ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0153.v1
Online: 10 September 2018 (06:26:55 CEST)
Background: diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus and a common cause for end stage renal disease. Autophagy has a defensive role against kidney damage caused by hyperglycemia. The mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived exosomes are currently considered as a new promising therapy in chronic renal injury. However, the renal protective mechanism of exosomes on DN has not been completely understood. We examined the potential role of MSCs derived exosomes in enhancement of autophagy activity and its effect on DN. In our study we used five groups of rats; control, DN, DN treated with exosomes, DN treated with 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and chloroquine (inhibitors of autophagy) and DN treated with 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and chloroquine and exosomes groups. We assessed renal functions, morphology and fibrosis. Moreover, autophagy markers; mTOR, Beclin-1, light chain-3 (LC3-II), and LC3-II/LC3-I ratio were detected. Additionally, electron microscopy was used for detection of autophagosomes. Results: Exosomes markedly improved the renal functions and showed histological restoration of renal tissues with significant increase in LC3 and Beclin-1 besides the significant decrease in mTOR and fibrotic markers expression in renal tissue. All previous effects were partially abolished by the autophagy inhibitor, chloroquine and 3-MA. Conclusions: we conclude that autophagy induction by exosomes could attenuate DN in a rat model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0464.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: tumor-associated macrophage; exosomes; extracellular vesicles; heat shock proteins; oral cancer; fluorescent labeling of exosomes
Online: 19 April 2021 (11:50:52 CEST)
Tumor-associated macrophages are a key component in the tumor microenvironment, secreting extracellular vesicles (EVs) such as exosomes and other various factors for intercellular communication. However, macrophage-derived EVs heterogeneity and their cytotoxicity to cancer cells has not been well understood. Here, we aimed to separately isolate various types of macro-phage-EVs by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) method and investigate EV transmission and cytotoxicity to oral cancer cells. For fluorescence-labeling of cellular and EV membranes, palmitoylation signal-fused GFP and tdTomato were expressed in THP-1 monocytic cells and HSC-3 oral cancer cells, respectively. We found that fluorescence-labeled EVs secreted by macrophages were highly transmissive to oral cancer cells than those from parental monocytic cells. In a co-culture system and conditioned medium (CM), a macrophage-secreted unidentified factor was cytotoxic to oral cancer cells. We fractionated macrophage-derived EVs by the SEC method and performed western blotting to characterize various EV types. Three fractions were characterized: small exosomes (EXO-S: < 50 nm) fraction containing HSP90α, HSP90β, CD63 (EV marker) and β-actin; large exosomes (EXO-L: 50-200 nm) fraction containing CD9 (EV marker) and HSP90β; large EVs (100-500 nm) fraction. Notably, the macrophage-derived small exosomes fraction was cytotoxic to oral cancer cells, while large exosomes and large EVs were not. There-fore, it was implicated that macrophage-derived small exosomes are cytotoxic with high trans-mission potential to cancer cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0520.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Exosomes; COPD; smokers; IPF; BALF; lung
Online: 27 August 2021 (11:33:42 CEST)
Background: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) are chronic, progressive lung ailments which are characterized by distinct pathologies. Early detection biomarkers and disease mechanisms for these debilitating diseases are lacking. Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles attributed to carry proteins, mRNA, miRNA and sncRNA to facilitate cell-to-cell communication under normal and diseased conditions. Exosomal miRNAs have been studied in relation to many diseases. However, there is little to no knowledge regarding the miRNA population of BALF or the lung tissue derived exosomes in COPD and IPF. Here, we determined and compared the miRNA profiles of BALF and lung tissue-derived exosomes from healthy non-smokers, healthy smokers, and patients with COPD and IPF in independent cohorts. Results: Exosome characterization using NanoSight particle tracking and TEM demonstrated that the BALF-derived exosomes were approximately 89.85 nm in size and ~2.95 X 1010 particles/mL. Lung-derived exosomes were ~146.04 nm in size and ~2.38 X 1011 particles/mL. NGS results identified three differentially expressed miRNAs in the BALF, while one in the lung-derived exosomes from COPD patients as compared to healthy non-smokers. Of these, three- and five-fold downregulation of miR-122-5p amongst the lung tissue-derived exosomes from COPD patients as compared to healthy non-smokers and smokers, respectively. Interestingly, there were key 55 differentially expressed miRNAs in the lung tissue-derived exosomes of IPF patients compared to non-smoking controls. Conclusions: Overall, we identified specific miRNAs to develop as biomarkers or targets for pathogenesis of these chronic lung diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0532.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: extracellular vesicles; exosomes; platelets; regenerative medicine
Online: 23 July 2021 (09:58:26 CEST)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) present a great potential for the development of new treatments in the biomedical field. To be used as therapeutics, many different sources have been used for EVs obtention, while only few studies have addressed the use of platelet derived EVs (pEVs). In fact, pEVs have been shown to intervene in different healing responses, thus some studies have evaluated their regenerative capability in wound healing or hemorrhagic shock. Even more, pEVs have proven to induce cellular differentiation, enhancing musculoskeletal or neural regeneration. However, the obtention and characterization of pEVs is widely heterogeneous and differs from the recommendations of the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles. Therefore, in this review, we aim to present the main advances in the therapeutical use of pEVs in the regenerative medicine field while highlighting the isolation and characterization steps followed. The main goal of this review is to portray the studies performed in order to enhance the translation of the pEVs research into feasible therapeutical applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0364.v1
Online: 13 November 2020 (07:32:33 CET)
Urinary bladder cancer (UBC) is the most common malignancy of the urinary tract in humans, with an estimated global prevalence of 1.1 million cases over 5 years1. Due to high rates of recurrence and resistance to chemotherapy, UBC is one of the most expensive cancers to treat, resulting in significant health care costs. There is, therefore, a critical need to develop innovative molecular and cellular tools to refine patient stratification and help predict response to treatment. Urine is an underused resource of biological components shed from bladder tumors, such as exfoliated cells and extracellular vesicles, that could serve as molecular fingerprints and provide valuable biological insights into tumor phenotype and mechanisms of resistance to chemotherapy. Additionally, characterization of urine-derived extracellular vesicles and cells could be used as reliable biomarkers for prediction of response to neoadjuvant therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0346.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: Exosomes, extracellular vesicles, immune regulation, autoimmunity
Online: 28 December 2018 (12:28:28 CET)
T-cell mediated immune responses should be regulated to avoid the development of autoimmune or chronic inflammation diseases. Several mechanisms have been described to regulate this process, namely death of overactivated T cells by cytokine deprivation, suppression by T regulatory cells (Treg), induction of expression of immune checkpoint molecules such as CTLA-4 and PD-1, or activation-induced cell death (AICD). In addition, activated T cells release membrane microvesicles called exosomes during these regulatory processes. In this review, we revise the role of exosome secretion in the different pathways of immune regulation described to date and its importance in the prevention of autoinmune disease. Expression of membrane-bound death ligands on the surface of exosomes during AICD, or the more recently described transfer of miRNA or even DNA inside T-cell exosomes are molecular mechanisms that will be analyzed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0659.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: miRNAs; colorectal cancer; exosomes; liver; metastases
Online: 29 October 2018 (06:55:09 CET)
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies with a high incidence and mortality. An essential challenge in colorectal cancer management is to identify new prognostic factors that could better estimate the evolution and treatment responses of this disease. Considering their role in cancer development, progression and metastasis, miRNAs have become an important class of molecules suitable for cancer biomarkers discovery. We performed a systematic search of studies investigating the role of miRNAs in colorectal progression and liver metastasis, published until October 2018. In this review, we present up-to-date information regarding the specific microRNAs involved in CRC development, considering their roles in alteration of Wnt/βcatenin, EGFR, TGFβ and TP53 signaling pathways. We also emphasize the role of miRNAs in controlling the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of CRC cells, a process responsible for liver metastasis in a circulating tumor cell-dependent manner. Furthermore, we discuss the role of miRNAs transported by CRC-derived exosomes in mediating liver metastases, by preparing the secondary pre-metastatic niche and in inducing liver carcinogenesis in a Dicer-dependent manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0250.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: microRNAs; exosomes; astrocytes; hippocampal neurons; dendritic complexity
Online: 17 February 2020 (15:53:24 CET)
In the last decades, it has been established that astrocytes play key roles in the regulation of neuronal morphology. However, the contribution of astrocyte-derived small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) to morphological differentiation of neurons has only recently been addressed. Here, we showed that cultured astrocytes expressing a GFP tagged version of the stress-regulated astrocytic enzyme Aldolase C (Aldo C-GFP) release small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) which are transferred into cultured hippocampal neurons. Surprisingly, Aldo C-GFP-containing sEVs (Aldo C-GFP sEVs) displayed an exacerbated capacity to reduce the dendritic complexity in developing hippocampal neurons compared to sEVs derived from control (i.e. GFP-expressing) astrocytes. Using bioinformatics and biochemical tools, we found that the total content of overexpressed Aldo C-GFP correlates with an increased content of endogenous miRNA-26a-5p in both total astrocyte homogenates and sEVs. Notably, neurons magnetofected with a nucleotide sequence that mimics endogenous miRNA-26a-5p (mimic 26a-5p) not only decreased the levels of neuronal proteins associated to morphogenesis regulation and also reproduced morphological changes induced by Aldo-C-GFP sEVs. Furthermore, neurons magnetofected with a sequence targeting miRNA-26a-5p (antago 26a-5p) were largely resistant to Aldo C-GFP sEVs. Our results support a novel and complex level of astrocyte-to-neuron communication mediated by astrocyte-derived sEVs and the activity of their miRNA content.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0204.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; inflammation; non-coding RNAs; exosomes vesicles
Online: 14 September 2022 (09:20:29 CEST)
Alzheimer´s Disease (AD) has currently no effective treatment; however, preventive measures can significantly delay the progress/onset of the disease. Thus, accurate and early prediction of risk is an important strategy to alleviate the AD burden. Neuroinflammation is a major factor prompting the onset of the disease. Inflammation exerts its toxic effect via multiple mechanisms. Amongst others, it is affecting gene expression via modulation of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), such as miRNAs. Recent evidence supports that inflammation can also affect long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) expression. While the association between miRNAs and inflammation in AD has been extensively studied, the role of lncRNAs in neurodegenerative diseases has been less explored. In this review, we focus on lncRNAs and inflammation in the context of AD. Furthermore, since plasma-isolated extracellular vesicles (EVs) are increasingly recognized as an effective monitoring strategy of brain pathologies, we have focused on the studies reporting dysregulated lncRNAs in EVs isolated from AD patients and controls. The revised literature shows a positive association between pro-inflammatory lncRNAs and AD. However, the reports evaluating lncRNAs alterations in EVs isolated from plasma of patients and controls, although still limited confirm the value of specific lncRNAs associated with AD as reliable biomarkers. This is an emerging field that will open new avenues to improve risk prediction, patients’ stratification and may lead to the discovery of potential novel therapeutic targets for AD
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0655.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: dialysis membrane; ectosomes; exosomes; FTIR; infrared spectroscopy; purification
Online: 27 July 2020 (00:46:38 CEST)
Recent years brought great focus in the field of development of extracellular vesicles (EVs) based drug-delivery systems. Considering possible applications of EVs as a drug carriers the isolation process is a crucial step. To solve problems related with EV isolation, we created and validated a new EVs isolation method – Low Vacuum Filtration (LVF) and compared it with two commonly applied procedures - differential centrifugation (DC) and ultracentrifugation (UC). EVs isolated from endothelial cells culture media have been characterized by a) transmission electron microscopy (TEM) b) nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), c) western blot and d) Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Additionally, the membrane surface have been imaged with Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM). We showed that LVF is reproducible and efficient method for EVs isolation form conditioned media. Additionally, we observed correlation between ATR-FTIR spectra quality and the EVs and proteins concentration. ESEM imaging confirmed that actual pore diameter are close to the values calculated theoretically. LVF method is an easy, fast and inexpensive EVs isolation method which allows for isolation of both ectosomes and exosomes from high volume sources with good repeatability. We think that it could be an efficient alternative for commonly applied methods.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0146.v2
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: cancer metastasis; chronic lymphocytic leukemia; exosomes; tumor microenvironment
Online: 29 September 2017 (03:17:31 CEST)
The lymphocyte function–associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) (also CD11a/CD18 and αLβ2), is just one of many integrins in the human body, but its significance derives from its exclusive presence in leukocytes. In this review, we summarize the studies relating LFA-1 and its major ligand ICAM-1 (CD54) with cancer, through the function of lymphocytes and myeloid cells on tumor cells. We consider how LFA-1 mediates the interaction of leukocytes with tumors and the role of ICAM-1 in tumor dynamics, which can be independent of its interaction with LFA-1. A more detailed examination of LFA’s role within B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia is made. Finally, we discuss the role of LFA-1-harboring exosomes in tumor growth and metastasis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0102.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: microglia exosomes; 3D culture; proteomic study; glioma; neurites outgrowth
Online: 8 July 2019 (04:26:49 CEST)
Using a combination of pan proteomic platform associated with systemic biology analyses, we demonstrate that neonatal microglial cells derived from cortex and spinal cord expressed different phenotypes upon the physiological or pathological conditions. They also highlight great variability in protein production on both cellular and exosome levels. Bioinformatics data indicate for the cortical microglia anti-inflammatory and neurogenesis/tumorigenesis characteristics, while for the spinal cord microglia involvement in the inflammatory response. We confirmed these results by performing functional testing including neurite outgrowth assays in DRGs cell line, and glioma proliferation analysis in 3D spheroid cultures. Results from these in vitro assays indicate that the microglia located at different CNS areas reveal differential biological functions. While both microglia sources enhanced growth of DRGs axons, only the spinal microglia significantly attenuated glioma proliferation. Overall these findings are pointing to the fact that the origin of neonatal microglia affects the physio-pathological function, which may address the prevalence of the glioma in the brain in comparison with the spinal cord in adult.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0158.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: Cholera toxin; exosomes; endocytic pathway; Caveolin-1; GM1 ganglioside
Online: 12 April 2018 (05:58:31 CEST)
Here we first report, how cholera toxin (CT) A subunit (CTA), the bacterial enzyme moiety responsible of cell signaling alteration, can take over the exosomal pathway, spread extracellularly and be transmitted in a cell population. A first evidence for long-term transmission of CT toxic effect via extracellular vesicles was obtained in CHO cells. To follow CT intracellular route towards exosome secretion we adopted a strategy apt to convert multivesicular body (MVB) derived exosomes in traceable fluorescent vectors. CT treated Me665 cells, a human melanoma cell line highly expressing caveolin-1 (Cav-1) and GM1, were used to purify and characterize fluorescent exosomes. Our results clearly show association of CT with exosomes together with typical exosomal markers and the HSP90 and PDI molecules, the required membrane translocation elements of CTA to the cytoplasm. Confocal microscopy proved direct CT containing fluorescent exo transfer into CHO cells coupled with the morphological cell change characteristic of CT action. Moreover, direct assessment of cAMP levels in Me665 cells treated with CT containing exo showed an efficient induction of cAMP increase comparable with CT alone. From our results, we can infer that CT can exploit exosome-mediated cell communication to target and extend its pathophysiological action throughout cell tissues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0356.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: airway cell exosomes; viral infection; microglia; mitochondria; reactive oxygen species
Online: 15 July 2021 (11:12:49 CEST)
Viral infections induce exosomes containing viral material and inflammatory factors. During respiratory tract infection, exosomes can easily cross the blood-brain barrier and transmit the inflammatory signal to the brain; however, such a hypothesis has no experimental evidence. The study investigated whether exosomes from virus mimetic poly (I:C)-primed airway cells enter the brain and interact with brain immune cells microglia. Airway cells were isolated from Wistar rats and BALB/c mice; microglial cell cultures - from Wistar rats. Exosomes from poly (I:C)-stimulated airway cell culture medium were isolated by precipitation, visualised by transmission electron microscopy, and evaluated by nanoparticle analyser; exosomal markers CD81 and CD9 were determined by ELISA. For in vitro and in vivo tracking, exosomes were loaded with Alexa Fluor 555-labelled RNA. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were evaluated by DCFDA fluo-rescence and mitochondrial superoxide - by MitoSOX. The exosomes from poly (I:C)-primed airway cells entered the brain within an hour after intranasal introduction, were internalised by microglia, and induced intracellular and intramitochondrial ROS production. There was no ROS increase in microglial cells was after treatment with exosomes from airway cells untreated with poly (I:C). The data indicate that virus-primed airway cell exosomes might enter the brain and induce the activation of microglial cells.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0052.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Exosomes, mass spectrometry, proteomics, biomarkers, cancer, extracellular vesicles, microvesicles, oncosomes
Online: 4 April 2019 (12:29:44 CEST)
The proteomic profile of extracellular vesicles (EVs) has been of increasing interest, particularly in understanding cancer growth, drug resistance, and metastatic behavior. Emerging data suggests that cancer-derived EVs may carry an array of oncogenic cargo, including certain integrin proteins that may, in turn, promote cell detachment, migration, and selection of future metastatic sites. We previously reported a large comparison of secreted vesicle protein cargo across sixty diverse human cancer cell lines. Here, we analyze the distinct integrin profiles of these cancer EVs. We further demonstrate the enrichment of integrin receptors in breast cancer EVs compared to vesicles secreted from benign breast epithelial cells. Total EV integrin levels, including the quantity of integrins α2, αv, β4, and β5 correlate with breast tumor stage. In particular, integrin α2 also largely reflects progenitor cell expression, highlighting the utility of this integrin protein as a potential circulating biomarker of primary tumors. This study provides preliminary evidence of the value of vesicle-associated integrin proteins in cancer diagnosis and prediction of tumor stage. Differential expression of integrins across cancer cells, and selective packaging of integrins into EVs may contribute to further understanding the development and progression of tumor growth and metastasis across a variety of cancer types.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0529.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: CRISPR; Cas9 ribonucleoprotein; virus-like particles; exosomes; HIV assembly and disassembly; delivery
Online: 28 December 2022 (06:11:59 CET)
Rapid progress in gene editing based on clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein (CRISPR/Cas) has revolutionized the study of gene and genome function and genetic disease correction. While numerous genetically modified cellular and animal models have been created to understand biological processes, the clinical application of CRISPR/Cas tools has been impeded by off-targeting and delivery problems. It is generally accepted that the delivery of CRISPR in the form of a ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP) substantially reduces the time of DNA exposure to the effector nuclease, minimizing off-target effects and facilitating clinical usage. This review focuses on CRISPR/Cas RNP delivery with retro/lentiviral particles and exosomes, whose parallel production by cells transfected with viral vectors is underestimated. We critically evaluate specific mechanisms of extracellular particle formation and loading with CRISPR/Cas for each system. Additionally, the details of Cas-nanoparticle entry and uncoating, previously unappreciated in the context of gene editing efficiency, are discussed. Based on existing knowledge about the consequences of intervention in retroviral assembly, entry, or exosome formation, we outline the potential problems with CRISPR/Cas delivery using extracellular nanoparticles and ways to address them.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: extracellular vesicle engineering; microRNA; loading; anti-tumor; cancer stem cells; exosomes; coincubation
Online: 10 December 2020 (10:34:42 CET)
Extracellular vesicles are considered a novel therapeutic tool, due to their ability to transfer their cargoes to target cells. Different strategies to directly load extracellular vesicles with RNA species have been proposed. Electroporation has been used for the loading of non-active vesicles, however the engineering of vesicles already carrying a therapeutically active cargo is still under investigation. We here set up a coincubation method to increase the anti-tumor effect of extracellular vesicles isolated from human liver stem cells (HLSC-EVs). Using the coincubation protocol, vesicles were loaded with the anti-tumor miRNA-145, and their effect was evaluated on renal cancer stem cell invasion. Loaded HLSC-EVs maintained their integrity and miR transfer ability, and miR-145 was protected by RNAse digestion possibly due to its binding to RNA-binding proteins on HLSC-EV surface, such as Annexin A2. Moreover, miR-145 coincubated HLSC-EVs were more effective in inhibiting the invasive properties of cancer stem cells, in comparison to naïve vesicles. The protocol reported here exploits a well-described property of extracellular vesicles to bind nucleic acids on their surface and protect them from degradation, in order to obtain an effective miRNA loading that results in the increase of the effect of naïve active extracellular vesicles.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0507.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: liposomes, exosomes, extracellular vesicles, drug delivery, drug targeting, bioinspired systems, engineered systems.
Online: 22 October 2018 (15:35:20 CEST)
The similarities between exosomes and liposomes, together with the high organotropism of several types of exosomes, have recently prompted the development of engineered-exosomes or exosome-mimetics, which may be artificial (liposomal) or cell-derived vesicles, as advanced platforms for targeted drug delivery. Here we provide the current state-of-the-art of using exosome or exosome-inspired systems for drug delivery. We review the various approaches investigated and the shortcomings of each approach. Finally the challenges identified up-to-date in this field are summarized.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0004.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: extracellular vesicles; EVs; exosomes; mesenchymal stem cell EVs; plant-derived EVs; wound healing; scaffolds
Online: 2 August 2021 (08:57:45 CEST)
Each year, millions of individuals suffer from a non-healing wound, abnormal scarring, or injuries accompanied by an infection. For these cases, scientists are searching for new therapeutic interventions, from which one of the most promising is the use of extracellular vesicles (EVs). Naturally, EV-based signalling takes part in all four wound healing phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation and remodelling. Such an extensive involvement of EVs suggests exploiting their action to modulate the impaired healing phase. Furthermore, next to their natural wound healing capacity, EVs can be engineered for better defined pharmaceutical purposes, such as carrying specific cargo or targeting specific destinations by labelling them with certain surface proteins. This review aims to promote scientific awareness in basic and translational research of EVs by summarizing the current knowledge about their natural role in each stage of skin repair and the most recent findings in application areas, such as wound healing, skin regeneration and treatment of dermal diseases, including the stem cell-derived, plant-derived and engineered EVs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0485.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: extracellular vesicles; exosomes; microvesicles; differential ultracentrifugation; poly-ethylene glycol; immunoaffinity capture; microfluidics; size exclusion chromatography
Online: 20 August 2020 (09:44:09 CEST)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membranous vesicles secreted by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and play a vital role in intercellular communication. EVs are classified into several subtypes based on their origin, physical characteristics, and biomolecular makeup. Exosomes, a subtype of EVs, are released by the fusion of multivesicular bodies (MVB) with the plasma membrane of the cell. Several methods have been described in literature to isolate exosomes from biofluids including blood, urine, milk, and cell culture media among others. While differential ultracentrifugation (dUC), has been widely used to isolate exosomes, other techniques including ultrafiltration, precipitating agents such as poly-ethylene glycol (PEG), immunoaffinity capture, microfluidics and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) have emerged as credible alternatives with pros and cons associated with each. In this review, we provide a summary of commonly used exosomal isolation techniques with a focus on SEC as an ideal methodology. We evaluate the efficacy of SEC to isolate exosomes from an array of biological fluids, with a particular focus on its application to adipose tissue-derived exosomes. We argue that exosomes isolated via SEC are relatively pure and functional, and that this methodology is reproducible, scalable, inexpensive, and does not require specialized equipment or user expertise.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0060.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: exosomes; extrusion; proteolipid nanoparticles; drug delivery; nanomedicine; doxorubicin; ex-truded nanoparticles; hydroxychloroquine; endolysosomal escape; lysosomotropic
Online: 5 December 2022 (06:04:21 CET)
Because of their high biocompatibility, stability, ability to negotiate biological barrier passage, and functionalization properties, biological nanoparticles have been actively investigated for many medical applications. Biological nanoparticles, including natural extracellular vesicles (EVs) and synthetic extracellular vesicle-mimetic nanovesicles (EMNVs) represent novel drug delivery vehicles that can accommodate different payloads. In this study, we investigated EVs and EMNVs for their physical, biological and delivery properties and we showed that EMNVs have similar delivery properties compared to EVs. In addition, these nanotherapeutics were analyzed for their cytostatic properties in combination with the FDA-approved drug hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), which increased their cytostatic thanks to its lysosome-destabilizing properties. Altogether, these data demonstrated that, at least in vitro, the use of synthetic biomimetic particles is comparable to the natural counterparts, while their synthesis is significantly faster and more cost effective. In addition, we highlighted the benefits of combining biological nanoparticles with a lysosome destabilizing agent that increased the delivery properties of the particles.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0004.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: exosomes; extracellular vesicles; cellular communication; tumor microenvironment; tumor infiltrating lymphocyte; immunosuppression, immune evasion, therapy resistance.
Online: 1 November 2022 (01:12:47 CET)
Extracellular vesicles (EV), including exosomes and microvesicles, are released from various cells and alter recipient cell phenotypes and fates by their biomolecules. Here we review current knowledge about tumor EVs and how they prompt malignant cell communication with tumor-associated cells, such as cancer-associated fibroblasts, tumor endothelial cells, and immune cells. We delineate the major pathways and molecular players that influence each step of cancer initiation, progression, and resistance. Of note, cancer exosomes involve immunosuppression by tumor-associated macrophages, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and regulatory T cells. Moreover, tumor exosomes can induce the apoptosis of killer T cells and immune checkpoint of dendritic cells and attenuate natural killer cells. An in-depth understanding of EV biology is essential to ensure the clinical development of exosome/EV-based therapeutic products, which will be of benefit to exosome manipulation in cancer management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0450.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Tumor microenvironment; stromal cells; immune cells; ECM; cancer hallmarks; hypoxia; exosomes; drug resistance; targeted therapy
Online: 28 October 2022 (09:57:34 CEST)
Tumorigenesis is a complex and dynamic process involving cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions that allow tumor cell growth, drug resistance and metastasis. This review provides an updated summary of the role played by the tumor microenvironment (TME) components and hypoxia in tumorigenesis and highlight various ways through which tumor cells reprogram normal cells including into phenotypes that are pro-tumorigenic including cancer associated- fibroblasts, -macrophages and -endothelial cells. Tumor cells secrete numerous factors leading to transformation of a previously anti-tumorigenic environment into a pro-tumorigenic environment. Once formed, solid tumors continue to interact with various stromal cells including local and infiltrating fibroblasts, macrophages, mesenchymal stem cells, endothelial cells, pericytes, and secreted factors and the ECM within the tumor microenvironment (TME). The TME is key to tumorigenesis, drug response and treatment outcome. Importantly, stromal cells and secreted factors can initially be anti-tumorigenic but over time promote tumorigenesis and induce therapy resistance. To counter hypoxia, increased angiogenesis leads to formation of new vascular networks in order to actively promote and sustain tumor growth via supply of oxygen and nutrients whilst removing metabolic waste. Angiogenic vascular network formation aid in tumor cell metastatic dissemination. Successful tumor treatment and novel drug development require the identification and therapeutic targeting of pro-tumorigenic components of the TME including cancer-associated- fibroblasts (CAFs) and -macrophages (CAMs), hypoxia, blocking ECM-receptor interactions, in addition to targeting of tumor cells. Re-programming of stromal cells and the immune response to be anti-tumorigenic is key to therapeutic success. Lastly, this review highlights potential TME- and hypoxia-centred therapies under investigations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0200.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: exosomes; micro vesicles; extracellular vesicles; mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC); miRNA; cell therapy; artificial nano particles
Online: 16 June 2020 (07:57:00 CEST)
Extracellular vesicles (EV) such as exosomes, are newly recognized fundamental, natural and physiologic particles of life that seemingly are involved all biologic processes and clinical diseases. Due to their universal involvements, understanding the nature and the potential therapeutic uses of these nano-vesicles requires innovative experimental approaches, in virtually every field. Of the EV group, exosome nano-vesicles and larger companion extracellular micro vesicles (MV) can mediate completely new phenomena dependent on intercellular transfer of proteins and selected RNAs; particularly miRNAs, between donor and targeted cells to elicit epigenetic alterations inducing functional cellular changes. These recipient acceptor cells are nearby (paracrine transfers) or far away after distribution via the circulation (endocrine transfers). The major properties of such vesicles seem to have been conserved over eons, suggesting that they may have ancient evolutionary origins arising perhaps even before cells in the primordial soup from which life evolved. Their potential ancient evolutionary attributes may be responsible for the ability of some modern day exosomes to withstand unusually harsh conditions; perhaps due to unusual membrane lipid compositions. This is exemplified by maternal milk exosome survival of the neonatal acid/enzyme rich stomach. It is postulated that this also applies to their durable presence in phagolysosomes; suggesting unique intracellular release of contents. A major issue discussed is the generally poorly realized superiority of these naturally evolved nano vesicles to therapies compared human engineered artificial nanoparticles; say for treatment of cancers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0022.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: exosomes; T lymphocytes; immune synapse; secretory granules; multivesicular bodies; cytotoxic activity; cell death; CAR T lymphocytes
Online: 1 February 2022 (21:33:57 CET)
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are a very heterogeneous group of cell-derived vesicles released by almost all kind of living cells. EV are involved in intercellular communication, both locally and systemically, since they induce signals and transfer their contents (proteins, lipids, RNAs) to other cells, which subsequently trigger a wide variety of biological responses in the target cells. How-ever, cell surface receptor-induced EV release is limited to cells from the immune system, includ-ing T lymphocytes. T cell receptor activation of T lymphocytes induces secretion of EV containing T cell receptor for antigen and several bioactive molecules, including proapoptotic proteins. These EV are thus specific for antigen-bearing cells, which make them ideal candidates for a cell-free, EV-dependent cancer therapy. In this review we discuss the generation of EV by T lymphocytes and some potential therapeutic approaches of these EV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0374.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Keywords: Tumor microenvironment (TME), glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), GBM- associated macrophages (GAMs), exosomes, oncomiR-21, STAT3 inhibitor.
Online: 31 May 2019 (08:18:33 CEST)
Background: Tumor microenvironment (TME) plays a crucial role in virtually every aspect of tumorigenesis of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The dysfunctional TME promotes drug resistance, disease recurrence and distant metastasis. Recent evidence indicates that exosomes released by stromal cells within TME may promote oncogenic phenotypes via transferring signaling molecules such as cytokines, proteins and microRNAs. Results: In this study, clinical GBM samples were collected and analyzed. We found that GBM-associated macrophages (GAMs) secreted exosomes which were enriched with oncomiR-21. Co-culture of GAMs (and GAM derived exosomes) and GBM cell lines resulted in the increased GBM cells’ resistance against temozolomide (TMZ) by upregulating pro-survival gene, PDCD4 and stemness markers Sox2, STAT3, Nestin and miR-21-5p and increased M2 cytokines, IL-6 and TGF-β1 secreted by GBM cells, promoting the M2 polarization of GAMs. Subsequently, pacritinib treatment suppressed GBM tumorigenesis and stemness; more importantly, pacritinib-treated GBM cells showed markedly reduced ability to secret M2 cytokines and reduced miR-21 enriched exosomes secreted by GAMs. Pacritinib-mediated effects were accompanied by a reduction of oncomiR miR-21-5p, by which tumor suppressor PDCD4 was targeted. We subsequently established a patient-derived xenograft models where mice bore patient GBM and GAMs. The treatment of pacritinib, and the combination of pacritinib/TMZ appeared to significantly reduce tumorigenesis of GBM/GAM PDX mice, overcome TMZ-resistance, and M2 polarization of GAMs. Conclusion: In summation, we showed that potential of pacritinib alone or in combination with TMZ for suppressing GBM tumorigenesis via modulating STAT3/miR-21/PDCD4 signaling. Further investigations are warranted for adopting pacritinib for the treatment of TMZ-resistant GBM in the clinical settings.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0460.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: extracellular vesicles; exosomes; neural tissue repair; neuroregeneration; non-human primates; hydrogels; neural tissue engineering; stroke; cortical injury
Online: 28 May 2020 (13:08:32 CEST)
Neural tissue engineering, nanotechnology and neuroregeneration are diverse biomedical disciplines that have been working together in recent decades to solve the complex problems linked to central nervous system (CNS) repair. It is known that the CNS demonstrates a very limited regenerative capacity because of a microenvironment that impedes effective regenerative processes, making development of CNS therapeutics challenging. Given the high prevalence of CNS conditions such as stroke that damage the brain and place a severe burden on afflicted individuals and on society, it is of utmost significance to explore the optimum methodologies for finding treatments that could be applied to humans for restoration of function to pre-injury levels. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), also known as exosomes, when derived from mesenchymal stem cells, are one of the most promising approaches that have been attempted thus far, as EVs deliver factors that stimulate recovery by acting at the nanoscale level on intercellular communication while avoiding the risks linked to stem cell transplantation. At the same time, advances in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have offered the potential of using hydrogels as bio-scaffolds in order to provide the stroma required for neural repair to occur, as well as the release of biomolecules facilitating or inducing the reparative processes. This review introduces a novel experimental hypothesis regarding the benefits that could be offered if EVs were to be combined with biocompatible injectable hydrogels. The rationale behind this hypothesis is presented, analyzing how a hydrogel might prolong the retention of EVs and maximize the localized benefit to the brain. This sustained delivery of EVs would be coupled with essential guidance cues and structural support from the hydrogel until neural tissue remodeling and regeneration occur. Finally, the importance of including non-human primate (NHP) models in the clinical translation pipeline, as well as the added benefit of multi-modal neuroimage analysis to establish non-invasive, in vivo, quantifiable imaging-based biomarkers for CNS repair are discussed, aiming for more effective and safe clinical translation of such regenerative therapies to humans.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0211.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Extracellular Vesicles (EVs); Exosomes; Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC); gradient Size Exclusion Chromatography (gSEC); Ion Exchange Chromatography; Hybrid Chromatography
Online: 14 October 2021 (10:23:28 CEST)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived membranous particles secreted by all cell types into the extracellular milieu. EVs carry, protect, and transport a wide array of bioactive cargoes to recipient/target cells. EVs regulate physiological and pathophysiological processes in recipient cells and are important in therapeutics/drug delivery. Despite these great attributes of EVs, an efficient protocol for EV separation from biofluids is lacking. Numerous techniques have been adapted for the separation of EVs with size exclusion chromatography (SEC)-based methods being the most promising. Here, we review the SEC protocols used for EV separation, and discuss opportunities for significant improvements, such as the development of novel particle purification liquid chromatography (PPLC) system capable of tandem purification and characterization of biological and synthetic particles with near-single vesicle resolution. Finally, we identify future perspectives and current issues to make PPLC a tool capable of providing a unified, automated, adaptable, yet simple and affordable particle separation resource.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0524.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Hsp70; sandwich ELISA; liquid biopsy; tumor biomarker; exosomes; prediction; response monitoring; non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC); glioblastoma
Online: 21 May 2021 (15:06:37 CEST)
In contrast to normal cells, tumor cells of multiple entities overexpress the Heat Shock Protein 70 (Hsp70) not only in the cytosol, but also present it on their plasma membrane in a tumor-specific manner. Furthermore, membrane-Hsp70 positive tumor cells actively release Hsp70 into lipid microvesicles termed exosomes into the blood. Due to conformational changes of Hsp70 in the lipid environment, most commercially available antibodies fail to detect membrane-bound and exosomal Hsp70. To fill this gap and to assess the role of exosomal Hsp70 in the circulation as a potential tumor biomarker, we established the novel complete Hsp70 (compHsp70) sandwich ELISA using two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that are able to recognize both, free and lipid-associated Hsp70 on the cell surface of viable tumor cells and exosomes. The epitopes of the mAbs cmHsp70.1 (aa 451-461) and cmHsp70.2 (aa 614-623) that are conserved among different species reside in the substrate-binding domain of Hsp70, with measured affinities of 0.42 nM and 0.44 nM, respectively. Validation of the compHsp70 ELISA revealed a high intra- and inter-assay precision, linearity in a concentration range of 1.56 to 25 ng/ml, high recovery rates of ‘spiked’ liposomal Hsp70 (>84%), comparable values between human serum and plasma samples, and no interference by food intake or age of the donors. Hsp70 concentrations in the circulation of patients with glioblastoma, squamous cell or adeno non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) at diagnosis were significantly higher than those of healthy volunteers. Hsp70 concentrations dropped concomitantly with the decrease in viable tumor mass on irradiation of patients with approximately 20 Gy (range 18 – 22.5 Gy) or after completion of radiotherapy (60 - 70 Gy). In summary, the compHsp70 ELISA presented herein provides a highly sensitive and reliable tool for measuring free and exosomal Hsp70 in liquid biopsies of tumor patients, levels of which can be used as a predictive tumor-specific biomarker, risk assessment and for monitoring therapeutic outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0494.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Latent membrane protein 1; Epstein-Barr virus; Herpesvirus; Proteomics; Mass spectrometry; interactions; signaling; extracellular vesicles; exosomes; CD63; Tetraspanin
Online: 22 February 2021 (16:27:27 CET)
Abstract Tetraspanin CD63 is a cluster of cell surface proteins with four transmembrane domains which associates with tetraspanin-enriched microdomains and typically localizes to late endosomes and lysosomes. CD63 plays an important role in cellular trafficking of different proteins, EV cargo sorting and vesicles formation. We have preciously shown that CD63 is important in LMP1 trafficking to EVs and this also affects LMP1 mediated intracellular signaling including MAPK/ERK, NF-κB and mTOR activation. Using the BioID combined with mass spectrometry, we sought to define the broad CD63 interactome and how LMP1 modulates this network of interacting proteins. We identified a total of 1600 total proteins as proximal interacting newtwork of proteins to CD63. Biological process enrichment analysis revealed significant involvement in signal transduction, cell communication, protein metabolism and transportation. The CD63 only interactome was enriched in Rab GTPases, SNARE proteins and sorting nexins while adding LMP1 into the interactome increased presence of signaling and ribosomal proteins. Our results showed that LMP1 alters the CD63 interactome, shifting the network of proteins enrichment from protein localization and vesicle mediated transportation to metabolic processes and translation. We also show that LMP1 interacts with mTor, Nedd4L and PP2A indicating formation of a multiprotein complex with CD63 thereby potentially regulating LMP1 dependent mTor signaling. Collectively, the comprehensive analysis of CD63 proximal interacting proteins provides insights into network of partners required for endocytic trafficking, extracellular vesicle cargo sorting, formation and secretion.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0167.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: extracellular vesicles; exosomes; microvesicles; apoptotic bodies; apoptotic extracellular vesicles; cell death; inflammation; sepsis; lung inflammatory disorders; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 9 September 2021 (10:31:49 CEST)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been identified as novel mediators of intercellular communication. They work via delivering the sequestered cargo to cells in close vicinity as well as distant sites in the body, regulating pathophysiological processes. Cell death and inflammation are biologically crucial processes in both normal physiology and pathology. These processes are indistinguishably linked with their effectors modulating the other process. For instance, during an unresolvable infection, the upregulation of specific immune mediators leads to inflammation causing cell death and tissue damage. EVs have gained considerable interest as mediators of both cell death and inflammation during conditions such as sepsis. This review summarizes the types of extracellular vesicles known to date and their roles in mediating immune responses leading to cell death and inflammation with specific focus on sepsis and lung inflammation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0069.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: extracellular vesicles (EVs); urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs); exosomes; biomarkers; liquid biopsy; cirrhosis; fibrosis; hepatocarcinoma (HCC); alcoholic liver disease (ALD).
Online: 1 February 2021 (18:15:22 CET)
(1) Background: Alcohol abuse has a high impact on the mortality and morbidity related to a great number of diseases and is responsible for the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). It remains challenging to detect and evaluate its severity, which is crucial for prognosis. In this work, we studied if urinary EVs (uEVs) could serve in diagnose and evaluate cirrhosis in ALD. (2) Methods: uEVs characterization by cryo-electron microscopy (Cryo-EM), Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) and Western blotting (WB) was performed in a cohort of 21 controls and 21 cirrhotic patients. Then, proteomics of urinary EVs (uEVs) was carried out in a second cohort of 6 controls and 8 patients in order to identify new putative biomarkers for cirrhosis in ALD. (3) Results: uEVs concentration, size and composition were altered in cirrhotic patients. A total of 1304 proteins were identified in uEVs, and 90 of them were found to be altered in cirrhotic patients. (4) Conclusions: uEVs could be considered as a tool and a supplier of new biomarkers for ALD, whose application would be especially relevant in chronic patients. Yet, further research is necessary to obtain more relevant result in clinical terms.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Colorectal Cancer Cells; Gastric Cancer Cells; Cholangiocarcinoma Cells; Hepatocarcinoma Cells; Exosomes; FZD 10 protein; FZD10-mRNA; FZD10-mRNA Silenced Cells; Cell Proliferation
Online: 9 July 2019 (14:19:22 CEST)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are involved in intercellular communication during carcinogenesis and cancer cells are able to secrete EVs, in particular exosomes containing molecules, that can be transferred to recipient cells to induce pathological processes and significant modifications, as metastasis, increase of proliferation and carcinogenesis evolution. FZD proteins, a family of receptors comprised in the Wnt signaling pathway, play an important role in carcinogenesis of gastroenteric tract. Here, a still unrecognized role of Frizzled 10 (FZD10) protein was identified. In particular, the presence of FZD10 and FZD10-mRNA in exosomes extracted from culture medium of the untreated colorectal, gastric, hepatic and cholangio cancer cell lines, was detected. A substantial reduction in the FZD10 and FZD10-mRNA level was achieved in FZD10-mRNA silenced cells and in their corresponding exosomes and, concomitantly a significant decrease in viability of the silenced cells compared to their respective controls was observed. Interestingly, the incubation of silenced cells with exosomes extracted from culture medium of the same untreated cells promoted a remarkable restoration of the cell viability and, also, of the FZD10 and FZD10-mRNA level, thus indicating that the FZD10 and FZD10-mRNA delivering exosomes may be potential messengers of cancer reactivation and play an active role in long-distance metastatization
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0316.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Cancer surgery; Cancer radiotherapy; Cancer immunotherapy; Cancer stroma; Cancer-associated fibroblasts; Carcinogenesis; Cancer resistance to immunotherapy; Exosomes; Hypoxia; Neutrophil extracellular traps; Sphingomyelin; Neutral sphingomyelinase; Tumor microenvironment; Tumor-associated macrophages
Online: 22 June 2022 (10:25:07 CEST)
The central reason behind emergence of clinically-detectable tumors is evasion from immune surveillance due to lack of cancer cells surface membrane expression of tumor-specific peptides in association with MHC class I molecules, concealment of natural killer cells-activating molecules, and absence of inflammation resulting from inefficient stimulation of innate immunity receptors and co-stimulatory molecules. The tumor microenvironment (TME) also contributes to tumor initiation, progression and resistance to therapeutic interventions because of its dense, fibrogenic, barrier-like composition, aberrant vasculature, and production of cytokines and chemokines responsible for recruitment of immune suppressive cells, notably myeloid-derived suppressor cells, M2 macrophages, regulatory T cells, extracellular trap-forming neutrophils, and cancer-associated fibroblasts. We herein show that the relentless efforts and strategies to overcome the TME elusive tumor-promoting impact produced contrasting, opposed, controversial effects, characterized by limited efficacy and proven adversity, and most importantly deterred from attempts to discover and counteract the fundamental inherent mechanisms initiating, and not consequent to, carcinogenesis.