REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1946.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: HCV; Innate immunity; Adaptive immunity
Online: 30 November 2023 (10:41:51 CET)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is diffused worldwide, and it is responsible for potentially severe chronic liver disease and primary liver cancer. Chronic infection remains for life if not spontaneously eliminated and viral persistence profoundly impairs the efficiency of host’s immunity. Attempts have been made to develop an effective vaccine, but efficacy trials have met with failure. The availability of highly efficacious direct acting antivirals (DAA) has shed hopes for progressive elimination of chronic HCV infection; however, this approach requires a global monumental effort. Moreover, DAA treatment does not completely restore the normal immunologic homeostasis. Here we discuss the main immunological features of immune responses to HCV and the epigenetic scars that chronic viral persistence leaves behind.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0429.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; Sars-CoV-2; Natural immunity; Cellular immunity; Vaccine-induced immunity; Hybrid immunity; Cross-reactivity; Omicron
Online: 28 September 2022 (03:38:36 CEST)
Background: Both natural immunity and vaccine-induced immunity to COVID-19 may be useful to reduce the mortality/morbidity of this disease, but still a lot of controversy exists. Aims: This narrative review analyzes the literature about: a) the duration of natural immunity; b) cellular immunity; c) cross-reactivity; d) the duration of post-vaccination immune protection; e) the probability of reinfection and its clinical manifestations in the recovered patients; f) comparisons between vaccinated and unvaccinated in the possible reinfections; g) the role of hybrid immunity; h) the effectiveness of natural and vaccine-induced immunity against Omicron variant; i) comparative incidence of adverse effects after vaccination in recovered individuals vs. COVID-19-naïve subjects. Material and Methods: through multiple search engines we investigated COVID-19 literature related to the aims of the review, published since April 2020 through July 2022, including also the previous articles pertinent to the investigated topics. Results: nearly 900 studies were collected and 238 pertinent articles were included. It was highlighted that the vast majority of individuals after COVID-19 develop a natural immunity both of cell-mediated and humoral type, which is effective over time and provides protection against both reinfection and serious illness. Vaccine-induced immunity was shown to decay faster than natural immunity. In general, the severity of the symptoms of reinfection is significantly lower than in the primary infection, with a lower degree of hospitalizations (0.06%) and an extremely low mortality. Conclusions: this narrative review regarding a vast number of articles highlighted the valuable protection induced by the natural immunity after COVID-19, which seems comparable or superior to the one induced by anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Vaccination of the unvaccinated COVID-19-recovered subjects may not be indicated. Further research is needed in order to: a) measure the durability of immunity over time; b) evaluate both the impacts of Omicron-5 on vaccinated and healed subjects and of hybrid immunity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0513.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; convalescent immunity; T cell immunity; Heterogenous Immunity; multiparametric approach
Online: 9 October 2023 (11:33:18 CEST)
Optimal detection strategies for effective convalescent immunity after SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination remain unclear. The objective of this study was to characterize convalescent immunity targeting the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein using a multiparametric approach. At the beginning of the pandemic, we recruited 30 COVID-19 unvaccinated convalescent donors and 7 unexposed asymptomatic controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained from leukapheresis cones. The humoral immune response was assessed by measuring serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 subunit IgG semiquantitative ELISA and T cell immunity against S1 and S2 subunits were studied by IFN-γ Enzyme-Linked Immune absorbent Spot (ELISpot), flow cytometric (FC) activation-induced marker (AIM) assays and the assessment of cytotoxic CD8+ T-cell function (in the subset of HLA-A2 positive patients). No single immunoassay was sufficient in identifying anti-spike convalescent immunity among all patients. There was no consistent correlation between adaptive humoral and cellular anti-spike responses. Our data indicate that the magnitude of anti-spike convalescent humoral and cellular immunity is highly heterogeneous and highlights the need for using multiple assays to comprehensively measure SARS-CoV-2 convalescent immunity. These observations might have implications for COVID-19 surveillance, and optimal vaccination strategies for emerging variants. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal assessment of adaptive humoral and cellular immunity following SARS-CoV-2 infection, especially in the context of emerging variants and unclear vaccination schedules.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0797.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: atherosclerosis; innate immunity; signaling pathways; trained immunity
Online: 13 September 2023 (07:54:33 CEST)
Innate immune pathways play a crucial role in the development of atherosclerosis, from sensing initial danger signals to the long-term reprogramming of immune cells. Despite the success of lipid-lowering therapy, anti-hypertensive medications, and other measures in reducing complications associated with atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death worldwide. Consequently, there is an urgent need to devise innovative preventive and therapeutic strategies to alleviate the global burden of CVD. Extensive experimental research and epidemiological studies have demonstrated the dominant role of innate immune mechanisms in the progression of atherosclerosis. Recently, landmark trials including CANTOS, COLCOT, and LoDoCo2 have provided solid evidence, demonstrating that targeting innate immune pathways can effectively reduce the risk of CVD. These groundbreaking trials mark a significant paradigm shift in the field and open new avenues for atheroprotective treatments. It is therefore crucial to comprehend the intricate interplay between innate immune pathways and atherosclerosis for the development of targeted therapeutic interventions. Additionally, unraveling the mechanisms underlying the long-term reprogramming may offer novel strategies to reverse the pro-inflammatory phenotype of immune cells and restore immune homeostasis in atherosclerosis. In this Review, we present an overview of the innate immune pathways implicated in atherosclerosis, with a specific focus on the signaling pathways driving chronic inflammation in atherosclerosis and the long-term reprogramming of immune cells within the atherosclerotic plaque. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms governing these processes presents exciting opportunities for the development of a new class of immunotherapeutic approaches aimed at reducing inflammation and promoting plaque stability. By addressing these aspects, we can potentially revolutionize the management of atherosclerosis and its associated cardiovascular complications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1867.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Polio; IPV; OPV; Intestinal Immunity; Humeral Immunity; Pakistan
Online: 27 June 2023 (09:47:53 CEST)
The OPV is the vaccine of choice in polio eradication, especially in developing countries, as it has eliminated the wild poliovirus type 2. However, the immunity induced by IPV is better than that induced by the OPV. The present study compared the mucosal and humoral response to poliovirus vaccines administered to previously OPV-immunized children to assess the immunity gap in children at-risk of high poliovirus transmission. This was a community-based three-arm cluster randomized controlled trial conducted from June 2013 to May 2014 in healthy children under five years of age living in three high-risk districts of Pakistan, i.e., Karachi, Kashmore, and Bajaur. 387 clusters were randomized (131 to arm A, 127 to arm B, and 129 to arm C); however, 360 remained in the trial until the end (116 in arm A, 122 in arm B, and 122 in arm C). These clusters were randomly allocated using a computer algorithm to receive routine polio program (bOPV) activities (control, arm A), additional interventions with community mobilization and provision of short-term preventive maternal and child health services and routine immunization, including bOPV via health camps, (arm B), or all interventions of arm B with an additional provision of IPV (arm C ~ bOPV and IPV). Blood and stool samples were collected from a sub-sample to estimate humoral and intestinal immunity. Study findings showed that the serum titers were highest in Group C (IPV+OPV) at the baseline for P1, where its increase over time was also more prominent. Titers for P2 and P3 were statistically significantly higher amongst those who had received a routine OPV dose versus those who had not; this was true for all study groups and visits. In populations with high Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) failure rates, administering an Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) booster after a minimum of two OPV doses may effectively bridge immunity gaps. The IPV alone offers limited benefits to humoral immunity and doesn't provide intestinal immunity to prevent the infection and propagation of live poliovirus among unexposed populations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0477.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis, Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomeylitis, Adaptive Immunity, Innate Immunity
Online: 18 November 2020 (12:50:18 CET)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by varying degrees of demyelination of uncertain etiology, and is associated with specific environmental and genetic factors. Upon recognition of CNS antigens, the immune cells initiate an inflammatory process which leads to destruction and deterioration of the neurons. Innate immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells and natural killer cells are known to play critical roles in the pathogenesis of MS. Also, the activation of peripheral CD4+ T cells by CNS antigens leads to their extravasation into the CNS causing damages that exacerbates the disease. This could be accompanied by dysregulation of T regulatory cells and other cell types functions. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a mouse model used to study the pathophysiology of MS disease. In this review, we highlight the roles of innate and adaptive immune players in the pathogenesis of MS and EAE.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0111.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Transplantation Keywords: Xenotransplantation; chemorepulsion; adaptive immunity; innate immunity; dysregulated coagulation; complement cascade
Online: 10 April 2023 (09:14:25 CEST)
Recently, two pig-to-human kidney transplants and a pig-to-human heart transplant were completed. The kidney trials involved a patient who was deceased and a patient who was brain dead. They seemed to indicate that pig kidneys can be at least somewhat functional in humans. However, patients still have to be under severe immunosuppression - and the first patient to receive a porcine heart passed away after two months. It is difficult to know exactly which proteins we need to overexpress or underexpress/knockout in a porcine organ to negate the human recipient’s immunological response to it. And testing different porcine organ genetic modifications in baboons can cost around $500,000 per transplant. But there might be a way to decrease immunogenicity where we don’t have to worry so much about modifying the animal’s organs genetically. First, however, we would have to prevent complement factor-mediated lysis of the porcine vascular endothelial cells, which we have made much progress on with triple knockout animals. Then, we could modify the porcine organ so that the cells of said organ secrete a small molecule or peptide that acts as a chemorepellent for the host immune cells. The host immune cells can be modified via bone marrow transplant or vector delivery to express the chemorepulsion receptor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0101.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: COVID-19; hemodialysis; vaccination; cellular immunity; humoral immunity; adverse reactions
Online: 7 September 2022 (05:14:06 CEST)
Most studies on vaccines of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have focused on antibody, but cellular immunities are also critical. We aimed to evaluate the immune reactions of hemodialysis (HD) patients after the administration of the booster dose from the perspective of both humoral and cellular immunities. Hemodialysis patients (HD group) and age- and sex-matched non-dialysis individuals (control group) receiving three doses of BNT162b2 vaccine were measured for anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin (IgG) and T-SPOTⓇ.COVID test (T-SPOT) before, 3 weeks, and 3 months after the booster dose. The HD group had significantly higher SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels 3 weeks and 3 months after the booster dose than the control group, although both groups had no difference in SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels before the booster dose. Moreover, the HD group had significantly higher T-SPOT levels before and 3 weeks after the booster dose than the control group, but the difference was not significantly different 3 months after the booster dose. Furthermore, the incidence rates of local and systemic adverse reactions were significantly higher in the HD group than in the control group. HD patients obtained higher SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels and SARS-COV-2-specific T-cell responses after the booster dose than control.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0517.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Covid-19; Indian scenario; inherent immunity; hot climate; herd immunity
Online: 5 July 2020 (16:41:36 CEST)
We analyze the Covid-19 mortality scenario in India and compare it with those in other large-population regions such as Asia-excluding-China, Africa, European Union, South America, and USA. We compare existing fatality data and offer an interpretation for low fatality based on immunity due to endemic malaria and TB. We identify the hot climate in the past summer as a possible cause for low death count in southern-hemisphere countries without endemic malaria and TB. We also make India-specific observations for easing the lockdown and estimations for the time required to attain herd immunity. Whatever optimism we present should be viewed as a guarded optimism. There should not be room for complacency.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1794.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: oligonucleotide vaccines; SARS-CoV-2; phosphorothioate oligonucleotides; innate immunity; adaptive immunity
Online: 25 May 2023 (10:13:35 CEST)
The main problem in creating anti-coronavirus vaccines that target mainly proteins of the outer membrane of the virus remains the rapid variability of the RNA genome of the pathogen that encodes these proteins. In addition, the introduction of technologies that can provide affordable and fast production of flexible vaccine formulas that easily adapt to the emergence of new subtypes of SARS-CoV-2 is required. Universal oligonucleotide vaccine can take into account the dynamics of rapid changes in the virus genome, as well as be synthesized on automatic DNA synthesizers in large quantities in a short time. In this brief report, the effectiveness of four phosphorothioate constructs of the La-S-so type oligonucleotide vaccine will be evaluated for the first time on transgenic mice [B6.Cg-Tg (K18-ACE2)2]. In our primary trials, the oligonucleotide vaccine increased the survival rate of animals infected with SARS-CoV-2 and also reduced the destructive effects of the virus on the lung tissue of mice. The obtained results show the perspective of the development of vaccine constructs of the La-S-so type for the prevention of coronavirus infections, including those caused by SARS-СoV-2.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0159.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Sex; COVID-19; SARS Cov-2; ACE2; innate immunity; adaptive immunity
Online: 14 June 2020 (03:18:35 CEST)
Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has affected nearly 7 million individuals and claimed more than 0.4 million lives to date. There are several reports of gender differences related to infection and death due to COVID-19. This raises important questions such as “Whether there are differences based on gender in risk and severity of infection or mortality rate?” and “What are the biological explanation and mechanisms underlying these differences?” Emerging evidence has proposed sex-based immunological, genetic, and hormonal differences to explain this ambiguity. Besides biological differences, women have also faced social inequities and economic hardships due to this pandemic. Several recent studies have shown that independent of age males are at higher risk for severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Although susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 was found to be similar across both genders in several disease cohorts, a disproportionate death ratio in men can be partly explained by the higher burden of pre-existing diseases and occupational exposures among men. From an immunological point of view, females can engage a more active immune response, which may protect them and counter infectious diseases as compared to men. This attribute of better immune responses towards pathogens is thought to be due to high estrogen levels in females. Here we review the current knowledge about sex differences in susceptibility, the severity of infection and mortality, host immune responses, and the role of sex hormones in COVID-19 disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1582.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: NETs; innate immunity; mycobacteria.
Online: 23 May 2023 (05:30:13 CEST)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex causes tuberculosis (TB), a disease that causes pulmonary inflammation but can also affect other tissues. Despite macrophages having a defined role in TB immunopathogenesis, other innate immune cells, such as neutrophils, are involved in this process. These cells have high phagocytic ability and a microbial-killing machine comprised of enzymes, antimicrobial peptides, and reactive oxygen species. In the last two decades, a new neutrophil immune response, the neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), has been intensely researched. NETs comprise DNA associated with histones, enzymes, and antimicrobial peptides. These structures are related to antimicrobial immune response and some immuno-pathogenesis mechanisms. This mini review highlights the role of NETs in tuberculosis and how they can be helpful as a diagnostic tool and/or therapeutic target.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1217.v1
Online: 17 May 2023 (09:55:06 CEST)
Shrimps are under the influence of several environmental factors such as fluctuation of physical and chemical parameters of the water affected by variations in rainfall, temperature, salinity, and pH. These factors have also been identified as risk factors for shrimp disease outbreaks. Despite the high levels of production, shrimp producers suffered significant economic losses in years, mainly due to the presence of diseases that now plague the industry. In particular, viral diseases have had and will continue to have profound impact on industry growth. In response to stress such environmental or pathophysiological, cells are able to up regulating selectively the expression of a protein group known as Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs). In a recent search at the literature we observed a close relation between HSP70 with apoptotic proteins and others stress proteins such HSP60 and HSP90. Moreover, the response of shrimp to viral stress was examined, some of which are correlated to the reactions of HSP70. Thus, the aim of this review is to describe the current knowledge on the status of stress responses in shrimps, particularly HSP70 responses, triggered by viruses.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0353.v1
Online: 19 April 2020 (16:54:43 CEST)
We have proposed a model considering two equally sized population (group A and group B) with low and high levels of disease tolerance. We have argued that in the more tolerant group (group B) the progression of the disease with respect to time will be slow with lower number of infections at any given time. We attribute this effect to the innate immunity which advantageously, can also be one of the major contributing factors for flattening the curve. We have compared the growth of Covid-19 disease in various countries to understand this effect.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0053.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Mast cells; innate immunity; adaptive immunity; wound healing; Immunoglobin E; vaccine adjuvants
Online: 2 November 2020 (14:59:10 CET)
Mast cells are long-lived, granular, myeloid-derived leukocytes that have significant protective and repair functions in tissues. Mast cells sense disruptions in the local microenvironment and are first responders to physical, chemical and biological insults. When activated, mast cells release growth factors, proteases, chemotactic proteins and cytokines thereby mobilizing and amplifying the innate and adaptive immune system. Mast cells are therefore significant regulators of homeostatic functions and may be essential in microenvironmental changes during pathogen invasion and disease. During infection by helminths, bacteria and viruses, mast cells release antimicrobial factors to facilitate pathogen expulsion and eradication. Mast cell-derived proteases and growth factors protect tissues from insect/snake bites and exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Finally, mast cells release mediators that promote wound healing in the inflammatory, proliferative and remodeling stages. Since mast cells have such a powerful repertoire of functions, targeting mast cells may be an effective new strategy for immunotherapy of disease and design of novel vaccine adjuvants. In this review, we will examine how certain strategies that specifically target and activate mast cells can be used to treat and resolve infections, augment vaccines and heal wounds. Although these strategies may be protective in certain circumstances, mast cells activation may be deleterious if not carefully controlled and any therapeutic strategy using mast cell activators must be carefully explored.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0155.v4
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: covid-19; pandemic; immune evasion; first-line immunity; viral evolution; interferon; dendritic cells; cytokines; chemokines; innate immunity; adaptive immunity; vaccinology
Online: 21 February 2023 (02:38:38 CET)
The SARS–CoV-2 infection has caused both acute and chronic COVID–19 disease during the recent pandemic with emerging more transmissible SARS–CoV–2 Omicron variants (BQ1 and XBB1) that have increased demands for more effective immunogens and therapeutic approaches to protect the lives of numerous SARS–CoV-2 affected individuals and reduce overall disease burden that could be affected by concurrent other pathogens causing diseases. Following a worldwide campaign of mass vaccination, there is still a significant demand to quell the harmful effects of novel SARS–CoV–2 infections due to higher mutation rates within specific areas of the SARS–CoV-2 domain, leading to enhanced viral entry, especially within individuals with one or more significant comorbidities, and there is still a dilemma of how prevention of future pandemics will occur as within host animal mutations and cross species transfer naturally occurs. Concerns intersect at a specific point; a gained evolutionary ability of several viruses over the previous centuries to remain undetected during the first stages of infection by means of capping the 5' end of their DNA and RNA genes respectively. This may occur by reducing the rate of host Type I and Type III Interferons (IFN) cellular synthesis, that would usually occur and affect both apoptotic pathways, that facilitate viral replication and clearance, as well as immune cells, that process and present pathogenic antigen epitopes. Furthermore, although methods of vaccination exist, other methods in clinical development remain that could evoke an immune response in different cellular, serum or mucosal compartments being cellular, serum and mucosal that evoke differential antibody responses. Antibodies are classed as natural and synthetic. Natural antibodies are further classified into neutralizing and non-neutralizing, whilst synthetic antibodies are also further classified into monoclonal and polyclonal. As a result of single cell study transcriptome research, viruses do utilize an array of protein receptors for receptor-mediated cellular entry. This, therefore suggests that potential differential production of antibody immunoglobulins (Ig) within serum and mucosal areas remains affected by cytokines, adhesion molecules and chemokines that can be upregulated or downregulated upon host viral infection. Serum plasma antibodies can be multimeric that may not efficiently cross the nasal epithelium cell layer, therefore offering less protection against mucosal inflammation due to mucin proteins. On the other hand, antibodies produced by mucosal plasma cells at epithelial surfaces are known to provide effective immune responses in some viral infections. The existence of developments that stimulate mucosal immune responses has so far only been seen with influenza nasal immunogens. Nevertheless, scientists developed ways of immunization and early treatment worldwide that generally showed good success rates and fewer risks of adverse events, and the still early present stages of COVID-19 research should also be taken into consideration. For example, the administration of human interferons I and III into the nasal mucosa cellular layer, as key mediators of anti–viral activity, can stimulate cellular activity to train the innate and adaptive immune system cells to develop and appropriately stimulate an adequate immune response through B and T cells. Recently, it was discovered that specific plants secrete proteins that also stimulate the production of Type I Interferons. It might be that focusing on directly offering the immune system the information about the genetics and protein structure of the pathogen, rather than training its first-line mechanisms to develop faster, excessively increases its specificity, making it reach a level that brings the virus the opportunity to evolve and escape previously-developed host immune mechanisms. Naturally-selected polymorphic viruses through genetic recombination pose challenges to traditional concepts of cellular and molecular immune system neutralization of these viruses during the first stages of cellular infection. It is until the scientific community realizes this potentially crucial aspect that we will probably continue to face serious epidemics and pandemics of respiratory diseases over the coming several decades, evidenced with dengue fever and more recently monkeypox. Type I IFNs tend to be produced faster than Type III IFNs, and the first induce slightly more abundant pro-inflammatory signals than the latter, meaning that type III IFNs, if produced early, may further decrease the extent of excessive proinflammatory signals. Hence, we believe that nasal sprays containing a low dosage of Type I and Type III IFNs not only represent a relevant COVID-19 therapeutic, but also a potential unknown modulatory therapy of the future. Of note, it has been indicated that IFN I and / or III display significant immunizing and early therapeutic effects for other viral evoked diseases like Influenza (Influenza (A)H1N1), rabies (Rabies lyssavirus), measles (Measles virus), rubella (Rubivirus rubellae), Hepatitis B, HIV-induced AIDS, Ebola, Marburg, as well as bacterial diseases, such as lower respiratory tract infectious diseases induced by Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus, and a number of oncological diseases, like hepatic melanoma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0095.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Beef calf; Trace mineral supplementation; Passive transfer; Innate immunity; Adaptive immunity; Health status
Online: 1 September 2023 (17:02:37 CEST)
This study compared the relative effect of two trace mineral supplementation strategies recom-mended in France for newborn beef calves. 600 calves were supplemented with 20 mg oral sele-nium (OTM group) at birth (D0) or by injection (ITM group) of a multi-mineral solution (60 mg of Zn, 10 mg of Mn, 15 mg of Cu, 5 mg of Se) on D0, D30 and D60. Mortality and the incidence rate of diseases, including diarrhea, omphalitis, pneumonia, as well as medicinal treatments, were recorded from D0 to D210. The incidence rate of omphalitis was significantly lower in the ITM group than in the OTM group (respectively 11% vs. 17%, P = 0.036). The cumulative inci-dence rate of all health troubles was lower in the ITM group than in the OTM group (P=0.007). Except for pneumonia, incidence of diarrhea (24% vs. 22%), use of oral (7% vs. 6%) or IV rehydra-tion therapy (4% vs. 2%) or use of antibiotics (43.3% vs. 38.0%) and mortality (3% vs 2%) were numerically higher in OTM group than in ITM group (n.s.). In this study, ITM supplementation is as efficient as oral supplementation regarding calves' health status. It reduces the risk of ompha-litis at the calf level effectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1829.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: measles; outbreak; HCWs; vaccination; immunity
Online: 26 July 2023 (13:23:15 CEST)
Background Despite the high vaccination coverage rate, in-hospital transmission of measles continues to occur in South Korea. We present a measles outbreak in which two healthcare workers (HCWs) with presumptive evidence of measles immunity were infected by a patient with typical measles at a single hospital in South Korea. This facilitated the evaluation of measles seroprevalence in all HCWs. Methods In 2018, suspected patients and contacts exposed during a measles outbreak were investigated based on their medical histories and vaccination status. Cases were confirmed by the detection of measles-specific immunoglobulin M or RNA. After the measles outbreak, all HCWs underwent measles IgG testing for point-prevalence surveillance. In addition, we have routinely performed measles IgG tests on new HCWs since 2019. The measles vaccine was administered to HCWs who tested negative or equivocally negative for IgG antibodies. Results An index patient who returned from China with fever and rash was diagnosed with measles at a hospital in Korea. Two additional HCWs were revealed as measles cases: one was vaccinated with the 2-dose measles–mumps–rubella (MMR) vaccine, and the other, who was born in 1967, was presumed to have immunity from natural infection in South Korea. All three patients harbored the same D8 genotype. No additional measles cases were identified among the 964 contacts of secondary patients. After the measles outbreak, 2,310 HCWs underwent measles IgG tests. The average age at the time of the test was 32.6 years, and 74.3% were female. The overall seropositivity of measles was 88.9% (95% confidence interval, 87.5 –90.1). Although the birth cohorts between 1985 and 1994 were presumed to have received the measles-rubella (MR) catch-up vaccination in 2001, 175 (89.3%) HCWs were born after 1985 among the 195 seronegative cases. Conclusion Despite high population immunity, imported measles transmission occurred among HCWs, with presumed immunity. This report underscores the importance of understanding the prevalence of measles susceptibility among newly employed HCWs. This is important for policymaking regarding hospital-wide vaccinations to prevent vaccine-preventable diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2003.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: epidemiology; morbidity; immunity; equilibrium; bifurcation
Online: 29 June 2023 (02:09:03 CEST)
We investigate a new fundamental property of infectious diseases with natural adaptive immunity that weakens over time. Numerical experiments with a model of the Covid-19 epidemic in Moscow have demonstrated that when the reproduction number R0 is about 4, a qualitative change (bifurcation) occurs in the behavior of the virus-human system. Below this value, the long-term forecast tends to undamped oscillations; above it, the forecast shows damped oscillations: the amplitudes of epidemic waves decrease gradually, with a constant, very high background level of morbidity that keeps the natural immunity near 100%. To confirm this result analytically, we use an original modification of the Euler-Lotka renewal equation, which describes the dynamics of infected patients distributed by disease duration (time since infection) and accounts for immunity. To construct a bifurcation diagram, which illustrates the dependence of the equilibrium stability on the parameter R0, we linearize the equation in the vicinity of the equilibrium point and examine its numerical approximation (discrete form). This approximation can be interpreted as a Leslie model, with the matrix elements dependent on the parameter R0. By examining the roots of the corresponding Lotka polynomial, we can assess the stability of the equilibrium point. For the bifurcation diagram, we use the functions obtained from the simulation of the Covid-19 epidemic in Moscow. However, observations of the epidemic in other cities and countries support the primary finding of our study regarding the attenuation of epidemic waves.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0162.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: epidemiological model; dwarf peak phenomenon; herd immunity; Covid-19
Online: 27 September 2022 (04:51:54 CEST)
Compartmental models that dynamically divide the host population in categories such as susceptible, infected and immune constitute the mainstream of epidemiological modelling. Effectively such models treat infection and immunity as binary variables. We constructed an individual based stochastic model that considers immunity as a continuous variable and incorporates factors that bring about small changes in immunity. The small immunity effects (SIE) comprise cross immunity by other infections, small increments in immunity by sub clinical exposures and slow decay in the absence of repeated exposure. The model makes qualitatively different epidemiological predictions including repeated waves without the need for new variants, dwarf peaks (peak and decline of a wave much before reaching herd immunity threshold), symmetry in the upward and downward slopes of a wave, endemic state, new surges after variable and unpredictable gaps, new surge after vaccinating majority of population. In effect the SIE model raises alternative possible causes of the universally observed dwarf and symmetric peaks and repeated surges, observed particularly well during the Covid-19 pandemic. We also suggest testable predictions to differentiate between the alternative causes for repeated waves. The model further shows complex interactions of different interventions that can be synergistic as well as antagonistic. The model suggests that interventions that are beneficial in the short run can also be hazardous in the long run.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1019.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Staphylococcus Aureus Infection, Staphylococcus Aureus Immunity, Staphylococcus Aureus Cytotoxin, Biofilm resistance. Host innate immunity.
Online: 27 April 2023 (03:47:45 CEST)
Staphylococci sp. have become the primary pathogens implicated in infective endocarditis, especially within high-income nations. This along with the increasing burden of healthcare, aging populations and the protracted course the infections may take, contribute to a significant challenge for healthcare systems. A systematic review was conducted using relevant search criteria from PubMed, Ovid’s version of MEDLINE, and EMBASE, and data were tabulated from randomized controlled trials (RCT), observational cohort studies, meta-analysis, and basic research articles. The review was registered with the OSF register of systematic reviews and followed the PRISMA reporting guidelines. 35 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the final systematic review. The role of Staphylococcus aureus and its interaction with the protective shield and host protection functions was identified and highlighted in several studies. The interaction between infective endocarditis pathogens, vascular endothelium, and blood constituents was also explored giving rise to the potential use of antiplatelets as preventative and/or curative agents. Several factors allow Staphylococcus aureus infections to proliferate within the host with numerous promoting and perpetuating agents. The complex interaction with the hosts' innate immunity also potentiates its virulence. Ameliorating these molecular pathways may serve as a therapeutic avenue for the prevention and treatment of these infections in near future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0069.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Neuroimmunoendocrinology; Spleen; Parasite immunity; Sexual dimorphism; Neurotransmitters; Cytokines; Helminths; Cysticercosis; Taenia crassiceps; Immunity; Infection
Online: 2 June 2021 (11:41:26 CEST)
The interaction of the nervous, immune, and endocrine systems is crucial in the maintenance of homeostasis in vertebrates, and vital in mammals. The spleen is a key organ that regulates the neuroimmunoendocrine system. The Taenia crassiceps mouse system is an excellent experimental model to study the complex host-parasite relationship, particularly sex-associated susceptibility to infection. The aim of the present study was to determine the changes in neurotransmitters, cytokines, sex steroids, and sex-steroid receptors in the spleen of cysticercus-infected male and female mice, and the association of these different components with whole parasite counts. We found that parasite load was higher in female in comparison to male mice. The levels of the neurotransmitter epinephrine were significantly decreased in infected male animals. The expression of IL-2 and IL-4 in the spleen was markedly increased in infected mice; however, the expression of Interleukin (IL)-10 and Interferon (IFN)-γ decreased. We also observed sex-associated differences between non-infected and infected mice. Interestingly, the data show that estradiol levels increased in infected males but decreased in females. Our studies provide evidence that infection leads to changes on neuroimmunoendocrine molecules in the spleen during infection. These changes are dimorphic and impact the establishment, growth, and reproduction of T. crassiceps. Our findings support the key role of the neuroimmune network in determining sex-associated susceptibility to the helminth parasite.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0515.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Covid-19; Herd Immunity Threshold; Corona Virus; Innate immunity; flattening the curve; serological survey
Online: 31 May 2020 (21:14:05 CEST)
We have analysed the death and recovery rate of Covid-19 disease progression. From the analysis, we have argued that the pandemic is over in certain countries (labelled as group-A) and for other countries (labelled as group-B) the disease appears to remain as endemic. Taking into account the serological survey (sero-survey) test results obtained by certain groups and comparing it with herd immunity threshold value one can infer that the low number of infection for group-B is either due to acquired immunity by some previous infection by other coronavirus or due to innate immunity towards this infection. This effect is stronger for group-B to slow the progress of the disease to such an extent resulting in flattening of the disease progression curve compared to group-A.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1961.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Antiviral natural immunity; RNF138; IRF3; PTEN
Online: 31 October 2023 (10:03:52 CET)
Viral infection activates the transcription factors IRF3 and NF-κB, which synergistically induce type I interferons (IFNs). Here, we identify the E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF138 as an important negative regulator of virus-triggered IRF3 activation and IFN-β induction. Overexpression of RNF138 inhibited virus-induced activation of IRF3 and transcription of the IFNB1 gene, whereas knockout of RNF138 promoted virus-induced activation of IRF3, and transcription of the IFNB1 gene. We further found that RNF138 promotes ubiquitination of PTEN and subsequently inhibits PTEN interactions with IRF3, which is essential for PTEN-mediated nuclear translocation of IRF3, thereby inhibiting IRF3 import into the nucleus. Our findings suggest that RNF138 negatively regulates virus-triggered signaling by inhibiting the interaction of PTEN with IRF3, and these data provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of cellular antiviral responses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2111.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: colostrum; passive immunity; sheep; lamb mortality
Online: 1 August 2023 (02:26:18 CEST)
During last decades, production and consumption of small ruminant milk has been increased. As a result of it, sheep and goat farming has been developing and scientists are focused on these animal researches both clinical and feeding strategies. By the evolutionary challenges and adaptations, colostrum has a crucial role of immune complementation for litter. As a result of these challenges and adaptations neonatal life is especially more important in ruminants because of it affects their whole life and future of livestock. Passive immune transfer is the main mechanism that explained by biological evolution between dam and lamb and also it is effected by factors up to dam and up to the litter. Today importance of passive immune transfer is well known for the future of livestock economy and animal welfare. In the literature, researchers are focused on correlation between colostrum quality (especially immunoglobulin amounts) and blood serum levels of newborns. Aims of present review are to discuss datas of recent studies, point out different effecting factors in colostrum quality and passive immune transfer, enlighten and give new ideas to researchers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0567.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: hyperthermia; ovarian cancer; immunity; chemotherapy; HIPEC
Online: 31 January 2023 (02:41:11 CET)
Epithelial ovarian cancer is an aggressive disease of the female reproductive system and a leading cause of cancer death in women. Standard of care includes surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy yet patients continue to experience a high rate of recurrence and metastasis. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) treatment in highly selective patients extends overall survival by nearly 12 months. The clinical studies are highly supportive of the use of HIPEC in the treatment of ovarian cancer though the therapeutic approach is limited to academic medical centers. The mechanism underlying HIPEC benefit remains unknown. The efficacy of HIPEC therapy is impacted by several procedural and patient/tumor factors including the timing of surgery, platinum sensitivity, and molecular profiling such as homologous recombination deficiency. The present review aims to provide insight into the mechanistic benefit of HIPEC treatment with a focus on how hyperthermia activates the immune response, induces DNA damage and impairs DNA damage repair pathways, and has a synergistic effect with chemotherapy, with the ultimate outcome of increasing chemosensitivity. Identifying the points of fragility unmasked by HIPEC may provide the key pathways that could be the basis of new therapeutic strategies for ovarian cancer patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0344.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: PAMP-triggered immunity; priming; transcriptomical analysis
Online: 21 December 2021 (14:06:42 CET)
The effects of ELICE16INDURES, a well-known plant conditioner developed by the Research Institute for Medicinal Plants and Herbs Ltd. Budakalasz, Hungary, were studied in a soybean population. The active ingredients of the compound have been selected to help elicit general immunity in plants without pathogenic damage, thereby roborizing the healthy plant population and preparing it for possible future biotic stressors. Here we have analyzed changes in the expression levels of genes encoding enzymes involved in the catalysis of metabolic pathways that induce and regulate PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) at two different time points and treatments. Twenty-three different enzymes were analyzed that catalyze different metabolic pathways, such as the biosyntheses of jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, ethylene, phenylpropanoid, flavonoid, and phytoalexin biosynthesis and cellular detoxification processes. Bioinformatical softwares werw used to analyze the results. It has been found that some of the primary defense mechanisms (e.g., Mitogen-Activated-Protein Kinase (MAPK) cascade, jasmonic acid biosynthesis, flavonoid and phytoalexin biosynthesis, etc.) that intensify following the attack of pathogens can be activated without the intrusion of the actual pathogen by an immunochemical. Thus, we proved that plant resistance can be artificially conditioned.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0009.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: neutrophils; priming; innate immunity; immune-memory
Online: 1 December 2021 (11:00:01 CET)
Neutrophils as innate immune cells primarily act as first responders in acute infection and directly maintain inflammatory responses. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that neutrophils also bear the potential to mediate chronic inflammation by exhibiting memory-like features. We recently showed that priming by serial doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from gram-negative bacteria can trigger opposing memory-like responses (exaggerated inflammation, i.e. trained sensitivity or suppression of inflammation, i.e. tolerance) depending on the LPS-dose. We now asked whether this observation could also hold true for lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from gram-positive S. aureus. We found comparable effects of LTA on neutrophil priming as seen for LPS. Low-dose (1 ng/mL) LTA-priming promoted increased production of pro-inflammatory mediators (i.e., TNF-α, IL-6, ROS), whereas high-dose (10 µg/mL) results in contrary reactions supporting anti-inflammatory responses by increased IL-10 and declined pro-inflammatory capacity. In vitro neutrophil recruitment was similarly regulated by LTA -priming. Investigation of signalling patterns revealed TLR2/MyD88-mediated regulation of NFκB-p65 through intermediate PI3Ks/MAPK. Collectively, our data suggest a previously unknown capacity of neutrophils to be differentially primed by varying doses of LTA, endorsing memory-like features in neutrophils.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0344.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Glycoprotein; gp120; HIV-1; conformation; immunity
Online: 25 October 2021 (11:50:08 CEST)
Infection by human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) requires virus particle binding to host cell-surface receptor CD4 via the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120. HIV-1 therapy and prevention efforts involve development of mimetic or recombinant gp120 vaccines or deployment of antiviral agents that target specific epitopes of gp120. The unliganded conformational state of gp120 is closed, whereas the CD4-bound state is open. However, in between, there exist dynamic conformational states, indicating intrinsically flexible region(s) of structural dynamics, imposing a structural challenge for developing drug or antibody targets. Known conformational states of gp120 were determined by X-ray crystallographic and cryo-electron microscopy, and neither method captures the population of gp120 species arising from conformational plasticity, motions, and transitions. gp120 plasticity brings up several important questions. How will differences in conformation affect receptor binding, antibody recognition, and neutralization? Which regions are crucial for gp120 structural plasticity? How could structural dynamics influence HIV-1 evasiveness against host immunity and drugs or vaccines, and facilitate the viral entry into its host? This review explores the structural constraints presented by conformational states of the glycoprotein to antibodies or drugs and how these conformational states provide structural avenues for the virus to escape neutralizing agents and evade host immunity.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0160.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Teleost fish; Exosome; Immunity; Mx1; ISKNV
Online: 6 July 2021 (14:58:24 CEST)
Exosomes are associated with cancer progression, pregnancy, cardiovascular diseases, central nervous system–related diseases, immune responses and viral pathogenicity. However, study on the role of exosomes in the immune response of teleost fish, especially antiviral immunity, is limited. Herein, serum-derived exosomes from mandarin fish were used to investigate antiviral effect for the exosomes of teleost fish. Exosomes were isolated from mandarin fish serum by ultracentrifugation could internalize into Mandarin fish fry (MFF-1) cells and inhibited Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) infection. To further investigated the underlying mechanisms of exosomes in inhibiting ISKNV infection. The protein composition of serum-derived exosomes was by analysis mass spectrometry and found that myxovirus resistance 1 (Mx1) was incorporated in the exosomes. Furthermore, the scMx1 protein was proved transferred to the recipient cells though the exosomes. Our results found that the serum-derived exosomes from mandarin fish could inhibit ISKNV replication and suggested an underlying mechanism of the serum-derived exosomes antivirus is that serum-derived exosomes incorporation of the Mx1 protein into exosomes and delivery into recipient cells. This study provided an evidence for the important antiviral role of exosomes in the immune system of teleost fish.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0082.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Trypanosomosis, adaptive immunity, parasitemia control, infection
Online: 6 May 2021 (12:53:49 CEST)
Salivarian trypanosomes are extracellular parasites affecting humans, livestock and game animals. Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Trypanosoma brucei gambiense are human infective sub-species of T. brucei causing Human African Trypanosomosis (HAT - sleeping sickness). The related T. b. brucei parasite lacks the resistance to survive in human serum, and only inflicts animal infections. Animal Trypanosomosis (AT) is not restricted to Africa, but is present on all continents. T. congolense and T. vivax are the most widespread pathogenic trypanosomes in sub-Sahara Africa. Trough mechanical transmission, T. vivax has however been introduced into South America. T. evansi is a unique animal trypanosome that is found in vast territories around the world and can cause atypical Human Trypanosomosis (aHT). All salivarian trypanosomes are well adapted to survival inside the host’s immune system. This is not a hostile environment for these parasite, but this is the place where they thrive. Here we provide an overview of the latest insights into the host-parasite interaction and the unique survival strategies allowing trypanosomes to outsmart the immune system. In addition, we review new developments in treatment and diagnosis as well the issues that have hampered the development of field-applicable anti-trypanosome vaccines for the implementation of sustainable disease control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0100.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: influenza virus; H1N1; immunity; antigenic drift
Online: 5 October 2020 (17:24:27 CEST)
After the influenza H1N1 pandemic of 2009, the seasonal A/Brisbane/59/2007 strain was replaced by the A/California/07/2009 strain for the influenza virus vaccine composition. After several seasons with no indications on the occurrence of antigenic drift, A/Michigan/45/2015 was chosen as the H1N1 vaccine strain for season 2017/2018. Since the immune response to influenza is shaped by the history of exposure to antigenically similar strains, the potential cross-protection between seasonal human influenza vaccine strains and the emerging pandemic strains was investigated. Human serum samples were tested by haemagglutination inhibition and single radial haemolysis assays against A/Brisbane/59/2007, A/California/07/2009, and A/Michigan/45/2015 strains. Strong cross-reactions between A/California/07/2009 and A/Michigan/45/2015 strains were observed in 2009/2010, most likely induced by the start of the 2009 pandemic, and the subsequent post-pandemic seasons from 2010/2011 onwards when A/California/07/2009 becomes the predominant strain. In 2014/2015 season, population immunity against A/California/07/2009 and A/Michigan/45/2015 strains increased again, associated with strong cross-reactions. While haemagglutination inhibition assay has a higher sensitivity for detection of new seasonal drift, the single radial haemolysis assay is an excellent tool to determine the presence of pre-existing immunity, allowing a potential prediction on the booster potential of influenza vaccines against newly emerging drifted strains.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0030.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: COVID-19; seasonal variations; immunity; Nigeria
Online: 4 June 2020 (08:04:33 CEST)
There is a global rise in the emergence of infectious diseases and the enigmatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) being the most recent one. It is ravaging the world with little understanding of its etiology and factors affecting its transmission dynamics. Meanwhile, seasonal variations in weather are major factors impacting infectious disease transmission patterns. Developing countries are likely to be most affected by weather changes, largely because of challenges such as inadequate drainage and sewage management systems, healthcare facilities, education, and funding to efficiently mitigate infectious diseases. In Nigeria, weather conditions alternate between rainy and dry seasons. Conditions such as rainfall, flood, and humidity have been reported to influence infectious disease transmission. Thus, understanding the impact of weather changes in transmission dynamics and immune response to COVID 19 will help in preventive measures and policy making to curtail its spread most especially in Nigeria as the rainy season fully sets in.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0434.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Gut micro milieu, immunity and microRNAs
Online: 23 July 2018 (21:33:29 CEST)
The tissue micro environment or milieu consists of a highly dynamic population of cellular and non-cellular components which constitute a complex regulatory network aimed at maintaining the organ homeostasis. In the modern medicine the discovery of miRNAs is undoubtedly a promising field of research and they are essential in orchestrating immune system logic and their release in the gut micro milieu can directly affect bacterial gene expression. Here, we brieﬂy review the role of microRNAs, focuses on their role on immune system components in physiological and pathophysiological gut micro milieu.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0305.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: HIV-1 infection; SARS-CoV-2 infection; Neutralizing antibodies; mRNA Vaccines; T-cell immunity; Immunity waning
Online: 6 October 2023 (05:08:35 CEST)
Background. Waning of neutralizing and cell-mediated immune response after the primary vac-cine cycle (PVC) and the first booster dose (BD) is of concern, especially for PLWH with a CD4 count ≤200 cells/ mm3.Methods.Neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) titers by microneutralization assay against WD614G /Omicron BA.1 and IFNγ production by ELISA assay were measured in samples of PLWH at 4 time points [2 and 4 months post-PVC (T1 and T2), 2 weeks and 5 months after the BD (T3 and T4)]. Participants were stratified by CD4 count after PVC (LCD4, <200/mm3; ICD4, 201-500/mm3 and HCD4, >500/mm3). Mixed models were used to compare mean responses over T1-T4 across CD4 groups. Results. 314 PLWH on ART (LCD4=56; ICD4=120; HCD4=138) were enrolled. At T2, levels of nAbs were significantly lower in LCD4 vs ICD4/HCD4 (p=0.04). BD was crucial for increasing nAbs titres above 1:40 at T3 and up to T4 for WD614G. A positive T cell response after PVC was observed in all groups, regardless of CD4 (p=0.31). Conclusions. Waning of nAbs after PVC was more important in LCD4 group. BD managed to re-establish higher levels of nAbs against WD614G which were retained for 5 months. The level of T-cellular response was significantly higher in HCD4 and ICD4 compared to the LCD4 group although it remained above detectable levels over the entire study period regardless of CD4 count. Keywords: HIV-1 infection; SARS-CoV-2 infection;
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0348.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; immunity; neuroinflammation; mitochondria; dysbiosis; infections.
Online: 6 November 2023 (11:09:33 CET)
Recent research has unveiled intriguing insights suggesting that the body's immune system may be implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD) development. Studies have observed disparities in pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory markers between PD patients and healthy individuals. This finding underscores the potential influence of immune system dysfunction in the genesis of this condition. A dysfunctional immune system can serve as a primary catalyst for systemic in-flammation in the body, which may contribute to the emergence of various brain disorders. The identification of several genes associated with PD, as well as their connection to neuroinflamma-tion, raises the likelihood of disease susceptibility. Moreover, advancing age and mitochondrial dysfunction can weaken the immune system, potentially implicating them in the onset of the dis-ease, particularly among older individuals. Compromised integrity of the blood-brain barrier could facilitate the immune system's access to brain tissue. This exposure may lead to encounters with native antigens or infections, potentially triggering an autoimmune response. Furthermore, there is mounting evidence supporting the notion that gut dysbiosis might represent an initial trigger for brain inflammation, ultimately promoting neurodegeneration. In this comprehensive review, we will delve into the numerous hypotheses surrounding the role of both innate and adaptive immunity in PD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0352.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Mucosa; Immunity; Vaccines; Common Mucosal System; Immunobiotics
Online: 5 July 2023 (16:00:08 CEST)
ABSTRACT: The idea of a Common Mucosal Immune system (CMS) is 50 years old. Its relevance to immune protection at mucosal sites and its potential to modulate the impact of vaccination-induced protection against infection of the airway, has been poorly understood. The consequent failure of current SARS-CoV-2 vaccination to satisfy expectations with respect to prevention of infection, viral transmission, duration of protection and pattern of clinical protection, led to public health and medical decisions now under review. This review summarises knowledge of the CMS in man, including the powerful role it plays in immune protection and lessons with respect to what can and can not be achieved by systemic and mucosal vaccination for prevention of airway infection. The powerful impact in both health and disease of optimising delivery of immune protection using selected isolates from the respiratory microbiome, is demonstrated through review of randomised controlled trials (RCT’s) in subjects with chronic airway disease, and in otherwise healthy individuals with risk factors, in whom the idea of mucosal immune resilience is introduced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1894.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: OTUD6A; IFNβ; Ubc13; NF-κB; innate immunity
Online: 27 June 2023 (11:42:11 CEST)
Abstract: OTUD6A is a deubiquitinase that plays crucial roles in various human diseases. However, the precise regulatory mechanism of OTUD6A remains unclear. In this study, we found that OTUD6A significantly inhibited the production of type I interferon. Consistently, peritoneal macrophages and bone marrow-derived macrophages from Otud6a-/- mice produced more type I interferon after virus infection compared to cells from WT mice. Otud6a-/- mice also exhibited increased resistance to lethal HSV-1 and VSV infections, as well as LPS attack due to decreased inflammatory responses. Mechanistically, mass spectrometry results revealed that UBC13 was an OTUD6A-interacting protein, and the interaction significantly enhanced after HSV-1 stimulation. Taken together, our findings suggest that OTUD6A plays a crucial role in the innate immune response and may serve as a potential therapeutic target for infectious disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0081.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Phytocytokines; Induced resistance; Priming; Plant Immunity; Peptides
Online: 4 January 2023 (12:07:11 CET)
The plant immunity system is more and more revisited and new elements and roles are attributed to participate in the response to biotic stress. New terminology is also applied trying to identify different players in the whole scenario of immunity: Phytocytokines are one of those elements that are gaining more attention due the characteristics of processing and perception, and showing they are part of a big family of compounds that can amplify the immune response. This review aims to highlight the last findings about the role of phytocytokines in the whole immune response on biotic stress, including basal and adaptive immunity, and to expose the complexity in their action in plant perception and signaling events.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Allergy; Autistic Disorder; Dermatitis; Genetics; Immunity; MicroRNAs
Online: 17 December 2018 (15:53:35 CET)
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disturbances affecting social skills, whose incidence worldwide is dramatically increasing. Together with the rise of ASD prevalence, several immune conditions are following the same trend, including Atopic Dermatitis (AD), with a possible clinical relationship with ASD. To date, their pathogenesis is still unknown, but several studies highlighted the relevance of gene-environment interactions to the onset of both disorders. Among potential contributing factors, microRNAs (miRNAs), small molecules capable of controlling gene expression and targeting mRNA transcripts, might represent one of the major circulating link, unraveling the connections between neurodevelopmental and immune conditions. We conducted a systematic literature review, under the PRISMA guidelines, trying to define the panel of common miRNAs involved in both ASD and AD. The review retrieved articles published until December 13, 2018, in PubMed, ScienceDirect, PsycARTICLES and Google Scholar. We found a handful works dealing with miRNAs in ASD and AD, with the most overlapping dysregulated miRNAs being miR-146 and miR-155. Two possible compounds are abnormally regulated in both ASD and AD subjects, possibly cross-contributing to the interactions between the two disorders, setting the basis to investigate more precisely the possible link between ASD and AD from another, not just clinical, perspective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0346.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: immunity; leukocyte; lymphocyte; flow cytometry; glucose; exercise
Online: 16 October 2018 (08:59:44 CEST)
Using a randomized, crossover approach, cyclists (N = 20, overnight fasted) engaged in three 75-km time trials while ingesting water (WAT) or carbohydrate (0.2 g/kg every 15 minutes) from bananas (BAN) or a 6% sugar beverage (SUG). Blood samples were collected pre-exercise and 0 h-, 1.5 h-, and 21 h-post-exercise, and analyzed for NK cytotoxicity activity (NKCA) using pure NK cell populations. The two carbohydrate trials (BAN, SUG) compared to WAT were associated with higher post-exercise glucose, and lower cortisol, total blood leukocyte, neutrophil, and NK cell counts (interaction effects, P < 0.001). The immediate post-exercise increase in NK cell counts was higher in WAT (78%) compared to BAN (32%) and SUG (15%) trials (P ≤ 0.017). The 1.5 h post-exercise decrease in NK cell counts did not differ after WAT (−46%), BAN (−46%), and SUG (−51%) trials. The pattern of change in post-exercise NKCA differed between trials (P < 0.001). The 1.5 h post-exercise decreases in NKCA were 23%, 29%, and 33% in the WAT, BAN, and SUG trials, respectively, but trial contrasts did not differ significantly. Carbohydrate ingestion from BAN or SUG attenuated immediate-post-exercise increases in leukocyte, neutrophil, and NK cell counts, but did not counter the 1.5-h decreases in NK cell counts and NKCA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0129.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: negatively factors; pertussis; preschool children; vaccine immunity
Online: 8 June 2018 (11:28:56 CEST)
Introduction: The top priority of active immunoprophylaxis of pertussis is immunisation of infants as they can develop severe multiple-organ complications or even die from this disease. Objectives: The aim of the work is the identification of factors negatively affecting vaccine immunity to pertussis in preschool children prior to the administration of the first booster. Patients and Methods: The research was conducted on 352 children from 4.5 to 5.9 years of age who were hospitalised in the University Children’s Hospital in Lublin (Poland) from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2015. The children taking part in the study had been administered all the mandatory vaccines from their birth to the age of 2 or 2.5 years old according to the Polish Immunisation Program 2008-2009. The immunoenzymatic method ELISA was applied to assess vaccine immunity to tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), poliomyelitis (IPV), mumps, rubella and measles. The level of vaccine antibodies to hepatitis type B was determined chemilumiscently. Results: The protective antibody titer was not found in 41 (11.65%) children before the administration of the booster. To verify the collective impact of parameters analised on antibody titer to pertussis, the Generalized Linear Model (GLZ) was used. Gender, type of vaccine, asthma, Hib and mumps antibody titers have been shown to be predicators of vaccine immunity to pertussis. Conclusions: Immunomodulation considered on the example of titer of IgG antibody to pertussis can serve as a useful model of the assessment of development of acquired immunity after mandatory vaccinations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0242.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: mouse models; Plasmodium; Adaptive immunity; Innate immunity; T cells; B cells; Macrphages; Neutrophils; Antibodies; Cytokines; parasite control; immunopathogensis
Online: 18 July 2022 (03:12:30 CEST)
Malaria comprises a spectrum of disease syndromes and the immune system is a major participant in malarial disease. This is particularly true in relation to the immune responses elicited against blood stages of Plasmodium-parasites that are responsible for the pathogenesis of infection. Mouse models of malaria are commonly used to dissect the immune mechanisms underlying disease. While no one mouse model of Plasmodium infection completely recapitulates all the features of malaria in humans, collectively the existing models are invaluable for defining the events that lead to the immunopathogenesis of malaria. Here we review the different mouse models of Plasmodium infection that are available, and highlight some of the main contributions these models have made with regards to identifying immune mechanisms of parasite control and the immunopathogenesis of malaria.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2002.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: rotavirus; coronavirus; vaccine; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; cross immunity; trained immunity; vaccinated breakthrough infections; COVID variants; long-Covid
Online: 29 May 2023 (09:29:18 CEST)
This proposal was prepared in the very first weeks of 2020 because of the outbreak of COVID-19. There are good reasons to suppose that rotavirus vaccine can be used as protection tool to effectively and safely fight and mitigate SARS-CoV-2 infection and the impact caused by COVID- 19 in adult humans, due to the development of cross and trained immunity following rotavirus vaccination. Up-to-date, some rotavirus vaccines are available and approved, two of them have a large experience in results and safety. Little experience has been achieved in the use of rotavirus vaccine in adults. However, it can be expected that it would be safe and effective in adults and in the elderly as well. This proposal explains the background of this hypothesis based on lungs and intestine relationships.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0190.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: maternal infection; fetal neurodevelopmental delays; neuroimmunology; innate immunity; adap-tive immunity; interferon; natural lymphocyte; adaptive lymphocyte; neuroprotection; neurogen-esis
Online: 12 December 2022 (04:04:15 CET)
Maternal infectious disease may pose considerable challenges to the fetal health due to the distribution of important elements of the sanguine and lymphatic system from the mother via the umbilical cord. The mother and the fetus have a degree of interdependence that is similar to the one between the eukaryotic cell and the mitochondrion, particularly during the first half term of the pregnancy, which explains the increased appetite of the expecting mother during the first stages of the fetal development. There is a solid bridge between the adaptive immune system and the encephalon that was only discovered a few decades ago. As a result, scientists may still be in the introductory stages of research, and there might be a significant and profound degree of association between the immune system and a healthy neurological development. There is a significant link between the onset of significant maternal infectious disease and the onset of neurodevelopmental disease in the fetus, and virtually all immune cells play major roles in the promotion and inhibition of neurogenesis alike. Likewise, there is a probability that maternal infectious diseases during pregnancy represent a risk factor of fetal neurodevelopmental disease, as a pressurised development of the adaptive immune memory could result in a pressurised or inhibited neurological development, which both can result in a delayed development of certain sub-regions of the brain. For example, the fetus may display poorer social abilities and sharp analytical skills later in life, which is an important sign of neurodevelopmental disease. A pressurised development of the adaptive immune memory could not require the development of a significant form of disease, but rather just a sharp rate of immune preparation against several important pathogenic agents during the introductory stages of life, when the encephalon experiences the sharpest increase rate in development. The problem per se is not the process of immunisation, but a much sharper process of immunisation over the first stages of life in case of an exposure to one dangerous pathogen or more numerous kinds of pathogens and antigens that normally cause moderate disease morbidity. The more dangerous the microbe is, the sharper the development of the adaptive immune memory will be, and the same happens in the case of an increased number of infectious microbes and antigens that infected the cells of the mothers and the fetuses in cause, and this may, in the majority of the situations, still be the case even if the pathogens are already significantly weakened or lifeless, given that the gain of adaptive immune memory alone constitutes an important factor of neurogenesis and an increased rate of neurological development, and that the infant will become almost or fully protected against the pathogens in cause, despite not having had experienced the disease beforehand. In this case, neurodevelopmental delays are possibly not caused by an impaired neurogenesis, but by an excessive one, whilst maternal infection-associated neurodevelopmental delays may be caused by an impaired neurogenesis. Nevertheless, the aetiology of immunity-related neurodevelopmental delays may be more complex in nature and implicate a chronological and spatial sequence of induced excedentary and deficitary rates of neurogenesis, hence reflecting the incredibly complex nature and various forms of neurodevelopmental disease. It is important to mention that a single dose of infant immunisation brings significantly lower risks of adverse neurological events than the onset of a significant maternal infectious disease during pregnancy. The objective of paediatric neuro-immunological studies may be to improve the understanding of the association between a healthy immune developmental rate and a balanced ratio of the developmental rates of important brain regions and sub-regions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0678.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: adaptive immunity to COVID-19; clinical vaccine trials; COVID-19; COVID-19 vaccines; innate immunity to COVID-19; mucosal vaccines; nasal vaccines; SARS-CoV-2; upper respiratory tract immunity; vaccine safety
Online: 11 October 2023 (10:52:38 CEST)
Rapid development and deployment of vaccines greatly reduced mortality and morbidity during the COVID-19 pandemic. The most widely used COVID-19 vaccines approved by national regulatory authorities require intramuscular administration. SARS-CoV-2 initially infects the upper respiratory tract where the infection can be eliminated with little or no symptoms by an effective immune response. Failure to eliminate SARS-CoV-2 in the upper respiratory tract results in lower respiratory tract infections that can lead to severe disease and death. Presently used intramuscularly administered COVID-19 vaccines are effective in reducing severe disease and mortality but are not entirely able to prevent asymptomatic and mild infections as well as person to person transmission of the virus. Individual and population differences also influence susceptibility to infection and the propensity to develop severe disease. This article provides a perspective on the nature and the mode of delivery COVID-19 vaccines that can optimize protective immunity in the upper respiratory tract to reduce infections and virus transmission as well as severe disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1865.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: immunity; inflammation; SARS-CoV-2; gene expression; sequencing
Online: 29 November 2023 (10:54:33 CET)
Long COVID, also known as post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC), has emerged as a significant health concern following the COVID-19 pandemic. Molecular mechanisms underlying the occurrence and progression of long COVID include viral persistence, immune dysregulation, endothelial dysfunction, and neurological involvement, and highlight the need for further research to develop targeted therapies for this condition. While a clearer picture of the clinical symptomatology is shaping, many molecular mechanisms are yet to be unraveled, given their complexity and high level of interaction with other metabolic pathways. This review summarizes some of the most important symptoms and associated molecular mechanisms that occur in long COVID, as well as the most relevant molecular techniques that can be used in understanding the viral pathogen, its affinity towards the host and the possible outcomes of host-pathogen interaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0991.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: cross-presentation; cellular immunity; cytosolic pathways; lysosomal escape
Online: 15 September 2023 (04:00:28 CEST)
Here, we found higher percentage of CD8+ T cells in piglets immunized with CVC1302-adjuvanted inactivated FMDV vaccine. We wonder whether promoted cellular immunity induced by CVC1302-adjuvanted inactivated FMDV vaccine due to the promoted antigen cross-presentation efficiency of OVA by DC mainly via the cytosolic pathways, demonstrated by enhanced levels of lysosomal escape of OVA in DC, loaded with OVA and CVC1302. Higher levels of ROS and significant enhanced elevated lysosomal pH in DC facilitated the lysosomal escape of OVA. Significant enhanced CTL activities were observed in mice immunized with OVA-CVC1302. Overall, CVC1302 increased the cross-presentation of exogenous antigens and the cross-priming of CD8+ T cells by alkalizing the lysosomal pH and facilitating the lysosomal escape of antigen. These studies shed new light on the development of immunopotentiators to improve the cellular immunity induced by vaccine.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0786.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: herpesvirus; ADAR; RNA editing; miRNA; latency; innate immunity
Online: 13 September 2023 (02:43:06 CEST)
A single paragraph of about 200 words maximum. For research articles, abstracts should give a pertinent overview of the work. We strongly encourage authors to use the following style of structured abstracts, but without headings: (1) Background: Place the question addressed in a broad context and highlight the purpose of the study; (2) Methods: briefly describe the main methods or treatments applied; (3) Results: summarize the article’s main findings; (4) Conclusions: indicate the main conclusions or interpretations. The abstract should be an objective representation of the article and it must not contain results that are not presented and substantiated in the main text and should not exaggerate the main conclusions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0048.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: HCC; DAAs; Antivirals; HCV; Immunesurveillance; Immunity; Liver stiffness
Online: 1 September 2023 (13:31:17 CEST)
The rapid introduction of DAAs has revolutionized the treatment of chronic HCV infection, however some concerns have been arose about their early and long term safety in real life settings. Therefore, these drugs achieve a robust and sustained virological response in a short duration of treatment, being a quick winning option, but, what then? At now an extensive follow-up in real life settings does not exist particularly on HCC occurrence as recently suggested in a Cochrane review . In this regard from February 2015 to December 2017 a group of 5 Hospital and Academic Centers in Southern Italy (Campania Region) managed an observational, prospective, real-life study on efficacy and safety of DAAs treatment schedule enrolling 1022 consecutive HCV patients treated with IFN-free DAAs regimens being followed-up for 24 months. Our preliminary data on the first 360 patients out of 1022 whose completed at least 66 weeks follow-up, based on clinical, laboratory and expert ultrasonography every three months, showed an SVR in 342 out 360 (95%) patients of which 9 had a new diagnosed HCC (2.63%). Specifically HCC developed in mean after 16,2 months after end of treatment as one or more nodules (2-3 cm in mean) with an increase in alpha-fetoprotein 10 x u.n.v (n.v. <15 UI/mL) in patients with F4 fibrosis staging at the time of treatment enrolment. In conclusion, in view of our findings and literature evidences, regular clinical, laboratory and expert ultrasonography follow-up should carefully performed also on these patients and the current Faster, Higher, Stronger approach to the new antivirals development should strongly be revisited in the light of possible late adverse events like HCC occurrence and the relative economic impact on health care system cost.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0760.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Nanoparticles; virus; bacteria; protein corona; glucocorticoid; innate immunity
Online: 16 June 2023 (10:38:50 CEST)
We advance the notion that much, like artificial nanoparticles, relatively more complex biological entities with nanometric dimensions such as pathogens (viruses, bacteria and other microorganisms) may also acquire a biomolecular corona, upon entering the blood circulation of an organism. We view this biomolecular corona as a component of a much broader non-cellular blood interactome that can be highly specific to the organism, akin to components of the innate immune response to an invading pathogen. We review published supporting data and generalize these notions from artificial nanoparticles to viruses and bacteria. Characterization of the non-cellular blood interactome of an organism may help explain apparent differences in the susceptibility to pathogens among individuals. The non-cellular blood interactome is a candidate therapeutic target to treat infectious and non-infectious conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1156.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: measles; seroprevalence; immunity; anti-measles IgG antibodies; Greece
Online: 15 June 2023 (14:40:55 CEST)
Accurate data on susceptibility rates against measles in general population of Greece are scarce. Many studies estimate the vaccination coverage but none has calculated the nationwide immunity rate, involving all age groups, against measles virus. The purpose of our study was to determine the immunity status to measles, especially after the latest outbreak in 2017-2018. In total, 3,972 leftover blood samples were collected from a nationwide laboratory network using a geograph-ically stratified sampling strategy and were tested for the presence of measles specific IgG anti-bodies. The overall crude seroprevalence was calculated 89.6% and the adjusted 89.8% (95% CI: 88.8% - 90.8%). There was no statistically significant difference in seropositivity among sexes (p=0.783). Higher immunity rates and antibody titer were found in older age groups ≥ 41 years old (94.9%, 95% CI: 93.7% - 95.9%, and 730.0 IU/l) in comparison to younger individuals 1-40 years old (83.4%, 95% CI: 81.6% - 85.7%, and 616.5 IU/l). ). Comparing the seroprevalence among Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS 2), a statistically significant difference was estimated among them (<0.001). The two regions where higher measles incidence was observed during the 2017-2018 outbreak, Eastern Macedonia and Thrace and Western Greece, were among the four regions with the lower seropositivity (84.6%, 95% CI: 79.9% -89.4% and 85.9%, 95% CI: 81.4% - 90.4%, respectively). Our study showed a measles immunity gap that affects younger age groups and makes a new measles outbreak likely. Enforcement of vaccination campaigns and ad-dressing vaccine hesitancy could bridge it and achieve the required target for herd immunity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0932.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Diabetes; diabetic retinopathy; ocular surface; retina; immunity; inflammation
Online: 12 May 2023 (11:00:32 CEST)
Diabetes is a prevalent global health issue associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a well-known inflammatory, neurovascular complication of diabetes and a leading cause of preventable blindness in developed countries among working-age adults. However, the ocular surface components of diabetic eyes are also at risk of damage due to uncontrolled diabetes, which is often overlooked. Inflammatory changes in the corneas of diabetic patients indicate that inflammation plays a significant role in diabetic complications, much like in DR. The eye´s immune privilege restricts immune and inflammatory responses, and the cornea and retina have a complex network of innate immune cells that maintain immune homeostasis. Nevertheless, low-grade inflammation in diabetes contributes to immune dysregulation. This article aims to provide an overview and discussion of how diabetes affects the ocular immune system’s main components, immune-competent cells, and inflammatory mediators. By understanding these effects, potential interventions and treatments may be developed to improve the ocular health of diabetic patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0448.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: moderate exercise; vigorous exercise; upper respiratory infection; immunity
Online: 10 January 2023 (02:31:03 CET)
The practice of physical activity is an effective non-pharmacological strategy for preventing and treating chronic diseases. A large body of evidence has contributed to establishing a positive correlation between a physically active lifestyle and health benefits, including enhanced vaccination responses, lower numbers of senescent T-cells, increased T-cell proliferative capacity, lower levels of inflammatory cytokines, and improved neutrophil and macrophage function. While females are generally thought to exert more robust immune responses than males in response to a variety of challenges, and both male and female sex hormones have been suggested as mediators of immune function, research on this topic has not always been designed with a sex-specific lens. The goal of this review is to summarize the available experimental and clinical evidence linking exercise and immune function in male and female subjects, with an emphasis on sex differences and sex-specific mechanisms. Overall, the available evidence indicates that moderate exercise and physical activity improves immune function in both sexes, whereas prolonged and high-intensity exercise temporarily impairs immune responses at a higher degree in females. A role of male and female sex hormones in these sex-specific effects is also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0302.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Verticillium wilt; cotton; transmembrane protein; resistance; plant immunity
Online: 17 August 2022 (05:28:04 CEST)
Verticillium wilt (VW) is a soil borne fungal diseases caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb, and lead to serious damage to cotton production annually in the world. In our previous study, a transmembrane protein 214 protein (TMEM214) gene associated with VW resistance was map-based cloned from Gossypium barbadense (G. barbadense). TMEM214 proteins are a kind of transmembrane protein, but their function in plants is rarely studied. To reveal the function of TMEM214s in VW resistance, all six TMEM214s were cloned from G. barbadense in this study. These genes were named as GbTMEM214-1, GbTMEM214-4 and GbTMEM214-7 according to their location on the chromosomes, and the encoded proteins are all located on cell membrane. TMEM214 genes were all induced by Verticillium dahliae inoculation and showed significant differences between resistant and susceptible varieties, but the expression patterns of GbTMEM214s under different hormone treatments were significantly different. Virus-induced gene silencing analysis showed the resistance to VW of GbTMEM214s-silenced lines decreased significantly, which further proves the important role of GbTMEM214s in the resistance to Verticillium dahliae. Our study provides an insight into the involvement of GbTMEM214s in VW resistance, which was helpful to better understand the disease resistance mechanism of plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0015.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: tilapia broodstock; inactivated vaccines; maternal passive immunity; antibody
Online: 4 January 2022 (15:41:19 CET)
Tilapia lake virus (TiLV), a major pathogen of farmed tilapia, is known to be vertically transmitted. Here, we hypothesize that Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) broodstock immunized with a TiLV inactivated vaccine can mount a protective antibody response and passively transfer maternal antibodies to their fertilized eggs and larvae. To test this hypothesis, three groups of tilapia broodstock, each containing 4 males and 8 females, were immunized with either a heat-killed TiLV vaccine (HKV), a formalin-killed TiLV vaccine (FKV) (both administered at 3.6 ×106 TCID50 per fish), or with L15 medium. Booster vaccination with the same vaccines was given 3-weeks later, and mating took place 1 week thereafter. Broodstock blood sera, fertilized eggs and larvae were collected from 6-14 weeks post-primary vaccination for measurement of TiLV-specific antibody (anti-TiLV IgM) levels. In parallel, passive immunization using sera from the immunized female broodstock was administered to naïve tilapia juveniles to assess if antibodies induced in immunized broodstock were protective. The results showed that anti-TiLV IgM was produced in the majority of both male and female broodstock vaccinated with either the HKV or FKV and that and that these antibodies could be detected in the fertilized eggs and larvae from vaccinated broodstock. Higher levels of maternal antibody were observed in fertilized eggs from broodstock vaccinated with HKV than those vaccinated with FKV. Low levels of TiLV-IgM were detected in some of the 1-3-day old larvae but were undetectable in 7-14-day old larvae from the vaccinated broodstock, indicating a short persistence of TiLV-IgM in larvae. Moreover, passive immunization proved that antibodies elicited by TiLV vaccination were able to confer 85% to 90% protection against TiLV challenge in naïve juvenile tilapia. In conclusion, immunization of tilapia broodstock with TiLV vaccines could be a potential strategy for the prevention of TiLV in tilapia fertilized eggs and larvae, with HKV appearing to be more promising than FKV for maternal vaccination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0183.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: phenylpyruvate; growth performance; intestinal morphology; immunity; cecal microbiota
Online: 8 July 2021 (09:52:23 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to see how dietary supplementation with phenylpyruvate affected broiler chicken growth, slaughter performance, gut health microbiota, and immunity. A total of 288 day old broiler chickens were randomly assigned to one of four groups (6 replicates each with 12 chicken). NC (basal diet), PC (basal diet plus antibiotic virginiamycin 15ppm), LCP and HCP (basal diet plus phenylpyruvate 1kg/t and 2kg/t, respectively). Results showed that PC had higher ADFI during the first 21 days, and better FCR than the NC, the LCP and HCP also improved broilers’ FCR 0.001 and 0.037% in relation to NC respectively. HCP has a higher all-eviscerated ratio than NC and less abdominal fat than LCP. HCP has increased villus length and crypt depth in the ileum compared to the NC. Bursa was lower in HCP and thymus was lower in LCP and PC. In contrast HCP have lower pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1, as well as lower TLR4. The phenylpyruvate improved family Selenomonadaceae, genus Megamonas Bacteroides species that are known for beneficial effects like for maintenance of the cell surface structure, regulating aromatic amino acids and C. jejuni-suppressive treatment respectively. Finally, phenylpyruvate feed supplement can be utilized to improve growth performance and positively modulate gut microbiota, however this is less efficient than antibiotics in improving growth performance, although more efficient in improving productive performance and gut morphology. Moreover, high dose of phenylpyruvate is more effective than low dose
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0664.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Pathogen; Herd Immunity Threshold; R-naught; Infection dynamics
Online: 27 May 2021 (10:33:34 CEST)
In this article we have presented a new perception of herd immunity threshold (HIT) which considers that only a “band of population” are susceptible to any pathogenic infection. This is termed as the “effective herd immunity threshold” (EHIT) and the progression of the disease (caused by this pathogenic infection) is mainly determined by this EHIT value. We have argued here that this EHIT value (considering the immunity band picture in the population) will be substantially lower than the estimated canonical HIT values obtained from various existing models. We propose that the actual prediction of the disease progression should now be calculated using the EHIT values.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0625.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Toll-Like Receptor; Innate Immunity; Inflammation; Anti-inflammation
Online: 26 May 2021 (08:17:01 CEST)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) family that identify pathogen-associated molecular patterns derived from microbes and activate immune cell response. Following TLRs ligation, different adaptor and transcription molecules such as myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) are recruited that initiate inflammatory signaling pathways. The human Toll-like receptor 10 (hTLR10) is a novel member of the PRRs family with a regulatory function of immune responses because of unique cytoplasmic domains which lead to induction of both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Recent studies have reported the association of TLR10 polymorphisms with many inflammatory diseases and human cancer. Engagement of TLR10 on the surface of the epithelium and macrophages leads to the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, while other studies have proven an anti-inflammatory role of TLR10. Accordingly, TLR10 suppresses proinflammatory cytokine production via negative regulation of MyD88 and the Akt (protein kinase B) and MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) signaling pathways. This review aimed to provide answers for these conflicting findings (Inflammatory and anti-inflammatory properties of TLR10) to further identify distinct biological functions of TLR10.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0372.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Aging; Microbiome; Probiotics; Cellular senescence; SASP; Stress; Immunity
Online: 17 May 2021 (08:51:53 CEST)
The significance of diversity, composition, and functional attributes of the gut microbiota is recognized in human health and disease. Studies have also shown that the gut microbiota is related to human aging, and a causal relationship between gut microflora dysbiosis and chronic age-related disorders is also becoming apparent. Further, emerging evidence indicates that age-associated changes in the gut microbiome are predictors of human survival and longevity. Recent advances in our understanding of the cellular and molecular aspects of biological aging have revealed a cellular senescence-centric view of the aging process. However, the association between gut microbiome and cellular senescence is only beginning to be understood. The present review provides an integrative view of the emerging relationship between the gut microbiome and cellular senescence in aging and disease. Evidence relating to microbiome-mediated modulation of senescent cells, as well as senescent cells-mediated changes in intestinal homeostasis have been discussed. Unanswered questions and future research directions have also been deliberated to truly ascertain the relationship of the gut microbiome and cellular senescence for developing microbiome-based age-delaying and longevity promoting therapies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0810.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Krebs cycle; tricarboxylic acid cycle; cellular immunity; immunometabolism
Online: 31 December 2020 (13:16:37 CET)
Tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) is a series of chemical reactions in aerobic organisms used to generate energy via the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fatty acids, and proteins. In the eukaryotic system, the TCA cycle completely occurs in mitochondria, while the intermediates of the TCA cycle are retained in mitochondria due to their polarity and hydrophilicity. Under conditions of cell stress, mitochondria become disrupted and release their contents, which act as danger signals in the cytosol. Of note, the TCA cycle intermediates may also leak from dysfunctioning mitochondria and regulate cellular processes. Increasing evidence shows that the metabolites of the TCA cycle are substantially involved in the regulation of immune responses. In this review, we aimed to provide a comprehensive systematic overview of the molecular mechanisms of each TCA cycle intermediate that may play key roles in regulating cellular immunity in cell stress and discuss their implications for immune activation and suppression.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: chicken; coccidiosis; Eimeria; immunity; microbiome; phytogenics; probiotics; prebiotics
Online: 1 December 2020 (17:31:40 CET)
Coccidiosis remains a major disease and economic challenge for the global poultry industry. Coccidiosis in chickens is caused by seven Eimeria species that target specific regions of the gastrointestinal tract and cause malabsorptive or haemorrhagic disease. These Eimeria species infect segment-specific epithelial cells and thus need to navigate the host’s indigenous microbiome and intestinal defences to establish an infection and cause disease. Good husbandry practices, prophylactic use of anticoccidial drugs and/or live parasite vaccination have been the primary control measures employed but there are challenges with vaccination and growing constraints on anticoccidial drug use. This review, therefore, considers available information on the key steps of the infection process, notable microbiome- or host-related changes occurring, and the (potential) influence of dietary ‘alternatives’ to anticoccidial drugs. There is good available evidence to indicate that some phytogenics, prebiotics, probiotics, betaine, n-3 fatty acids, as well as carbohydrase enzymes and anti-IL-10 antibodies, can (beneficially) modulate at least some of these features in coccidiosis-specific challenge studies. As a minimum, these anticoccidial drug ‘alternatives’ could support the establishment of a desirable host microbiome and optimum immune system development. It is important to better understand the potential of these ‘alternatives’ in commercial production and how they can complement, or reduce, the use of anticoccidial drugs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0016.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: mast cells; adaptive immunity; dendritic cells; T cells
Online: 2 November 2020 (10:27:12 CET)
Although Mast cells are known as key drivers of type I allergic reactions, there is increasing evidence for their critical role in host defense. MCs do not only play an important role in initiating innate immune responses, but also influence the onset, kinetic and amplitude of the adaptive arm of immunity, or fine-tune the mode of the adaptive reaction. Intriguingly, MCs have been shown to affect T cell activation by direct interaction or indirectly by modifying properties of antigen-presenting cells, and can even modulate lymph node-borne adaptive responses remotely from the periphery. In this review, we provide a summary of recent findings that explain how MCs act as a link between the innate and the adaptive immunity, all the way from sensing inflammatory insult to orchestrating the final outcome of the immune response.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0270.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: sedentism; exercise; immunometabolism; SARS-COV-2; Cytokines; immunity
Online: 13 October 2020 (09:48:59 CEST)
Many reports showed a dramatic decrease in the levels of physical activity during the current pandemic of SARS-COV-2. This has substantial immunometabolic implications, especially in those at risk or with metabolic diseases including individuals with obesity and Type 2 diabetes. Here we discuss the route from physical inactivity to immnometabolic aberrancies; focusing on how insulin resistance could represent an adaptive mechanism to the low physical activity levels and/or high energy intake and on how such an adaptive mechanism could derail to be a pathognomonic feature of metabolic diseases creating a vicious circle of immune and metabolic aberrancies. We provide a theoretical framework to the severe immunopathology of COVID-19 in patients with metabolic diseases. We finally discuss the idea of exercise as a potential adjuvant against COVID-19 and emphasize how even interrupting prolonged periods of sitting with short time breaks of very light activity could be a feasible strategy to limit the deleterious effects of sedentary behavior.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0068.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Microbiome; Plant Immunity; Priming; Transgenerational Immune Priming (TGIP)
Online: 5 July 2020 (11:35:04 CEST)
One of the biggest demanding situations for food security in the 21st century is to enhance crop yield stability through the improvement of diseases-resistant crops. Managing plant health is a major challenge for modern food production and compounded by the lack of common ground among the many disease control disciplines involved. All plants simultaneously engage with billions of microbes which can be collectively referred to as the plant microbiome. Most microbes inside the plant microbiome are harmless or even beneficial to the plant as they promote plant growth or provide protection in opposition to diseases. However, some of these microbes also cause disease with devastating effects on crop yields. To prevent pathogen infection, plants have evolved an advanced innate immune system that recognizes conserved cell surface molecules that most pathogen possesses. Activation of the plant immune system stops the invading pathogen, however this comes with fitness cost that significantly reduces plant growth and leads to yield penalty. Apart from their innate immune system controlling pre-programmed defense reactions, plants can also increase the responsiveness of their immune system in response to selected environmental signals. This phenomenon is known as “defense priming”. Although defense priming rarely provides full protection, its broad-spectrum effectiveness, low-fitness cost, long‐lasting durability and inherited to future generations make it attractive for sustainable crop protection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0030.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: red grape polyphenols; immunity; inflammation, obesity; allergy; cancer
Online: 3 December 2019 (12:12:14 CET)
In this review, special emphasis will be placed on red grape polyphenols for their anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Therefore, their capacity to inhibit major pathways responsible for activation of oxidative systems and expression and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines will be discussed. Furthermore, regulation of immune cells by polyphenols will be illustrated with special reference to the activation of T regulatory cells which support a tolerogenic pathway at intestinal level. Furthermore, the effects of red grape polyphenols will be analyzed in obesity, as a low grade systemic inflammation. Also, possible modifications of inflammatory bowel disease biomarkers and clinical course have been studied upon polyphenol administration, either in animal models or in clinical trials. Moreover, the ability of polyphenols to cross the blood-brain barrier has been exploited to investigate their neuroprotective properties. In cancer, polyphenols seem to exert several beneficial effects, even if conflicting data are reported about their influence on T regulatory cells. Finally, the effects of polyphenols have been evaluated in experimental models of allergy and autoimmune diseases. Conclusively, red grape polyphenols are endowed with a great anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory potential but some issues, such as polyphenol bioavailability, activity of metabolites and interaction with microbiota, deserve deeper studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1536.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Republic of Belarus; population; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; seromonitoring; herd immunity; antibodies; nucleocapsid; receptor binding domain; vaccination; hybrid immunity
Online: 23 May 2023 (02:47:10 CEST)
Background. The course of the COVID-19 epidemic process depends on population immunity which prevents pathogen spread among the population. Aim: to study the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 humoral immunity in the Belarusian population relative to COVID-19 pandemic dynamics. Materials and methods. The work was carried out according to a methodology for assessing population immunity developed by Rospotrebnadzor (Russia) and the Belarusian Ministry of Health with the participation of the St. Petersburg Pasteur Institute (SPPI), taking into account WHO recommendations. The study was approved by the Bioethics Committee of Belarus and the SPPI Bioethics Committee. Participant selection was carried out by questionnaire using a cloud (internet server) service. To monitor population immunity, a cohort of 4,661 people (participating in all stages of seromonitoring) was formed from the overall volunteer group. Volunteers were randomized by age group (1-17, 18-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70+ years), region, and professional group. For the detection of antibodies (Abs) to nucleocapsid (Nc) and S glycoprotein receptor-binding domain (RBD), corresponding assay systems were used following manufacturer instructions. The study was conducted in 4 stages according to a single scheme. Results. In the 1st stage (pandemic month 15), collective immunity was due mainly to Nc+RBD+ Ab status alone. By the 2nd stage (carried out after 4 months), their share decreased 1.2-fold, while the share of volunteers who had only RBD Abs increased 1.7-fold. In the 3rd and 4th stages (carried out after 9 and 19 months), the share of persons with RBD+Nc‒ compared to the 2nd stage decreased by 3.5%; the proportion of persons with Nc+RBD‒ Abs increased by 1.5-fold. The most important factor in population immunity was vaccination of the population, the coverage of which reached 70% by the 4th stage. Among vaccines, the Sputnik V and Sputnik Light vector designs were used most often. The whole-virion, inactivated BIBP-CorV vaccine was used less often. Conclusion. The evolution of collective SARS-CoV-2 humoral immunity included a set of changes in circulating Ab levels (Nc, RBD). The hybrid immunity formed helped to reduce the incidence to nearly zero.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1203.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: COVID-19; physical activity; diabetes; immunity; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 19 September 2023 (04:11:44 CEST)
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic clearly has had a great influence on the lifestyle of the population, especially on patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. During the COVID-19 outbreak, many countries/regions implemented social isolation measures, leading to an increase in negative behaviors and impairing the capability of diabetic patients to resist the COVID-19, ultimately causing a severe prognosis. Moreover, multiple studies have emphasized the significance of physical exercise in the management of type 2 diabetic patients infected with COVID-19 as the epidemic progressed. In our study, we selected research focusing on COVID-19-infected diabetic patients from Dec 1, 2019 to Aug 9, 2023 and sought to investigate the impact of type 2 diabetes on the immune function, inflammation factor levels, lung injury and mental disorders of patients, as well as to assess the risk of novel coronavirus pneumonia in these patients. And we also summarized the effects of high-intensity, moderate-intensity and low-intensity exercise on novel coronavirus pneumonia infection in type 2 diabetic patients and the mechanisms of their effects. Finally, diabetic patients with COVID-19 are suggested to perform low-intensity exercise to facilitate their recovery. Our study offers guidance for a proper understanding of the dangers of diabetes and the use of appropriate measures to reduce the risk of novel coronavirus pneumonia infections in type 2 diabetic patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0898.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: salicylic acid; biotic stresses; abiotic stresses; tolerance; immunity; yield
Online: 14 September 2023 (03:49:53 CEST)
Abstract: A multitude of biotic and abiotic stress factors do harm to plants by bringing about diseases and inhibiting normal growth and development. As an omnipotent signaling molecule, salicylic acid (SA) plays crucial roles in plants' tolerance responses to both biotic and abiotic stresses, thereby maintaining plants’ normal growth and improving yields under stresses. In view of this, this paper mainly discusses the role of SA in both biotic stresses, and abiotic stresses of plants. SA regulates the expression of genes involved in defense signaling pathways, thus enhancing plants’ immunity. In addition, SA mitigates the negative effects of abiotic stresses, and acts as a signaling molecule to induce the expression of stress-responsive genes and the synthesis of stress-related proteins. In addition, SA also improves certain yield-related photosynthetic indexes, thereby enhancing crop yield under stresses. On the other hand, SA acts with other signaling molecules in regulating plants’ growth and improving tolerances under stresses. This paper reviews recent advances in SA’s roles in plant stress tolerances, so as to provide theoretical references for further studies concerning the decryption of molecular mechanisms for SA’s roles and the improvement of crop management under stresses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0278.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: peste des petits ruminants; еwes; lambs; vaccination; passive immunity
Online: 5 September 2023 (11:51:22 CEST)
In this article, we first assessment of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) antibodies in vaccinated pregnant ewes of Kazakh breed fine-fleeced immunized with the PPR vaccine and the duration of maternal immunity in their lambs. Ewes in the last trimester of pregnancy of gestation were immunized with a vaccine from the Nigeria 75/1 strain of the PPR virus (PPRV) produced by the Research Institute of Biological Safety Problems (RIBSP), Kazakhstan. Serum samples from lambs born from vaccinated and unvaccinated ewes were collected a week after birth and at intervals of 7 days for 18 weeks after birth. Serum samples collected from lambs were tested for PPR antibodies using competitive ELISA and Virus neutralization test (VNT). Maternal antibodies (MAs) in lambs born from vaccinated ewes were detected up to 18 weeks with a tendency to decrease starting at week 14 and by the end of the experiment receded below the protective level (<1:8). In the blood serum of a 14-week-old lamb with MAs (1:8), post vaccination with a field dose (103 TCID50) of the vaccine against PPR, the titers of protective antibodies to the PPRV increased to 1:16 on 14 day post vaccination and lamb protected from infection upon field PPRV. A lamb of the same age with MAs in the 1:8 titer was 100% protected from infection with the field PPRV. Therefore, it is recommended that lambs of the Kazakh fine-wool breed be immunized from the age of 14 weeks or older to avoid a period of susceptibility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0670.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: zebrafish; BMP4; antiviral innate immunity; IFN; p38 MAPK pathway
Online: 8 August 2023 (11:39:28 CEST)
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) are a group of structurally and functionally related signaling molecules that comprise a subfamily, belonging to the TGF-β superfamily. Most BMPs play roles in the regulation of embryonic development, stem cell differentiation, tumor growth and some cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Although evidences are emerging for the antiviral immunity of a few BMPs, more BMPs are needed to determine whether this function is universal. Here we identified the zebrafish bmp4 ortholog, whose expression is up-regulated by challenge with virus or its mimic poly(I:C). Overexpression of bmp4 in EPC cells significantly decreased the viral titer of GCRV-infected cells. Moreover, compared to wild type zebrafish, viral load and mortality were significantly increased in both larvae and adults of bmp4-/- mutant zebrafish infected with GCRV virus. We further demonstrated that Bmp4 promotes the phosphorylation of Tbk1 and Irf3 through p38 MAPK pathway, thereby inducing the production of type I IFNs in response to virus infection. These data suggest that Bmp4 runs an important role in the host defense against virus infection. Our study expands the understanding of BMP protein functions and opens up new targets for the control of viral infection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2055.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: CD4+ T cell; Primary Immunodeficiencies; Cell Migration; Adaptive Immunity
Online: 31 July 2023 (10:04:55 CEST)
CD4+ T cells orchestrate and regulate immunity within jawed vertebrates, yet our understanding of their evolution, development, and cellular physiology has only begun to be unearthed in the past few decades. Discoveries of genetic diseases that ablate this cellular population have provided insight into their critical functions while transcriptomics, proteomics, and highresolution microscopy have recently revealed new insights into CD4+ T cell anatomy and physiology. This article compiles historical, microscopic, and multi omics data which can be used as a reference atlas to dissect cellular physiology within these influential cells and further understand pathologies like HIV infection that inflict human CD4+ T cells.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2248.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Keywords: Osteoarthritis, Neutrophil, Innate Immunity, Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NET).
Online: 31 May 2023 (12:55:03 CEST)
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common degenerative joint disease that causes chronic pain and disability. Different innate immune components, including macrophages, T cells, and neutrophils, participate in osteoarthritis pathophysiology. Neutrophils are the most abundant circulating leukocytes with multiple specialized functions contributing to innate and adaptive immune functions. Although neutrophils produce proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, reactive oxygen species (ROS), matrix-degrading enzymes, and neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) that promote joint degradation as the first recruit cells in an inflamed joint, these cells also play an important role in joint repair by regulating the immune response, releasing anti-inflammatory factors, and activating some protective genes. In this review, various aspects of neutrophil biology, their role in inflammation and its association with osteoarthritis, and possible therapeutic approaches to target neutrophils for the treatment of osteoarthritis are described. Understanding neutrophil heterogeneity and their mechanisms of action in joint inflammation, provides a potential strategy for OA management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0306.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Coral symbiosis; immunity; microbiome; global change; coral holobiont; Symbiodiniaceae
Online: 14 September 2022 (15:33:09 CEST)
Tropical corals construct the three-dimensional framework for one of the most diverse ecosystems on the planet, providing habitat to a plethora of species across taxa. However, these ecosystem engineers are facing unprecedented challenges, such as increasing disease prevalence and marine heatwaves associated with anthropogenic global change. As a result, major declines in coral cover and health are being observed across the world's oceans, often due to the breakdown of coral-associated symbioses. Here, we review the interactions between the major symbiotic partners of the coral holobiont – the cnidarian host, algae in the family Symbiodiniaceae, and the microbiome – that influence trait variation, including the molecular mechanisms that underlie symbiosis and the resulting physiological benefits of different microbial partnerships. In doing so, we highlight the current framework for the formation and maintenance of cnidarian-Symbiodiniaceae symbiosis, and the role that immunity pathways play in this relationship. We emphasize that understanding these complex interactions is challenging when you consider the vast genetic variation of the cnidarian host and algal symbiont, as well as their highly diverse microbiome, which is also an important player in coral holobiont health. Given the complex interactions between and among symbiotic partners, we propose several research directions and approaches focused on symbiosis model systems and emerging technologies that will broaden our understanding of how these partner interactions may facilitate the prediction of coral holobiont phenotype, especially under rapid environmental change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0217.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: anti DENV IgM; IgG; Antibody-dependent enhancement; Cross-immunity
Online: 14 July 2022 (11:41:25 CEST)
Background: Dengue is the most common arthropod-borne sickness worldwide, impacting at least 50 million people each year. The dengue virus has four primary serotypes. Infection with one serotype confers homotypic immunity but not heterologous immunity, and secondary infections may be more severe. Although blood transfusions and organ donations have also been observed, the Aedes aegypti mosquito is the primary vector for the transmission of dengue. Infection causes a continuum of clinical illness, from asymptomatic infection to dengue fever, DHF, and dengue shock syndrome (DSS).Aim: To assess the presence of anti DENV IgG and anti DENV IgM antibodies specific to the four dengue serotypes in blood donor service donors and the importance of pre-donation screening in routine blood collection procedures.Method: 3 mL of peripheral venous blood from 507 blood donors was collected in tubes with BD vacutainer gel tube for serum separation after epidemiological records were reviewed. After that, serum was separated and tests were performed by SD Bioline Dengue Duo. Participants in the study completed a social and epidemiological questionnaire that contained information such as age, gender, and dengue diagnosis.Result: Out of the 507 blood samples that were taken, 473 (93.3%) came from male blood donors, while the remaining 34 (6.7%) belonged to female blood donors. The ratio of males to females is 13.91 to 1. The age range is 18–60 years, and the mean and standard deviation are both 27.7 and 6.5. 183 of the 507 samples produced anti DENV IgG positivity, while 324 did not. The ratio of positive to negative was 1.25:2.Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, quantitative methods for determining the presence of anti-dengue antibodies or detecting the dengue virus in blood donors in endemic areas should be devised in order to ensure the quality of blood transfusions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0409.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: coronavirus; horseshoe bats; reservoir hosts; Indochina; China; herd immunity.
Online: 16 March 2021 (09:39:15 CET)
To date, viruses closely related to SARS-CoV-2 have been reported in four bat species: Rhinolophus acuminatus, Rhinolophus affinis, Rhinolophus malayanus, and Rhinolophus shameli. Here, we analysed 343 sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (CO1) from georeferenced bats of the four Rhinolophus species identified as reservoirs of SARS-CoV-2-like viruses. Haplotype networks were constructed in order to investigate patterns of genetic diversity among bat populations of Southeast Asia. No strong geographic structure was found for the four Rhinolophus species, suggesting high dispersal capacity. The ecological niche of SARS-CoV-2 like viruses was predicted using the four localities of bat SARS-CoV-2-like viruses and the localities where bats showed identical or very similar CO1 haplotypes than virus-positive bats. The ecological niche of SARS-CoV-like viruses was deduced from the localities where bat SARS-CoV-like viruses were previously detected. The results show that the ecological niche of SARS-CoV2-like viruses includes several regions of mainland Southeast Asia whereas that of SARS-CoV-like viruses is mainly restricted to China. In agreement with these results, human populations in Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, and Thailand appear to be much less affected by the Covid-19 pandemic than other countries of Southeast Asia. In the climatic transitional zone between the two ecological niches (southern Yunnan, northern Laos, northern Vietnam, and possibly Hainan and Taiwan), genomic recombination between highly divergent viruses is more likely to occur. Since recombinant viruses can threaten the benefit of vaccination campaigns, these regions should be under surveillance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0533.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Macronutrients; Micronutrients; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Immunity; Complications;
Online: 26 October 2020 (11:26:43 CET)
The novel coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) has unfolded an unprecedented worldwide public health emergency with disastrous economic consequences. Around 12 million coronavirus cases have already been identified with over half a million deaths. Despite numerous efforts by the government as well as international organizations, these numbers are still increasing with a surprising rate. Although urgent and absolutely necessary, a reliable therapeutic or vaccine is still elusive and this status quo may remain for an uncertain period of time. Taken that into account, boosting up adaptive immunity through nutritional interventions may help subside this epidemic and save many lives. This review focuses on the nexus between a balanced diet and adaptive immunity, particularly, how a poor diet may lead to compromised immunity resulting in susceptibility to viral infections. Additionally, we discuss how nutrients (vitamins, minerals, trace elements) could be used as a tool to modulate immune response and thus impede viral infections. The study also summarized nutritional recommendations to combat COVID-19 in different countries and territories and dietary sources of those key nutrients. Moreover, different nutritional intervention strategies based on different age groups, physiological and medical conditions were also included, and the challenges of nutritional interventions towards the care of COVID-19 patients were also discussed. Since the availability of a drug or vaccine is still uncertain, a balanced diet or nutrient therapy could be used as a robust strategy to combat COVID-19. Thus, we hope this review may help to make an informed decision with regard to diet choice both at individual level as well as clinical settings.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0041.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, Pandemics, Molecular biology, Immunity, Pathology
Online: 2 October 2020 (13:24:16 CEST)
In humans, coronaviruses can cause infections of the respiratory system, with damage of varying severity depending on the virus examined: ranging from mild or moderate upper respiratory tract diseases, such as the common cold, to pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure and even death. Human coronaviruses known to date, common throughout the world, are seven. The most common - and least harmful - ones were discovered in the 1960s and cause a common cold. Others, more dangerous, were identified in the early 2000s and cause more severe respiratory tract infections. Among these the SARS-CoV, isolated in 2003 and responsible for the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (the so-called SARS), which appeared in China in November 2002, the Coronavirus 2012 (2012-nCoV) cause of the Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome from Coronavirus (MERS), which exploded in June 2012 in Saudi Arabia, and actually SARS-CoV-2. On December 31, 2019, a new Coronavirus strain was reported in Wuhan, China, identified as a new Coronavirus beta strain ß-CoV from Group 2B, with a genetic similarity of approximately 70% to SARS-CoV, the virus responsible. of SARS. In the first half of February, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), in charge of the designation and naming of the viruses (i.e., species, genus, family, etc.), thus definitively named the new coronavirus as SARS-CoV-2. This article highlights the main knowledge we have about the biomolecular and pathophysiologic mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0258.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; interventions; growth curve; recovery; mortality; protective immunity
Online: 12 July 2020 (14:33:56 CEST)
COVID-19 is fast spreading around the globe in a highly contagious manner. The results from our study showed that after intervention with successive Lockdowns, there was marked decrease in the rate of COVID-19 cases, though there was sporadic volatility in number of COVID-19 cases due to some extrinsic factors. Concomitant with reduction in rate of COVID-19 there was gradual increase in doubling time of COVID-19, steady increase in number of discharged/recovered patients from COVID-19 reaching to ≥ 58% taking the entire Indian population into consideration. Another important aspect was consistent low mortality rate was accompanied by gradual increase in recovery rate of COVID-19 in the population. The possible implication of these results in the development of protective immunity in the population has been discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0033.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: apoptosis; viral persistence, hepatitis C virus; immunity; chronic infection
Online: 2 October 2018 (16:34:19 CEST)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) represents a challenging global health threat in ~200 million infected individuals. Clinical data suggests that only ~10-15% of acutely HCV-infected individuals will achieve spontaneous viral clearance despite exuberant virus-specific immune responses, which is largely attributed to difficulties in recognizing the pathognomonic symptoms during the initial stages of exposure to the virus. Given the paucity of a suitable small animal model, it is also equally challenging to study the early phases of viral establishment. Further, the host factors contributing to HCV chronicity in a vast majority of acutely HCV-infected individuals largely remain unexplored. The last few years have witnessed a surge in studies showing that HCV adopts a myriad mechanisms to disconcert virus-specific immune responses in the host to establish persistence that includes, but not limited to viral escape mutations, viral growth at privileged sites, and antagonism. Here, we discussed a few hitherto poorly explained mechanisms employed by HCV that are believed to lead to chronicity in infected individuals. A better understanding of these mechanisms would aid the design of improved therapeutic targets against viral establishment in susceptible individuals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0209.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: influenza virus; apoptosis; antiviral agent; innate immunity; host response
Online: 14 August 2017 (04:41:22 CEST)
Human influenza A viruses (IAVs) cause global pandemics and epidemics, which remain serious threats to public health because of the shortage of effective means of control. To combat the surge of viral outbreaks, new treatments are urgently needed. Developing new virus control modalities requires better understanding of virus-host interactions. Here we describe how IAV infection triggers cellular apoptosis, and how this process can be exploited towards development of new therapeutics, which might be more effective than the currently available anti-influenza drugs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1566.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: innate immunity; inflammasome; cardiac transplantation; rejection; allograft coronary artery disease
Online: 25 October 2023 (08:11:34 CEST)
Background Recent studies indicate that donor innate immune responses participate in initiating and accelerating innate responses and allorecognition in the recipient. These immune responses negatively affect recipient outcomes and predispose recipients to allograft coronary artery vasculopathy (CAV). We hypothesized that donor cause of death (COD) associated with higher levels of innate immune response would predispose recipients to more adverse outcomes post-transplant, including CAV. Methods We performed a single-institution retrospective analysis comparing donor characteristics and COD to recipient adverse cardiovascular outcomes. We analyzed the medical records of local adult donors (age 18-64) in a database of donors where adequate data was available. We linked donor characteristics and COD to recipient adverse cardiac outcomes after transplant, including cardiovascular (CV) death and incidence of significant antibody-mediated rejection (pAMR) after transplant (>2 episodes of pAMR within 90 days post-transplant). The data were analyzed using logistic regression, log-rank test of differences, and Tukey Contrast. Results Donor advanced age, female sex, and CODs of motor vehicle accident and intracranial hemorrhage were significantly associated with a higher incidence of recipient CV death and early pAMR compared to other donor characteristics and CODs. Conclusions In this single institution study, we found that recipients with hearts from donors over 40 years, donors who were female, or donors who died with a COD of motor vehicle accidents or intracranial hemorrhage had a higher frequency of CV related deaths and early pAMR. Donor monitoring and potential treatment of innate immune activation may decrease subsequent recipient innate responses and allorecognition stimulated by donor derived inflammatory signaling which lead to adverse outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1510.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Drosophila; signaling pathway; domesticated retroviral gag gene; immunity; ammonium persulphate
Online: 24 October 2023 (08:35:20 CEST)
Background: The molecular domestication of the gag gene of retrotransposons and retroviruses gave rise to the Gagr gene in the genome of Drosophila. The Gagr protein has a conservative structure in all Drosophila species, suggesting an essential function. As we previously shown, the Gagr gene may play a part in immune response and processes linked to stress reactions. Methods: Tub-GAL4>UAS-Gagr flies, which had the Gagr gene knockdown in all tissues, were compared with the control hybrid Tub-GAL4>w1118. Gagr gene function was verified by RNA-sequencing followed by RT-PCR and physiological tests. Results: In contrast to the control strain, we observed that flies with the Gagr gene knockdown had a shorter lifespan, but the mutant strain was more resistant to heat stress. Also, the Gagr knockdown strain had higher level of transcription of the immune response genes, according to a transcriptome analysis. It has been shown that the ammonium persulfate used to induce stress causes the Toll, Jal-STAT, and Jnk/MAPK signaling pathways to become activated, which results in a systemic response in numerus tissues in the control strain. Conversely, the Gagr gene mutant strain exhibits low expression of the stress response. Enrichment of the molecular function of genes overexpressed under ammonium persulfate stress in the control strain, but not in the Gagr knockdown mutant, revealed a category with 19 transcription factors involved in the control of organism development, morphogenesis and the functioning of the central nervous system. Their expression pattern and the Gagr gene's expression pattern match. The data obtained demonstrates the importance Gagr is to maintaining both the body's immune system and homeostasis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0967.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Apiosporina morbosa; phytohormones; plant defense; plant immunity; plant-pathogen interactions
Online: 14 September 2023 (09:54:54 CEST)
Black Knot (BK) is a deadly disease of European (Prunus domestics) and Japanese (Prunus salicina) plums caused by the hemibiotrophic fungus Apiosporina morbosa. After infection, the appearance of warty black knots indicates a phytohormonal imbalance in infected tissues. Based on this hypothesis, we quantified phytohormones such as indole-3-acetic acid, tryptophan, indoleamines (N-acetylserotonin, serotonin, and melatonin), and cytokinins (zeatin, 6-benzyladenine, and 2-isopentenyladenine) in temporally collected tissues of susceptible and resistant genotypes belonging to European and Japanese plums during of BK progression. The results suggested auxin-cytokinins interplay driven by A. morbosa appears to be vital in disease progression by hampering the plant defense system. Taken together, our results indicate the possibility of using the phytohormone profile as a biomarker for BK resistance in plums.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0766.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Probiotics; pigs; growth performance; lipid profile; oxidative stress; cytokines; immunity
Online: 13 September 2023 (02:27:17 CEST)
The study investigated the effect of a multi-strain probiotic compound containing Bacillus coagulans, Enterococcus faecalis, Clostridium butyricum and Bacillus mesentericus as in-feed zinc oxide (ZnO) alterna-tive on growth performance, diarrhea incidence, antioxidant status, lipid profile, stress and immunity in weaned piglets. A total of 72 piglets were randomly divided into 3 groups with four replicates of six piglets each. The details of the groups were as follows; (i) weaned control group (WC) received basal diet, (ii) weaned probiotic group (WB) received basal diet and probiotics and (iii) positive control (PC) group received basal diet with 2500 mg/kg ZnO. The experiment lasted for 28 days. Probiotic supple-mentation improved growth performance and reduced diarrhea rate. Probiotics supplementation im-proved lipid profile; significantly lower levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and higher level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in WB group as compared to those of the control group (WC) were recorded. Probiotic supplementation stimulated antioxidant defense system by in-creasing total antioxidant capacity and decreasing lipid peroxidation. Probiotic supplementation down-regulated the stress biomarkers like serum cortisol and serum heat shock proteins. WB group showed higher serum levels of IgG and IgM throughout the study period and higher IgA at day 28 as compared to WC. These data suggest that supplementation of the probiotic minimizes the weaning stress, thereby improves the growth performance, lipid profile, antioxidant status and systemic as well as mucosal immunity. Therefore, the multi-strain probiotic compound may be used to replace ZnO in weaned piglets.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0507.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; vaccine; immunity; immune escape; mutations
Online: 7 September 2023 (10:45:47 CEST)
The newly emerged variants of SARS-CoV-2 created a potential threat among societies and highlighted one of the significant concerns in facing the pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 variants harboring mutations in the structural protein, especially in the RBD domain of spike protein, have raised concern about potential immune escape. The spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 play a vital role in infection and is an important target for neutralizing antibodies. The mutations that occur in the structural proteins, especially in the spike protein, lead to changes in the virus attributes of transmissibility, an increase in disease severity, a notable reduction in neutralizing antibodies generated, and thus a decreased response to vaccines and therapy. The immune response against SARS-CoV-2 has been reported mainly through innate immune responses rather than adaptive immune responses. SARS-CoV-2 invades the host's innate immunity, possibly through inducing cytokine storm, impairing type I IFN responses, and suppressing antigens presentation to T cells. Therefore, the adaptive immune response is required to combat SARS-CoV-2 infection. The SARS-CoV-2 infections activated both arms of adaptive immunity; humoral and cell-mediated immunity. The observed multiple mutations in the RBD domain of the spike protein compromised the adaptive immune response and showed immune escape because it increases the affinity of spike protein binding with the ACE-2 receptor of host cells and increases resistance to neutralizing antibodies. Cytotoxic T-cell responses are crucial in controlling SARS-CoV-2 infections from the infected tissues and clearing them from circulation. CD8+cytotoxic T cells identify and directly kill the infected cells by releasing soluble mediators perforin and granzymes. The functional exhaustion of cytotoxic T cells may increase the severity of the disease. The expression of activation markers of T cells could indicate hyperactivation or functional exhaustion; the exact implication is not yet understood in SARS-CoV-2 infections. These mutations at critical residues influence the antigenic profile of SARS-CoV-2, which may evade the immune responses and thus reduce the immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines. Therefore, the spike protein may be recognized as a primary target for vaccines and drugs. This review article summarizes the impact of mutations in the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, especially mutations of RBD, on immunogenicity, immune escape, and vaccine-induced immunity, which could potentially contribute to future studies focusing on vaccine design and immunotherapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2161.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; vaccination; antibody response; cellular immunity; healthcare workers
Online: 31 August 2023 (09:42:22 CEST)
Vaccination has proven highly effective against severe acute res-piratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), but the long-term immunogenicity and the functional preserved im-mune responses of vaccines are needed to inform evolving evi-dence-based guidelines for boosting schedules. We enrolled 205 healthcare workers into a cohort study; all had received three doses of BBIBP-CorV (China Sinopharm Bio-Beijing Company) inactivated vaccine. We assessed SARS-CoV-2 specific binding antibodies, neutralizing antibody, and peripheral T and B cell responses. We demonstrated that more robust antibody re-sponses to SARS-CoV-2 were elicited by booster immunization compared to primary vaccination. Neutralizing antibody titers to SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant were also efficiently elevated post homologous vaccine booster despite in a lower titer compared to the prototype stain. In addition to S specific humoral and cellular immunity, BBIBP-CorV also induced N-specific antibody and ef-fector T cell responses. The third-dose vaccination led to further expansion of critical polyfunctional T cell responses, likely an essential element for vaccine protection. In particular, a func-tional role for Tfh cell subsets in immunity was suggested by the correlation between both CD4+Tfh and CD8+Tfh with total anti-body, IgG, B cell responses and neutralizing antibodies. Our study details the humoral and cellular responses generated by the BBIBP-CorV booster vaccination in a seven-month follow up study. There is a clear immunologic boosting value of homolo-gous inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine boosters, a consideration for future vaccine strategies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0715.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: lectin; carbohydrate; marine animal; toxin; pore-forming protein; innate immunity
Online: 9 June 2023 (12:12:43 CEST)
Glycans play important roles as recognition molecules on cell surfaces in living organisms due to their remarkable structural diversity. Carbohydrates exist in numerous isomeric forms and can adopt diverse structures through various branching patterns. Despite their relatively small molecular weights, they exhibit extensive structural diversity. On the other hand, lectins, also known as carbohydrate-binding proteins, not only recognize and bind to the diverse structures of glycans but also induce various biological reactions based on structural differences. Initially discovered as hemagglutinins in plant seeds, lectins have been found to play significant roles in cell recognition processes in higher vertebrates. However, our understanding of lectins in marine animals, particularly marine invertebrates, remains limited. Recent studies have revealed that marine animals possess novel lectins with unique structures and glycan recognition mechanisms not observed in known lectins. Of particular interest is their role as pattern recognition receptors in the innate immune system, where they recognize glycan structures of pathogens. Furthermore, lectins serve as toxins for self-defense against foreign enemies. Recent discoveries have identified various pore-forming proteins containing lectin domains in fish venoms and skins. These proteins utilize lectin domains to bind target cells, triggering oligomerization and pore formation in the cell membrane. These findings have spurred research into the new functions of lectins and lectin domains. In this review, we present recent findings on the diverse structures and functions of lectins in marine animals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0239.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Microbiota; Immunity; Spermidine; Metabolic engineering; Probiotics; Live Biotherapeutic Product; Metabolomics
Online: 17 October 2022 (12:09:41 CEST)
Over the past decade, studies have demonstrated the importance of bioactive metabolites derived from the microbiota in the regulation of physiological processes essential for homeostasis and the maintenance of human health. Strategies to modulate the production of these metabolites in the gastrointestinal tract hold promise for combating dysbiosis or inflammatory bowel disease. Metabolic engineering of probiotics could be one of these solutions. In this work, we engineered Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) to overproduce spermidine, a metabolite known for its anti-immunosenescence and anti-inflammatory properties. Using a rational synthetic biology approach coupled with analysis by high resolution mass spectrometry, we designed in several steps and validated engineered probiotics overproducing and excreting spermidine. Based on our results, we first added the enzyme substrate putrescine and showed the overproduction of spermidine and decided to add a transporter limiting the production of the acetylated form of spermidine. Next, we used untargeted metabolomics to study the impact of engineering on the central metabolism of E. coli Nissle. Untargeted metabolomics appears to be a good strategy to optimize the metabolic engineering of probiotic strains and thus accelerate their development for personalized medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0102.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; pandemic; DNA vaccine; immunity; protection
Online: 8 October 2022 (03:02:18 CEST)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has caused more than 600 million cases and over 6 million deaths worldwide. Vaccination has been the main strategy used to contain the spread of the virus, and to avoid hospitalizations and deaths. Currently, there are two mRNA-based and one adenovirus vectored vaccines approved and available for use in the U.S. population. The versatility, low cost and rapid-to-manufacture attributes of DNA vaccines are important advantages over other platforms. However, DNA vaccination must meet higher efficiency levels for use in humans. Importantly, in vivo DNA delivery combined with electroporation (EP) has been successfully used in the veterinary field. Here we evaluated the safety, immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a novel linear SARS-CoV-2 DNA vaccine candidate for delivered by intramuscular injection followed by electroporation (Vet-ePorator™) in ferrets. The results demonstrated that the linear SARS-CoV-2 DNA vaccine candidate did not cause unexpected side effects, and was able to elicit neutralizing antibodies and T cell responses using a low dose of the linear DNA construct in prime-boost regimen, and significantly reduced shedding of infectious SARS-CoV-2 through oral and nasal secretions in a ferret model.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0036.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: mast cells; innate immunity; host defense; skin; inflammatory skin disorders
Online: 1 April 2021 (17:44:17 CEST)
Mast cells (MCs) are best known as key effector cells of immediate type allergic reactions that may even culminate in life-threatening anaphylactic shock syndromes. However, strategically positioned at host-environment interfaces and equipped with a plethora of receptors, MCs also play an important role in the first line defense against pathogens. Their main characteristic, the huge amount of preformed pro-inflammatory mediators embedded in secretory granules, allow for a rapid response and initiation of further immune effector cell recruitment. The same mechanism, however, may account for detrimental overshooting responses. MCs are not only detrimental in MC-driven diseases, but also responsible for disease exacerbation in other inflammatory disorders. Focusing on the skin as the largest immune organ, we herein review both beneficial and detrimental functions of skin MCs all the way from skin barrier integrity via host defense mechanisms to MC-driven inflammatory skin disorders. Moreover, we emphasize the importance of IgE-independent pathways of MC activation and their role in sustained chronic skin inflammation and disease exacerbation.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0159.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; herd immunity; pandemic; pathogenesis; SARS-CoV-2; WHO
Online: 8 July 2020 (18:33:41 CEST)
Herd immunity happens when a relatively large proportion of a population becomes infected by an agent, subsequently recovers, and attains immunity against the same agent. That proportion thus indirectly protects the naïve population by preventing the spread of the infection. Herd immunity has been suggested to interrupt and control the COVID-19 pandemic. However, relying on establishing herd immunity can be catastrophic considering the virulence and lethality of SARS-CoV-2. Meanwhile our understanding of the pathogenesis, case-fatality rate, transmission routes, and antiviral therapy for COVID-19 remains limited now. Interrupting or slowing the COVID-19 transmission seems more opportune than vaccination, antiviral therapy, or herd immunity, all of which will take some time to yield. Thus, social distancing, face-masking, and hygiene are the most appropriate immediate countermeasures. Because the social fabrics, economic implications, and local demands of various nations are unique, early relaxation of restrictions may seem hasty particularly when fatality rates are high, or when the healthcare systems could be inadequate or become inundated. Conclusively, avoiding any overwhelmingly risky approach in fighting the pandemic is prudent.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0178.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: innate immune memory; RNA-i; antiviral immunity; COVID-19; ADE
Online: 14 June 2020 (14:43:09 CEST)
The role of innate immunity in neutralization of viral infections (including COVID-19) and forming long-lasting and specific immune memory is considered. It is assumed that antiviral protection is generated by the mechanism of RNA interference (RNAi) and is based on the presence of specific viral patterns in the DNA library of the host cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0271.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; de novo vaccine; epitope; immunity
Online: 16 May 2020 (17:07:43 CEST)
Currently, with a large number of fatality rates, coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a potential threat to human health worldwide. It has been well-known that severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for COVID-19 and World Health Organization (WHO) proclaimed the contagious disease as a global pandemic. Researchers from different parts of the world amalgamate together inquest of remedies for this deadly virus. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the spike glycoprotein (SGP) of SARS-CoV-2 is the mediator behind the entrance into the host cells. Our group has comprehensibly analyzed the SGP of SARS-CoV-2 through multiple sequence analysis along with the phylogenetic analysis. Further, this research work predicted the most immunogenic epitopes for both B-cell and T-cell. Notably, we focused mainly on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I potential peptides and predicted two epitopes; WTAGAAAYY and GAAAYYVGY, that bind with the MHC class I alleles which are further validated by molecular docking analysis. Furthermore, this study also proposed that the selected epitopes were shown availability in a greater range of the population. Hence, our study comes up with a strong base for the implementation of designing novel vaccine candidates against SARS-CoV-2, however adequate laboratory works will need to be conducted for the appropriate application.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0351.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: COVID-19; BCG immunization; SARS-CoV-2; immunity and tuberculosis
Online: 19 April 2020 (13:55:50 CEST)
The Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine (BCG vaccine) designed to prevent tuberculosis in children has been shown to induce a trained immune response in the body to fight against bacteria as well as other parasites and viruses. This knowledge has been reciprocated to generate the idea that this vaccine can also offer protection against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-COV-2). Some recent pre-print articles have highlighted that countries with mass BCG immunizations seems to have a lower incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) compared to those without BCG immunization. There are yet no experimental proof of any such association and the world health organisation (WHO) is currently testing the theory with clinical trials on selected cohorts. Epidemiologists and other scientific experts has expressed both their hope and concern simultaneously regarding the success theory of BCG vaccination to prevent COVID-19. Though its still not verified in any way whether the BCG vaccination can actually prevent COVID-19 or not but we believe a thorough analytical research in this regard is indeed worth a shot.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0290.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: β-D-glucan; glucan binding protein; host defense; innate immunity
Online: 24 May 2019 (08:56:43 CEST)
The recognition of (1→3)-β-D-glucans (BGs) by β-1,3-D-glucan recognition protein (BGRP) found in invertebrates plays a significant role in the activation of toll pathway and pro-phenol oxidase system in insect host defense against fungal invasion. To examine the structural diversity of BGs in BGRP interaction, the binding specificity of BGRPs cloned from four different insectswas characterized using ELISA. Recombinant BGRPs expressed as Fc-fusion proteins of human IgG1 bound to solid phase BGs. Because of the binding specificities, the BGRPs were categorized into two different ultrastructure- binding characters. The BGRPs from Silkworm and Indian meal moth bound to BGs containing triple-helical structure. Other BGRPs from red flour beetle and yellow mealworm beetle showed no binding to triple-helical BGs, but to alkaline-treated BGs, which have partially opened helical conformation. These evidences suggest that the innate immune system distinguishes different BG conformations and it is equipped for the diversity of BG structures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0263.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Tenebrio molitor; suppressor of cytokine signaling; insect immunity; gene expression
Online: 26 January 2019 (02:51:45 CET)
Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) influence cytokine and growth factor signaling by negatively regulating the JAK-STAT pathway. This maintains homeostasis during host immune response. However, functional characterization of SOCS family members in invertebrates is limited. In this study, we discovered the Type-I subfamily of the SOCS genes in the mealworm beetle, T. molitor. The full-length ORFs of TmSOCS5, TmSOCS6, and TmSOCS7 consisted of 1,389, 897 and 1,458 nucleotides, encoding polypeptides of 462, 297 and 485 amino acids, respectively, The C-terminal region of TmSOCS was highly conserved in the SH2 and SOCS box domains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the three SOCS genes clustered within the same sub-family and the highest amino acid identity was with the Tribolium castaneum SOCS genes (TcSOCS). While the expression of TmSOCS5 and TmSOCS6 was low in larval, pupal, and adult stages of the insect, TmSOCS7 showed higher expression. The expression of TmSOCS5 and TmSOCS6 was higher in larval hemocytes and adult ovary. The microbes expressed the three TmSOCS genes to varying degrees. C. albicans elicited the strongest response in the host with highest 15-fold expression in TmSOCS7 3 h post-inoculation. Collectively, these data suggest that the Type I TmSOCS could play a role in eliciting host immunity.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0398.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: rotavirus; coronavirus; vaccine; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; cross immunity; trained immunity; vaccinated breakthrough infections; COVID variants; long-Covid; post-viral syndrome; chronic fatigue; booster
Online: 23 August 2022 (10:50:57 CEST)
This proposal was prepared in the very first weeks of 2020 because of the outbreak of COVID-19.There is good reason to suppose that rotavirus vaccine can be used as protection tool to effectively and safely fight and mitigate SARS-CoV-2 infection and the impact caused by COVID-19 in adult humans, due to the development of cross and trained immunity following rotavirus vaccination. Up-to-date, some rotavirus vaccines are available and approved, two of them have a large experience in results and safety. Little experience has been achieved in the use of rotavirus vaccine in adults. However, it can be expected that it would be safe and effective in adults and in the elderly as well. This proposal explains the background.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1981.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: T-cell-mediated immunity; vaccines; infectious diseases; viral vectors; mRNA vaccines
Online: 31 October 2023 (05:11:07 CET)
The new class of mRNA vaccines is studied extensively, leading to many novel prospects based on the pivotal success of vaccines against the SARS-Cov-2 virus. Many novel mechanisms of immune response discovered have led to the possibility of mutation-resistant vaccines by combining multiple conserved epitopes as antigens to manipulate the T-cell and B-cell responses; these antigens can also come from different organisms, providing protection against numerous diseases and of most tremendous significance is the utility of mRNA vaccines in preventing and treating more than 100 autoimmune disorders. This is a significant humanitarian breakthrough given the ease and faster and low cost of mRNA vaccines, being a chemical entity. This paper provides a prospective analysis of mRNA vaccines with much broader applications than anticipated when these vaccines entered treating SARS-Cov-2 infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0071.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; Influenza virus; Heterologous protection; Recombinant vaccine; T cell immunity
Online: 2 August 2023 (02:11:41 CEST)
Current COVID-19 vaccines can effectively reduce disease severity and hospitalisation; however, they are not considerably effective in preventing infection and transmission. In this context, mucosal vaccines are pertinent to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection and spread. In this study, we generated a replication-competent recombinant chimeric influenza A virus (IAV) expressing the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 prototype in the C-terminus of the neuraminidase (NA) of A/Puerto Rico/08/1934 H1N1 (PR8). The remaining seven segments from A/WSN/1933 H1N1 (WSN) were named PR8NARBD/WSN. We observed that the recombinant virus with the WSN backbone demonstrated improved expression of NA and RBD. A single intranasal dose of PR8NARBD/WSN in mice generated robust mucosal immunity, neutralising antibodies, cellular immunity, and tissue-resident memory T cells specific to SARS-CoV-2 and IAV. Importantly, immunisation with PR8NARBD/WSN viruses effectively protected mice against lethal challenges with H1N1, H3N2 IAV, and SARS-CoV-2 Beta variant and significantly reduced lung viral loads. Overall, our research demonstrates the promising potential of PR8NARBD/WSN as an attractive vaccine against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants and influenza A virus infections.