Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Harnessing the Power of Mast Cells in Unconventional Immunotherapy Strategies and Vaccine Adjuvants

Version 1 : Received: 30 October 2020 / Approved: 2 November 2020 / Online: 2 November 2020 (14:59:10 CET)

How to cite: Willows, S.; Kulka, M. Harnessing the Power of Mast Cells in Unconventional Immunotherapy Strategies and Vaccine Adjuvants. Preprints 2020, 2020110053 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202011.0053.v1). Willows, S.; Kulka, M. Harnessing the Power of Mast Cells in Unconventional Immunotherapy Strategies and Vaccine Adjuvants. Preprints 2020, 2020110053 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202011.0053.v1).

Abstract

Mast cells are long-lived, granular, myeloid-derived leukocytes that have significant protective and repair functions in tissues. Mast cells sense disruptions in the local microenvironment and are first responders to physical, chemical and biological insults. When activated, mast cells release growth factors, proteases, chemotactic proteins and cytokines thereby mobilizing and amplifying the innate and adaptive immune system. Mast cells are therefore significant regulators of homeostatic functions and may be essential in microenvironmental changes during pathogen invasion and disease. During infection by helminths, bacteria and viruses, mast cells release antimicrobial factors to facilitate pathogen expulsion and eradication. Mast cell-derived proteases and growth factors protect tissues from insect/snake bites and exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Finally, mast cells release mediators that promote wound healing in the inflammatory, proliferative and remodeling stages. Since mast cells have such a powerful repertoire of functions, targeting mast cells may be an effective new strategy for immunotherapy of disease and design of novel vaccine adjuvants. In this review, we will examine how certain strategies that specifically target and activate mast cells can be used to treat and resolve infections, augment vaccines and heal wounds. Although these strategies may be protective in certain circumstances, mast cells activation may be deleterious if not carefully controlled and any therapeutic strategy using mast cell activators must be carefully explored.

Subject Areas

Mast cells; innate immunity; adaptive immunity; wound healing; Immunoglobin E; vaccine adjuvants

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