversely, the detailed morphometry analysis showed that oxidized FITC-collagen rather tends to accumulate beneath the cells and around the cell’s nuclei suggesting the activation of alternative routes for its removal, such as internalization and/or transcytosis. Morphometry analysis also revealed that both processes are supported by EGCG pretreatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1912.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Glioblastoma; cancer stem cells; M2 muscarinic receptor; orthosteric and dualsteric muscarinic agonism; autophagy; apoptosis; mTORC1
Online: 30 October 2023 (13:57:53 CET)
Background: Although autophagy is a pro-survival process of tumor cells, in particular conditions and when differently regulated by specific signals it can stimulate cell death. We previously demonstrated that the selective stimulation of the M2 muscarinic receptor subtype (M2 mAChR) negatively controls cell proliferation and survival and causes oxidative stress and cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in both GBM cell lines and GBM stem cells (GSCs). In this work, we have evaluated whether autophagy was induced as a downstream mechanism of the observed cytotoxic processes induced by M2 mAChR activation by the orthosteric agonist APE or the dualsteric agonist N-8-Iper. Methods: To assess the activation of autophagy, we analyzed the expression of LC3B by Western blot analysis and in LC3B-EGFP transfected cell lines. Apoptosis was assessed by Caspases 3 and 9 protein expression. Results: Our data indicate that activation of M2 mAChR by N-8-Iper promotes autophagy in both U251 and GB7 cells lines as suggested by the LC3B-II expression level and analysis of the transfected cells by fluorescence microscopy. Autophagy induction by M2 mAChRs is regulated by the decreased activity of the PI3K/AKT/mTORC1 pathway and upregulated by the pAMPK expression. Downstream autophagy activation, the increase of apoptosis was also observed in both cell lines after treatment with the two M2 agonists. Conclusions: N-8-Iper treatment causes autophagy via pAMPK upregulation, followed by apoptosis in both investigated cell lines. In contrast, the absence of autophagy in APE-treated GSC cells seems to indicate that cell death could be triggered by mechanisms alternative to those observed for N-8-Iper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1453.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Allogenic; Case study; Ligament; Mesenchymal stem cells; MSC-based therapies; Secretome; Sport horses; Synovial membrane mesenchymal stem cell; Umbilical cord conditioned medium
Online: 23 November 2023 (04:58:38 CET)
Horses are high performance athletes prone to sportive injuries such as tendonitis and desmitis. The formation of fibrous tissue in tendon repair becomes a therapeutic challenge to overcome. This impels regenerative medicine to develop innovative therapies that enhance tissue regenera-tion retrieving original tissue properties. Multipotent Mesenchymal Stem/ Stromal Cells (MSCs) have been successfully used to develop therapeutic products, as they secrete a variety of bioac-tive molecules that play a pivotal role in tissue regeneration. These factors are released in cul-ture media producing conditioned media (CM). The aforementioned assumptions led to the formulation of equine synovial membrane MSCs (eSM-MSCs) – the cellular pool that naturally regenerates joint tissue, combined with medium enriched in immunomodulatory factors (among other bioactive factors) produced by umbilical cord stroma-derived MSCs (eUC-MSCs), that nat-urally contribute to suppress the immune rejection in the maternal-fetal barrier. A clinical case of an equine acute desmitis, treated with this formulation is presented. Ultrasonographic ligament regeneration occurred in a reduced time frame, reducing stoppage time and allowing return to unrestricted competition after completion of a physical rehabilitation program. This study fo-cused on the determination of the formulation therapeutic potential and the evaluation of its synergistic effect in an equine desmitis treatment, utilizing the cells themselves and its secretome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2119.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Applications; Burn injury therapy; Burn wounds; Characteristics; Features; Lining membrane; Mesenchymal stem cells; Potential; Treatment; Umbilical cord
Online: 30 June 2023 (03:02:32 CEST)
Burn injuries have profound implications for aesthetics, functionality, and patient survival. Umbilical cord lining mesenchymal stem cells (SCL-MSCs) have emerged as a potential therapeutic approach for burn wounds due to their easy isolation, favorable differentiation capabilities, and low immunogenicity. This study aimed to evaluate the growth characteristics of SCL-MSCs and their effectiveness in treating burn wounds. Mechanical isolation was employed to extract mesenchymal stem cells from the umbilical cord lining membrane. The isolated cells underwent characterization, including analysis of HLA-E, G, and DR expression, and assessment of immunogenicity against rabbit antigens using ELISA. A rabbit model was utilized to administer burn treatment. SCL-MSCs exhibited typical morphology of mesenchymal stem cells and demonstrated robust proliferation. These cells expressed CD90, HLA-E, and HLA-G markers while lacking HLA-DR expression. Intact cells and supercrushed cell fluid displayed minimal and unstable immunogenicity. SCL-MSCs exhibited remarkable differentiation potential toward fibroblast lineages, with differentiated fibroblasts showing elevated collagen production and efficient sheet formation. In the experimental rabbit model, burn wounds covered with SCL-MSC tegaderm material plates exhibited superior healing compared to controls. The stem cell material plate area demonstrated reduced inflammatory cell counts (P < 0.01) and increased fibroblast count, neovascularization, and mitotic index (P < 0.01). These findings highlight the potential of SCL-MSCs as a valuable resource for burn wound research and treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0035.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Experimental radiotherapy; radiobiology; Mesenchymal stem cells; Cell therapy; Exosome; Annexin A1; Acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome; COVID-19
Online: 2 August 2020 (14:54:24 CEST)
Previously we have shown that the combination of radiotherapy with human-umbilical-cord-derived mesenchymal stem-cell therapy significantly reduces the size of the xenotumours in mice, both in the directly irradiated tumour and in the distant non-irradiated tumour or in its metastasis. We have also shown that exosomes secreted from mesenchymal stem-cells pre-irradiated with 2 Gy are quantitatively, functionally and qualitatively different from the exosomes secreted from non-irradiated mesenchymal cells and also that proteins, exosomes and microvesicles secreted by mesenchymal cells suffer a dramatic change when cells are activated or non-activated, with the amount of protein present in the exosomes of the pre-irradiated cells being 1.5-fold times greater compared to those from non-irradiated cells. This finding correlates with a dramatic increase in the anti-tumour activity of the exosomes secreted by pre-irradiated mesenchymal-cells. After the proteomic analysis of the load of the exosomes released from both irradiated and non-irradiated cells, we conclude that annexin A1 is the most important and significant difference between the exosomes released by the cells in either status. Knowing the role of annexin A1 in the control of hypoxia and inflammation which is characteristic of acute-distress-respiratory syndrome, we have designed a hypothetical therapeutic strategy, based on the transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells stimulated with radiation, to alleviate the symptoms of patients who, due to pneumonia caused by COVID-19, require the care of an intensive care unit for patients with life-threatening conditions. With this hypothesis, we would seek to improve the patients’ respiratory capacity and increase the expectations of their cure.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0087.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CR); inflammation; nasal polyps; epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT); Polyp derived mesenchymal stem cells (PO-MSCs)
Online: 4 August 2020 (11:07:19 CEST)
Chronic rhinosinusitis is a common inflammatory disease of paranasal sinuses, which causes rhinorrhea, nasal congestion and hyposmia. The genetic predisposition or the exposure to irritants can sustain the inflammatory response and the development of nasal polyposis. Nasal polyps are benign and teardrop-shaped growths that project in the nasal cavities and originate from the ethmoid sinuses. This inflammatory process is associated with high expression of IL-5 cytokine and infiltration of eosinophils. Humanized monoclonal antibodies targeting IL-5 or its receptor, represent a therapeutic strategy in the treatment of nasal polyposis in combination with corticosteroids. The molecular pathogenesis of nasal polyps in CRS patients is associated to the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process in which epithelial cells lose their typical phenotype acquiring a mesenchymal phenotype. TGFβ/SMAD, ERK, and Wnt/β-catenin pathways are altered in EMT during the nasal tissue remodeling. miRNA and inhibitor molecules targeting these altered signaling pathways are able to interfere with EMT; which could lead to alternative therapies. Nasal polyps are an alternative source of mesenchymal stem cells which can be easily isolated from surgical biopsies. A molecular understanding of the biology of PO-MSCs will contribute to delineating inflammatory process underlying the development of nasal polyps.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0126.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: bone tissue engineering; hydroxyapatite; reduced graphene oxide; human mesenchymal stem cell; osteogenic differentiation
Online: 3 May 2023 (09:54:45 CEST)
In recent years, bone tissue engineering (BTE) has made significant progress in promoting the direct and functional connection between bone and graft, including osseointegration and osteoconduction, to facilitate the healing of damaged bone tissues. Herein, we introduce a new, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective method for synthesizing reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and hydroxyapatite (HAp). The method uses epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) as a reducing agent to synthesize rGO (E-rGO), and HAp powder is obtained from Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus). The physicochemical analysis indicated that the E-rGO/HAp composites had exceptional properties for use as BTE scaffolds, as well as high purity. Moreover, we discovered that E-rGO/HAp composites facilitated not only proliferation, but also early and late osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Our work suggests that E-rGO/HAp composites may play a significant role in promoting the spontaneous osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs, and we envision that the E-rGO/HAp composites could serve as promising candidates for BTE scaffolds, stem cell differentiation stimulators, and implantable device components due to their biocompatible and bioactive properties. Overall, we suggest a new approach for developing cost-effective and environmentally friendly E-rGO/HAp composite materials for BTE application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1083.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma, PDAC, cancer stem cells, EMT, Epithelial-Mesenchymal-Transition, Heterogeneity, Plasticity, Adhesion, Migration, Invasion, Metastasis
Online: 16 November 2023 (11:36:00 CET)
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is mostly diagnosed at advanced or even metastasized stages limiting patient´s prognosis. Metastasis requires high tumor cell plasticity implying phenotypic switching in response to changing environments. Here, Epithelial-Mesenchymal-Transition (EMT), being associated with the gain of cancer stem cell (CSC) properties, and its reversion are important. Since it is poorly understood whether different CSC-phenotypes exist along the EMT-axis and how these impact malignancy-associated properties, we aimed to characterize CSC-populations of epithelial and mesenchymal PDAC cells. Single-cell cloning revealed CSC (Holoclone) and non-CSC (Paraclone) clones from the PDAC cell lines Panc1 and Panc89. Panc1 Holoclone cells showed a mesenchymal phenotype dominated by high expression of the stemness marker Nestin, while Panc89 Holoclone cells exhibited a SOX2-dominated epithelial phenotype. Panc89 Holoclone cells showed enhanced cell growth and self-renewal capacity but slow cluster-like invasion. Contrarily, Panc1 Holoclone cells showed slower cell growth and self-renewal ability but were highly invasive. Moreover, cell variants differentially responded to chemotherapy. In vivo, Panc1 and Panc89 cell variants significantly differed regarding number and size of metastases as well as organ manifestation leading to different survival outcomes. Overall, these data support the existence of different CSC-phenotypes along the EMT-axis in PDAC manifesting in different metastatic propensities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0201.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cancer stem cells; colorectal cancer; label-free cell sorting; chemoresistance; intratumoral cellular heterogeneity
Online: 16 May 2022 (09:11:01 CEST)
Cancer stem cells play a crucial role in tumor initiation, metastasis and therapy resistance. Cellular heterogeneity and plasticity challenge the isolation of cancer stem cells. The impact of intratumoral cellular heterogeneity in the context of treatment resistance using a label-free approach remains understudied. Here, we use the sedimentation field-flow fractionation technique to separate, without labeling, cell subpopulations of colorectal cancer cell lines and primary cultures according to their biophysical properties. One of the three cell subpopulations sorted by SdFFF exhibits cancer stem cell traits, including high tumorigenicity in vivo, and a higher frequency of tumor-initiating cells compared to the other subpopulations. In vitro two- and three-dimensional chemosensitivity assays emphasize the therapeutic relevance of this cancer stem cell-like subpopulation due to its chemoresistance. Therefore, our findings highlight a label-free cell sorting approach to reveal intratumoral cellular heterogeneity and its implication in therapy resistance. This approach enables the study of the individualized response of each sorted cell subpopulation by breaking down the tumor, thus offering new perspectives for personalized therapy.