Dhaiban, S.; Al-Ani, M.; Elemam, N.M.; Al-Aawad, M.H.; Al-Rawi, Z.; Maghazachi, A.A. Role of Peripheral Immune Cells in Multiple Sclerosis and Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis. Sci2021, 3, 12.
Dhaiban, S.; Al-Ani, M.; Elemam, N.M.; Al-Aawad, M.H.; Al-Rawi, Z.; Maghazachi, A.A. Role of Peripheral Immune Cells in Multiple Sclerosis and Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis. Sci 2021, 3, 12.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by varying degrees of demyelination of uncertain etiology, and is associated with specific environmental and genetic factors. Upon recognition of CNS antigens, the immune cells initiate an inflammatory process which leads to destruction and deterioration of the neurons. Innate immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells and natural killer cells are known to play critical roles in the pathogenesis of MS. Also, the activation of peripheral CD4+ T cells by CNS antigens leads to their extravasation into the CNS causing damages that exacerbates the disease. This could be accompanied by dysregulation of T regulatory cells and other cell types functions. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a mouse model used to study the pathophysiology of MS disease. In this review, we highlight the roles of innate and adaptive immune players in the pathogenesis of MS and EAE.
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