Zanetti, C.; Gallina, A.; Fabbri, A.; Parisi, S.; Palermo, A.; Fecchi, K.; Boussadia, Z.; Carollo, M.; Falchi, M.; Pasquini, L.; Fiani, M.L.; Sargiacomo, M. Cell Propagation of Cholera Toxin CTA ADP-Ribosylating Factor by Exosome Mediated Transfer. Int. J. Mol. Sci.2018, 19, 1521.
Zanetti, C.; Gallina, A.; Fabbri, A.; Parisi, S.; Palermo, A.; Fecchi, K.; Boussadia, Z.; Carollo, M.; Falchi, M.; Pasquini, L.; Fiani, M.L.; Sargiacomo, M. Cell Propagation of Cholera Toxin CTA ADP-Ribosylating Factor by Exosome Mediated Transfer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1521.
Here we first report, how cholera toxin (CT) A subunit (CTA), the bacterial enzyme moiety responsible of cell signaling alteration, can take over the exosomal pathway, spread extracellularly and be transmitted in a cell population. A first evidence for long-term transmission of CT toxic effect via extracellular vesicles was obtained in CHO cells. To follow CT intracellular route towards exosome secretion we adopted a strategy apt to convert multivesicular body (MVB) derived exosomes in traceable fluorescent vectors. CT treated Me665 cells, a human melanoma cell line highly expressing caveolin-1 (Cav-1) and GM1, were used to purify and characterize fluorescent exosomes. Our results clearly show association of CT with exosomes together with typical exosomal markers and the HSP90 and PDI molecules, the required membrane translocation elements of CTA to the cytoplasm. Confocal microscopy proved direct CT containing fluorescent exo transfer into CHO cells coupled with the morphological cell change characteristic of CT action. Moreover, direct assessment of cAMP levels in Me665 cells treated with CT containing exo showed an efficient induction of cAMP increase comparable with CT alone. From our results, we can infer that CT can exploit exosome-mediated cell communication to target and extend its pathophysiological action throughout cell tissues.
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