Preprint Review Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Ancient Origin Properties of Natural Exosomes Contribute to Their Therapeutic Superiority Compared to Artificial Nanoparticles

Version 1 : Received: 14 June 2020 / Approved: 16 June 2020 / Online: 16 June 2020 (07:57:00 CEST)

How to cite: Askenase, P. Ancient Origin Properties of Natural Exosomes Contribute to Their Therapeutic Superiority Compared to Artificial Nanoparticles. Preprints 2020, 2020060200 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202006.0200.v1). Askenase, P. Ancient Origin Properties of Natural Exosomes Contribute to Their Therapeutic Superiority Compared to Artificial Nanoparticles. Preprints 2020, 2020060200 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202006.0200.v1).

Abstract

Extracellular vesicles (EV) such as exosomes, are newly recognized fundamental, natural and physiologic particles of life that seemingly are involved all biologic processes and clinical diseases. Due to their universal involvements, understanding the nature and the potential therapeutic uses of these nano-vesicles requires innovative experimental approaches, in virtually every field. Of the EV group, exosome nano-vesicles and larger companion extracellular micro vesicles (MV) can mediate completely new phenomena dependent on intercellular transfer of proteins and selected RNAs; particularly miRNAs, between donor and targeted cells to elicit epigenetic alterations inducing functional cellular changes. These recipient acceptor cells are nearby (paracrine transfers) or far away after distribution via the circulation (endocrine transfers). The major properties of such vesicles seem to have been conserved over eons, suggesting that they may have ancient evolutionary origins arising perhaps even before cells in the primordial soup from which life evolved. Their potential ancient evolutionary attributes may be responsible for the ability of some modern day exosomes to withstand unusually harsh conditions; perhaps due to unusual membrane lipid compositions. This is exemplified by maternal milk exosome survival of the neonatal acid/enzyme rich stomach. It is postulated that this also applies to their durable presence in phagolysosomes; suggesting unique intracellular release of contents. A major issue discussed is the generally poorly realized superiority of these naturally evolved nano vesicles to therapies compared human engineered artificial nanoparticles; say for treatment of cancers.

Subject Areas

exosomes; micro vesicles; extracellular vesicles; mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC); miRNA; cell therapy; artificial nano particles

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