Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Macrophage-Derived Small Exosomes: Efficient Transmission and Cytotoxicity to Cancer Cells

Version 1 : Received: 19 April 2021 / Approved: 19 April 2021 / Online: 19 April 2021 (11:50:52 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Lu, Y.; Eguchi, T.; Sogawa, C.; Taha, E.A.; Tran, M.T.; Nara, T.; Wei, P.; Fukuoka, S.; Miyawaki, T.; Okamoto, K. Exosome-Based Molecular Transfer Activity of Macrophage-Like Cells Involves Viability of Oral Carcinoma Cells: Size Exclusion Chromatography and Concentration Filter Method. Cells 2021, 10, 1328. Lu, Y.; Eguchi, T.; Sogawa, C.; Taha, E.A.; Tran, M.T.; Nara, T.; Wei, P.; Fukuoka, S.; Miyawaki, T.; Okamoto, K. Exosome-Based Molecular Transfer Activity of Macrophage-Like Cells Involves Viability of Oral Carcinoma Cells: Size Exclusion Chromatography and Concentration Filter Method. Cells 2021, 10, 1328.

Journal reference: Cells 2021, 10, 1328
DOI: 10.3390/cells10061328

Abstract

Tumor-associated macrophages are a key component in the tumor microenvironment, secreting extracellular vesicles (EVs) such as exosomes and other various factors for intercellular communication. However, macrophage-derived EVs heterogeneity and their cytotoxicity to cancer cells has not been well understood. Here, we aimed to separately isolate various types of macro-phage-EVs by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) method and investigate EV transmission and cytotoxicity to oral cancer cells. For fluorescence-labeling of cellular and EV membranes, palmitoylation signal-fused GFP and tdTomato were expressed in THP-1 monocytic cells and HSC-3 oral cancer cells, respectively. We found that fluorescence-labeled EVs secreted by macrophages were highly transmissive to oral cancer cells than those from parental monocytic cells. In a co-culture system and conditioned medium (CM), a macrophage-secreted unidentified factor was cytotoxic to oral cancer cells. We fractionated macrophage-derived EVs by the SEC method and performed western blotting to characterize various EV types. Three fractions were characterized: small exosomes (EXO-S: < 50 nm) fraction containing HSP90α, HSP90β, CD63 (EV marker) and β-actin; large exosomes (EXO-L: 50-200 nm) fraction containing CD9 (EV marker) and HSP90β; large EVs (100-500 nm) fraction. Notably, the macrophage-derived small exosomes fraction was cytotoxic to oral cancer cells, while large exosomes and large EVs were not. There-fore, it was implicated that macrophage-derived small exosomes are cytotoxic with high trans-mission potential to cancer cells.

Keywords

tumor-associated macrophage; exosomes; extracellular vesicles; heat shock proteins; oral cancer; fluorescent labeling of exosomes

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