ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0227.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: digital aerial photogrammetry; SAR; model-assisted; biomass estimation; Copernicus; unmanned aerial vehicles
Online: 19 December 2018 (02:56:20 CET)
Due to the increasing importance of mangroves in climate change mitigation projects, more accurate and cost-effective aboveground biomass (AGB) monitoring methods are required. However, field measurement of AGB may be a challenge because of its remote location and the difficulty to walk in these areas. This study is based on the Livelihoods Fund’ Oceanium project of 10,000 hectare mangrove plantations monitoring. In a first step, the possibility of replacing traditional field measurements of sample plots in a young mangrove plantation by a semiautomatic processing of UAV-based photogrammetric point clouds was assessed. In a second step, Sentinel-1 radar and Sentinel-2 optical imagery were used as auxiliary information to estimate AGB and its variance for the entire study area under a model-assisted framework. AGB was measured using UAV imagery in a total of 95 sample plots. UAV plot data was used in combination with non-parametric Support Vector Regression (SVR) models for the estimation of the study area AGB using model-assisted estimators. Purely UAV-based AGB estimates and their associated standard error (SE) were compared with model-assisted estimates using (1) Sentinel-1, (2) Sentinel-2 and (3) a combination of Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 data as auxiliary information. The validation of the UAV-based individual tree height and crown diameter measurements showed a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.21 m and 0.32 m respectively. Relative efficiency of the three model-assisted scenarios ranged between 1.61 and 2.15. Although all SVR models improved the efficiency of the monitoring over UAV-based estimates, the best results were achieved when a combination of Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 data was used. Results indicated that the methodology used in this research can provide accurate and cost-effective estimates of AGB in mangrove young plantations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0242.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: animal-assisted interventions; animal-assisted activities; animal-assisted therapy; oncology; cancer; human-animal bond; quantitative
Online: 19 December 2019 (06:41:38 CET)
Animal-assisted interventions (AAI) use human-animal interactions to positive effect in various contexts including cancer care. This systematic literature review is the first part of a two-part paper series focusing on the research methods and quantitative results of AAI studies in oncology. We find methodological consistency in the use of canines as therapy animals, in the types of high-risk patients excluded from studies, and in the infection precautions taken with therapy animals throughout cancer wards. The investigated patient endpoints are not significantly affected by AAI, with the exceptions of improvements in oxygen consumption, quality of life, depression, mood, and satisfaction with therapy. The AAI field in oncology has progressed significantly since its inception and has great potential to positively impact future patient outcomes. To advance the field, AAI research in oncology should consistently improve the methodological design of studies, report data more completely, and focus on the therapy animal’s well-being.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0243.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: animal-assisted interventions; animal-assisted activities; animal-assisted therapy; oncology; cancer; human-animal bond; mechanisms; theoretical frameworks
Online: 19 December 2019 (06:45:23 CET)
Animal-assisted interventions (AAI) are a unique class of complementary medical treatments that can improve a patient’s quality of life, both physically and psychologically. Part I of this two-paper systematic literature review series focused on the study methods and quantitative results of researchers in this field. We continue this in-depth review here in Part II by discussing the common theories associated with AAI in the context of cancer. Of all the factors at work in human-animal interactions, researchers explicitly cite compatible animal personality, physical touch, physical movement, distraction/entertainment, and increased human interaction as the mechanisms responsible for the positive clinical outcomes observed in AAI. In various combinations, these mechanisms group under broader theoretical frameworks that attempt to fully explain the AAI context as it relates to cancer care. The social support hypothesis and the conception of a human-animal bond are the most referenced overarching frameworks. The cognitive activation theory of stress, the science of unitary human beings, and the self-object hypothesis are also referenced. We briefly consider other relevant theories commonly noted in the human-animal interactions literature that have the potential to clarify aspects of cancer-related AAI. We also discuss the neurobiological transduction mechanisms needed to connect theoretical frameworks and their mechanisms directly to the observed clinical outcomes. To advance the field, researchers should consider overarching theories with testable hypotheses when designing studies, and use consistent terminology when reporting results. This review lays a foundation for progress towards a unified theoretical framework and for effective treatment of the whole cancer patient.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0084.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: euthanasia; veterinary ethics; medical ethics; end-of-life; assisted suicide; palliative care; assisted dying
Online: 7 December 2017 (05:20:50 CET)
Not a lot is known about either death or the dying process. Politicians and many in the medical profession in the UK tend to shy away from interfering with it by not allowing euthanasia as an end of life option for the patient. This is the first paper in a series of two, comparing the situation in human medicine and veterinary medicine, in which euthanasia is well practiced for relieving suffering at the end of an animal’s life. This first part takes the form of a literature review including best practice around end of life care, its deficiencies and the need for assisted dying. Veterinary surgeons are well trained in the ethics of euthanasia and put it to good use in the best interest of their animal patients. In countries which have legalized physician assisted suicide for the terminally ill reporting indicates that it works well, without increases in involuntary euthanasia and most importantly without intimidation of the vulnerable. However, there is still an ever increasing tendency to overuse sedation and opioids at the end of life, which merits further investigation. With advances in medical science able to significantly prolong the dying process, patient autonomy demands a review of the law in the UK.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0104.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: TRIP-assisted steel; microstructure; mechanical properties
Online: 5 November 2018 (10:37:56 CET)
: The effect that the microstructure exerts on the TRIP phenomenon and on the mechanical properties in a multiphase steel was studied. Samples of an initially cold-rolled ferrite-pearlite steel underwent different intercritical annealing treatments at 750 °C until an equal fractions of austenite/ferrite was reached; the intercritical treatment was followed by isothermal bainitic treatments before cooling the samples to room temperature. Samples in the first treatment were heated directly to the intercritical temperature, whereas other samples were heated to either 900 or 1100 °C to obtain a fully homogenized, single phase austenitic microstructure prior to the conducting the intercritical treatment. The high temperature homogenization of austenite resulted in the decrease in its stability, so a considerable austenite fraction transformed into martensite by cooling to room temperature after the bainitic heat treatment. Most of the retained austenite transformed during the tensile tests, and as a consequence, the previously homogenized steels showed the highest UTS. In turn, the steel with a ferritic-pearlitic initial microstructure, exhibited higher ductility than the other steels and texture components that favor forming processes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0373.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: metal assisted etching; metal assisted catalytic etching, silicon nanowires, porous silicon, porous powders, metal nanoparticles, deposition
Online: 14 June 2021 (15:04:41 CEST)
Electroless etching of semiconductors was elevated to an advanced micromachining process by the addition of a structured metal catalyst. Patterning of the catalyst by lithographic techniques facilitates the patterning of crystalline and polycrystalline wafer substrates. Galvanic deposition of metals on semiconductors has a natural tendency to produce nanoparticles rather than flat uniform films. This characteristic makes possible the etching of not only wafers but also particles with arbitrary shape. While it has been widely recognized that spontaneous deposition of metal nanoparticles can be used in connection with etching to porosify wafers, it is also possible to produced nanostructured powders. MACE can be controlled to produce (1) etch track pores with shapes and sizes closely related to the shape and size of the metal nanoparticle, (2) hierarchically porosified substrates exhibiting combinations of large etch track pores and mesopores, and (3) nanowires with either solid or mesoporous cores. This review discussed the mechanisms of porosification, processing advances and the properties of the etch product with special emphasis on the etching of silicon powders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0094.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: euthanasia; veterinary ethics; medical ethics; end-of-life; assisted suicide; palliative care; assisted dying; moral stress
Online: 1 December 2017 (16:58:27 CET)
This is the second of a series of two papers comparing the end of life issues in human and veterinary medicine. We outline the main differences between human and animal patients such as patient communication, finance and ‘conflicts of interest’ between animal, owner and veterinarian. We discuss striking similarities between human and veterinary issues such as assessing quality of life and the primary role of the attending veterinarian or doctor being the welfare and care of the patient. This paper takes the form of an ethical argument in favour of allowing euthanasia in human medicine, by providing insights into end of life issues for humans from an independent veterinary perspective. Veterinary surgeons are well trained in the ethics of euthanasia and put it to good use in the best interest of their animal patients. Doctors in the UK are limited and unwilling to put forward a case for the option of euthanasia for those patients who face a slow and agonizing death. With advances in medical science being able to significantly prolong the dying process, autonomy for the patient demands a review of the law regarding patient choice in the UK.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0370.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Targeted drug delivery, VX2 tumor, breast cancer, cryoablation, cryo-assisted injection, cryo-assisted resection, blue dye, epirubicin.
Online: 30 May 2019 (13:44:41 CEST)
Background: We assess locoregional drug targeting effectiveness of intraoperative (IO) cryoprobe-assisted injection of blue dye (BD) and cytotoxic-tracer mixture (TTM), in VX2 tumor model, and its translational value to cryo-assisted breast tumor surgery with BD alone. Methods: Under computed tomography (CT) guidance, we injected two ml TTM in five aliquots in the margin of 16 frozen or normothermic VX2 tumors. We evaluated the IO and post-operative drug targeting and therapeutic efficacy in tumor-host interface (T-HI) by CT, gross examination, and histopathology. In twenty-six T1 to T4 primary breast cancer (BRCA) we performed ultrasound-guided (US) cryoprobe-assisted tumor freezing, BD guided lymphatic mapping, and surgery. We evaluated, IO and in freshly resected specimen, BD distribution pattern in T-HI, lymph node(s), breast parenchyma, and resection cavity. Results: Fluids-impervious frozen VX2 or breast tumor transported drug(s) an arc-like pattern at T-HI regardless of freeze dose, number of freeze-thaw cycles, drug dose fractionation, tumor characteristics or dimensions. During melting, TTM spread within fifty percent VX2 tumor mirrored that of T-HI; it was massive in normothermia. In VX2 twenty percent focal margin necrosis at pathology coincided with CT gap; in both studies, BD dose-staining spread in T-HI and tumor was linear. Eighty-four patients had one to twelve stained axillary lymph nodes; sixty-nine percent and all respectively, had another quadrant and resection cavity stained. Conclusion: Intraoperative freezing-assisted drug delivery and targeting techniques during cryoablation of VX2 tumor translate successfully to locoregional BD targeting, lymphatic mapping during cryo-assisted surgery of breast cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0228.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: vegetables; high throughput phenotyping; genomic assisted breeding
Online: 26 April 2022 (06:00:45 CEST)
Conventional phenotyping breeding approaches for vegetable crops like Solanaceae, Bulb, Root crops, have made a significant contribution by developing many varieties. Despite this, conventional phenotyping approaches are not sufficient due to the longer time taken to develop a variety, low genetic gain, environmental factors and some other externalities that affect the phenotype-based selection. To address the challenges of conventional phenotype, a new recent method of high throughput phenotyping (HTP) is considered a promising tool. The development of high-throughput phenotyping technology began in the preceding decade as advancements in sensor, computer vision, automation, and advanced machine learning technologies. HTP platforms are being utilized to undertake non-destructive assessments of the complete plant system in a range of crops. HTP provides the precise measurements and suggests the collection of high-quality and accurate data which is necessary for standardizing phenotyping for the collection of genetic dissection and genomic assisted breeding such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS), linkage mapping, marker-assisted selection (MAS), genomic selection (GS). The remainder of this chapter discusses how high-throughput phenotyping technologies can be used in genomic-assisted breeding for vegetable crops
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0599.v1
Online: 29 January 2021 (06:03:03 CET)
Objective: The study aimed to explore the experiences of women undergoing Assisted Reproductive Technologies namely; Invitro Fertilization and Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection at the Finney Hospital and Fertility Centre, New Bortianor, Ghana. Method: A qualitative research design was employed to analyse and describe the experiences of the women seeking Assisted Reproductive Technologies. Fifteen women were invited and interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. The responses were transcribed verbatim and analysed using content analysis. Results: Three themes emerged from the study: the women’s experiences, challenges and the roles and contributions of significant others. The women were anxious, stressed-up, exhausted and financially burdened. Spouses and health professionals played significant roles by providing social, emotional and financial support for these women. Significant others such as spouses and close relatives were supportive and provided encouragement to the women. Conclusion: The experiences of women undergoing Assisted Reproductive Technologies are multi-dimensional. Thus psychosocial intervention as part of ART services with health insurance cover may be client-centered and more appropriate for these group of women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0021.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: cerebral palsy; robot assisted therapy; EMG; kinematic
Online: 3 January 2020 (02:38:16 CET)
Aim: To develop an index for quantitative assessment of the upper limb motor function in children with cerebral palsy before and after robot-assisted therapy. Method: An upper limb motor function index was developed using kinematic, surface electromyography and three-axis inertial measurements unit data collected from 15 children with cerebral palsy (CP) and 15 typically developed children. Children with CP underwent 18 robot-assisted therapy sessions with the REAplan device. All children were evaluated, using kinematic data from the REAplan, electromyography and three-axis inertial measurements unit readings from its accelerometer. A principal component analysis was conducted to produce an evaluation index, which is able to detect the deviation from the upper limb motor function of typically developing children group. Children with CP were evaluated twice before and after the intervention with Box and Blocks test and Finger-To-Nose test. The discriminative and concurrent validity of the upper limb motor function index were investigated. Results: The upper limb motor function index was higher in children with CP post therapy (p<0.001). Finger-To-Nose test values improved after robot-assisted therapy (p<0.03). A weak but positive correlation was observed between upper limb motor function index and clinical tests (r=0.012, p=0.95 and r=0.13, p= 0.54 for Box and Blocks test and Finger-To-Nose test respectively). Interpretation: The upper limb motor function index successfully differentiated between the typically developing children and children with CP and was effective in assessing the improvement of the upper limb motor function after robot-assisted therapy. The upper limb motor function index could be extended to assess and monitor rehabilitation therapies of other populations, such as those with stroke and Parkinson’s disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0341.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: microfoming; energy field assisted micro/nanoforming; ultrasonic vibration
Online: 21 December 2021 (13:53:15 CET)
Excitation of the acoustic field leading to the Blaha effect affects the plasticity of the material significantly in ultrasonic vibration-assisted forming. In a micro-forming field, the effects are more significant in the deformation in surface of materials -, in which reduction of the surface roughness based on the increasing of plastic deformation of surface asperity was effective . On the other hand, the effect on deformation behavior of the bulk region indicted reduction in the yield stress of materials, and not only acoustic effect , but also impact effect is found to generate a large amount of dislocation and produce plastic deformation . However, the effect on the bulk is more significant as that on the surface. Differences in the effect on the surface and the bulk are not clarified. In this study, the mechanism of the deformation in the surface of the material with ultrasonic vibration assistance is investigated and compared with that in the bulk. Forging tests using a newly developed ultrasonic vibrator were carried out on pure Cu foils with various process conditions. The longitudinal vibration frequency of the ultrasonic transducer is 60∓2kHz, and the vibration amplitude is in an adjustable range of 0~10μm. Forging test was carried out at different initial stress, specimen size and amplitude. The difference in acoustic softening and impact effects on the surface and the bulk was discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0471.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: Biodegradable polymers; Nanocomposite; Ultrasound-assisted; Mechanical properties; Montmorillonite
Online: 28 September 2021 (12:27:17 CEST)
The preparation of new materials based on starch for the development of biodegradable packaging is increasing, however, the poor properties of this biopolymer for this application causes an area of opportunities for the improvement of water vapour permeability (WVP), mechanical properties, thermal properties, hydrophilicity, water absorption, among others. Hence, starch has been combined with other polymers such as polyvinyl alcohol, which has shown an improvement in the mechanical properties of starch, also, the use of clays suggests that the properties of response to water can be improved. Therefore, in this work, the preparation and characterization of starch-PVA-nanoclay films prepared by solvent casting is reported. The results obtained suggest that the sonication of nanoclay is necessary to reach a good dispersion, which promotes a strong interaction among starch-PVA-nanoclay. In addition, the properties of WVP and mechanical properties of films improved with incorporation of nanoclay, the concentration of 0.5% w/v of nanoclay showed to be the best concentration due to concentrations of 1.0 and 1.5% w/v were poorer than 0.5% w/v. Accordingly, the successful incorporation of nanoclays into the matrix starch-PVA suggests that this material is a good candidate for use as packaging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0234.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: cannabis; THC; CBD; microwave assisted extraction; continuous flow
Online: 11 July 2020 (09:04:17 CEST)
Cannabis is a flowering plant that has long been used for medicinal, therapeutic, and recreational purposes. Cannabis contains more than 500 different compounds, including a unique class of terpeno-phenolic compounds known as cannabinoids; Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are the most prevalent cannabinoids and have been associated with the therapeutic and medicinal properties of the cannabis plant. In this paper, continuous flow microwave assisted extraction (MAE) is presented and compared with other methods for commercial cannabis extraction. The practical issues of each extraction method are discussed. The main advantages of MAE are: continuous-flow method which allows for higher volumes of biomass to be processed in less time than existing extraction methods, improved extraction efficiency leading to increased final product yields, improved extract consistency and quality because the process does not require stopping and restarting material flows, and ease of scale-up to industrial scale without the use of pressurised batch vessels. Moreover, due to the flexibility of changing the operation conditions, MAE eliminates additional steps required in most extraction methods, such as biomass decarboxylation, winterisation, which typically adds at least a half day to the extraction process. Another factor that sets MAE apart is the ability to achieve high extraction efficiency even at the industrial scale. Whereas the typical recovery of active compounds using supercritical CO¬2 remains around 70-80%, via MAE up to 95% of the active compounds from cannabis biomass can be recovered at the industrial scale.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0158.v1
Online: 12 December 2019 (03:52:07 CET)
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) supplies nourishment to about half of the population of the world's inhabitants. Of them, more than 2 billion people suffer from "hidden hunger" in which they are unable to meet the recommended nutrients or micronutrients from their daily dietary intake. Bio-fortification refers to developing micronutrient-rich diet foods using traditional breeding methods and modern biotechnology, a promising approach to nutrition enrichment as part of an integrated strategy for food systems. To improve the profile of rice grain for the biofortification related traits, understanding the genetics of important biofortification traits is required. Moreover, these attributes are quantitative in nature and are influenced by several genes and environmental variables. In the course of past decades, several endeavours such, as finding the important quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for improving the nutrient profile of rice seeds were successfully undertaken. In this review, we have presented the information regarding the QTLs identified for the biofortification traits in the rice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0232.v2
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: microfluidic; microelectrodes; negatively charged; TiO2; assisted reproductive technology
Online: 18 September 2018 (10:34:00 CEST)
This research was presented the special designed microfluidic device generated for sperm separation based on assumption of different surface electrical charged of sperms X and Y. However, to avoid ethical problem, the microfluidic chip has been tested with the mimic electrical charged particles, TiO2-coated Polystyrene beads, (TiO2-coated Ps-beads), instead of spermatozoa. The work has been separated into three main parts. Firstly, the simply but efficient fabrication of negatively charged TiO2-coated Ps-beads has been presented. In addition, various characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Tungsten Scanning Electron Microscopy (W-SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) mode, and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), have been reported in this work to elucidate the reasons behind the persistence of negatively charged on the surface of TiO2-coated Ps-beads. Results show that the fabricated TiO2-coated Ps-beads was partly coated in the mixed forms of amorphous Ti4+ and had caused a negatively charge to appear on the surface after fabrication and had sustained its electrical charged for long. Secondly, process of simulation and fabrication of microfluidic device was presented. Finally the negatively charged TiO2-coated Ps-beads were tested in this microfluidic devices. For design of microfluidic devices integrated with a couple of microelectrodes, the simulated structures were fabricated by photolithographic technique and tested with the Ps-beads. Percentage of validation for Ps-beads separation indicated that the 100 mm-distance-between-electrodes microfluidic device exhibits to be the highest performance prototype at 86.96%. For further confirmation, another model so called the single path prototype has been established. It is confirmed by 92.59% of validation for the utilization of the device. The successfully designed microfluidic devices can be examined with actual spermatozoa later. Furthermore, process to fabricate the negatively charged TiO2-coated Ps-beads can be established as testified samples for development of other microfluidic devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0418.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: CAST; Lgr5; WNT; Gastric cancer; Machine assisted searching; macrophage
Online: 20 August 2021 (14:00:27 CEST)
Background: Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading malignancy diseases worldwide, especially in Asian. CAST is a potential oncogene in GC carcinogenesis process. The character of macrophage infiltration in GC microenvironment was also unaddressed. Methods: We first applied machine searching in gene candidate evaluation of GC. CAST expression was analyzed via the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) and Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis 2 (GEPIA2) database. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was downloaded from STRING. We investigated the impact of CAST on clinical prognosis using Kaplan-Meier plotter. The correlations between CAST and Lgr5 and macrophage infiltration in GC was surveyed via TIMER 2.0. Finally, GeneMANIA was also used to evaluate the possible functional linkage between genes. Results: After machine-assisted searching, CAST expression was found signicant difference in the overall survival of GC patients. STRING revealed CAST related proteomics and transcriptomics associations, mainly about CAPN family. Moreover, CAST significantly impacts the prognosis of GC from other datasets validation. Notably, high CAST expression was correlated with worse overall survival in GC patients (hazard ratio = 1.59; logrank P = 9.4 x 10-8). CAST and Lgr5 expressions were both positively correlated with WNT 2 and WNT 2B. Among GC patients in several datasets, CAST and macrophage infiltration evaluated together showed no obvious trend toward poor clinical overall survival. Conclusion: CAST plays an important role in GC clinical prognosis and is associated with WNT 2/WNT 2B/Lgr5. Our study denmostrated that CAST in GC overall survival is regulated by macrophage infiltration.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0390.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Hybrid Vigor; Heterosis; Bulked Segregant Analysis; Marker Assisted Selection
Online: 13 November 2020 (15:47:40 CET)
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a perennial, outcrossing legume crop predominantly grown for hay, silage, or pasture. Intensive selection has resulted in dramatic improvement in fitness traits, including winter survival and disease resistance. However, there has been minimal improvement in other economically important traits, such as hay yield, which is still comparable to 30 years ago. Intensive phenotyping costs on this type of trait hinder high selection pressure to identify superior outcross individuals. Severe inbreeding depression inhibits the development of inbred lines with accumulated favorable alleles that exhibit heterosis. This review highlights the outcomes of inbreeding depression as well as the causes, including unmasking deleterious alleles and triggering self-incompatibility. We tracked the research efforts that unveil the genetic bases underlying deleterious alleles and self-incompatibility. The magnitudes of inbreeding depression were compared with the rate of heterozygous halved time in diploid and tetraploid organisms. To fill in the gaps between the controversy and existing hypotheses, we theorized a dosage dominant model of inheritance. The dosage dominant model is similar to the Mendelian dominance model, in which a genotype exhibits a dominant phenotype if there is a dominant allele (alphabet dominant). The difference is that in the dosage dominant model, a genotype will result in a dominant phenotype if the number of dominant alleles is equal to or greater than the number of recessive alleles. This review also includes a discussion on the development of pseudo inbreds and a hypothesis to identify deleterious alleles using bulked segregant analysis and consequently to purge deleterious alleles using marker-assisted selection, to progress toward the successful development of pure inbred lines in alfalfa.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0088.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Gene pyramiding; marker assisted selection; stress resistance; crop improvement
Online: 4 August 2020 (11:10:22 CEST)
Sustainable agricultural production is endangered by several ecological factors such as drought, extreme temperatures, excessive salts, parasitic ailments, and insect pest infestation. These challenging environmental factors may have adverse effects on future agriculture production in many countries. In modern agriculture, conventional crop breeding techniques alone are inadequate for achieving the increasing population’s food demand on a sustainable basis. The advancement of molecular genetics and related technologies are promising tools for the selection of new crop species. Gene pyramiding through marker assisted selection (MAS) and other techniques have accelerated the development of durable resistant/tolerant lines with high accuracy in the shortest possible period of time for agricultural sustainability. Gene stacking has not been fully utilized for biotic stress resistance development and quality improvement in most of the major cultivated crops. This review emphasizes on gene pyramiding techniques that are being successfully deployed in modern agriculture for improving crop tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses for sustainable crop improvement.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0040.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Bone fracture fixation; Osteosynthesis; Preoperative planning; Computer-assisted; Virtual surgery
Online: 2 September 2022 (15:30:04 CEST)
Background Bone fracture fixation surgery is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures in the orthopedic field. However, fracture healing complications occur frequently, and the choice of the most optimal surgical approach often remains challenging. In the last years, computational tools have been developed with the aim to assist preoperative planning procedures of bone fracture fixation surgery. Objectives The aims of this review are (1) to provide a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art in computer-assisted preoperative planning of bone fracture fixation surgery, (2) to assess the clinical feasibility of the existing virtual planning approaches, and (3) to assess their clinical efficacy in terms of clinical outcomes as compared to conventional planning methods. Methods A literature search was performed in the MEDLINE-PubMed, Ovid-EMBASE, Ovid-EMCARE, Web of Science, and Cochrane libraries to identify articles reporting on the clinical use of computer-assisted preoperative planning of bone fracture fixation. Results 79 articles were included to provide an overview of the state-of-the art in virtual planning. While patient-specific geometrical model construction, virtual bone fracture reduction, and virtual fixation planning are routinely applied in virtual planning, biomechanical analysis is rarely included in the planning framework. 21 of the included studies were used to assess the feasibility and efficacy of computer-assisted planning methods. The reported total mean planning duration ranged from 22 to 258 minutes in different studies. Computer-assisted planning resulted in reduced operation time (Standardized Mean Difference (SMD): -2.19; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): -2.87, -1.50), less blood loss (SMD: -1.99; 95% CI: -2.75, -1.24), decreased frequency of fluoroscopy (SMD: -2.18; 95% CI: -2.74, -1.61), shortened fracture healing times (SMD:-0.51; 95% CI: -0.97, -0.05) and less postoperative complications (Risk Ratio (RR): 0.64, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.90). No significant differences were found in hospitalization duration. Some studies reported improvements in reduction quality and functional outcomes but these results were not pooled for meta-analysis, since the reported outcome measures were too heterogeneous. Conclusions Current computer-assisted planning approaches are feasible to be used in clinical practice and have been shown to improve clinical outcomes. Including biomechanical analysis into the framework has the potential to further improve clinical outcome.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0546.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: chemical graph theory; computational chemistry; CASE; computer-assisted structure elucidation
Online: 29 November 2021 (15:35:43 CET)
The chemical graph theory is a subfield of mathematical chemistry which applies classic graph theory to chemical entities and phenomena. Chemical graphs are main data structures to represent chemical structures in cheminformatics. Computable properties of graphs lay the foundation for (quantitative) structure activity and structure property predictions - a core discipline of cheminformatics. It has a historic relevance for natural sciences, such as chemistry, biochemistry and biology, and is in the heart of modern disciplines, such as cheminformatics and bioinformatics. This review first covers the history of chemical graph theory, then provides an overview of its various techniques and applications for CASE, and finally summarises modern tools using chemical graph theory for CASE.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0454.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Review; Electric Field; Ionic wind; Electric assisted combustion; Soot emission
Online: 22 October 2020 (09:54:38 CEST)
Electric field assisted combustion is an important means to improve fuel combustion efficiency. This paper conducts extensive research on flame characteristics under different forms and different application methods of electric fields, emission of soot particles and simulation status. Different flame parameter measurement methods will lead to different degrees of error, and perfect numerical simulation can make simple predictions on experimental data. Most of the current numerical simulations are in two dimensions, and it is necessary to develop a complete and accurate three-dimensional model to simulate and predict the characteristics of the flame under an electric field. The emission of soot particles is also affected by the electric field, and reasonable electric field parameters can greatly reduce the emission of soot particles. It is recommended to conduct centralized measurement of different fuels under the electric field under high pressure and temperature conditions, so as to be able to develop a wider and more accurate flame dynamics and chemical model under the electric field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0315.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: adaptive streaming; HTTP/2; server push; unfairness; network-assisted; proxy
Online: 20 March 2020 (10:13:07 CET)
HTTP/2 video streaming has caught a lot of attentions in the development of multimedia technologies over the last few years. In HTTP/2, the server push mechanism allows the server to deliver more video segments to the client within a single request in order to deal with the requests explosion problem. As a result, recent research efforts have been focusing on utilizing such a feature to enhance the streaming experience while reducing the request-related overhead. However, current works only optimize the performance of a single client, without necessary concerns of possible influences on other clients in the same network. When multiple streaming clients compete for a shared bandwidth in HTTP/1.1, they are likely to suffer from unfairness, which is defined as the inequality in their bitrate selections. For HTTP/1.1, existing works have proven that the network-assisted solutions are effective in solving the unfairness problem. However, the feasibility of utilizing such an approach for the HTTP/2 server push has not been investigated. Therefore, in this paper, a novel proxy-based framework is proposed to overcome the unfairness problem in adaptive streaming over HTTP/2 with the server push. Experimental results confirm the outperformance of the proposed framework in ensuring the fairness, assisting the clients to avoid rebuffering events and lower bitrate degradation amplitude, while maintaining the mechanism of the server push feature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0092.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Internet-assisted; English reading teaching; innovative designs; impact; constructivism theory
Online: 9 September 2019 (07:55:44 CEST)
With the development of Internet technology, teachers are constantly seeking innovative teaching methods to match the potential of enhanced technology. Although many studies have been performed before , they aren’t enough in this field. The purpose of this paper is to explore innovative teaching designs and examine the impact of Internet-assisted English teaching of reading based on constructivism. The case is carried out in NO.9 middle school of Bengbu, a underdeveloped area of China, most of students aren’t interested in learning English .We compared Internet-assisted with traditional textbook literature methods to improve the reading proficiency of students, using a questionnaire survey,pre-test and post-tests comparisons. The result showed Internet-assisted English reading teaching is better than textbook. It can arouse students' interest and motivation,reading proficiency and exam result of students have been improved significantly, created a positive learning situation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0105.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: MAPLE; Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation; microemulsion; lipase; thin film
Online: 21 September 2017 (17:10:01 CEST)
MAPLE (matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation) depositions of Candida Rugosa lipase were carried out from ice matrices whose composition is optimized in order to minimize conformational damage of the protein, which strongly influences its catalytic activity. To induce lid opening and to protect lipase during the MAPLE process, pentane and m-DOPA amino acid were added to the liquid matrix giving a target formed by a frozen water-lipase-pentane microemulsion. FTIR and AFM were used to investigate the structure of MAPLE deposited lipase films. The ability of MAPLE films to promote transesterification was determined by thin layer chromatography. It was shown that m-DOPA has influence on the aggregation but not on the unfolding of lipase induced by MAPLE, while the microemulsion formed by the addition of pentane to the target composition is effective in protecting lipase during the MAPLE process. MAPLE deposited lipases showed a modified specificity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0322.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: virtual reality in education; virtual reality assisted simulation; intelligent transportation systems
Online: 19 December 2022 (04:12:24 CET)
Simulation-based education is a part of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) education. The paper discusses the experimental success of using Virtual Reality (VR) technology in simulation-based ITS education to improve the quality of education while increasing immersion and motivation. The study documents the application of VR technology to a microscopic simulation model and the methodology to capture and evaluate student experiences. The study discusses findings and ways to improve the planned VR technology implementation in the ITS laboratory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0377.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization; bioimpedance analysis; thoracolumbar fascia; water content
Online: 25 October 2022 (03:47:47 CEST)
Background: Instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization (IASTM) is thought to alter fluid dynamics in human soft tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of IASTM on the thoracolumbar fascia (TLF) on the water content of the lumbar myofascial tissue. Methods: 21 healthy volunteers were treated with IASTM. Before and after the procedure and 5 and 10 minutes later, lumbar bioimpedance was measured by bioimpedance analysis (BIA) and TLF stiffness by indentometry. Tissue temperature was recorded at the measurement time points using an infrared thermometer. Results: Bioimpedance increased significantly from 58.3 to 60.4 Ω (p < 0.001) at 10-minute follow-up after the treatment. Temperature increased significantly from 36.3 to 36.6° Celsius from 5 to 10 minutes after treatment (p = 0.029), while lumbar myofascial stiffness did not change significantly (p = 0.84). Conclusions: After the IASTM intervention, there was a significant increase in bioimpedance, likely due to a decrease in water content in myofascial lumbar tissue. Further studies in a randomized control trial design are needed to extrapolate the results in healthy subjects to a symptomatic population as well and to confirm the reliability of BIA in myofascial tissue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0311.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: robot-assisted gait training; rehabilitation; stroke; cardiorespiratory fitness; robotics; disability; locomotion
Online: 23 March 2022 (08:40:16 CET)
Robot-assisted gait training (RAGT) is a promising treatment for stroke rehabilitation. Although the coordination between the upper and lower limbs is important for locomotor training, commercially available robotics for gait training mainly focus on the restoration of lower limb function. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and usability of complex upper and lower limb RAGT in stroke patients using the GTR-A®, end effector-type robotic device. Patients with subacute stroke (N=9) received 30-minute RAGT thrice a week for two weeks (six sessions). Functionally, the hand grip strength (HGS), Functional Ambulatory Categories, modified Barthel Index, muscle strength test sum score, Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up and Go test, and Short Physical Performance Battery were used. The heart rate and a structured questionnaire were used to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness and the usability of RAGT. Among the nine patients, all functional parameters between the baseline and post-training were significantly improved after RAGT, except for HGS and the muscle strength test. The questionnaire’s mean scores for each domain were as follows: safety 4.40±0.35, effects 4.23±0.31, efficiency 4.22±0.77, and satisfaction 4.41±0.25. The GTR-A® is a feasible and safe robotic device for patients with gait impairment after stroke. It showed functional improvement with endurance training effects.
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: stress; plasma ion-assisted deposition; TiO2 film; SiO2 film; annealing treatment.
Online: 17 July 2020 (09:27:49 CEST)
Optical and mechanical properties of multilayer coatings depend on the selected layer materials and the deposition technology; therefore, knowledge of the performances of thin films is essential. In the present work, titanium dioxide (TiO2) and silicon dioxide (SiO2) thin films have been prepared by plasma ion-assisted deposition (PIAD). The optical, structural, and mechanical properties of thin films have been investigated using spectrometer/ellipsometer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and laser interferometer. The results show that TiO2 film fabricated by PIAD induces a high refractive index, wide optical band gap, amorphous structure, smooth surface, and tensile stress. In the case of SiO2 film, high bias voltage leads to dense structure and compressive stress. As an application, a three-wavelength high reflectance at 632.8, 808, and 1550nm is optimized and deposited. The dependence of total stress in the multilayer on the substrate temperature is studied as well. In conclusion, it is demonstrated that PIAD is an effective method for the preparation of ultralow stress TiO2/SiO2 multilayer films. The achieved stress is as low as 1.4Mpa. The result could provide guidance to the stress optimization of most optical components without prefiguring, backside coating, and post-deposition treatments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0101.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Anesthesiology Keywords: chronic pain; epigenetics; neuropathic pain; postoperative pain; thoracic surgery; video-assisted
Online: 10 November 2019 (09:29:13 CET)
Background: Elucidation of epigenetic mechanisms correlating with neuropathic pain in humans is crucial for the prevention and treatment of this treatment-resistant pain state. In the present study, associations between neuropathic pain characteristics and DNA methylation of the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1(TRPA1) gene were evaluated in chronic pain patients and preoperative patients. Methods: Pain and psychological states were prospectively assessed in patients who suffered chronic pain or were scheduled for thoracic surgery. Neuropathic characteristics were assessed using the Douleur Neuropathique 4 (DN4) questionnaire. DNA methylation levels of the CpG island in the TRPA1 gene were examined using whole blood. Results: Forty-eight adult patients were enrolled in this study. Increases in DNA methylation rates at CpG -51 showed positive correlations with increases in the DN4 score both in preoperative and chronic pain patients. Combined methylation rates at CpG -51 also significantly increased together with increase in DN4 scores. Conclusions: Neuropathic pain characteristics are likely associated with methylation rates at the promoter region of the TRPA1 gene in human peripheral blood.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0170.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: topic modelling; latent dirichlet allocation; text mining; assisted reproduction; ART; IVF
Online: 15 April 2019 (12:25:12 CEST)
Study question: What are the current trends of research in Human Assisted Reproduction around the world? Summary answer: USA is the leading country, followed by the UK, China, France and Italy. The largest research area is “laboratory techniques”, although other areas such as “public health”, “quality, ethics and law” and “female factor” are gaining ground worldwide. What is known already: Scientific research, especially in health and medical sciences, aims at addressing specific needs that society (and, especially, patients) perceives as pressing. One of the main challenges for policymakers and research funders alike is therefore to align research priorities to societal needs. We can thus think of research agendas in terms of a demand side (societal needs) and a supply side (research outputs). Research output in Human Assisted Reproduction has expanded in the past years, as indicated by the increasing number of scientific publications in indexed journals in this area. Nevertheless, no map of research related to assisted reproduction has been produced so far, hindering the identification of potential areas of improvement and need. Study design, size, duration: 26,000+ scientific publications (articles, letters, and reviews) on Human Assisted Reproduction produced worldwide between 2005 and 2016 were analyzed. These publications were indexed in PubMed or obtained from reference list of indexed publications included in the analysis.Participants/materials, setting, methods: The corpus of publications was obtained by combining the MeSH terms: “Reproductive techniques”, “Reproductive medicine”, “Reproductive health”, “Fertility”, “Infertility”, and “Germ cells”. Then it was analyzed by means of text mining algorithms (Topic Modeling (TM) based on Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA)), in order to obtain the main topics of interest. Finally, these categories were analyzed across world regions and time. Main results and the role of chance: We identified 44 main topics, which were further grouped in 11 macro categories, form larger to smaller: “laboratory techniques”, “male factor”, “quality, ethics and law”, “female factor”, “public health and infectious diseases”, “basic research and genetics”, “pregnancy complications and risks”, “general infertility and ART”, “psychosocial aspects”, “cancer”, and “research methodology”. The USA was the leading country in number of publications, followed by the UK, China, France and Italy. Interestingly, research contents in high income countries is fairly homogeneous across macro-categories, and it is dominated by “laboratory techniques” in Western and Southern Europe, and by “quality, ethics and law” in North America, Australia and New Zealand. In middle income countries we observe that research is mainly performed on “male factor”, and noticeably less on “female factor”. Finally, research on “public health and infectious diseases” predominates in low-income countries. Regarding temporal evolution of research, “laboratory techniques” is the most abundant topic on a yearly basis, and relatively constant over time. However, since production in most of the other categories is increasing, the relative contribution of this research category is actually decreasing. Publication is especially increasing in “public health and infectious diseases” (in all world regions, but especially in low income countries), “quality, ethics and law” (high income countries), and “female factor” (middle income countries). Limitations, reasons for caution: Three main factors might limit the robustness of our work: the textual corpus analyzed is based on abstract and titles, the reproducibility of the stochastic algorithms applied, which may produce slightly differing results at each run, and the interpretation of the topics obtained. Wider implications of the findings: This study should prove beneficial in the design of research strategies and policies that foster the alignment between supply (assisted reproduction research) and demand (society). Study funding/competing interest(s): PTQ-14-06718 of the Spanish MINECO Torres Quevedo programme (FAM).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0170.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: context-aware; UAV-assisted networks; communication probability; cache content; potential game
Online: 10 September 2018 (12:45:40 CEST)
This paper investigates the problem of the optimal arrangement for both UAVs’ caching contents and service locations in UAV-assisted networks based on the context awareness, which considers the influence between users and environment. In the existing work, users within the coverage of UAVs are considered to be served perfectly, which ignores the communication probability caused by line-of-sight (LOS) and non- line-of-sight (NLOS) links. However, the links are related to UAV deployment. Moreover, the transmission overhead should be taken into account. To balance the tradeoff between these two factors, we design the ratio of users’ probability and transmission overhead as the performance measure mechanism to evaluate the performance of UAV-assisted networks. Then, we formulate the objective for maximizing the performance of UAV-assisted networks as a UAV-assisted caching game. It is proved that the game is an exact potential game with the performance of UAV-assisted networks serving as the potential function. Next, we propose the log-linear caching algorithm (LCA) to achieve the Nash equilibrium (NE). Finally, related simulation results reflect the great performance of the proposed algorithm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0283.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: 24-hour recall; nutrition assessment; technology assisted dietary assessment; gestational diabetes
Online: 16 July 2018 (12:12:42 CEST)
myfood24 is a comprehensive self-completed online 24-hour dietary recall tool currently used for nutritional assessments in epidemiological research. However, its clinical application has been unexplored. This mixed methods prospective observational study explores the acceptability and usability of myfood24 in a clinical population, women with gestational diabetes (GDM). Women were recruited at their first diabetes antenatal clinic appointment. To assess acceptability and usability, they were asked to complete five 24-hour dietary recalls using myfood24 over two weeks and a user experience questionnaire; with a subset invited to participate in a one-to-one semi-structured interview. Of the 199 participants, mean maternal age was 33 years, mean booking BMI 29.7kg/m2, 36% primiparous, 57% White, 33% Asian. Of these 121 (61%) completed myfood24 at least once and 73 (37%) completed the user questionnaire; 15 were interviewed. Usability of myfood24 was measured using the System Usability Scale (SUS) and found to be good (mean 70.9, 95%CI 67.1, 74.6). Interviews identified several areas for improvement, including optimising its use for mobile devices. myfood24 appears to be acceptable and have potential to support self-management and behaviour change for women with GDM but requires adaptation to record blood glucose results alongside real-time tracking of diet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0388.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: microwave assisted extraction (MAE); canolol; sinapine; high temperature; de-oiled canola; processing
Online: 21 November 2022 (11:45:34 CET)
Canola is the major oilseed crop of Canada. The de-oiled material is an important by-product due to its rich phenolic profile and high protein content. This co-processing stream from canola is primarily utilized as animal feed but represents an invaluable source of nutraceuticals. Microwave-assisted solvent extraction (MAE), as a green extraction method, has received considerable attention in recent times. The ease of use and application of many solvents at the same time makes the MAE one of the best methods for studying multiple solvents at the same time. The formation of canolol, from sinapine and sinapic acid, is primarily dependant on temperature which favors the decarboxylation reaction. Hence, MAE using green extractants can be used to enhance the yield of canolol. This study examined the effects of different pre-treatment temperature-time combinations of 140, 150, 160, and 170℃ for 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 minutes on the extraction of canolol and other canola endogenous phenolic compounds. Three antioxidant assays assessed the antioxidant activity of the different extracts obtained by MAE confirming the microwave as a novel and versatile instrument for enhancing the yield of canolol. Improvements in the antioxidant activity of the different extracts further established the efficacy of the current method for isolating important natural phenolic derivatives for utilization by the nutraceutical industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0493.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: water-assisted laser desorption/ionization; SpiderMass; cannabinoids; mass spectrometry; plants; in vivo
Online: 30 December 2021 (19:02:18 CET)
In the recent years, Cannabis and hemp-based products have become increasingly popular for various applications ranging from recreational use, edibles, beverages to health care products and medicines. The rapid detection and differentiation of phytocannabinoids is, therefore, essential to assess the potency, therapeutic and nutritional values of cannabis cultivars. Here, we implemented the SpiderMass technology for the in vivo detection of cannabidiol acid (CBDA) and tetrahydrocannabinol acid (THCA) and other endogenous organic plant compounds to access distribution gradients within the plants and differentiate cultivars. The SpiderMass system is composed of an IR- laser handheld microsampling probe connected to the mass spectrometer through a transfer tube. The analysis was performed in situ on different plant organs from freshly cultivated Cannabis plants in only a few seconds. SpiderMass analysis easily discriminated the two acid phytocannabinoid isomers by MS/MS and the built statistical models differentiated between four Cannabis cultivars. Different abundancies of acid phytocannabinoids were also found along the plant as well as between different cultivars. All together, these results introduce the direct analysis by SpiderMass as a compelling analytical alternative for forensic and hemp industrial analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0108.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Capacitation; Computer-assisted sperm analysis; Hyperactivation; Sex-sorted semen; Sperm motility subpopulation
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:08:43 CEST)
We attempted to establish an objective method to accurately evaluate the motility of bull sperm and examined the effects of media for sperm suspensions and frame rates on data of computer-assisted sperm motility analysis (CASA). Sperm incubated in Brackett and Oliphant medium (BO) more clearly showed hyperactivation-like motility than those in synthetic oviductal fluid. Sperm images captured at 150 frames per second (fps) showed a trajectory that was closer to the real pathway than those at other frame rates (30, 50, and 75 fps). We then examined the characteristics of sex-sorted and non-sorted semen using a cluster analysis followed by a discriminant analysis of sperm motility in BO at 150 fps. The results indicated that sex-sorted semen contained sperm with hyperactivation-like motility as the main subpopulation immediately after thawing and this subpopulation decreased after 2-h incubation. The main subpopulation in non-sorted semen had progressive motility that was maintained during incubation. In conclusion, usage of BO for sperm suspensions and capturing sperm motility at 150 fps by CASA were appropriate for evaluating bovine sperm motility. A discriminant analysis using data from a cluster analysis of motile sperm has the ability to accurately describe differences in the structures of sperm motility subpopulations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0132.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Wine yeast; malic acid; pH; breeding; Malo Lactic Fermentation; Marker Assisted Selection
Online: 3 March 2021 (12:43:08 CET)
Background Natural Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains exhibit very large genotypic and phe-notypic diversity. Breeding programs taking advantage of this characteristic, are widely used for yeast selection in the wine industry, especially in the recent years when winemakers need to adapt their production to climate change. The aim of this work was to evaluate a Marker Assisted Se-lection (MAS) program to improve malic acid consumption capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in grape juice. Methods Optimal individuals of two unrelated F1-hybrids were crossed to get a new genetic background carrying many “malic consumer” loci. Then, eleven QTLs already identified were used for implementing the MAS breeding program. Results By this way, extreme individuals able to consume more than 70% of malic acid in grape juice were selected. These individuals were tested in different enological matrixes and compared to their original parental strains. They greatly reduced the malic acid content at the end of alcoholic fermentations, they appeared to be robust to the environment and accelerate the ongoing of malo-lactic fermentations by Oenococcus oeni. Conclusions This study illustrates how MAS can be efficiently used for selecting industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with outlier properties for winemaking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0176.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: lithium niobate microring resonator; silicon nitride waveguide; photolithography assisted chemo-mechanical etching
Online: 4 November 2020 (08:45:06 CET)
We demonstrate hybrid integration of a lithium niobate microring resonator with a silicon nitride waveguide in the vertical configuration to achieve efficient light coupling. The microring resonator is fabricated on a lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) substrate using photolithography assisted chemo-mechanical etching (PLACE). A fused silica cladding layer is deposited on the LNOI ring resonator. The silicon nitride waveguide is further produced on the fused silica cladding layer by first fabricating a trench in the fused silica using focused ion beam (FIB) etching for facilitating the evanescent coupling, followed by formation of the silicon nitride waveguide on the bottom of the trench. The FIB etching ensures the required high positioning accuracy between the waveguide and the ring resonator. We achieve Q-factors as high as 1.4*10^7 with the vertically integrated device.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0117.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: acute compartment syndrome; negative pressure wound therapy; vacuum assisted wound closure; fasciotomy
Online: 8 April 2020 (04:50:32 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is an emergency condition of the lower limb in which prophylactic fasciotomy is required to prevent complications. A negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) used to the treatment of fasciotomy wounds provide beneficial clinical results. This study aimed to exchange the authors’ experience of using the NPWT installation system on the lower limb wounds after fasciotomy in ACS. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study enrolled consecutive patients with ACS, who underwent fasciotomy and was treated with the NPWT installation system at Department of Vascular Surgery, Provincial Hospital in Kielce from April 2016 to July 2017. Results: The study enrolled 15 patients with a diagnosis of ACS (87% men, mean age 65 years old). An open four-compartment fasciotomy (87%) or two-compartment fasciotomy (13%) was performed. The NPWT was applied on the first day after fasciotomy in 87% of patients. Therapy was initiated by the negative pressure of 125 mm Hg, which maintained at this level until the therapy was finalized. In 80% of patients, the vacuum-assisted wound closure (VAC) dressing changes were performed every 3 days. The first approximation of fasciotomy wounds margins occurred on the 4th day after surgery among 67% of individuals. The average time of using VAC on fasciotomy wounds was 9 days. The average time to definitive closure edges of fasciotomy wounds was 12 days. The average time of hospital stay was 17 days. Conclusions: Our experience indicates the legitimacy of using NPWT in wound treatment after fasciotomy in ACS. The NPWT enables faster primary closure of wounds, reduces edema, as well as decreases hospitalization time.
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: dried Chinese sausage; fat replacement; mango peel pectin; microwave-assisted extraction technique
Online: 11 March 2020 (03:07:13 CET)
In this research, low-fat dried Chinese sausage was formulated with mango peel pectin (MPP) extracted by microwave assisted extraction (MAE) (0%, 5%, 10% and 15% (w/w). The extractable yield of pectin attained from peel of Nam Dok Mai variety was achieved at 13.85% using 700-watt power. The extracted MPP were of high equivalent weight (1,485.78 mg/mol), degree esterification (77.19%) and methoxyl content (19.33%) with the structure of more porosity as compared to that of the conventional method. Spectrum scans by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR) advised that the extracted MPP gave the similar wave number profiles as the commercial pectin. Quality attributes of the Chinese sausages were accessed and compared with the control formula (CTRL). At higher concentrations of MPP, the product had positively increased colour intensity. The texture profile of the sausage illustrated that only the hardness value was comparable with the CTRL, while springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness were statistically lower (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the sensory evaluation by experienced panellists (n=12) indicated that 5% MPP similarly represented overall acceptability with the CTRL. Consequently, MPP can be effectively applied at low level as fat replacement in Chinese sausage allowing colour improvement and product of healthier option.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0166.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: DArTseq; Groundnut; Linkage disequilibrium; Marker assisted selection; Marker trait association; Physiological traits
Online: 12 July 2019 (11:42:33 CEST)
In order to integrate genomics in breeding and development of drought tolerant groundnut genotypes, identification of genomic regions/genetic markers for drought surrogate traits is essential. We used SNP markers for a genetic analysis of the ICRISAT groundnut minicore collection for genome wide marker-trait association for some physiological traits and to determine the magnitude of linkage disequilibrium (LD) present in the genetic resources. The LD analysis showed that about 36% of loci pairs were in significant LD (P < 0.05 and r2 > 0.2) and 3.14% of the pairs were in complete LD. There was rapid decline in LD with distance and the LD was <0.2 at a distance of 41635 bp. The marker trait association (MTAs) studies revealed 20 significant MTAs (p <0.001) with 11 markers for leaf area index (4), canopy temperature (13), chlorophyll content (1) and NDVI (2). The markers explained 2 to 21% of the phenotypic variation observed. Most of the MTAs identified on the A subgenome were also identified on the respective homeologous chromosome on the B subgenome. The duplications of effect observed could be due to common ancestor of the A and B genome which explains the linkage detected between markers lying on different chromosomes seen in the current study. The present study identified a total of 20 highly significant marker trait associations with 11 markers for four physiological traits of importance in groundnut; LAI, CT, SCMR and NDVI. The markers identified in this study can serve as useful genomic resources to initiate marker-assisted selection and trait introgression of groundnut for drought tolerance. The identified markers in this study may be useful for marker assisted selection after further validation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0509.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Sinapis alba L.; Sinapis nigra L.; ultrasound-assisted extraction; antiproliferative; proapoptotic; antimicrobial.
Online: 22 October 2018 (16:04:24 CEST)
High Brassicaceae consumption reduces the risk of developing several cancer types, probably due to their glucosinolate amount. Extracts from Sinapis nigra L. and Sinapis alba L. have been obtained from leaves and seeds under different conditions using ethanol/water mixtures because well accepted by food industry. The EtOH/H2O 8:2 mixture gives better yields in glucosinolate amounts from grinded seeds, mainly sinalbin in S. alba and sinigrin in S. nigra. The highest antiproliferative activity in both non-tumour and tumour cell lines was induced by S. alba seeds extract. To evaluate whether Sinapis spp effect was only due to glucosinolate content or it was influenced by the extracts’ complexity, cells were treated with extracts or glucosinolates, in the presence of myrosinase. Pure sinigrin did not modify cell proliferation, while pure sinalbin was less effective than the extract. The addition of myrosinase increased the antiproliferative effects of the S. nigra extract and sinigrin. Antiproliferative activity was correlated to MAPKs modulation, which was cell and extract-dependent. Cell-cycle analysis evidenced a proapoptotic effect of S. alba on both tumour cell lines and of S. nigra only on HCT 116. Both extracts showed good antimicrobial activity in disc diffusion tests and on ready-to-eat fresh salad. These results underline the potential effects of Sinapis spp in chemoprevention and food preservation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0129.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Topological-entropy; Chaos; Fractional-order; Computer-assisted proof; Topological Horseshoe Analysis; FPGA
Online: 10 April 2018 (15:41:39 CEST)
This paper first discusses a fractional-order Liu system of order as low as 2.7 and shows its chaotic characteristics by carrying out numerical simulations such as Lyapunov exponents, bifurcation diagrams and phase portraits. Then, by using the topological horseshoe theory and computer-assisted proof, the existence of chaos in the system is verified theoretically. Finally, the fractional-order system is implemented on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and the results obtained show that the fractional-order Liu system is indeed chaotic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0065.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: Cervical spinal cord injury; Arm function; Exoskeleton; Robot-assisted therapy; Robotic therapy; Rehabilitation.
Online: 3 November 2021 (08:35:46 CET)
The upper extremities limitation represents one of the essential functional impairments in patients with cervical spinal cord injury. Electromechanics assisted devices and robots are increasingly used in neurorehabilitation to help functional improvement in patients with neurological diseases. This review aimed to systematically report the evidence-based, state-of-art on clinical applications and robotic-assisted arm training (RAT) in motor and functional recovery in subjects affected by cervical spinal cord injury. The present study has been carried out within the framework of the Italian Consensus Conference on "Rehabilitation assisted by robotic and electromechanical devices for persons with disability of neurological origin" (CICERONE). PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) databases were systematically searched from inception to September 2021. The 10-item PEDro scale assessed the study quality for the RCT and the AMSTAR-2 for the systematic review. Two different authors rated the studies included in this review. If consensus was not achieved after discussion, a third reviewer was interrogated. The 5-item Oxford CEBM scale was used to rate the level of evidence. A total of 11 studies were included. The selected studies were: two systematic reviews, two RCTs, one parallel-group controlled trial, one longitudinal intervention study and five case series. One RCT was scored as a high-quality study, while the systematic review was of low quality. RAT was reported as feasible and safe. Initial positive effects of RAT were found for arm function and quality of movement in addition to conventional therapy. The high clinical heterogeneity of treatment programs and the variety of robot devices could severely affect the generalizability of the study results; therefore, future studies are warranted to standardize the type of intervention and evaluate the role of robotic-assisted training in subjects affected by cervical spinal cord injury.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0072.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: aerial communication; FANET; not-spots; stratospheric communication platform; UAV; UAV-Assisted network; 5G
Online: 5 October 2021 (08:48:11 CEST)
Access to broadband communications in different parts of the world has become a priority for some governments and regulatory authorities around the world in recent years. Building new digital roads and pursuing a connected society includes looking for easier access to the Internet. In general, not all the areas where people congregate are fully covered, especially in rural zones, thus restricting access to data communications and bringing inequality. In the present review article, we have comprehensively surveyed the use of three platforms to deliver broadband services to such remote and low-income areas are proposed: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), Altitude Platforms (APS), and Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites. These novel strategies support the connected and accessible world hypothesis. Hence UAVs are considered a noteworthy solution since their efficient maneuverability can aboard the rural coverage issues or not-spots.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0631.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: pressurized liquid extraction; enzyme-assisted extraction; non-extractable polyphenols; proanthocyanidins; sweet cherry pomace
Online: 28 July 2021 (12:23:41 CEST)
Sweet cherry pomace is a by-product that can be a source of bioactive phenolic compounds. Usually, polyphenols have been extracted using conventional extraction methodologies. However, a significant fraction, called non-extractable polyphenols (NEPs), remains retained in the conventional extraction residues. Therefore, this work is aimed, for the first time, to investigate the release of NEPs from cherry pomace combining pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE) using Promod enzyme. A response surface methodology was employed to study the influence of temperature, time, and pH on the NEPs extraction. The response variables were the total phenolic content (TPC) measured by Folin-Ciocalteu method, total proanthocyanidin (PA) content evaluated by vanillin, DMAC, and butanol/HCl assays, and total antioxidant capacity determined by Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and inhibition of hydroxyl radical assays. The results indicated that PLE-EAE was more suitable and selective to obtain NEPs from sweet cherry pomace than PLE alone. In fact, the extracts obtained by PLE-EAE displayed higher TPC, PA content, and bioactivity than the extracts obtained by PLE under the same extraction conditions, and those obtained by conventional methods. Moreover, size-exclusion chromatography profiles showed that the combination of PLE and EAE enabled the recovery of NEPs with higher molecular weight than PLE without EAE treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0279.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Instrument Assisted Soft Tissue Mobilization; Muscle Stretching Exercises; Range of motion; Manual Therapy.
Online: 11 December 2020 (12:03:27 CET)
Background. Shoulder in CrossFit should have a balance between mobility and stability. Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit and posterior shoulder stiffness are risk factors for overhead shoulder injury. Objective. To determine the effectiveness of instrument assisted soft tissue mobilization and horizontal adduction stretch in CrossFit practitioners’ shoulders. Methods: Twenty-one regular CrossFitters were allocated to experimental (stretching with isometric contraction and instrument assisted soft tissue mobilization) or control group (instrument assisted soft tissue mobilization). Each session lasted 5 minutes, 2 days a week, over a period of 4 weeks. Shoulder internal rotation and horizontal adduction (digital inclinometer), and posterior shoulder stretch perception (Park scale) were evaluated. Shapiro-Wilk test was used to analyze the distribution of the sample. Parametric student's t-test was used to obtain the intragroup differences. The inter- and intra-rater differences were calculated using a repeated measures ANOVA. Results. Changes were found in the experimental group following intervention (p < 0.05), and when comparing baseline and follow-up assessments (p < .05) in all variables. Significant differences were found in the control group following intervention (p < 0.05), in right horizontal adduction and left internal rotation. When comparing perception of internal rotation and horizontal adduction in both groups in the three assessments significant differences were found. Conclusions. Instrument assisted soft tissue mobilization can improve shoulder horizontal adduction and internal rotation. An instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization technique yields the same results alone as those achieved in combination with post-isometric stretch with shoulder adduction.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0453.v2
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: oocyte competence; livestock production; assisted reproductive technology; embryo development; micromanipulation; in vitro production
Online: 17 November 2020 (12:41:51 CET)
The efficiency of producing embryos using in vitro technologies in livestock species rarely exceeds the 30 to 40% threshold, indicating that the proportion of oocytes that fail to develop after in vitro fertilization and culture is considerably large. Considering that the intrinsic quality of the oocyte is one of the main factors affecting blastocyst yield, the precise identification of non-invasive cellular or molecular markers that predict oocyte competence is of major interest to research and practical applications. The aim of this review was to explore the current literature on different non-invasive markers associated with oocyte quality in the bovine model. Apart from some controversial findings, the presence of cycle-related structures in ovaries, a follicle size between 6 and 10 mm, large number of surrounding cumulus cells, slightly expanded investment without dark areas, large oocyte diameter (>120 microns), dark cytoplasm, and the presence of a round and smooth first polar body have been associated to better competence. In addition, the combination of oocyte and zygote selection by BCB test and spindle imaging have the potential to further optimize the identification of oocytes with better developmental competence for in vitro-derived technologies in livestock species.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0138.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: host resistance; tolerance; honey bee; Varroa destructor; marker assisted selection; host-parasite interactions
Online: 9 April 2020 (06:06:11 CEST)
The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is the most significant pathological threat to the western honey bee, Apis mellifera, leading to the death of most colonies if left untreated. An alternative approach to chemical treatments is to selectively enhance heritable honey bee traits of resistance or tolerance to the mite through breeding programs, or select for naturally surviving untreated colonies. We conducted a literature review of all studies documenting traits of A. mellifera populations either selectively bred or naturally selected for resistance and tolerance to mite parasitism. This allowed us to conduct an analysis of the diversity, distribution and importance of the traits in different honey bee populations that can survive V. destructor throughout the globe. In a second analysis, we investigated the genetic bases of these different phenotypes by comparing ’omics studies (genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics) of A. mellifera resistance and tolerance to the parasite. Altogether, this review provides a detailed overview of the current state of the research projects and breeding efforts against the most devastating parasite of A. mellifera. By highlighting the most promising traits of varroa-surviving bees and our current knowledge on their genetic bases, this work will help direct future research efforts and selection programs to control this pest. Additionally, by comparing the diverse populations of honey bees that exhibit the traits, this review highlights the consequences of anthropogenic and natural selection on the interactions between hosts and parasites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0144.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: undersea project; measuring the two pipelines; rotating shaft; magnetic coupling; assisted rope winch
Online: 11 February 2020 (11:40:30 CET)
In order to solve the problem of measuring the distance and position between the flanges of two pipelines on the seabed, a measuring device for pulling rope in seawater was designed. Aiming at the sealing problem of the key equipment that is the rotating shaft of the rope winch, this paper used the principle of the magnetic coupling to transfer the driving moment, and adopted the method of converting the dynamic seal into the static seal structure to realize the reliable sealing of the motor. Through the experiment of measuring two pipelines with underwater rope pulling device, it was verified that the measuring accuracy of the device meets the design requirements, and the feasibility of the application of magnetic coupling technology in winch is also verified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0351.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: Optical biopsy; Raman spectroscopy; Micro-optics; Ultrafast laser assisted etching; Femtosecond laser micromaching
Online: 29 January 2020 (10:38:18 CET)
Optical biopsy describes a range of medical procedures in which light is used to investigate disease in the body, often in hard-to-reach regions via optical fibres. Optical biopsies can reveal a multitude of diagnostic information to aid therapeutic diagnosis and treatment with higher specificity and shorter delay than traditional surgical techniques. One specific type of optical biopsy relies on Raman spectroscopy to differentiate tissue types at the molecular level and has been used successfully to stage cancer. However, complex micro-optical systems are usually needed at the distal-end to optimise the signal-to-noise properties of the Raman signal collected. Manufacturing these devices remains a critical challenge, particularly in a way suitable for large scale adoption. In this paper, we describe a novel fibre-fed micro-optic system designed for efficient signal delivery and collection during a Raman spectroscopy based optical biopsy. Crucially, we fabricate the device using a direct-laser-writing technique known as ultrafast laser assisted etching which is scalable and allows components to be aligned passively. The Raman probe has a sub-millimetre diameter and offers confocal signal collection with 71.3 ± 1.5% collection efficiency over a 0.8 numerical aperture. Proof of concept spectral measurements were performed on mouse intestinal tissue and compared with results obtained using a commercial Raman microscope.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0252.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Silybum marianum; silymarin; flavonolignans; ultrasound-assisted extraction; design of experiement; antioxidant; anti-aging
Online: 23 July 2019 (09:51:35 CEST)
Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. (aka milk thistle) constitute the almost exclusive source of silymarin, a mixture of different flavonolignans, and is thus considered as a unique model for their extraction. The present research deals with ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of S. marianum flavonolignans and their quantification using LC system. The optimal conditions for UAE were: aqueous EtOH 54.5% (v/v) as solvent, applying an ultrasound frequency of 36.6 kHz during an extraction time of 60 min at 45°C with a liquid to solid ratio of 25:1 ml/g DW. Following optimization, the extraction method was validated according to international standards of the association of analytical communities (AOAC) in order to ensure its precision and accuracy for the quantitation of the individual silymarin components. The efficiency of UAE was compared with maceration protocol of the same duration. The optimized and validated conditions allowed highest extraction yields of flavonolignans in comparison to maceration. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was confirmed by the CUPRAC assays and inhibition of advanced glycation end products. The skin anti-aging action was also confirmed toward the strong in vitro inhibition capacity of the obtained extract against collagenase and elastase enzymes. The procedure presented here allows a green efficient extraction and quantification of the main flavonolignans from the fruits of S. marianum with attractive antioxidant and anti-aging activities for future cosmetic applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0152.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: inverse analysis; iterative gradient search; laser-assisted milling; residual stress; Ti-6Al-4V
Online: 17 June 2019 (04:15:13 CEST)
In laser-assisted milling, higher temperature in shear zone softens the material potentially resulting in a shift of mean residual stress, which significantly affects the damage tolerance and fatigue performance of product. In order to guide the selection of laser and cutting parameters based on the preferred mean residual stress, inverse analysis is conducted by predicting residual stress based on guessed process parameters, which is defined as the forward problem, and applying iterative gradient search to find process parameters for next iteration, which is defined as the inverse problem. An analytical inverse analysis is therefore proposed for the mean residual stress in laser-assisted milling. The forward problem is solved by analytical prediction of mean residual stress after laser-assisted milling. The residual stress profile is predicted through the calculation of thermal stress, by treating laser beam as heat source, and plastic stress by first assuming pure elastic stress in loading process, then obtaining true stress with kinematic hardening followed by the stress relaxation. The variance-based recursive method is applied to solve inverse problem by updating process parameters to match the measured mean residual stress. Three cutting parameters including depth of cut, feed per tooth, and cutting speed, and two laser parameters including laser-tool distance and laser power, are updated with respected to the minimization of resulting residual stress and measurement in each iteration. Experimental measurements are referred on the laser-assisted milling of Ti-6Al-4V grade 5 and ELI. The percentage difference between experiments and predictions is less than 5% for both materials, and the selection is completed within 50 loops.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0010.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Hand Assisted Laparoscopic Surgery (HALS); sensing glove; wearable; collaborative surgical robot, gesture recognition.
Online: 1 December 2017 (16:32:22 CET)
This paper presents a system developed for the assistance with a collaborative robot in hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery (HALS). The system includes a sensing glove with piezoresistive sensors which capture continuously the flexion degree of the surgeon's fingers. These data are analyzed using an algorithm that detects and recognize the selected movements. This information is sent as commands to the collaborative robot throughout the surgical operation. The bending patterns, speed and execution times of the movements are modelled in a pre-phase in which it will extract all the necessary information for later detection during the motion execution. The results obtained with 10 different volunteers show a high degree of accuracy and a low false discovery rate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0451.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Reactive melt processing; water-assisted; radical crosslinking; peroxide initiators; biopolymers; poly(ε-caprolactone); rheology
Online: 22 January 2021 (14:14:46 CET)
One-step reactive melt processing (REx) via radical reaction was evaluated with the aim of improving the rheological properties of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL). In particular, a water-assisted REx was designed under the hypothesis of increasing crosslinking efficiency with water as a low viscous medium in comparison with a slower PCL macroradicals diffusion in the melt state. To assess the effect of dry vs. water-assisted REx on PCL, its structural, thermo-mechanical and rheological properties were investigated. Water-assisted REx resulted in increased PCL gel fraction compared to dry REx (from 1 to 34 %), proving the rationale under the formulated hypothesis. From dynamic mechanical analysis and tensile tests, the crosslink did not significantly affect the PCL mechanical performance. Dynamic rheological measurements showed that higher PCL viscosity was reached with increasing branching/crosslinking and the typical PCL Newtonian behavior was shifting towards a progressively more pronounced shear thinning. A complete transition from viscous- to solid-like PCL melt behavior was recorded, demonstrating that higher melt elasticity can be obtained as a function of gel content by controlled REx. Improvement in rheological properties offers the possibility of broadening PCL melt processability without hindering its recycling by melt processing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0319.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: almond; antioxidant; by-products; chlorogenic acid; design of experiment; phenolic acids; ultrasound-assisted extraction
Online: 19 April 2020 (04:06:15 CEST)
Almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A.Webb) is one of the most important nut crops both in terms of area and production. Over the last decades, an important part of the beneficial actions for health associated with their consumption was attributed to the phenolic compounds, mainly accumulated in almond skin. Interestingly, after cold-pressed oil extraction, most of these antioxidant phenolic compounds are retained in a skin-enriched by-product, so-called almond cold-pressed oil residue. In Morocco, ranked fifth producer in the world, this production generates an important part of this valuable byproduct. In the present study, using a multivariate Box-Behnken design, an ultrasound-assisted extraction (USAE) method of phenolic compounds from Moroccan almond cold-pressed oil residue was developed and validated. Response surface methodology resulted in the optimal extraction conditions: the use of aqueous EtOH 53.0% (v/v) as green solvent, applying an US frequency of 27.0 kHz for an extraction duration of 29.4 min. The present USAE allowed substantial gains in terms of extraction efficiency compared to conventional heat reflux extraction. Applied to 3 different local Beldi genotypes growing at 3 different experimental sites, the optimal USAE conditions led to a total phenolic content of 13.86 mg/g dry weight (DW). HPLC analysis revealed that the main phenolic compounds from this valuable byproduct were: chlorogenic acid followed by protocatechuic acid, p-hydrobenzoic acid and p-coumaric acid. The accumulation of these phenolic compounds appeared to be more dependent on the genetic background than on the environmental impact here represented by the 3 experimental culture sites. Both in vitro cell free and cellular antioxidant assays were performed, and revealed the great potential of these extracts. In particular, correlation analysis evidenced the prominent roles of chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid and p-hydrobenzoic acid. To summarize, the USAE method presented here is a quick, green, simple and efficient validated USAE for the possible valorization of antioxidant phenolic compounds from Moroccan almond cold-Pressed oil residues, making it possible to generate extracts with attractive antioxidant activities for future nutraceutical and/or cosmetic applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0269.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: assisted reproductive technologies; In-Vitro Fertilization; Delphi; geneticization; Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis; diffusion of innovation
Online: 24 September 2019 (05:32:19 CEST)
This paper questions the potential shift of reproduction towards assisted reproductive technologies due to benefits provided by genetic manipulation of embryos. In order to examine the viability of such a shift and its implications from a regulatory perspective, we relied on two panels of experts from Israel and Spain, using the Delphi method and a series of in-depth interviews. We anticipate, at a first stage, a continuous-steady growth in the use of IVF, supplemented by preimplantation genetic diagnosis and the introduction of CRISPR/Cas. At a second stage, attracting a growing share of fertile people would require developments in genomics. While it is unclear whether these developments will fully materialize, they could be replaced by technoscientific imaginaries generating perceived benefits. We conclude that the regulation of reproductive genetics is becoming more critical and complex. The aim should be to ensure good practices and equity, while providing more information to the public. A broad and inclusive societal debate may overcome the difficulty of drawing a clear line between medical uses and non-medical uses of genetic selection and engineering and may contribute to finding the right balance between allowing autonomous decisions of patients and protecting the public interest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0685.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Laser-assisted milling; Curved workpiece; Difficult-to-cut material; Milling tool path; Nickel alloy
Online: 29 October 2018 (13:19:51 CET)
Difficult-to-cut materials are being increasingly used in many industries because of their superior properties, including high corrosion resistance, heat resistance and specific strength. However, these same properties make the materials difficult to machine using conventional machining techniques. Laser-assisted milling (LAM) is one of the effective methods for machining difficult-to-cut materials. In laser-assisted milling machining occur after the workpiece is locally preheated using a laser heat source. Laser assisted machining has been studied by many researchers on flat workpiece or micro end-milling. However, there is no research on the curved shape using laser assisted milling. This study investigated the use of laser assisted milling to machine a three-dimensional curved shape workpiece based on NURBS. A machining experiment was performed on Inconel 718 using different tool paths (ramping, contouring) under various machining conditions. Finite elements analysis was conducted to determine the depth of cut. Cutting force, specific cutting energy and surface roughness characteristics were measured, analyzed and compared for conventional and LAM machining. LAM significantly improved these machining characteristics, compared to conventional machining. There results can be applied to the laser-assisted machining of various three-dimensional shapes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0086.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: low-level laser therapy (LLLT); photobiomodulation; male infertility; sperm motility; assisted reproductive technology (ART)
Online: 8 April 2018 (08:35:22 CEST)
Infertility affects approximately 15% of couples worldwide, an estimated 30% of which is related to male factor infertility. Application of low level laser therapy (LLLT) to improve fertility status is a rapidly growing discipline in medicine. Laser therapy triggers a variety of biological processes through interaction with primary cellular photoacceptors. The present review aims at evaluating the literature available in the MEDLINE/ PubMed on cellular and molecular mechanisms of photobiomodulation in the domains of reproductive and veterinary medicine. We primarily focused on the clinical application of laser treatment on seminal quality, in particular its role in promoting spermatozoa motility, as well as the role of phototherapy in modulating assisted reproduction (ART). Additionally, we investigated the strength of evidence in support of the positive impact of photobiomodulation on facilitating ART.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0022.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Ambient Assisted Living; eHealth; Technology Acceptance, Smart Health, User Diversity, Serious Games for Healthcare
Online: 12 July 2016 (09:39:31 CEST)
Based on the demographic shift and the related challenges resulting from the growing number of elderly and persons with chronic diseases, the idea of smart home that supports its inhabitants in the daily life, gains importance. The purpose of this paper was to examine in a prototypic Ambient Assisted Living environment if users after interaction with different health-supporting applications intend to use such in the future. Two experimental studies exemplary show possible applications of home-integrated technology that can support, assist and accompany the target group in different contexts, and examine to what extent participants are willing to future use such sophisticated technology at home. The results show that people in general, but especially the old and chronically ill ones are quite fascinated of health-supporting ambient technology and the majority intends to use such ambient assistance in the future (study I). Moreover, serious games for healthcare are shown as a hedonic use of technology in smart homes that have a great potential to retain or improve the physical health, mobility and the overall well-being of the inhabitants (study II). The article provides two examples of ambient technology to leverage the demographic change and presents important user factors for facilitating high user acceptance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0021.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: Coronavirus disease; COVID-19; outbreak model; Gaussian-SIRD model; SIRD model; epidemiological model
Online: 1 December 2020 (13:11:02 CET)
The eruption of COVID-19 patients in 215 countries worldwide has urged for robust predictive methods that can detect as early as possible the size and duration of the contagious disease and also providing precision predictions. In much recent literature reported on COVID-19, one or more essential parts of such investigation were missed. One of the crucial elements for any predictive method is that such methods should fit simultaneously as much data as possible; these data could be total infected cases, daily hospitalized cases, cumulative recovered cases, and deceased cases, and so on. Other crucial elements include sensitivity and precision of such predictive methods on the amount of data as the contagious disease evolved day by day. To show the importance of these aspects, we have evaluated the standard SIRD model and a newly introduced Gaussian-SIRD model on the development of COVID-19 in Kuwait. It is observed that the SIRD model quickly picks up the main trends of COVID-19 development, but the Gaussian-SIRD model provides precise prediction a longer period of time.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0154.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Genome selection; Rice breeding; Genetic analysis; Omics assisted markers; Nutritional quality; Genomics and pangenomics; Biofortification
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:53:16 CEST)
The primary considerations while producing rice (Oryza sativa L.) include improving its nutritional quality and production. To tackle widespread hunger globally, better nutritional, high-yielding rice cultivars need to be developed. The conventional ways are to increase the production of rice and add balanced nutrients in the daily diet to fulfill the need of yield and nutrient quality. This article focuses on nutritional strategies for rice and illustrates the availability of omics technologies. Current advancements providing many methodologies and approaches for exploring genetic resources and for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in trait formation have been highlighted. Studying the genetic influences of various characteristics has been proven to expedite crop breeding processes. In this perspective, genome-wide association research, genome selection (GS), and QTL mapping are all genetic analysis that helps in increasing the nutritional content of rice. Implementation of several omic techniques are effective approaches to enhance and regulate the nutritional quality of rice cultivars. Advancements in different types of omics including genomics and pangenomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, nutrigenomics, and proteomics are also relevant to rice development initiatives. This review article compiles genes, locus, mutants and all omic approaches for rice enhancement. This knowledge will be very useful for now and for the future regarding rice studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0048.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: autonomous driving systems; computer vision; neural networks; feature extraction; segmentation; assisted driving; cloud computing; parallelization
Online: 1 February 2021 (14:50:20 CET)
Autonomous driving systems are increasingly becoming a necessary trend towards building smart cities of the future. Numerous proposals have been presented in recent years to tackle particular aspects of the working pipeline towards creating a functional end-to-end system, such as object detection, tracking, path planning, sentiment or intent detection. Nevertheless, few efforts have been made to systematically compile all of these systems into a single proposal that effectively considers the real challenges these systems will have on the road, such as real-time computation, hardware capabilities, etc. This paper has reviewed various techniques towards proposing our own end-to-end autonomous vehicle system, considering the latest state on the art on computer vision, DSs, path planning, and parallelization.
Subject: Keywords: Micro Hand S surgical robot system; robot-assisted complete mesocolic excision; colon cancer; safety; feasibility
Online: 1 March 2020 (02:54:29 CET)
Background: The Micro Hand S robot is the first domestically produced surgical robot that has entered clinical use in China, and this is the first report of its application in colon cancer. Objective: This study aimed to validate the safety and efficacy of the domestically produced Chinese minimally invasive Micro Hand S surgical robot system in complex surgery, such as robotic complete mesocolic excision (R-CME). Methods: From March 2018 to December 2018, 30 patients with right hemicolon cancer underwent R-CME with the Micro Hand S robot system. The operative findings, morbidities, oncological findings and unique characteristics were summarizedwere analyzed. Result: 12 patients with right hemicolon cancer and 18 patients with sigmoid colon cancer underwent RCME with the Micro Hand S robot system. During the study period, the median operative duration was 209 (range, 180-255) min, and the median estimated blood loss volume was 35 (range, 25-75) ml. The median number of lymph nodes harvested was 42 (21-77), and the median postoperative hospital stay was 5 (range, 4-7) days. According to the Clavien-Dindo classification, there were no severe complications except for 7 cases of grade I complications and 5 cases of grade II complications. The conversion rate for all operations was 0%. There were no cases of 30-day readmission or 30-day mortality. Conclusion: Clinical application of domestically produced Chinese minimally invasive surgical robot system “Micro Hand S ” in selected colon cancer patients is technically feasible and safe.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Micro Hand S surgical robot system; robot-assisted complete mesocolic excision; colon cancer; safety; feasibility
Online: 28 February 2020 (16:10:11 CET)
Background: The Micro Hand S robot is the first domestically produced surgical robot that has entered clinical use in China, and this is the first report of its application in colon cancer.Objective: This study aimed to validate the safety and efficacy of the domestically produced Chinese minimally invasive Micro Hand S surgical robot system in complex surgery, such as robotic complete mesocolic excision (R-CME).Methods: From March 2018 to December 2018, 30 patients with right hemicolon cancer underwent R-CME with the Micro Hand S robot system. The operative findings, morbidities, oncological findings and unique characteristics were summarizedwere analyzed.Result: 12 patients with right hemicolon cancer and 18 patients with sigmoid colon cancer underwent RCME with the Micro Hand S robot system. During the study period, the median operative duration was 209 (range, 180-255) min, and the median estimated blood loss volume was 35 (range, 25-75) ml. The median number of lymph nodes harvested was 42 (21-77), and the median postoperative hospital stay was 5 (range, 4-7) days. According to the Clavien-Dindo classification, there were no severe complications except for 7 cases of grade I complications and 5 cases of grade II complications. The conversion rate for all operations was 0%. There were no cases of 30-day readmission or 30-day mortality. Conclusion: Clinical application of domestically produced Chinese minimally invasive surgical robot system “Micro Hand S ” in selected colon cancer patients is technically feasible and safe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0208.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: surgical robotics; wearable force-sensor systems; grip-force profiling; surgical expertise; robot-assisted surgery training
Online: 18 September 2019 (13:07:40 CEST)
STRAS (Single access Transluminal Robotic Assistant for Surgeons) is a flexible robotic system based on the Anubis® platform of Karl Storz for application to intra-luminal surgical procedures. It consists of three cable-driven systems, one endoscope serving as guide and two inserted instruments. The flexible and bendable instruments have three degrees of freedom and can be teleoperated by a single user via two specially designed master interfaces. In this research, a pair of specific sensor gloves, which ergonomically fit to the master handles of the system was designed and the forces applied by one expert and one novice user during system-specific task execution in a simulator task (4-step-pick-and-drop) were compared. The results show that user expertise is not only reflected by shorter task execution times but also, more importantly, by specific differences in handgrip force profiles for specific sensor locations on anatomically relevant parts of the fingers and hand controlling the surgical instruments of the robotic master/slave system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0132.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: UAV-assisted sensor network; UAV cooperative coverage; coalition formation game; stable coalition partition; Nash equilibrium
Online: 7 September 2018 (11:56:18 CEST)
UAV cooperative control has been an important issue in UAV-assisted sensor network, thanks to the considerable benefit obtained from cooperative mechanism of UAVs being applied as a flying base station. In coverage scenario, the tradeoff between coverage performance and transmission performance often makes deployment of UAVs fall into a dilemma, since both indexes are related to the distance between UAVs. To address this issue, UAV coverage and data transmission mechanism is analyzed in this paper, then an efficient multi-UAV cooperative deployment model is proposed. The problem is also modeled as a coalition formation game (CFG). The CFG with Pareto order is proved to have a stable partition. Then, an effective approach consisting of coverage deployment and coalition selection is designed, wherein UAVs can decide strategies cooperatively to achieve better coverage performance. Combining analysis of game approach, a coalition selection and position deployment algorithm based on Pareto order (CSPDA-PO) is designed to execute coverage deployment and coalition selection. Finally, simulation results are shown to validate the proposed approach based on efficient multi-UAV cooperative deployment model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0032.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: ultrasonic vibration-assisted milling(UVAM); homogenization; ball-end milling; surface integrity; high frequency cutting force
Online: 3 September 2018 (12:44:32 CEST)
This paper aims to study the surface homogenization and integrity of Ti-6Al-4V alloy by longitudinal-torsional coupled ultrasonic vibration assisted ball-end milling. A method of continuous processing between the flat surface and freeform surface connection is proposed by using ultrasonic vibration assisted ball-end precision milling, during this process, it is not necessary to exchange the cutting tool. The way has been explored for changing the homogenization of surface on Ti-6Al-4V by ultrasonic vibration-assisted milling (UVAM). Cutting experiments employing three parameters, cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut and two types of machining forms using ball-end milling with UVAM and conventional milling (CM) respectively. The high frequency cutting force, finished surface roughness, topography and residual stresses on the surface and tool wear have been measured by advanced instruments. Particularly, adopting the high frequency cutting force measurement system, it is concluded cutting force in ball-end milling decreased significantly using UVAM as against CM. Moreover, the surface roughness by UVAM with ball-end milling is much better than the CM at a high cutting speed. However, an opposite trend is observed at a low cutting speed. Especially, there is a steep decrease from Ra 0.828 μm average value at 4000 rpm to Ra 0.129 μm average value at 5000 rpm. At the same time, the homogenization of surface roughness and residual stresses decrease significantly in UVAM as compared to which in CM when taking the transversal-longitudinal ratio into consideration. Cutting experiments and measuring results are demonstrated the validity and feasibility of UVAM with ball-end milling, and this method enjoys significant advantages compared to CM process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0216.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: ionic liquids; ionic liquid-assisted solvothermal reaction; reaction time; titanium dioxide; heterogeneous photocatalysis; visible light
Online: 15 May 2018 (09:10:42 CEST)
Spherical microparticles of TiO2 were synthesized by the ionic liquid-assisted solvothermal method at different reaction time (3, 6, 12 and 24h). The properties of the prepared photocatalysts were investigated by means of UV-vis diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), BET surface area measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that the efficiency of phenol degradation was related with a time of the solvothermal synthesis as determined for TiO2_EAN(1:1)_24h sample. Microparticles of TiO2_EAN(1:1)_3h formed during the only 3h of synthesis time revealed really high photoactivity under visible irradiation – 75%. This value increased to 80% and 82% after 12h and 24h, respectively. The photoactivity increase was accompanied by the increase of the specific surface area thus pores size, as well as ability to absorb UV-vis irradiation. The high efficiency of phenol degradation of IL-TiO2 photocatalysts was ascribed to the interaction between the surface of TiO2 and ionic liquid components (carbon and nitrogen).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0070.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: permanent magnet-assisted synchronous reluctance machine; power factor; torque ripple; efficiency; demagnetization; finite element analysis
Online: 13 January 2017 (11:04:02 CET)
In this paper, a novel permanent magnet-assisted synchronous reluctance machine (PMASynRM) with rare-earth PMs and ferrite magnets is proposed. The performance of PMASynRM is discussed with respected to the different magnet ratio of rare-earth PMs and ferrite magnets. Some characteristics including the flux density, output torque, cogging torque, output power, power factor, torque ripple, loss, efficiency, and demagnetization are calculated by 2-D finite element analysis (FEA). The analysis results show that the excellent performance can be obtained by using hybrid magnet of rare-earth PMs and ferrite magnets with the suitable magnet ratio, and provide some desirable cost-performance trade-off.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0028.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Software Engineering; Model; Model-Driven; Model Driven Development; MDD; MDA
Online: 1 April 2021 (14:47:55 CEST)
In Model-Driven Development (MDD), the models, their generation, and imposing changes on them (model transformation) are used for the development of software. Models provide a framework to start from the imagination and abstraction to create and accomplish the final system. Models create a slow and steady transition from whatness to howness, i.e. from the natural path of the generation of software. For supporting this path, the Logic and Functionality of software must be changeable during its evolution. Here we provide a brief introduction to the concept of Model Driven Development.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Winterberg Model, Extended Gravity Model, Gravitational Susceptibility Model, Cosmic Vacuum Model, Dark Energy, Dark Matter
Online: 16 February 2021 (13:40:55 CET)
Assuming a Winterberg model for space where the vacuum consists of a very stiff two component superfluid made up of positive and negative mass planckions, theory is the hypothesis, that Planck charge, , was created at the same time as Planck mass. Moreover, the repulsive force that like-mass planckions experience is, in reality, due to the electrostatic force of repulsion between like charges. These forces also give rise to what appears to be a gravitational force of attraction between two like planckions, but this is an illusion. In reality, gravity is electrostatic in origin if our model is correct. We determine the spring constant associated with planckion masses, and find that, , where equals Apery's constant, , and, , is the relaxed, i.e., , number density of the positive and negative mass planckions. In the present epoch, we estimate that, equals, , and the relaxed distance of separation between nearest neighbor positive, or negative, planckion pairs is, These values were determined using box quantization for the positive and negative mass planckions, and considering transitions between energy states, much like as in the hydrogen atom. For the cosmos as a whole, given a net smeared macroscopic gravitational field of, , due to all the ordinary, and bound, matter contained within the observable universe, an average displacement from equilibrium for the planckion masses is a mere , within the vacuum made up of these particles. On the surface of the earth, where, , the displacement amounts to, . All of these displacements are due to increased gravitational pressure within the vacuum, which in turn are caused by applied gravitational fields. The gravitational potential is also derived and directly related to gravitational pressure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0081.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Active and Assisted Living; smart speakers; information support system; health care system; sufferer monitoring system; dementia
Online: 6 March 2019 (12:21:55 CET)
Age-in-place can reduce the progress of dementia syndrome and improve the quality of life of the sufferers and their families. This work proposes an innovative information home support system to be established at the houses of people suffering from dementia. The main innovation of the system are its transparent character that overcomes the need for training of the sufferer, as well as the exploitation of a well-known technique for dementia, namely music therapy. It addresses the need of people suffering from dementia as well as their familiars to be recognized by them and have better interaction and collaboration. The system offers a ubiquitous recognition system, just by using smart devices like smart-phones or smart-wristbands. When a familiar person is detected in the house, then a sound file is reproduced on smart speakers placed in the house, in order to trigger the memory, based on the principles of music therapy. The system reproduced the appropriate time at 100% of the cases and the benefits of music therapy are evident daily. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first system of its kind ever reported in the literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0036.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Acer truncatum leaves; ultrasonic-assisted extraction; response surface methodology; phenolics; antioxidant activity; UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS
Online: 9 January 2017 (04:16:01 CET)
This study was designed for the first time to improve phenolic yield and antioxidant activity of ultrasonic-assisted extraction from Acer truncatum leaves (ATL) using response surface methodology, and phenolic composition in ATL extracted under the optimized condition were characterized by UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS. Solvent and extraction time were selected based on preliminary experiments, and a four-factors-three-levels central composite design was conducted to optimize solvent concentration (X1), material-to-liquid ratio (X2), ultrasonic temperature (X3) and power (X4) for an optimal total phenol yield (Y1) and DPPH• antioxidant activity (Y2). The results showed that the optimal combination was ethanol: water (v:v) 66.21%, material-to-liquid ratio 1:15.31 g/mL, ultrasonic temperature 60 °C, power 267.30 W, and time 30 min with three extractions, giving a maximal total phenol yield of 7593.62 mg gallic acid equivalent /100 g d.w. and a maximal DPPH• antioxidant activity of 74241.61 μmol Trolox equivalent/100 g d.w.. Furthermore, 22 phenolics were first identified in ATL extract obtained under the optimized conditions, indicating that gallates, gallotannins, quercetin, myricetin and chlorogenic acid derivatives were the main phenolic composition in ATL. What’s more, a gallotannins pathway existing in ATL from gallic acid to penta-O-galloyl-glucoside was interpreted. All these results provided practical information aiming at full utilization of phenolics in ATL, together with fundamental knowledge for further research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0210.v1
Online: 21 February 2019 (13:30:48 CET)
Stemming from the urgency of the actual situation, commercial banks need an effective credit risk management tool to limit risks. The authors went to survey, study and propose a set of factors affecting the ability of debt repayment of individual customers and conducting surveys. The topic uses data sets including 240 observation samples. Using the SPSS software to clean data and run the model based on Maddala's Binary logistics regression published in 1984 to find out the impact of each individual element of customers affecting their ability to repay such debts. Come on. The authors also specify the order of influence of each factor determining the ability to repay individual customers, thereby helping bank managers have a better visual view to make decisions for borrowing accurately, limiting risks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0246.v3
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: property-carrying particle model; coupled models; ecosystem simulation; biophysical modeling; Sandusky bay; great lakes
Online: 17 September 2018 (11:23:12 CEST)
Current numerical methods for simulating biophysical processes in aquatic environments are typically constructed in a grid-based Eulerian framework or as an individual-based model in a particle-based Lagrangian framework. Often, the biogeochemical processes and physical (hydrodynamic) processes occur at different time and space scales, and changes in biological processes do not affect the hydrodynamic conditions. Therefore, it is possible to develop an alternative strategy to grid-based approaches for linking hydrodynamic and biogeochemical models that can significantly improve computational efficiency for this type of linked biophysical model. In this work, we utilize a new technique which links hydrodynamic effects and biological processes through a property-carrying particle model (PCPM) in a Lagrangian/Eulerian framework. The model is tested in idealized cases and its utility is demonstrated in a practical application to Sandusky Bay. Results show the integration of Lagrangian and Eulerian approaches allows for a natural coupling of mass transport (represented by particle movements and random walk) and biological processes in water columns which is described by a nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) biological model. This method is far more efficient than traditional tracer based Eulerian biophysical models for 3-D simulation, particularly for a large domain and/or ensemble simulations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0501.v1
Online: 26 July 2018 (04:22:14 CEST)
The predictability of wind information in a given location is essential for the evaluation of a wind power project. Predicting wind speed accurately improves the planning of wind power generation, reducing costs and improving the use of resources. This paper seeks to predict the mean hourly wind speed in anemometric towers (at a height of 50 meters) at two locations: a coastal region and one with complex terrain characteristics. To this end, the Holt-Winters (HW), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Hybrid time-series models were used. Observational data evaluated by the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications-Version 2 (MERRA-2) reanalysis at the same height of the towers. The results show that the hybrid model had a better performance in relation to the others, including when compared to the evaluation with MERRA-2. For example, in terms of statistical residuals, RMSE and MAE were 0.91 and 0.62 m/s, respectively. As such, the hybrid models are a good method to forecast wind speed data for wind generation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0076.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Business Process Modelling; Declarative Model; Imperative Model; Model Configuration; Constraint Programming
Online: 4 October 2018 (14:18:32 CEST)
Configuration techniques have been used in several fields, such as the design of business process models. Sometimes these models depend on the data dependencies, being easier to describe "what" has to be done instead of "how". Configuration models enable to use a declarative representation of business processes, deciding the most appropriate work-flow in each case. Unfortunately, data dependencies among the activities and how they can affect the correct execution of the process, has been overlooked in the declarative specifications and configurable systems found in the literature. In order to find the best process configuration for optimizing the execution time of processes according to data dependencies, we propose the use of Constraint Programming paradigm with the aim of obtaining an adaptable imperative model in function of the data dependencies of the activities described declarative.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0550.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: expectation maximization (EM) algorithm; finite mixture model; conditional mixture model; regression model; adaptive regressive model (ARM)
Online: 28 October 2020 (11:18:04 CET)
Expectation maximization (EM) algorithm is a powerful mathematical tool for estimating statistical parameter when data sample contains hidden part and observed part. EM is applied to learn finite mixture model in which the whole distribution of observed variable is average sum of partial distributions. Coverage ratio of every partial distribution is specified by the probability of hidden variable. An application of mixture model is soft clustering in which cluster is modeled by hidden variable whereas each data point can be assigned to more than one cluster and degree of such assignment is represented by the probability of hidden variable. However, such probability in traditional mixture model is simplified as a parameter, which can cause loss of valuable information. Therefore, in this research I propose a so-called conditional mixture model (CMM) in which the probability of hidden variable is modeled as a full probabilistic density function (PDF) that owns individual parameter. CMM aims to extend mixture model. I also propose an application of CMM which is called adaptive regressive model (ARM). Traditional regression model is effective when data sample is scattered equally. If data points are grouped into clusters, regression model tries to learn a unified regression function which goes through all data points. Obviously, such unified function is not effective to evaluate response variable based on grouped data points. The concept “adaptive” of ARM means that ARM solves the ineffectiveness problem by selecting the best cluster of data points firstly and then evaluating response variable within such best cluster. In order words, ARM reduces estimation space of regression model so as to gain high accuracy in calculation.
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Model-based systems engineering (MBSE); Model informatics and analytics; Model-based collaboration
Online: 12 March 2021 (16:52:34 CET)
In MBSE there is yet no converged terminology. The term ’system model’ is used in different contexts in literature. In this study we elaborated the definitions and usages of the term ’system model’, to find a common definition. 104 publications have been analyzed in depth for their usage and definition as well as their meta-data e.g., the publication year and publication background to find some common patterns. While the term is gaining more interest in recent years it is used in a broad range of contexts for both analytical and synthetic use cases. Based on this three categories of system models have been defined and integrated into a more precise definition.
Subject: Keywords: COVID-19; coronavirus; SARS-CoV2; model; transmission model; mathematical model; lockdown; quarantine
Online: 16 May 2020 (18:46:59 CEST)
Objective: To use mathematical models to predict the epidemiological impact of lifting the lockdown in London, UK, and alternative strategies to help inform policy in the UK. Methods: A mathematical model for the transmission of SARS-CoV2 in London. The model was parametrised using data on notified cases, deaths, contacts, and mobility to analyse the epidemic in the UK capital. We investigated the impact of multiple non pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) and combinations of these measures on future incidence of COVID-19. Results: Immediate action at the early stages of an epidemic in the affected districts would have tackled spread. While an extended lockdown is highly effective, other measures such as shielding older populations, universal testing and facemasks can all potentially contribute to a reduction of infections and deaths. However, based on current evidence it seems unlikely they will be as effective as continued lockdown. In order to achieve elimination and lift lockdown within 5 months, the best strategy seems to be a combination of weekly universal testing, contact tracing and use of facemasks, with concurrent lockdown. This approach could potentially reduce deaths by 48% compared with continued lockdown alone. Conclusions: A combination of NPIs such as universal testing, contact tracing and mask use while under lockdown would be associated with least deaths and infections. This approach would require high uptake and sustained local effort but it is potentially feasible as may lead to elimination in a relatively short time scale.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0052.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: animal-assisted interventions; child development; dog bites; dog-borne zoonoses; dog ownership; dog welfare; human-animal interactions
Online: 6 October 2022 (08:13:49 CEST)
Our wellbeing is greatly influenced by our childhood and adolescence, and the relationships that we form during those phases of our development. The human-dog bond started thousands of years ago. The higher prevalence of dog ownership around the world, especially in households including children along with the growing number of people studying dogs most likely explain the growing literature focusing on child-dog interactions. We review the potential effects of child-dog interactions on the physical, mental, and social wellbeing of both species. A scoping search of the SCOPUS database found several hundred documents meeting selection criteria. It allowed us to define the numerous ways in which children and dogs can interact, be it neutral (e.g., sharing a common area), positive (e.g., petting), or negative (e.g., biting). Then, we found evidence for an association between interacting with dogs during childhood and an array of health and mental benefits like stress relief and the development of empathy. Walking a dog and playing with one are perfect physical activity opportunities. Additionally, interacting with a dog can help lower stress and may have a role in the development of empathy. Nonetheless, a number of detrimental outcomes have also been identified in both humans and dogs. Children are the most at-risk population regarding dog bites and dog-borne zoonoses, which may lead to a subsequent fear of dogs or even death. Moreover, pet bereavement is generally inevitable when living with a canine companion and should not be trivialized. In terms of dogs, children sometimes take part in caretaking behaviors toward them which include going on walks. They are opportunities for dogs to relieve themselves outside, but also to exercise and socialize. In contrast, a lack of physical activity can lead to the onset of obesity. Dogs may present greater levels of stress when in the presence of children. Finally, the welfare of assistance, therapy, and free-roaming dogs remains underexplored. Overall, the study of the effects, positive as well as negative, on both species still requires further development. We call for more longitudinal studies and hope for cross-cultural research in the future in order to better understand the impact child-dog interactions might have.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0156.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: esketamine; ketamine; ketamine assisted psychotherapy; eating disorder; anorexia nervosa; bulimia nervosa; binge eating disorder; pharmacology; psychedelics; treatment
Online: 7 March 2022 (08:34:11 CET)
Eating disorders (EDs) are serious, life-threatening psychiatric conditions associated with physical and psychosocial impairments, as well as high morbidity and mortality. Given the chronic refractory nature of EDs and the paucity of evidence-based treatments, there is a pressing need to identify novel approaches for this population. The noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) antagonist, ketamine, has recently been approved for treatment-resistant depression, exerting rapid and robust antidepressant effects. It is now being investigated for several new indications, including obsessive-compulsive, post-traumatic, and substance use disorder; and shows transdiagnostic potential for EDs, particularly among clinical non-responders. As such, the aim of this review is to examine contemporary findings on the treatment of EDs with ketamine, whether used as a primary, adjunctive, or combination psychopharmacotherapy. Avenues for future research are also discussed. Overall, results are encouraging and point to therapeutic value, yet are limited to case series and reports on anorexia nervosa. Further empirical work is thus needed to explore ketamine efficacy across ED subgroups; establish safety profiles and optimize dosing; and develop theory-driven, targeted treatment strategies at the individual patient level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0131.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight; antibiotic susceptibility test; artificial intelligence
Online: 10 January 2022 (19:01:57 CET)
Combining Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight (MALDI-TOF) spectra data and artificial intelligence (AI) has been introduced for rapid prediction on antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) of S. aureus. Based on the AI predictive probability, the cases with probabilities between low and high cut-offs are defined as “grey zone”. We aimed to investigate the underlying reasons of unconfident (grey zone) or wrong predictive AST. A total 479 S. aureus isolates were collected, analyzed by MALDI-TOF, and AST prediction, standard AST were obtained in a tertiary medical center. The predictions were categorized into the correct prediction group, wrong prediction group, and grey zone group. We analyzed the association between the predictive results and the demographic data, spectral data, and strain types. For MRSA, larger cefoxitin zone size was found in the wrong prediction group. MLST of the MRSA isolates in the grey zone group revealed that uncommon strain types composed 80%. Amid MSSA isolates in the grey zone group, the majority (60%) was composed of over 10 different strain types. In predicting AST based on MALDI-TOF AI, uncommon strains and high diversity would contribute to suboptimal predictive performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0505.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: adhesion; self-assembly; drug delivery; curved surface; template-assisted self-assembly; nanotechnology; single-molecule system; polymer nanocomposite.
Online: 23 February 2021 (09:35:14 CET)
Nanometer-curved surfaces are abundant in biological systems as well as in nano-sized technologies. Properly functionalized polymer-grafted nanoparticles (PGNs) adhere to surfaces with different geometries and curvatures. This work explores some of the energetic and mechanical characteristics of the adhesion of PGNs to surfaces with positive, negative and zero curvatures using Coarse-Grained Molecular Dynamics (CGMD) simulations. Our calculated free energies of binding of the PGN to the curved and flat surfaces as a function of separation distance show that curvature of the surfaces critically impacts the adhesion strength. We find that the flat surface is the most adhesive, and the concave surface is the least adhesive surface. This somewhat counterintuitive finding suggests that while a bare nanoparticle is more likely to adhere to a positively curved surface than a flat surface, grafting polymer chains to the nanoparticle surface inverts this behavior. Moreover, we studied the rheological behavior of PGN upon separation from the flat and curved surfaces under external pulling force. The results presented herein can be exploited in drug delivery and self-assembly applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0023.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Nymphaea lotus L.; stamen; ultrasound-assisted extraction; macroporous resin (MPR) purification; in vitro; in cellulo; antioxidant; flavonoids
Online: 4 June 2020 (03:59:58 CEST)
Nymphaea lotus L. is the medicinal plant that has long been used as food, cosmetic and traditional medicines in Africa and Asia since the ancient time. Its flavonoids and other interesting phytochemical compounds from rhizome, leaf, and the whole flowers have been reported in the previous published researches. However, stamens, which are essential for reproductive functions, may also represent new alternative sources of potential antioxidant flavonoids as investigated in this study. The innovative green chemistry method i.e. ultrasound-assisted extraction (USAE) as well as macroporous resin (MPR) purification procedure were employed in this current research. The optimal ultrasound-assisted extraction condition is 90 % (v/v) aqEtOH with 34.65 khz ultrasonic frequency and 46 minutes of extraction time. Comparing with heat reflux extraction (HRE) conventional method, the significant gain of 1.35 total flavonoids content was obtained using optimized USAE conditions, jumping to 2.80 when this USAE associated with MPR purification. Not only in vitro cell free antioxidant activity of N. lotus stamen extracts, but also in cellulo antioxidant investigation using yeast model showed the same trend to indicate that the best antioxidant flavonoid can be found in USAE coupled with MPR purification. Moreover, the key antioxidant genes expression in yeast model such as SIR2 and SOD2 were also expressed at the highest level in yeast cell treated with the extract from USAE together with MPR purification. Consequently, it can be seen that the USAE combined with MPR purification can help to enhance the flavonoids antioxidant potential of the stamens extract from this medicinal species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0217.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: cognitive function; pet insects; animal-assisted therapy; Wisconsin Card Sorting Task; functional magnetic resonance imaging; elderly women
Online: 20 August 2019 (15:46:32 CEST)
Background: Animal-assisted therapy has positive effects on cognitive function, depression, performance ability, and social functioning in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of rearing pet insects on the cognitive function of healthy elderly participants, with fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) being used for this purpose. Methods: Community-dwelling elderly women (≥60 years) with normal cognitive function were enrolled during April 2015. They were randomized at a 1:1 ratio into two groups: insect-rearing and control (n=16) groups, with the insect-rearing group being further classified into two groups for analysis according to the subjects’ scores in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, WCST) at the first fMRI: insect-rearing group I with a relatively high score (n=13), and insect-rearing group II with a relatively low score (n=6). All subjects were educated on a healthy lifestyle for better cognitive function at every visit, and the insect-rearing groups received and reared crickets as pet insects. The fMRI was performed at baseline and after 8 weeks using the WCST as a stimulus. The WCST consisted of two variations, a high level baseline (HLB) and semi-WCST version. Results: There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics among the three groups. There was a significant difference accuracy of the HLB–semi-WCST (p<0.05) in insect-rearing group II after 8 weeks from the baseline test. In the fMRI analysis involving the WCST reaction test, increased activation was observed in the right dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex in insect-rearing group II when the semi-WCST, rather than the HLB, was performed. There were no significant differences in the other groups. Conclusion: The rearing of pet insects as an animal-assisted therapy is cost-effective, easy, and occupies little space. In this study, it showed positive effects on executive functions and performance improvement in elderly women. Further larger studies on the effects of pet insects on cognitive function are warranted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0152.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: video assisted thoracic surgery, open thoracotomy, recurrence-free survival, overall survival, positive margins, postoperative length of stay.
Online: 8 October 2018 (15:23:21 CEST)
Background: Video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has become the recommended approach for treatment of resectable lung cancer. However, no large randomized clinical trial has been conducted formally comparing surgical resections completed by VATS to those done by open thoracotomy (OT) in low volume centers. The current study sought to assess differences in recurrence-free survival (RFS), overall survival (OS), positive margins and postoperative length of stay (LOS) between VATS and OT lobectomies in our center. Method: A single institution retrospective chart review from May 2005 through May 2015 was conducted. All patients diagnosed with stage I through III lung cancer who underwent surgical resection were selected. Patient and tumor characteristics recorded included age at diagnosis, sex, tobacco use, tumor location (side and lobe), stage, size and receipt of chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Chis-square and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare demographics, tumor characteristics and LOS. Multiple logistic and Cox regression analyses were used to compute relative risk (RR) for positive margins and mortality hazard ratios along with 95 percent confidence intervals (95%CI), respectively. Results: Of the 235 patients, 101 subjects had VATS while OT was performed in 134 patients. Age at diagnosis, sex, tobacco use, tumor location, and size were comparable for VATS and OT. No significant difference was observed in the relative risk of positive margins for VATS versus OT, RR = 0.56 (95%CI = 0.26, 1.05). However, VATS had shorter median LOS compared to OT (4 vs. 6 days, respectively), p = 0.002. A comparison of VATS versus OT showed no significant difference in the risk of recurrence, HR = 1.21 (95%CI = 0.74, 2.00), or death, HR = 1.34 (95%CI = 0.88, 2.06), in the intent-to-treat population. Similarly, no significant differences in recurrence or mortality risk were observed between VATS versus OT for analyses conducted separately for each cancer stage group or those limited to patients with negative margins. Conclusion: Our study indicates that compared to OT, VATS leads to shorter LOS while achieving comparable margins status, recurrence-free and overall survival regardless of tumor stage at diagnosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0060.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: volatile renewable resources; microbial infection; secondary plant metabolites; antimicrobial essential oils; biologically-active polymers; plasma-assisted technique
Online: 5 April 2018 (03:32:08 CEST)
The persistent issue of bacterial and fungal colonization of artificial implantable materials and decreasing efficacy of conventional systemic antibiotics used to treat implant-associated infections has led to the development of a wide range of antifouling and antibacterial strategies. This article reviews one such strategy where inherently biologically active renewable resources, i.e. secondary plant metabolites (SPMs) and their naturally occurring combinations (i.e. essential oils) are used for surface functionalization and synthesis of polymer thin films. With a distinct mode of antibacterial activity, broad spectrum of action and diversity of available chemistries, secondary plant metabolites present an attractive alternative to conventional antibiotics. However, their conversion from liquid to solid phase without significant loss of activity is not trivial. Using select examples, this article shows how plasma techniques provide a sufficiently flexible and chemically reactive environment to enable the synthesis of biologically-active polymer-coatings from volatile renewable resources.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0350.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: carbyne-enriched nanostructured metamaterials; sp1-hybridized bonds; carbon atomic wires; ion-assisted pulsed-plasma deposition; nanocavities; cluster-assembling; vibration-assisted growing; acoustic activation; vibrational patterns; electromagnetic activation; self-organizing of the nanostructures; nano-cymatics; controlled patterning; synergistic effect
Online: 12 March 2021 (20:07:52 CET)
Structural self-organizing and pattern formation are universal and key phenomena observed during growth and cluster-assembling of the carbyne-enriched nanostructured metamaterials at the ion-assisted pulse-plasma deposition. Fine tuning these universal phenomena opens access to designing the properties of the growing carbyne-enriched nano-matrix. The structure of bonds in the grown carbyne-enriched nano-matrices can be programmed by the processes of self-organization and auto-synchronization of nanostructures. We propose the innovative concept, connected with application of the universal Cymatics phenomena during the predictive growth of the carbyne-enriched nanostructured metamaterials. We also propose the self-organization approach for increase stability of the long linear carbon chains. The main idea of suggested concept is manipulating by the self-organized wave patterns excitation phenomenon and their distribution by the spatial structure and properties of the nanostructured metamaterial grows region through the new synergistic effect. Mentioned effect will be provided through the vibration-assisted self-organized wave patterns excitation along with simultaneous manipulating by their properties through the electric field. We propose to use acoustic activation of the plasma zone of nano-matrix growing. Interaction between the inhomogeneous electric field distribution generated on the vibrating layer and the plasma ions will serve as the additional energizing factor controlling the local pattern formation and self-organizing of the nano-structures. Suggested concept makes it possible to provide precise predictive designing the spatial structure and properties of the advanced carbyne-enriched nanostructured metamaterials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0569.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: ecosystem dynamics; discrete-event model; qualitative modelling; boolean model; state-and-transition model
Online: 30 November 2021 (12:39:11 CET)
Sub-Saharan social-ecological systems are undergoing changes in environmental conditions, including modifications in rainfall pattern and biodiversity loss. Consequences of such changes depend on complex causal chains which call for integrated management strategies whose efficiency could benefit from ecosystem dynamic modelling. However, ecosystem models often require lots of quantitative information for estimating parameters, which is often unavailable. Alternatively, qualitative modelling frameworks have proved useful for explaining ecosystem response to perturbations, while requiring fewer information and providing more general predictions. However, current qualitative methods have some shortcomings which may limit their utility for specific issues. In this paper, we propose the Ecological Discrete-Event Network (EDEN), an innovative qualitative dynamic modelling framework based on "if-then" rules which generates many alternative event sequences (trajectories). Based on expert knowledge, observations and literature, we use this framework to assess the effect of permanent changes in surface water and herbivores diversity on vegetation and socio-economic transitions in an East African savanna. Results show that water availability drives changes in vegetation and socio-economic transitions, while herbivore functional groups had highly contrasted effects depending on the group. This first use of EDEN in a savanna context is promising for bridging expert knowledge and ecosystem modelling.
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: sustainable business model; sustainable development; sustainability; business model; review; survey; state-of-the-art; climate change; climate protection; global warming; research method; circular economy; sustainable mobility; mitigation; adaptation
Online: 28 March 2019 (08:49:06 CET)
During the past two decades of e-commerce growth, the concept of a business model has become increasingly popular. More recently, the research on this realm has grown rapidly, with diverse research activity covering a wide range of application areas. Considering the sustainable development goals, the innovative business models have brought a competitive advantage to improve the sustainability performance of organizations. The concept of the sustainable business model describes the rationale of how an organization creates, delivers, and captures value, in economic, social, cultural, or other contexts, in a sustainable way. The process of sustainable business model construction forms an innovative part of a business strategy. Different industries and businesses have utilized sustainable business models’ concept to satisfy their economic, environmental, and social goals simultaneously. However, the success, popularity, and progress of sustainable business models in different application domains are not clear. To explore this issue, this research provides a comprehensive review of sustainable business models literature in various application areas. Notable sustainable business models are identified and further classified in fourteen unique categories, and in every category, the progress -either failure or success- has been reviewed, and the research gaps are discussed. Taxonomy of the applications includes innovation, management and marketing, entrepreneurship, energy, fashion, healthcare, agri-food, supply chain management, circular economy, developing countries, engineering, construction and real estate, mobility and transportation, and hospitality. The key contribution of this study is that it provides an insight into the state of the art of sustainable business models in various application areas and future research directions. This paper concludes that popularity and the success rate of sustainable business models in all application domains have been increased along with the increasing use of advanced technologies.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0106.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: error model; new model; NS-3; VANET; 802.11p
Online: 11 January 2019 (07:59:28 CET)
Nowadays, network simulators are very useful to model a communications system. In this technical note we will focus in the creation of a new error model in NS-3 network simulator. This note describes the main steps to create or modify an Wi-Fi error model in this network simulator. In our case, we have created a new error model to included the approach of  to compute PER (Packet Error Rate) for vehicular environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0124.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: weighted centroid; signal intensity; attenuation model; combined model
Online: 16 March 2018 (04:23:19 CET)
Aiming at the defects of low precision and time cumulative error, an external wireless signal weighted centroid localization algorithm aided inertial positioning method is designed in this paper. According to the signal strength of each anchor node received at the test point, the distance between the anchor node and the anchor node is obtained by using the attenuation model of the wireless signal. Three anchor nodes are used to measure the distance between the anchor node and the measured point. We can obtain the area to be measured according to the actual situation, the position of the measured point is obtained by the weighted centroid localization algorithm and a combined model of wireless signal aided inertial navigation system is established. The simulation results show that the method can greatly improve the positioning accuracy and restrain the divergence of the longitude error and latitude error.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0347.v1
Subject: Keywords: MXenes; Nanocomposites; Bioinspired model; Finite element method; Microscale; Micromechanical model; Kelvin-Voigt model; Damping
Online: 14 June 2021 (10:34:58 CEST)
A new two-dimensional nanomaterial – Titanium Carbide MXene (Ti3C2-MXene) – was reported in 2011. In this work, the microscale models of Ti3C2-MXene nanomaterial are considered with polymer matrix. The nanocomposites are modeled using nacre-mimetic brick-and-mortar assembly configurations due to enhanced mechanical properties and interlocking mechanism between the Ti3C2-MXene (brick) and polymer matrices (mortar). The polymer matrix material (Epoxy-resin) is modeled with elastic and viscoelastic behavior (Kelvin-Voigt Model). The Finite Element Method is used for numerical analysis of the microscale models with the multi-point constraint method to include Ti3C2-MXene fillers in the polymer matrix. Ti3C2-MXenes are considered as thick plate elements with transverse shear effects. The response of elastic and viscoelastic models of polymer matrix are studied. Finally, a tensile and compressive load is applied at the microscale and the effective load transfer due to nacre-mimetic configuration is discussed. This paper provides nacre-mimetic models to pre-design the nanocomposite for optimal performance with damage resistance and enhanced strength.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0034.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: factor model; 2PL model; linking; invariance alignment; Haberman linking; partial invariance; item response model; structural equation model; differential item functioning
Online: 4 June 2020 (13:25:49 CEST)
The comparison of group means in latent variable models plays a vital role in empirical research in the social sciences. The present article discusses extensions of invariance alignment and Haberman linking concerning the choice of linking functions for comparisons of many groups. Robust linking functions are proposed for invariance alignment and robust Haberman linking that are particularly suited to item response data under partial invariance. In a simulation study, it is shown that both linking approaches have comparable performance, and in some conditions, the newly proposed robust Haberman linking outperforms invariance alignment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0239.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Ethical access control; Context-aware access control; Data breaches; Responsibility model; Policy model; Cost model
Online: 23 August 2019 (09:44:53 CEST)
The worldwide interconnected objects, called Internet of Things (IoTs), have been increasingly growing in the last several years. Different social media platforms and devices are continuously generating data about individuals and facilitate the technological and the social convergence of their Internet-based data and services with globalized users. These social and device-related IoTs create rooms for data breaches as such platforms provide ability to collect private and sensitive data. We assert that data breaches are fundamentally failures of access control - most users are too busy or technically ill-equipped to understand access control policy expressions and decisions. We argue that this is symptomatic of globalised societies structured by the conditions of algorithmic modernity; an era in which our data is increasingly interdependent on, and enmeshed with, ever more complex systems and processes that are vulnerable to attack. Ethically managing data breaches is now too complex for current access control systems, such as Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) and Context-Aware Access Control (CAAC). These systems do not provide an explicit mechanism to engage in decision making processes, about who should have access to what data and when, that are involved in data breaches. We argue that a policy ontology will contribute towards the development of Ethical CAAC better suited to attributing accountability for data breaches in the context of algorithmic modernity. We interrogate our proposed Ethical CAAC as a theoretical construct with implications for future policy ontology models and data breach countermeasures. An experimental study on the performance of the proposed framework is carried out with respect to a more generic CAAC framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0124.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: metabolic flux analysis, model misspecification, constraint-based model, stoichiometric model, Chinese hamster ovary cell culture
Online: 16 March 2017 (17:38:36 CET)
Background: Metabolic flux analysis (MFA) is an indispensable tool in metabolic engineering. The simplest variant of MFA relies on an overdetermined stoichiometric model of the cell’s metabolism under the pseudo-steady state assumption, to evaluate the intracellular flux distribution. Despite its long history, the issue of model error in the overdetermined MFA, particularly misspecifications of the stoichiometric matrix, has not received much attention. Method: We evaluated the performance of statistical tests from linear least square regressions, namely Ramsey RESET test, F-test and Lagrange multiplier test, in detecting model misspecifications in the overdetermined MFA, particularly missing reactions. We further proposed an iterative procedure using the F-test to correct such an issue. Result: Using Chinese hamster ovary and random metabolic networks, we demonstrated that: (1) a statistically significant regression does not guarantee high accuracy of the flux estimates, (2) the removal of a reaction with a low flux magnitude can cause disproportionately large biases in the flux estimates, (3) the F-test could efficiently detect missing reactions, and (4) the proposed iterative procedure could robustly resolve the omission of reactions. Conclusion: Our work demonstrated that statistical analysis and tests could be used to systematically assess, detect and resolve model misspecifications in the overdetermined MFA.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0299.v3
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: elderly; aging population; ambient intelligence; fall detection; indoor localization; real-world implementation; sensors; activities of daily living; assisted living
Online: 21 July 2022 (10:46:08 CEST)
Falls, highly common in the constantly increasing global aging population, can have a variety of negative effects on their health, well-being, and quality of life, including restricting their capabilities to conduct Activities of Daily Living (ADLs), which are crucial for one’s sustenance. Timely assistance during falls is highly necessary, which involves tracking the indoor location of the elderly during their diverse navigational patterns associated with ADLs to detect the precise location of a fall. With the decreasing caregiver population on a global scale, it is important that the future of intelligent living environments can detect falls during ADL.s while being able to track the indoor location of the elderly in the real world. Prior works in these fields have several limitations, such as – the lack of functionalities to detect both falls and indoor locations, high cost of implementation, complicated design, the requirement of multiple hardware components for deployment, and the necessity to develop new hardware for implementation, which make the wide-scale deployment of such technologies challenging. To address these challenges, this work proposes a cost-effective and simplistic design paradigm for an Ambient Assisted Living system that can capture multimodal components of user behaviors during ADLs that are necessary for performing fall detection and indoor localization in a simultaneous manner in the real world. Proof of concept results from real-world experiments are presented to uphold the effective working of the system. The findings from two comparison studies with prior works in this field are also presented to uphold the novelty of this work. The first comparison study shows how the proposed system outperforms prior works in the areas of indoor localization and fall detection in terms of the effectiveness of its software design and hardware design. The second comparison study shows that the cost for the development of this system is the least as compared to prior works in these fields, which involved real-world development of the underlining systems, thereby upholding its cost-effective nature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0375.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Pair Trading; Model uncertainty; Model risk; Optimal boundary; PSX
Online: 21 December 2022 (02:44:09 CET)
The perception in pair trading is to recognize two stocks that move together, and their prices will converge to a mean value in future. However, finding the mean-reverted point at which the value of the pair will converge, and optimal boundaries of the trade is not easy. As uncertainty and model misspecifications may lead to losses. To cater for the problems, this study employs the novel entropic approach that utilizes entropy as penalty function for the misspecification of the model. The use of entropy as a measure of risk in pair trading is a nascent idea and this study utilizes daily data for 64 companies listed on PSX for the years 2017, 2018, and 2019, respectively to compute the returns based on the entropic approach. These companies cover the major sectors including Cement, Chemical, Automobile Assembler, Food and Personal Care Products, Oil and Gas Marketing Companies, Oil and Gas Exploration Companies Ltd, Power Generation and Distribution, Refinery and Pharmaceuticals. The returns to these stocks are then evaluated and compared with the Buy and Hold strategy. The results show positive and significant returns from pair trading using an entropic approach.