ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0100.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: graphene; graphene oxide; mechanochemistry; solvent-free; one-step
Online: 9 October 2019 (10:39:18 CEST)
Graphene oxide was synthesized by a one-step environmentally friendly mechanochemistry process directly from graphite and characterized by Raman, FT-IR and UV/vis spectroscopies, Atomic Force Microscopy, X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Thermogravimetric Analysis. Spectroscopic analysis shows that the functional groups and oxygen content of the synthesized material are comparable with those of graphene oxide synthesized by other previously reported methods (Hummers). Thermogravimetric analysis reveals thermal stability up to 400 °C.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0657.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: graphene; graphene oxide; particle size; stability; standardization; surface chemistry; nanomaterials
Online: 26 March 2021 (11:22:26 CET)
Nanographene oxide (GOn) constitutes a nanomaterial of high value in the biomedical field. However, large scale production of highly stable aqueous dispersions of GOn is yet to be achieved. In this work, we explored high-power ultrasonication as a method to reduce particle size of GO and characterized the impact of the process in the physico-chemical properties of the material. GOn was obtained with lateral dimensions of 99 ±43 nm and surface charge of −39.9 ± 2.2 mV. High-power ultrasonication enabled an improvement of stability features, particularly by resulting in a decrease of the average particle size, as well as zeta potential, in comparison to GO obtained by low-power exfoliation and centrifugation (287 ± 139 nm; −29.7 ± 1.2 mV). Re-markably, GOn aqueous dispersions were stable for up to 6 months of shelf-time, with a global process yield of 74%. This novel method enabled the production of large volumes of highly con-centrated (7.5 mg mL-1) GOn aqueous dispersions. Chemical characterization of GOn allowed the identification of characteristic oxygen functional groups, supporting high-power ultrasonication as a fast, efficient and productive process for reducing GO lateral size, while maintaining the material’s chemical features.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0275.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: field emission; graphene; reduced graphene oxide; polymer composites; graphene ink; cold cathode; Fowler-Nordheim
Online: 24 December 2018 (11:31:38 CET)
Hydroiodic acid (HI) treated - reduced graphene oxide (rGO) ink/conductive polymeric composites are considered as promising cold cathodes in terms of high geometrical aspect ratio and low field emission (FE) threshold devices. In this study, four simple, cost-effective, solution-processed approaches for rGO-based field effect emitters were developed, optimized and compared; rGO layers were coated on a) n+ doped Si substrate, b) n+-Si/P3HT:rGO, c) n+-Si/PCDTBT:rGO and d) n+-Si/PCDTBT:PC71BM:rGO composites, respectively. The fabricated emitters were optimized by tailoring the concentration ratios of their preparation and field emission characteristics. In a critical composite ratio, FE performance was remarkably improved compared to the pristine Si, as well as n+-Si/rGO field emitter. In this context, the impact of various materials, such as polymers, fullerene derivatives, as well as different solvents on rGO function reinforcement and consequently on FE performance upon rGO-based composites preparation was investigated. The field emitter consisted of n+-Si/PCDTBT:PC71BM(80%):rGO(20%)/rGO displayed a field enhancement factor of ∼2850, with remarkable stability over 20h and low turn-on field in 0.6V/μm. High-efficiency graphene-based FE devices realization paves the way towards low-cost, large-scale electron sources development. Finally, the contribution of this hierarchical, composite film morphology was evaluated and discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0530.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: graphene; electronic transport; Raman
Online: 27 August 2021 (17:03:07 CEST)
We report morpho-structural properties and charge conduction mechanisms of a foamy “graphene sponge”, having a density as low as ≈ 0.07 kg/m3 and a carbon to oxygen ratio C:O ≃ 13:1. The spongy texture analysed by scanning electron microscopy is made of irregularly-shaped millimetres-sized small flakes, containing small crystallites with a typical size of ≃ 16.3 nm. A defect density as high as ≃ 2.6×1011 cm−2 has been estimated by the Raman intensity of D and G peaks, dominating the spectrum from room temperature down to ≃ 153 K. Despite the high C:O ratio, the graphene sponge exhibits an insulating electrical behavior, with a raise of the resistance value at ≃ 6 K up to 5 orders of magnitude with respect to the room temperature value. A variable range hopping (VRH) conduction, with a strong 2D character, dominates the charge carriers transport, from 300 K down to 20 K. At T< 20 K, graphene sponge resistance tends to saturate, suggesting a temperature-independent quantum tunnelling. The 2D-VRH conduction originates from structural disorder and is consistent with hopping of charge carriers between sp2 defects in the plane, where sp3 clusters related to oxygen functional groups act as potential barriers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0128.v1
Online: 9 February 2022 (09:48:46 CET)
Integrated photonic devices operating via optical nonlinearities offer a powerful solution for all-optical information processing, yielding processing speeds that are well beyond that of electronic processing as well as providing the added benefits of compact footprint, high stability, high scalability, and small power consumption. The increasing demand for high-performance nonlinear integrated photonic devices has facilitated the hybrid integration of novel materials to address the limitations of existing integrated photonic platforms, such as strong nonlinear optical absorption or an inadequate optical nonlinearity. Recently, graphene oxide (GO), with its large optical nonlinearity, high flexibility in altering its properties, and facile fabrication processes, has attracted significant attention, enabling many hybrid nonlinear integrated photonic devices with improved performance and novel capabilities. This paper reviews the applications of GO to nonlinear integrated photonics. First, an overview of GO’s optical properties and the fabrication technologies needed for its on-chip integration is provided. Next, the state-of-the-art GO nonlinear integrated photonic devices are reviewed, together with comparisons of the nonlinear optical performance of different integrated platforms incorporating GO. Finally, the challenges and perspectives of this field are discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0056.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Green synthesis; Plant extract; Reduced graphene oxide; Applications; Graphene oxide
Online: 2 November 2021 (22:50:53 CET)
Graphene is a remarkable material with numerous applications. Due to its thin and lightweight design, it is ideal for a variety of applications. The synthesis of high-quality graphene in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner continues to be a significant challenge. Chemical reduction is considered to be the most advantageous method for preparing reduced graphene oxide (rGO). However, this process necessitates the use of toxic and harmful substances, which can have a detrimental effect on the environment and human health. Thus, to accomplish the objective, the green synthesis principle has prompted researchers worldwide to develop a simple method for green reduction of graphene oxide (GO), which is readily accessible, sustainable, economical, renewable, and environmentally friendly in nature. For example, the use of natural materials such as plants is generally considered safe. Furthermore, plants contain reducing and capping agents. The current review will focus on the discovery and application of rGO synthesis using extracts from a variety of different parts of the plant. The review aims to aid current and future researchers in their search for a novel plant extract that acts as a reductant in the green synthesis of rGO. The review aims to assist current and future researchers in their research for a novel plant extract that acts as a reductant in the green synthesis of rGO as well as their potential applications in a variety of industries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0209.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Graphene oxide; Green synthesis; Reduced graphene oxide; Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyxes extracts
Online: 11 November 2021 (12:30:49 CET)
Owing to their extraordinary properties, carbon-based nanomaterials are gaining traction in biomedicine. Green synthesis is the cost-effective method for fabricating carbon-based nanomaterials due to its rapidity, renewable nature, and sustainability. This study emphasis on the graphene oxide (GO) reduction using a simple one-pot technique that does not require the use of toxic reducing agents. This article reports the green synthesis of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) using Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyxes extract as the natural reducing agent. Additionally, this article also provides analysis RGO using X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), and Raman spectroscopy. XRD result showed that the GO peak at 11o diminished, and a new hump appear at 22o indicating that the GO is fully reduced when it is refluxed for 6 hours, at 100oC with 1:3 ratio of GO:PE. The UV-Vis data indicated absorption peak of GO (237 nm) and RGO (265 nm) at distinct locations. This finding shed new light on the enormous potential of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyxes extract for green GO reduction. As a result, this environmentally friendly method can help reduce dependence on chemical materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0213.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: laser reduced graphene oxide, grid electrode, graphene oxide, linear sweep voltammetry, carbaryl, pesticides.
Online: 9 July 2021 (10:15:49 CEST)
Laser reduced graphene oxide (LRGO) on a PET substrate was prepared in one-step to obtain the LRGO grid electrode for sensitive carbaryl determination. The grid form results in a grid distribution of different electrochemically active zones affecting the electroactive substance diffusion towards to the electrode surface and increasing the electrochemical sensitivity for carbaryl determination. Carbaryl is electrochemically irreversibly oxidized by the secondary amine moiety of the molecule with the loss of one proton and one electron in the pH range from 5 to 7 by LSV on the LRGO grid electrode with a scan rate of 300 mV/s. Some interference of the juice matrix molecules did not significantly affect the LSV oxidation current of carbaryl on the LRGO grid electrode after adsorptive accumulation without applied potential. The LRGO grid electrode can be used for LSV determination of carbaryl in fruit juices in the concentration range from 0.25 to 128 mg/L with LOD of 0.1 mg/L by. The fabrication of the LRGO grid electrode opens up possibilities for further inexpensive monitoring of carbaryl in other fruit juices and fruits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0377.v1
Online: 19 October 2020 (11:45:17 CEST)
We theoretically investigate and optimize four-wave mixing (FWM) in silicon nitride (SiN) waveguides integrated with two-dimensional (2D) layered graphene oxide (GO) films. Based on extensive previous measurements of the material parameters of the GO films, we perform detailed analysis for the influence of device parameters including waveguide geometry, GO film thickness, length, and coating position on the FWM conversion efficiency (CE) and conversion bandwidth (CB). The influence of dispersion and photo-thermal changes in the GO films is also discussed. Owing to the strong mode overlap between the SiN waveguides and the highly nonlinear GO films, FWM in the hybrid waveguides can be significantly enhanced. We obtain good agreement with previous experimental results and show that by optimizing the device parameters to balance the trade-off between Kerr nonlinearity and loss, the FWM CE can be improved by as much as ~20.7 dB and the FWM CB can be increased by ~4.4 folds, relative to the uncoated waveguides. These results highlight the significantly enhanced FWM performance that can be achieved in SiN waveguides by integrating 2D layered GO films.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0647.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: graphene oxide; exfoliation; nanocomposites; encapsulation; stable latex
Online: 26 July 2020 (17:19:14 CEST)
The compatibility of graphene or graphene oxide with its dispersion medium (polymer) plays a critical role in the formation nanocomposite materials with significant property improvements. Environmentally friendly miniemulsion polymerization, which allows a formation of nanoencapsulation in an aqueous phase and high molecular weight polymer/composite production is one promising method. In this study, we screened a series of amphiphilic modifiers and found that the quaternary ammonium (ar-vinyl benzyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride (VBTAC) pending carbon double bonds could effectively modify the graphene oxide (GO) to be compatible with the organophilic monomer. After that, free radical miniemulsion polymerization could successfully synthesize stable latex of exfoliated poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/ GO nanocomposite. The final latex had an extended storage life and a relatively uniform particle size distribution. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of this latex and its films indicated successful encapsulation of exfoliated nano-dimensional graphene oxide inside a polymer matrix.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0291.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: 2D materials; integrated optics; photo-thermal changes; graphene oxide
Online: 21 June 2022 (08:06:34 CEST)
We experimentally investigate power-sensitive photo-thermal tuning (PTT) of two-dimensional (2D) graphene oxide (GO) films coated on integrated optical waveguides. We measure the light power thresholds for reversible and permanent GO reduction in silicon nitride (SiN) waveguides integrated with 1 and 2 layers of GO. Raman spectra at different positions of a hybrid waveguide with permanently reduced GO are characterized, verifying the inhomogeneous GO reduction along the direction of light propagation through the waveguide. The differences between the PTT induced by a continuous-wave laser and a pulsed laser are also compared, confirming that the PTT mainly depend on the average input power. These results reveal interesting features for 2D GO films coated on integrated optical waveguides, which are of fundamental importance for the control and engineering of GO’s properties in hybrid integrated photonic devices.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: Graphene oxide; 2D materials; flat optics; integrated photonics
Online: 21 September 2020 (04:23:31 CEST)
With superior optical properties, high flexibility in engineering its material properties, and strong capability for large-scale on-chip integration, graphene oxide (GO) is an attractive solution for on-chip integration of two-dimensional (2D) materials to implement functional integrated photonic devices capable of new features. Over the past decade, integrated GO photonics, representing an innovative merging of integrated photonic devices and thin GO films, has experienced significant development, leading to a surge in many applications covering almost every field of optical sciences. This paper reviews the recent advances in this emerging field, providing an overview of the optical properties of GO as well as methods for the on-chip integration of GO. The main achievements made in GO hybrid integrated photonic devices for diverse applications are summarized. The open challenges as well as the potential for future improvement are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0597.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: NiFe alloy; graphene oxide; glucose; non-enzymatic sensor
Online: 25 October 2018 (06:20:16 CEST)
NiFe alloy nanoparticles/graphene oxide hybrid (NiFe/GO) was prepared for electrochemical glucose sensing. The as-prepared NiFe/GO hybrid was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicated that NiFe alloy nanoparticles can be successfully deposited on GO. The electrochemical glucose sensing performance of the as-prepared NiFe/GO was studied by cyclic voltammetry and amperometric measurement. Results showed that NiFe/GO modified glassy carbon electrode had sensitivity of 173 μA mM−1cm−2 for glucose sensing with a linear range up to 5 mM, which was superior to commonly used Ni nanoparticles. Furthermore, high selectivity for glucose detection can be achieved by NiFe/GO. All the results demonstrated that NiFe/GO hybrid was promising for using in electrochemical glucose sensing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0140.v1
Online: 15 April 2022 (08:48:37 CEST)
In this work, thermo-responsive block copolymer brushes modified graphene oxide (GO) nanohybrid was fabricated successfully via the host-guest interaction between β-cyclodextrin functionalized GO and azobenzene-terminated PNIPAM-b-P(St-co-MQ). The block copolymer was synthesized using reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization based on the monomers of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM), 5-(2-methacryloyl-ethyloxymethyl) -8-quinolinol (MQ), styrene (St) and an azobenzene functional RAFT agent. The 8-hydroxyquinoline units containing in the block polymer can coordinate with CdSe/ZnS quantum dots(QDs) to form a CdSe/ZnS QDs-block copolymer brushes modified graphene oxide fluorescence nanohybrid (QDs/polymer/GO fluorescence nanohybrid) and the resulting fluorescence nanohybrid had a robust temperature responsive property which result from the change in the PNIPAM conformation in the block copolymer on the surface of GO.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0015.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: graphene oxide; porphyrin; nylon 66. coating, electrochemical techniques
Online: 5 September 2017 (05:12:26 CEST)
Electrochemical impedance (EI) measurements were performed to evaluate the nylon 66/-tetra-(para-aminophenyl) porphyrin (H2T(p-NH2)PP)/graphene oxide (GO) film coating on stainless steel and compared to the nylon/H2T(p-NH2)PP and nylon/GO film samples using 1M H2SO4 as electrolyte. The nylon/H2T(p-NH2)PP and nylon/GO composite films showed high electrochemical impedance in the order of 109 ohm-cm2 and a system controlled by mass transfer, product of a diffusion process at low frequencies with a resistance up to 5 orders of magnitude, indicating the diffusion of protons through the coating and a decrease in the metal dissolution. Otherwise, the nylon/H2T(p-NH2)PP/GO film compound evaluated show good ionic conductivity and electrochemical stability in the acid environment, acting porphyrin as a catalyst to the passage of protons through the film, reducing its electrochemical impedance up to 7 orders of magnitude with respect to the compounds nylon/H2T(p-NH2)PP and nylon/GO. Likewise, good capacitance values are also shown by modifying the concentrations of porphyrin and GO reinforcing materials. These properties are important for technological applications, such as anticorrosion coating for bipolar plates or membrane in a fuel cell type PEM, super-capacitors, etc.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0312.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: graphene oxide; nano composite; ruthenium oxide; supercapacitor; XRD; XPS
Online: 20 March 2020 (09:27:19 CET)
Graphene-oxide (G) was prepared by the Hummers’ method. A G-COOH layer was synthesised using chloroacetic acid and G. To fabricate carboxylated graphene-RuO2 (G-COORu) nano¬¬-composites, RuO2 nano particles were grown on graphene layers using a one-step thermal method, -COOH(G-COOH), and RuCl3. All materials were characterised using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance as well as X-ray photoelectron, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman. The electrochemical characteristics of the G-COORu supercapacitors were analysed using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, constant current charge–discharge tests, and Nyquist impedance plots. The supercapacitors exhibit a specific capacitance of ~125 F g-1 at 100 mA cm-2 within the potential range of 0–1.0 V. The method used here provides a simple approach for the deposition of RuO2 nano particles on graphene layers and can be widened to the fabrication of other classes of hybrids based on G layers for specific technical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0154.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: EOR; graphene oxide; CO2 foam; aquifer storage; mobility control
Online: 11 June 2018 (11:10:46 CEST)
Graphene oxide (GO), nanographene oxide (nGO) and partially reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have been studied as possible foam stabilizing agents for CO2 based enhanced oil recovery (EOR). GO was able to stabilize CO2/synthetic sea water foams. rGO was not able to stabilize foams likely due to the high reduction degree of the material. Particle size had a strong influence on foamability and stability. GO hydrophilicity increased as the particle size decreased and no foams were created when particle size was below 1 µm (nGO). GO brine dispersions showed immediate gel formation, which improved foam stability. Particle growth due to layer stacking was also observed. This mechanism was detrimental for foam formation and stabilization. nGO dispersed in synthetic sea water rapidly formed hydrogels and was not filterable. This work indicates that the particles studied are not suitable for CO2 EOR purposes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0237.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: graphene oxide; human keratinocytes; proliferation; gene expression; cytotoxicity
Online: 8 March 2021 (16:20:37 CET)
Few-layer graphene oxide (GO) has shown none or very weak cytotoxicity and anti-proliferative effects in a wide range of cell lines such as glyoma cells and human skin HaCaT cells, in concentrations up to 100 µg/mL However, multi-layer GO has been hardly explored in the biomedical field. Thus, multi-layer GO was examined here in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells treated with different concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 150 µg/mL during different periods of times (3, 12 and 24 hours). The results of this study showed a time-concentration dependence with two non-cytotoxic concentrations (0.01 and 0.05 µg/mL) and a median effective concentration value of 4.087 µg/mL at 24 hours of GO exposure. Contrary to what has been reported for few-layer GO, cell proliferation of the HaCaT cells in contact with the multi-layer GO at 0.01 μg/mL showed identical proliferative activity compared to an epidermal growth factor (1.6-fold greater than the control group) after 96 hours. The effects of the multi-layer GO on the expression of 13 genes (SOD1, CAT, MMP1, TGFB1, GPX1, FN1, HAS2, LAMB1, LUM, CDH1, COL4A1, FBN and VCAN) at the non-cytotoxic concentrations of GO in the HaCaT cells were analyzed after 24 hours. Thus, the lowest non-cytotoxic GO concentration was able to up-regulate the CAT, TGFB1, FN1 and CDH1 genes, which confirms the great potential of multi-layer GO in the biomedical field.
Online: 9 November 2020 (11:18:34 CET)
The Kerr nonlinear optical performance of silicon nanowire waveguides integrated with 2D layered graphene oxide (GO) films is theoretically studied and optimized based on experimentally measured linear and nonlinear optical parameters of the GO films. The strong mode overlap between the silicon nanowires and highly nonlinear GO films yields a significantly enhanced Kerr nonlinearity for the hybrid waveguides. A detailed analysis for the influence of waveguide geometry and GO film thickness on the propagation loss, nonlinear parameter, and nonlinear figure of merit (FOM) is performed. The results show that the effective nonlinear parameter and nonlinear FOM can be increased by up to ≈52 and ≈79 times relative to bare silicon nanowires, respectively. Self-phase modulation (SPM)-induced spectral broadening of optical pulses is used as a benchmark to evaluate the nonlinear performance, examining the trade-off between enhancing Kerr nonlinearity and minimizing loss. By optimizing the device parameters to balance this, a high spectral broadening factor of 27.6 can be achieved ‒ more than 6 times that achieved in previous experiments. Finally, the influence of pulse chirp, material anisotropy, and the interplay between saturable absorption and SPM is also discussed. These results provide useful guidance for optimizing the Kerr nonlinear optical performance of silicon waveguides integrated with 2D layered GO films.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0145.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: elastic; three-dimensional, liquid crystals; graphene sponge
Online: 16 January 2018 (17:03:06 CET)
Three-dimensional graphene (3DG) sponge has attracted increasing attention because it combines the unique properties of cellular materials and the excellent performance of graphene. The preparation of 3DG sponge depends mainly on the self-assembly of graphene oxide sheets. Here, we demonstrate facile fabrication of 3DG sponge with a large-scale and ordered porous structure, exploiting the liquid crystals of large graphene oxide (LGO) and ultralarge graphene oxide (ULGO) sheets. The resulting materials exhibit a low density, high porosity and elasticity. Our work explores a new strategy for organizing the ordered alignment of controlled large GO sheets and exploring the relationship between the microstructures and mechanical properties of 3DG sponge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0439.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Four-wave mixing; 2D materials; microring resonator; graphene oxide
Online: 19 May 2021 (10:21:01 CEST)
We theoretically investigate and optimize the performance of four-wave mixing (FWM) in microring resonators (MRRs) integrated with two-dimensional (2D) layered graphene oxide (GO) films. Owing to the interaction between the MRRs and the highly nonlinear GO films as well as to the resonant enhancement effect, the FWM efficiency in GO-coated MRRs can be significantly improved. Based on previous experiments, we perform detailed analysis for the influence of the GO film parameters and MRR coupling strength on the FWM conversion efficiency (CE) of the hybrid MRRs. By optimizing the device parameters to balance the trade-off between the Kerr nonlinearity and loss, we achieve a high CE enhancement of ~18.6 dB relative to the uncoated MRR, which is ~8.3 dB higher than previous experimental results. The influence of photo-thermal changes in the GO films as well as variations in the MRR parameters such as the ring radius and waveguide dispersion on the FWM performance is also discussed. These results highlight the significantly improved FWM performance that can be achieved in MRRs incorporating GO films
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: integrated waveguides; nonlinear optics; 2D; materials; silicon nanophotonics graphene
Online: 3 April 2020 (14:09:34 CEST)
Layered two-dimensional (2D) GO films are integrated with silicon-on-insulator (SOI) nanowire waveguides to experimentally demonstrate an enhanced Kerr nonlinearity, observed through self-phase modulation (SPM). The GO films are integrated with SOI nanowires using a large-area, transfer-free, layer-by-layer coating method that yields precise control of the film thickness. The film placement and coating length are controlled by opening windows in the silica cladding of the SOI nanowires. Owing to the strong mode overlap between the SOI nanowires and the highly nonlinear GO films, the Kerr nonlinearity of the hybrid waveguides is significantly enhanced. Detailed SPM measurements using picosecond optical pulses show significant spectral broadening enhancement for SOI nanowires coated with 2.2-mm-long films of 1−3 layers of GO, and 0.4-mm-long films with 5−20 layers of GO. By fitting the experimental results with theory, the dependence of GO’s n2 on layer number and pulse energy is obtained, showing interesting physical insights and trends of the layered GO films from 2D monolayers to quasi bulk-like behavior. Finally, we show that by coating SOI nanowires with GO films the effective nonlinear parameter of SOI nanowires is increased 16 fold, with the effective nonlinear figure of merit (FOM) increasing by about 20 times to FOM > 5. These results reveal the strong potential of using layered GO films to improve the Kerr nonlinear optical performance of silicon photonic devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0562.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: adsorption; graphene oxide; methylene blue; pharmaceuticals; kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamics
Online: 24 September 2020 (04:27:52 CEST)
The remarkable adsorption capacity of graphene derived materials has prompted their examination in composite materials suitable for deployment in treatment of contaminated waters. In this study, crosslinked calcium alginate – graphene oxide beads were prepared and activated by exposure to pH 4 by using 0.1M HCl. The activated beads were investigated as novel adsorbents for the removal of organic pollutants (Methylene Blue dye and the pharmaceuticals Famotidine and Diclofenac) with a range of physicochemical properties. Effects of initial pollutant concentration, temperature, pH and adsorbent dose were investigated and kinetic models were examined for fit to the data. Maximum adsorption capacities qmax obtained were 1334, 35.50 and 36.35 mg g-1 for the uptake of Methylene blue, Famotidine and Diclofenac respectively. The equilibrium adsorption had an alignment with Langmuir isotherms while the kinetics were most accurately modelled using a pseudo- first –order and second order models according to the regression analysis. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG◦, ΔH◦ and ΔS◦ were calculated and the adsorption process was determined to be exothermic and spontaneous.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: nonlinear optics; 2D films; graphene oxide; four wave mixing; nanowires
Online: 7 June 2020 (11:07:59 CEST)
Layered 2D graphene oxide (GO) films are integrated with silicon nitride (SiN) waveguides to experimentally demonstrate an enhanced Kerr nonlinearity via four-wave mixing (FWM). Owing to the strong light–matter interaction between the SiN waveguides and the highly nonlinear GO films, the FWM performance of the hybrid waveguides is significantly improved. SiN waveguides with both uniformly coated and patterned GO films are fabricated based on a transfer-free, layer-by-layer GO coating method together with standard photolithography and lift-off processes, yielding precise control of the film thickness, placement and coating length. Detailed FWM measurements are carried out for the fabricated devices with different numbers of GO layers and at different pump powers. By optimizing the trade-off between the nonlinearity and loss, we obtain a significant improvement in the FWM conversion efficiency of ≈7.3 dB for a uniformly coated device with 1 layer of GO and ≈9.1 dB for a patterned device with 5 layers of GO. We also obtain a significant increase in FWM bandwidth for the patterned devices. A detailed analysis of the influence of pattern length and position on the FWM performance is performed. Based on the FWM measurements, the dependence of GO’s third-order nonlinearity on layer number and pump power is also extracted, revealing interesting physical insights about the 2D layered GO films. Finally, we obtain an enhancement in the effective nonlinear parameter of the hybrid waveguides by over a factor of 100. These results verify the enhanced nonlinear optical performance of SiN waveguides achievable by incorporating 2D layered GO films.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0297.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Electrochemistry Keywords: silicon nanowire (SiNW), hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), reduced graphene oxide
Online: 17 September 2018 (10:09:06 CEST)
Silicon-based photoelectrochemical (PEC) conversion system has recently gained attention with its ability to provide cost-efficient and superior photoresponsive behavior in regard to other various semiconductor photoelectrodes. Carbon-based co-catalysts have always shared the spotlight for being rendered as alternative metal-free electrocatalysts intended for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). In particular, a representative carbon-derived material, reduced Graphene Oxide (rGO) has attracted much attention as a non-metal catalyst for efficient and durable HER. Herein, we have deposited rGO on silicon nanowire (SiNW) structure which shows the highest reduction in the overpotential for HER up to date. This could be attributed to the synergistic effects of rGO and SiNW with unique anisotropic morphology, facile tuning capabilities, and scalable fabrication methods. Combined with nanostructured photocathode, rGO deposited SiNW showed better applied bias photon to current conversion efficiency of 3.16%, which is 158 times higher than that of bare planar Si system. In regard to this development we believe that rGO-SiNW photoelectrodes would pave the way for state-of-the-art highly efficient non-metal catalysts for energy conversion technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0046.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: Nonlinear optics; integrated waveguides; self-phase modulation; graphene oxide
Online: 6 April 2022 (11:44:56 CEST)
We experimentally demonstrate enhanced self-phase modulation (SPM) in silicon nitride (Si3N4) waveguides integrated with 2D graphene oxide (GO) films. GO films are integrated onto Si3N4 waveguides using a solution-based, transfer-free coating method that enables precise control of the film thickness. Detailed SPM measurements are carried out using both picosecond and femtosecond optical pulses. Owing to the high Kerr nonlinearity of GO, the hybrid waveguides show significantly improved spectral broadening compared to the uncoated waveguide, achieving a broadening factor of up to ~3.4 for a device with 2 layers of GO. By fitting the experimental results with theory, we obtain an improvement in the waveguide nonlinear parameter by a factor of up to 18.4 and a Kerr coefficient (n2) of GO that is about 5 orders of magnitude higher than Si3N4. Finally, we provide a theoretical analysis for the influence of GO film length, coating position, and its saturable absorption on the SPM performance. These results verify the effectiveness of on-chip integrating 2D GO films to enhance the nonlinear optical performance of Si3N4 devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0482.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: cellulose; graphene oxide; polyaniline; aerogel electrode; supercapacitors
Online: 21 July 2020 (12:29:21 CEST)
The cellulose/GO networks as the scaffold of free-standing aerogel electrodes are developed by using lithium bromide aqueous solution as the solvent to ensure the complete dissolution of cotton linter pulp and well dispersion/reduction of GO nanosheets. PANI nanoclusters are then coated onto cellulose/GO networks via in-situ polymerization of aniline monomers. By optimized weight ratio of GO and PANI, the ternary cellulose/GO3.5/PANI aerogel film exhibits well-defined three-dimensional porous structures and high conductivity of 1.15 S/cm that contributes to its high areal specific capacitance of 1218 mF/cm2 at the current density of 1.0 mA/cm2. Utilizing this cellulose/GO3.5/PANI aerogel film as electrodes in a symmetric configuration supercapacitor can result in an outstanding energy density as high as 258.2 μWh/cm2 at a power density of 1201.4 μW/cm2. Moreover, the device can maintain nearly constant capacitance under different bending deformations, suggesting its promising applications in flexible electronics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0047.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Graphene oxide; Stem cells; Growth; Cell differentiation; Biomaterials
Online: 3 September 2018 (15:44:08 CEST)
Stem cells are undifferentiated cells which can give rise to any types of cells in our body. Hence, they have been utilized for various applications such as drug testing and disease modeling. However, for the successful of those applications, the survival and differentiation of stem cells into specialized lineages should be well controlled. Growth factors and chemical agents are the most common signals to promote the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. However, those approaches holds several drawbacks such as the negative side effects, degradation or denaturation, and expensive. To address such limitations, nanomaterials have been recently used as a better approach for controlling stem cells behaviors. Graphene oxide is the derivative of graphene, the first 2D materials in the world. Recently, due to its extraordinary properties and great biological effects on stem cells, many scientists around the world have utilized graphene oxide to enhance the differentiation potential of stem cells. In this mini review, we highlight the key advances about the effects of graphene oxide on controlling stem cell growth and various types of stem cell differentiation. We also discuss the possible molecular mechanisms of graphene oxide in controlling stem cell growth and differentiation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0312.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Geopolymer; Graphene oxide; Single fiber pullout; Bond-slip; Rate sensitive
Online: 24 February 2022 (10:46:46 CET)
In this study, the influence of graphene oxide nanoparticles on the bond-slip behavior of fiber and fly ash based geopolymer paste was examined. Geopolymer paste incorporating graphene oxide nanoparticles solution was cast in half briquetted specimens and embedded with a fiber. Three types of fibers were used: steel, polypropylene, and basalt. The pullout test was performed at two distinct speeds: 1 mm/second and 3 mm/second. Results showed that the addition of graphene oxide increased the compressive strength of geopolymer by about 7%. The bond-slip responses of fibers embedded in geopolymer mixed with graphene oxide exhibited higher peak stress and toughness as compared to those embedded in normal geopolymer. Each fiber type also showed different mode of failure. Both steel and polypropylene fibers showed full bond-slip responses due to their high ductility. Basalt fiber, on the other hand, because of its brittleness, failed by fiber fracture mode which showed no-slip in pull out responses. Both bond strength and toughness were found to be rate sensitive. The sensitivity was higher in graphene oxide/geopolymer than in conventional geopolymer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0300.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Sensing materials; CuO/rGO hybrid; graphene; QCM; gas sensor; room temperature sensing
Online: 20 January 2022 (11:10:36 CET)
Oxide semiconductors are conventionally being used as sensing materials in gas sensors, limiting the detection of gases at room temperature (RT). In this work, a hybrid of copper oxide (CuO) with functionalized graphene (rGO) is proposed to achieve gas sensing at RT. The combination of high surface area and presence of many functional groups in CuO/rGO hybrid material makes it highly sensitive for gas absorption and desorption. To prepare the hybrid material, a copper oxide suspension synthesized using copper acetate precursor is added to the graphene oxide solution during its reduction using ascorbic acid. Material properties of CuO/rGO hybrid and its drop-casted thin films are investigated using Raman, FTIR, SEM, TEM, and four-point probe measurement systems. We find that the hybrid material is enriched with oxygen functional groups (OFGs) and defective sites along with electrical conductivity (~1.5 kΩ/□). The fabricated QCM (quartz crystal microbalance) sensor with a thin layer of CuO/rGO hybrid, demonstrates a high sensing response which is twice the response of the rGO-based sensor for CO2 gas at RT. We believe that the CuO/rGO hybrid can be highly suitable for existing and future gas sensors used for domestic and industrial safety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0311.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Chitosan; Silver nanoparticles; Graphene oxide; Nanocomposites; Antibacterial property; Drug delivery
Online: 12 April 2021 (13:59:44 CEST)
In this work, we designed and fabricated a multifunctional nanocomposite system which consists of chitosan, raspberry-like silver nanoparticles and graphene oxide. Room temperature atmospheric pressure microplasma (RT-APM) process provides a rapid, facile, and environment-friendly method for introducing silver nanoparticles into the composite system. By loading different drugs onto the polymer matrix and/or graphene oxide, our composite can achieve a pH controlled dual drug release with release profile specific to the drugs used. In addition to its strong antibacterial ability against E. coli and S. aureus, our composite also demonstrates excellent photothermal conversion effect under irradiation of near infrared lasers. These unique functionalities point to it’s the potential of nanocomposite system in multiple applications areas such as multimodal therapeutics in healthcare, water treatment, and anti-microbial, etc.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0699.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Molecular Dynamics; Graphene oxide; Simultaneous Detection
Online: 27 April 2021 (10:07:51 CEST)
The selectivity in the simultaneous detection of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA) has been an open problem in the biosensing field. Many surface modification methods were carried out for glassy carbon electrodes (GCE), including the use of graphene oxide and amino acids as a selective layer. In this work, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to investigate the role of serine oligomers on the selectivity of the AA, DA, UA analytes. Our models consisted of a graphene oxide (GO) sheet under a solvent environment. Serine tetramers were added into the simulation box and were adsorbed on the GO surface. Then, the adsorption of each analyte on the mixed surface was monitored from MD trajectories. It was found that the adsorption of AA was preferred by serine oligomers due to the largest number of hydrogen-bond forming functional groups of AA, while UA was the least preferred due to its highest aromaticity. Finally, the role of hydrogen bonds on the electron transfer selectivity of biosensors was discussed with some previous studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0128.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: graphene oxide; polyaniline; nanocomposites; adsorbent; methylene blue; methyl orange
Online: 11 August 2016 (11:29:12 CEST)
The present investigation highlights the synthesis of polyaniline (PANI) coated graphene oxide doped with SrTiO3 nanocube nanocomposites through facile in-situ oxidative polymerization method for the efficient removal of carcinogenic dyes, namely, the cationic dye methylene blue (MB) and the anionic dye methyl orange (MO). The synthesised nanocomposites were characterised by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The adsorption efficiencies of graphene oxide (GO), PANI homopolymer and SrTiO3 nanocubes-doped nanocomposites were assessed by monitoring the adsorption of methylene blue and methyl orange dyes from aqueous solution. The adsorption efficiency of nanocomposites doped with SrTiO3 nanocubes were found to be of higher magnitude as compared with undoped nanocomposite. Moreover, the nanocomposite with 2 wt% SrTiO3 with respect to graphene oxide demonstrated excellent adsorption behaviour with 99% and 91% removal of MB and MO respectively, in a very short duration of time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0036.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: graphene oxide; porous structure; gold nanoparticles; indium tin oxide, neurotransmitters, dopamine, composites, electrochemical detection
Online: 6 April 2017 (16:49:26 CEST)
The detection of dopamine in a highly sensitive and selective manner is crucial for the early diagnosis of a number of neurological diseases/disorders. Here, a report on a new platform for the electrochemical detection of dopamine with a considerable accuracy that comprises a 3D porous graphene oxide (pGO)/gold nanoparticle (GNP)/pGO composite-modified indium tin oxide (ITO) is presented. The pGO was first synthesized and purified by ultrasonication and centrifugation, and it was then further functionalized on the surface of a GNP-immobilized ITO electrode. Remarkably, owing to the synergistic effects of the pGO and GNPs, the 3D pGO-GNP-pGO-modified ITO electrode showed a superior dopamine-detection performance compared with the other pGO- or GNP-modified ITO electrodes. The linear range of the newly developed sensing platform is from 0.1 μM to 30 μM with a limit of detection (LOD) of 1.28 μM, which is more precise than the other previously reported GO-functionalized electrodes. Moreover, the 3D pGO-GNP-pGO-modified ITO electrodes maintained their detection capability even in the presence of several interfering molecules (e.g., ascorbic acid, glucose). The proposed platform of the 3D pGO-GNP-pGO-modified ITO electrode could therefore serve as a competent candidate for the development of a dopamine-sensing platform that is potentially applicable for the early diagnosis of various neurological diseases/disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0386.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: anti-demineralization; antibacterial effect; white spot lesion; graphene oxide; bioactive glass
Online: 21 August 2018 (16:24:58 CEST)
White spot lesions (WSLs), a side effect of orthodontic treatment, can result in reversible and unaesthetic results. Graphene oxide (GO) with a bioactive glass (BAG) mixture(BAG@GO) was added to Low Viscosity Transbond XT(LV) in a ratio of 1, 3, 5%. The composite’s characterization and its physical and biological properties were verified with scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and X-ray diffraction(XRD); its microhardness, shear bond stress (SBS), cell viability, and adhesive remnant index (ARI) were also assessed. Efficiency in reducing WSL was evaluated using antibacterial activity of S. mutans. Anti-demineralization was analyzed using a cycle of the acid-base solution. Adhesives with 3 or 5 wt.% of BAG@GO showed significant increase in microhardness compared with LV. The sample and LV groups showed no significant differences in SBS or ARI. The cell viability test confirmed that none of the sample groups showed higher toxicity compared to the LV group. Antibacterial activity was higher in the 48-hour group than in the 24-hour group; the 48-hour test showed that BAG@GO had a high antibacterial effect, which was more pronounced in 5 wt.% of BAG@GO. Anti-demineralization effect was higher in the BAG@GO-group than in the LV-group; the higher the BAG@GO concentration, the higher the anti-demineralization effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0221.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: Nonlinear optics; silicon photonics; graphene oxide; femtosecond optical pulses; self-phase modulation
Online: 25 April 2022 (07:37:12 CEST)
We experimentally demonstrate enhanced spectral broadening of femtosecond optical pulses after propagation through silicon-on-insulator (SOI) nanowire waveguides integrated with two-dimensional (2D) graphene oxide (GO) films. Owing to the strong mode overlap between the SOI nanowires and the GO films with a high Kerr nonlinearity, the self-phase modulation (SPM) process in the hybrid waveguides is significantly enhanced, resulting in greatly improved spectral broadening of the femtosecond optical pulses. A solution-based, transfer-free coating method is used to integrate GO films onto the SOI nanowires with precise control of the film thickness. Detailed SPM measurements using femtosecond optical pulses are carried out, achieving a broadening factor of up to ~4.3 for a device with 0.4-mm-long, 2 layers of GO. By fitting the experimental results with theory, we obtain an improvement in the waveguide nonlinear parameter by a factor of ~3.5 and the effective nonlinear figure of merit (FOM) by a factor of ~3.8, relative to the uncoated waveguide. Finally, we discuss the influence of GO film length on the spectral broadening and compare the nonlinear optical performance of different integrated waveguides coated with GO films. These results confirm the improved nonlinear optical performance for silicon devices integrated with 2D GO films.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0138.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: natural rubber; GO-NH-MCM-41; graphene oxide; mesoporous; intumescent flame retardants
Online: 9 May 2018 (05:50:26 CEST)
Aiming to improve the flame retardancy performance of natural rubber (NR), we developed a novel flame retardant synergistic agent through grafting of MCM-41 to graphene oxide (GO)，named as GO-NH-MCM-41，as an assistant of intumescent flame retardants (IFR). The structure of GO-NH-MCM-41 was characterized by FTIR, TEM and SEM tests, which confirmed that a fine grafting had been applied between GO and MCM-41. The flame retardancy of NR/IFR/GO-NH-MCM-41 composites was evaluated by limited oxygen index (LOI), UL-94 and cone calorimeter test. The LOI value of NR/IFR/GO-NH-MCM-41 reached to 26.3%; the UL-94 ratings improved to V-0 rating. Moreover, the addition of GO-NH-MCM-41 obviously decreased the peak heat release rate (PHRR) and the total heat release (THR) of the natural rubber composites. And the addition of GO-NH-MCM-41 increased the thickness of char residue. The images of SEM indicated the char residue were more compact and continuous. The degradation of GO-NH-MCM-41 based NR composites completed with a mass loss of 35.57% at 600 ℃. The tensile strength and the elongation at break of NR/IFR/GO-NH-MCM-41 composites were 13.9 MPa and 496.7%, respectively. The results of rubber process analyzer (RPA) reached the maximum value, probably due to a better network of the fillers in the matrix.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0611.v1
Subject: Keywords: nonlinear optics; CMOS compatible photonic platforms; graphene oxide; Kerr nonlinearity; four-wave mixing
Online: 26 February 2021 (11:29:51 CET)
We report enhanced nonlinear optics in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible photonic platforms through the use of layered two-dimensional (2D) graphene oxide (GO) films. We integrate GO films with silicon-on-insulator nanowires (SOI), high index doped silica glass (Hydex) and silicon nitride (SiN) waveguides and ring resonators, to demonstrate an enhanced optical nonlinearity including Kerr nonlinearity and four-wave mixing (FWM). The GO films are integrated using a large-area, transfer-free, layer-by-layer method while the film placement and size are controlled by photolithography. In SOI nanowires we observe a dramatic enhancement in both the Kerr nonlinearity and nonlinear figure of merit (FOM) due to the highly nonlinear GO films. Self-phase modulation (SPM) measurements show significant spectral broadening enhancement for SOI nanowires coated with patterned films of GO. The dependence of GO’s Kerr nonlinearity on layer number and pulse energy shows trends of the layered GO films from 2D to quasi bulk-like behavior. The nonlinear parameter of GO coated SOI nanowires is increased 16 folds, with the nonlinear FOM increasing over 20 times to FOM > 5. We also observe an improved FWM efficiency in SiN waveguides integrated with 2D layered GO films. FWM measurements for samples with different numbers of GO layers and at different pump powers are performed, achieving up to ≈7.3 dB conversion efficiency (CE) enhancement for a uniformly coated device with 1 layer of GO and ≈9.1 dB for a patterned device with 5 layers of GO. These results reveal the strong potential of GO films to improve the nonlinear optics of silicon, Hydex and SiN photonic devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0027.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Brugada syndrome; peptide nucleic acid-PNA, porous silicon; graphene oxide; optical biosensor; hybrid device
Online: 2 November 2020 (11:12:24 CET)
Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) is a synthetic DNA mimic that outperforms the properties of traditional oligonucleotides (ONs). On account of its outstanding features, such as remarkable binding affinity towards complementary DNA or RNA as well as high thermal and chemical stability, PNA has been proposed as a valuable alternative to the ON probe in gene-sensor design. In this study, a hybrid transducer made-up of graphene oxide (GO) nano-sheets covalently grafted onto a porous silicon (PSi) matrix has been investigated for the early detection of a genetic cardiac disorder, the Brugada syndrome (BS). A functionalization strategy towards the realization of a potential PNA-based device is described. A peptide nucleic acid (PNA), able to detect the SCN5A associated with the BS has been properly synthesized and used as a bioprobe for the realization of a proof-of-concept label-free optical PNA-biosensor. PSi reflectance and GO photoluminescence (PL) signals were simultaneously exploited for the monitoring of the device functionalization and response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0093.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: reduced graphene oxide nanosheets; gold nanoparticles; composite materials; glucose oxidase; direct electron transfer
Online: 9 September 2019 (08:14:26 CEST)
Graphene-based composites have been widely explored for electrode and electrocatalyst materials for electrochemical energy systems. In this paper, a novel composite material of the reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (rGON) with gold nanoparticles (NPs) (rGON-AuNP) is synthesized, and its morphology, structure and composition are characterized by SEM, HRTEM, XRD, EDX, FTIR, Raman, and UV-Vis techniques. To confirm this material’s electrochemical activity, a glucose oxidase (GOD) is chosen as the target reagent to modify the rGON-AuNP layer to form GOD/rGON-AuNP/glassy carbon (GC) electrode. Two pairs of distinguishable redox peaks, corresponding to the redox processes of two different conformational GOD on AuNP, are observed on the cyclic voltammograms of GOD/rGON-AuNP/GC electrode. Both cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are employed to study the mechanism of direct electron transfer from GOD to GC electrode on the rGON-AuNP layer. In addition, this GOD/rGON-AuNP/GC electrode shows catalytic activity toward glucose oxidation reaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0543.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic & Molecular Physics Keywords: Density Functional Theory; AA, UA, and DA Detections; Graphene Oxide
Online: 22 March 2021 (15:39:07 CET)
The selectivity of electrochemical sensors to ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA) remains an open challenge in the field of biosensing. In this study, the selective mechanisms for detecting AA, DA, and UA molecules on the graphene and graphene oxide substrates were illustrated through the charge population analysis from the DFT calculation results. Our substrate models contained the 1:10 oxygen per carbon ratio of reduced graphene oxide, and the functionalized configurations were selected according to the formation energy. Geometry optimizations were performed for the adsorption of AA, DA, and UA on the pristine graphene, epoxy-functionalized graphene, and hydroxyl-functionalized graphene at the DFT level with vdW-DF2 corrections. From the calculations, AA was bound to both epoxy and hydroxyl-functionalized GO with relatively low adsorption energy, while DA was adsorbed stronger to the electronegative epoxy groups. The strongest adsorption of UA to both types of functional groups corresponded to the largest amount of electron transfer through the pi orbitals of UA. Local electron loss created local electric fields that opposed the electron transfer during an oxidation reaction. Our analysis agreed with the results from previous experimental studies and provide insight into other electrode modifications for electrochemical sensing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0128.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Carbon foam; multi walled carbon nanotubes; Graphene oxide; electrical; mechanical and thermal properties
Online: 5 August 2021 (08:36:50 CEST)
Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphene oxide (GO) reinforced carbon foam (CF) composite were prepared by direct pyrolysis of MWCNTs, GO and mesophase coal tar pitch. The effect of additive amount of the mixture of MWCNTs and GO on the microstruture and properties of carbon foam was analzyed by transmission electron miscroscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Four-probe resistance meter, universal testing machine, and laser thermal conductivity tester respectively. The result shows that MWCNTs and GO had significant impact on the microstructure of carbon foam. Futhermore, the electrical, mechanical and thermal properties of carbon foam composites were significantly enhanced by increasing the additive amount. Maximum compressive strenght of 19.2 MPa and Young’s modulus of 56.8 MPa of CF composite were observed. Similarly, Highest thermal conductivity of 30.91 W/m.K and electrical conductivity of 27.2 ×103 S/m were observed at 2 wt. % of MWCNTs-GO additive loading.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0037.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Antimicrobial nanomaterials; Carbon Nanotubes; Graphene; Magnetic Nanoparticles; hydrogel; Photodynamic Therapy; Photothermal Therapy; Nanocarrier
Online: 5 January 2022 (12:02:34 CET)
Microbial diseases have been declared one of the main threats to humanity, which is why, in recent years, great interest has been generated in the development of nanocomposites with antimicrobial capacity. In the present work, two magnetic nanocomposites, based on Graphene Oxide (GO) and Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) were studied. The synthesis of these magnetic nanocomposites consisted of three phases: first, the synthesis of Iron Magnetic Nanoparticles (MNPs) was carried out in the presence of MWCNTs and GO using the Co-precipitation method. The second phase consisted of the adsorption of photosensitizer menthol-Zinc phthalocyanine (ZnMintPc) into MWCNTs and GO, and the third phase was the encapsulation in poly (N-vinylcaprolactam-co-poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate)) poly (VCL-co-PEGDA) polymer VCL/PEGDA a biocompatible hydrogel, in order to obtain the magnetic nanocomposites: VCL/PEGDA-MNPs-MWCNTs-ZnMintPc and VCL/PEGDA-MNPs-GO-ZnMintPc. In vitro studies were carried out using Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria and the Candida albicans yeast based on the PTT/PDT effect. This research describes the optical, morphological, magnetic and photophysical characterizations of nanocomposites and their application as antimicrobial agents. It was evaluated the antimicrobial effect of magnetics nanocomposites based on the Photodynamic/Photothermal (PDT/PTT) effect; for this purpose, doses of 65 mW cm-2 at 630 nm of light were used. The VCL/PEGDA-MNPs-GO-ZnMintPc nanocomposite was able to eliminate colonies of E. coli and S. aureus, while VCL/PEGDA-MNPs-MWCNTs-ZnMintPc nanocomposite was able to eliminate the three types of microorganisms; consequently, the latter is considered a broad-spectrum of antimicrobial agent in PDT and PTT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0786.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Smart textile piezoelectric; Graphene oxide; Polyvinylidene fluoride; energy harvesting; self-powered sensors
Online: 31 March 2021 (17:34:18 CEST)
Because of some of their diverse benefits, intelligent textiles have attracted a great deal of interest among specialists over the past decade. This paper describes a novel approach to the manufacture of intelligent piezoelectric polymer-based textiles with enhanced piezoelectric responses for applications that extract biomechanical energy. Here we report a highly scalable and ultrafast production of smart textile piezoelectric containing graphene oxide nanosheets (GONS) dispersed in polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). In this work, Cotton textiles (CT) were functionalized and by graphene oxide (GO), using PVDF as a binder to obtain a CT-PVDF-GO material. Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) was further grafted as a coating layer to improve the surface compatibility, resulting in the CT-PVDF-GO-TEOS composite. The research results show that the addition of GONS significantly improves PVDF's overall crystallization rate on CT. More specifically, the piezoelectric β-phase content (100 % higher F[β]) and crystallinity degree on the piezoelectric properties of composite cotton fiber has been improved effectively. Consequently, this fabricated piezo-smart textile has a glorious piezoelectricity even with comparatively low coating content of PVDF-GONS-TEOS. Based on it, the as-fabricated piezoelectric textile device has resulted in the output voltage of up to 13 mV for a given frequency (fm = 8 Hz) at fixed strain amplitude value (0.5 %). It is believed that this research may further reveal the field of energy harvesting for possible applications in the future.. In addition, the set of experimental results that illustrate the smart textile was carried out and discussed, and how it can be used as a wearable device source for this smart textile. Finally, the approach described in this study can also be used to construct other desirable designs, for a wearable low-consumption sensor, etc.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0411.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: lithium-ion battery; silicon nanoparticles; nitrogen-doped graphene; carbon nanofibers; anode material
Online: 15 June 2021 (14:48:47 CEST)
We report a self-assembly synthesis of silicon nanoparticles/nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide/ carbon nanofiber (Si@N-doped rGO/CNF) composites as potential high-performance anodes for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIB) through the electrostatic attraction between amino and carboxyl groups. Nitrogen atoms generate a large number of vacancies or defects on the graphite plane, providing additional transmission channels for the diffusion of lithium ions, and improving the conductivity of the electrode. Carbon nanofiber (CNF) can help maintain the stability of the electrode structure and prevent silicon nanoparticles from falling off the electrode, prevent silicon nanoparticles from being directly exposed to the electrolyte, and can form a stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film. The three-dimensional conductive structure composed of Si, nitrogen atom-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-doped rGO), and CNF can effectively buffer the volume changes of silicon nanoparticles, shorten the transmission distance of lithium ions (Li+) and electrons, and make the electrode have good conductivity and stability in mechanical properties. In addition, compared with the Si@N-doped rGO and Si/rGO/CNF composite electrode, the Si@N-doped rGO/CNF composite electrode shows good cycle performance and rate capability, and its reversible specific capacity can reach 1418.8 mAh/g. The capacity retention rate is 64.7%, and the coulomb efficiency is 95%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0631.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: E. coli O157:H7; IgG; nonspecific binding; reduced graphene oxide; linear sweep voltammetry; electrical impedance spectroscopy
Online: 26 October 2018 (12:02:15 CEST)
Immunosensors have been widely developed to use antibodies to detect a pathogen of interest; it is interesting to look at the effect of nonspecific antibody binding to E. coli using electrochemical methods. IgG antibody not specific to E. coli O157:H7 was crosslinked onto a screen-printed carbon electrode. The presence of E. coli at 4, 4 × 102, 4 × 105, and 4 × 108 CFU/mL on the electrode surface was detected via linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Current transfer at both electrodes was reduced as the concentration of bacteria increased; however, the calibration of number of cells to decreased current was nonlinear for IgG-modified electrodes. The nonlinearity is confirmed by EIS measurements which showed highest impedance at 4 CFU/mL E. coli when impedance should be the lowest. FESEM images showed higher binding of cells when IgG is present compared to electrodes with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) alone. Electrodes with rGO alone show less attachment of E. coli, with EIS showing a linear calibration profile, while LSV shows not much difference in current values for all concentrations aside from the highest concentration. These results suggest that nonspecific binding can provide false signals in electrochemical measurements, and it is crucial to provide proper controls.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0034.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: graphene; graphene derivative; biosensor; detection; biomarker
Online: 4 December 2019 (03:00:03 CET)
The development of biosensors with high sensitivity and low-detection limits provides a new direction for medical and personal care. Graphene and graphene derivatives have been used to prepare various types of biosensors due to their excellent sensing performance (e.g. high specific surface area, extraordinary electronic properties, electron transport capabilities and ultrahigh flexibility). This perspective review focuses on graphene-based biosensors for quantitative detection of cancer related biomarkers such as DNA, miRNA, small molecules and proteins by integrating with different signal outputting approaches including fluorescent, electrochemistry, surface plasmon resonance, surface enhanced Raman scattering etc. The article also discussed their challenges and potential solutions along with future prospects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0437.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: graphene; polystyrene; 3D graphene sponges; electrochemistry
Online: 19 November 2018 (09:39:17 CET)
Polystyrene as a thin film on arbitrary substrates or pellets form defective graphene films or powders that can be dispersed in water and organic solvents. The materials were characterized by visible absorption, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron and atomic force microscopy and electrochemistry. Raman spectra of these materials show the presence of the expected 2D, G and D peaks at 2750, 1590 and 1350 cm-1, respectively. The relative intensity of the G vs. the D peak is taken as a quantitative indicator of the density of defects in the G layer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0119.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: phototherapy; cancer; graphene oxide; reduced graphene oxide; graphene quantum dots; carbon dots
Online: 26 November 2021 (11:10:10 CET)
Within phototherapy, a grand challenge in clinical cancer treatments is to develop a simple, cost-effective, and biocompatible approach to treat this disease using ultra-low doses of light. Carbon-based materials (CBM), such as graphene oxide (GO), reduced GO (r-GO), graphene quantum dots (GQDs), and carbon dots (C-DOTs), are rapidly emerging as a new class of thera-peutic materials against cancer. This mini-review summarizes the progress in lasts years re-garding the applications of CBM in photodynamic (PDT) and photothermal (PTT) therapies for tumor destruction. The current understanding of the performance of modified CBM, hybrids and composites, is also addressed. This approach seeks to achieve an enhanced healing action by im-proving and modulating the properties of CBM to treat various types of cancer. Metal oxides, organic molecules, biopolymers, therapeutic drugs, among others, have been combined with CBM to treat cancer by PDT, PTT, or synergistic therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0062.v1
Online: 5 March 2019 (12:13:00 CET)
In our publication from 8 years ago1 we calculated RKKY interaction between two magnetic impurities in graphene. The consideration was based on the perturbation theory for the thermodynamic potential in the imaginary time representation and direct evaluation of real space spin susceptibility. Only the case of zero temperature was considered. We show in this short notice that the approach can be easily generalized to the case of finite temperature.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0409.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: additive manufacturing; graphene oxide; graphene-based paste; direct ink writing; ceramic nanocomposites
Online: 23 April 2020 (10:09:23 CEST)
In the present work, the state of the art of the most common additive manufacturing (AM) technologies used for the manufacturing of complex shape structures of graphene-based ceramic nanocomposites, ceramic and graphene-based parts is explained. A brief overview of the AM processes for ceramic, which are grouped by the type of feedstock used in each technology, is presented. The main technical factors that affect the quality of the final product were reviewed. The AM processes used for 3D printing of graphene-based materials are described in more detail; moreover, some studies in a wide range of applications related to these AM techniques are cited. Furthermore, different feedstock formulations and their corresponding rheological behaviour were explained. Additionally, the most important works about the fabrication of composites using graphene-based ceramic pastes by Direct Ink Writing (DIW) are disclosed in detail and illustrated with representative examples. Various examples of the most relevant approaches for the manufacturing of graphene-based ceramic nanocomposites by DIW are provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0085.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: few-layer graphene; structural defects; self-propagating high-temperature synthesis; Stone-Wales defects; graphene nanostructures, carbon nanotubes, reduced graphene oxide.
Online: 6 January 2022 (12:07:39 CET)
A quantitative method is proposed to determine of Stone-Wales defects for carbon nanostructures with sp2 hybridization of carbon atoms. The technique is based on the diene synthesis reaction (Diels-Alder reaction). The proposed method was used to determine Stone-Wales defects in the few-layer graphene (FLG) nanostructures synthesized by the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) process, in reduced graphene oxide (rGO) synthesized based on the method of Hammers and in the single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) TUBAL trademark, Russia. Our research has shown that the structure of FLG is free of Stone-Wales defects, while the surface concentration of Stone-Wales defects in TUBAL carbon nanotubes is 1.1×10-5 mol/m2 and 3.6×10-5 mol/m2 for rGO.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0626.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: crumpling transition; graphene; graphene-based polymers; crumples; parallel tempering; Monte Carlo; statistical mechanics
Online: 26 October 2018 (10:48:07 CEST)
We numerically study surface models defined on hexagonal disks with a free boundary. 2D surface models for planer surfaces have recently attracted interest due to the engineering applications of functional materials such as graphene and its composite with polymers. These 2D composite meta-materials are strongly influenced by external stimuli such as thermal fluctuations if they are sufficiently thin. For this reason, it is very interesting to study the shape stability/instability of thin 2D materials against thermal fluctuations. In this paper, we study three types of surface models including Landau-Ginzburg (LG) and Helfirch-Polyakov models defined on triangulated hexagonal disks using the parallel tempering Monte Carlo simulation technique. We find that the planer surfaces undergo a first-order transition between the smooth and crumpled phases in the LG model and continuous transitions in the other two models. The first-order transition is relatively weaker compared to the transition on spherical surfaces already reported. The continuous nature of the transition is consistent with the reported results, although the transitions are stronger than that of the reported ones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0430.v1
Online: 28 October 2021 (10:06:28 CEST)
Dynamic phase modulation is vital for tunable focusing, beaming, polarization conversion and holography. However, it remains challenging to achieve full 360∘ dynamic phase modulation while maintaining high reflectance or transmittance based on metamaterials or metasurfaces in the terahertz regime. Here we propose a doubly resonant graphene-metal hybrid metasurface to address this challenge. Simulation results show that by varying the graphene Fermi energy, the proposed metasurface with two shifting resonances is capable to provide dynamic phase modulation covering a range of 361∘ while maintaining relatively high reflectance above 20% at 1.05 THz. Based on the phase profile design, dynamically tunable beam steering and focusing are numerically demonstrated. We expect this work will advance the engineering of graphene metasurfaces for the dynamic manipulation of terahertz waves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0427.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: graphene nanoribbon; defects; absorption spectra
Online: 28 October 2021 (09:49:38 CEST)
We explore the implementation of specific optical properties of armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) through edge-defect manipulation. This technique employs the tight-binding model in conjunction with the calculated absorption spectral function. Modification of the edge states gives rise to the diverse electronic structures with striking changes in the band gap and special flat bands at low energy. The optical-absorption spectra exhibit exotic excitation peaks and they strongly depend on the type and period of the edge extension. Remarkably, there exist the unusual transition channels associated with the flat bands for selected edge-modified systems. We discover the special rule governing how the edge-defect influences the electronic and optical properties in AGNRs. Our theoretical prediction demonstrates an efficient way to manipulate the optical properties of AGNRs. This might be of importance in the search for suitable materials designed to have possible technology applications in nano-optical, plasmonic and optoelectronic devices.
Online: 5 September 2020 (03:57:06 CEST)
Graphene as a new two-dimensional material can be utilized to design tunable optical devices owing to its exceptional physical properties such as high mobility and tunable conductivity. In this paper, we present the design and analysis of a tunable broadband terahertz absorber based on periodic graphene ring arrays. Due to plasmon hybridization modes excited in the graphene ring, the proposed structure achieves a broad absorption bandwidth with more than 90% absorption in the frequency range of 0.88-2.10THz under normal incidence and its relative absorption bandwidth is about 81.88%. Meanwhile, it exhibits polarization-insensitive behavior and maintains high absorption over 80% when incident angle is up to 45º for both TE and TM polarizations. Additionally, the peak absorption rate of the absorber can be tuned from 21% to nearly 100% by increasing the graphene’s chemical potential from 0eV to 0.9eV. Such a design can have some potential applications in various terahertz devices, such as modulators, detectors, spatial filters.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0204.v1
Online: 17 November 2019 (13:28:21 CET)
Developing sustainable and renewable energy sources is critical as higher and higher global energy and environmental challenges arise. Hydrogen has the highest mass/energy density of any fuel and is considered one of the best sources of clean energy. Water splitting is regarded as one of the most promising solutions for hydrogen production on a large scale. Highly efficient, durable and cost-effective catalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) are critical in the realization of this goal. Among many materials proposed, graphene-based materials offer some unique properties for HER catalysis. In this review, we present recent progress on development of graphene-based electrocatalysts toward HER throughout the past few years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0217.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: graphene; chemical vapor deposition; nanomaterials
Online: 30 May 2017 (09:50:07 CEST)
We report the growth of graphene at a low temperature using the cold wall chemical vapor deposition technique (CWCVD). Few layered (~6-8 layers) graphene were grown on nickel-coated silicon with acetylene as the precursor gas. The advantage of the combination of the acetylene (as a carbon feedstock) and the nickel catalyst was the lowering of the graphene growth temperature. Nickel coated silicon samples were pre-treated (heat treatment in inert atmosphere) before the growth and the effect of the pre-treatment on the catalyst as well as on the grown film was studied. The final samples were characterized with scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. In CWCVD route, the heating of only the substrate holder enabled high heating and cooling rates, which, along with the control over partial pressure of the precursor gas had profound effect on the formation of graphene. In the best sample we have achieved almost equal intensity of the G and 2D peaks in Raman spectrum, which implied about ~6-8 layers of Graphene. The defect peak (the D band) was extremely small in the sample and it was attributed to the ripples and the underlying roughness of the nickel film. We analyzed that a proper choice of the thickness of catalyst layer and a higher cooling rate after graphene growth it would be possible to obtain monolayered graphene. Similar samples grown in a normal atmospheric CVD (with some engineered design to promote fast cooling) were also compared with the cold wall CVD grown samples and plasma assisted CWCVD, and cold-wall CVD demonstrated a better control over the quality of graphene film through the fast cooling and a controlled partial pressure of the precursor gas.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0647.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: graphene; diamond; nanodiamond; diamane; graphene-diamond nanomaterials; all carbon materials; electrochemistry; mechanochemistry; sensor; supercapacitor; field-effect transistor; detector; superlubrication; tribology; graphene-diamond phase transformation
Online: 29 July 2021 (10:46:30 CEST)
Carbon nanomaterials with a different character of the chemical bond – graphene (sp2) and nanodiamond (sp3) are the building bricks for a new class of all-carbon hybrid nanomaterials, where the two different carbon networks with the sp3 and sp2 hybridization coexist, interact and even transform into one another. The unique electronic, mechanical, and chemical properties of the two border nanoallotropes of carbon ensure the immense application potential and versatility of these all-carbon graphene – diamond nanomaterials. The review gives an overview of the current state of the art of graphene – diamond nanomaterials, including their composites, heterojunctions, and other hybrids for sensing, electronic, energy storage, and other applications. Also, the graphene-to-diamond and diamond-to-graphene transformations at the nanoscale, essential for innovative fabrication, and stability and chemical reactivity assessment are discussed based on extensive theoretical, computational, and experimental studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0128.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: keyword Iridium; Graphene; Nanostructure; Heterogeneous; Heterocyclic
Online: 8 November 2021 (11:52:04 CET)
A facile iridium/graphene-catalyzed methodology providing an efficient synthetic route for C-N bond formation is reported. This catalyst can directly promote the formation of C-N bonds, without pre-activation steps, and without solvents, alkalis and other additives. This protocol provides a direct N -alkylation of amines using a variety of primary and secondary alcohols with good selectivity and excellent yields. Charmingly, the use of diols resulted in intermolecular cyclization of amines, and such products are privileged structures in biologically active compounds. Two examples illustrate the advantages of this catalyst in organic synthesis: the tandem catalysis to synthesize hydroxyine, and the intermolecular cyclyzation to synthesize cyclizine. Water is the only by-product, which makes this catalytic process sustainable and environmentally friendly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0656.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Silicene; Graphene; DNA; hybridization; Biosensor; ISFETs
Online: 26 March 2021 (10:58:26 CET)
Two-dimensional silicon allotrodes– also called Sinicene– have recently experienced intensive scientific research interest due to their unique electrical, mechanical, and sensing characteristics. A novel silicene based nano-material has been enticed great amenities, partially because of its uniformity with graphene. Silicene is a highly sensitive for numerous sensors based on molecular sensing as pH sensor, gas sensor, ion sensor and biosensing are Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) nucleobase sensor, photonic sensor, cell-based biosensor, glucose sensor, and bioelectric nose sensor. Nowadays genetic research based on DNA hybridization, which is a vital tools for sensing material and it has various detection methods. Among of them, the detection method is frequency readout used to a label-free detection of DNA hybridization. In this paper we have compared the graphene and silicene quantum capacitance that has been proposed for a DNA hybridization detection method on wireless readout. These method shows, the strands of mismatched and complementary DNA have in different range of frequency to identify output efficiency. With respect to DNA concentration the output of silicene is almost sharply linear than graphene. In addition of field effect transistor, silicene opens a new opportunities due to its band gap whereas graphene indicates zero band gap. It can be stated that silicene is much more reliable as well as much stronger than multi-layered graphene.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0201.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: thermoplastic vulcanizates; graphene; butyl rubber; polypropylene
Online: 8 February 2021 (12:14:41 CET)
In order to obtain higher thermoelectric and mechanical properties in non-polar thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs), the Butyl rubber/Polypropylene (TPVs)/hydroxylated graphene (HGE) composites with nanosheet network were prepared through masterbatch technique and based on thermodynamic calculations, using polypropylene-graft-maleic anhydride (PP-MA) as a compatibilizer. The FTIR and Raman spectra revealed the introduced maleic anhydride group on PP-MA can form strong interfacial interaction with hydroxyl-containing functional groups on HGE. Morphology study indicated the rubber particles in the composites occupied the most volume of the PP phase, as expected to hinder the aggregation of HGE and form the effective nanosheet network. The nanosheet network can be combined with the IIR cross-linked particles during the dynamic vulcanization process to improve the interface bonding between PP and IIR, thus increasing the tensile strength of TPVs. When the content of HGE reached the percolation threshold (2 wt.%), the nanosheet network of HGE was formed, and the AC conductivity, dielectric permittivity and thermal conductivity increased sharply. The prepared TPVs/HGE nanocomposites have significantly improved in mechanical properties, thermal properties and dielectric properties, which provides a guarantee for their potential application as multifunctional TPVs polymers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0325.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Carbon; Crystal structure; Graphene; Graphite; Nanoplatelet.
Online: 14 August 2020 (11:58:53 CEST)
Graphite nanoplatelets (GNPs) were produced from flake graphite that had been immersed in isopropyl alcohol solution (70%) and converted to powder form in an ultrasonic bath (5 h, room temperature). Scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and Raman spectroscopy identified 120-nm-thick GNP crystallites and 0.5–21 µm plates with different areas and shapes. Extensive exfoliation was observed by transmission electron microscopy with abundant multilayer and some monolayer GNPs. X-ray diffractometry confirmed 43 GNP layers along the c-axis. Raman spectroscopy indicated well-defined GNPs with few defects and no oxide content. Rietveld analysis indicated a GNP crystal lattice with stacks of parallel two-dimensional graphene layers and tightly bound hybridized carbon atoms stacked in a translational …ABAB… sequence in hexagonal rings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0129.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Graphene; Nanocomposite; photocatalyst; water splitting; hydrogen
Online: 10 February 2020 (15:20:21 CET)
The present study focuses on the synthesis, characterization, and investigation of a p-n heterojunction photocatalysis. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) can’t alone induce the photocatalytic water splitting due to its wide bandgap, which decreases its catalytic activity in the visible light. To make redshift of absorptivity for the TiO2, Nickel (Ni)-doped Graphene (rGO) supported TiO2 was synthesized. Several characterization techniques have been employed to validate the composition and the light absorption ability of the prepared photocatalysts including TEM, SEM, EDS, XRD, XPS, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The characterization revealed successful doping of the Ni and TiO2 on the rGO nanosheet. Moreover, the UV-Vis spectroscopy indicated a significant shift of light absorption toward the visible spectrum. The photon-induced evolution of H2 was remarkably enhanced using the prepared Ni-rGO/TiO2 nanocomposite. Furthermore, the optimum ratio of rGO: TiO2: Ni in the hybrids was 10:1:4, while the higher Ni ratio would decrease the photocatalytic activity. The stability of the photocatalyst was also verified during 8 cycles of photocatalytic reactions. The kinetic study revealed the nature of the integrated reaction and the controlling step governing the reaction sequence. .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0156.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: nanocomposite; melting; freezing; graphene; thermal conductivity
Online: 16 January 2019 (08:33:16 CET)
In the present work freezing and melting characteristics of water seeded with chemically functionalized graphene nano-platelets in a vertical cylindrical capsule was experimentally studied. The volume percentage of functionalized graphene nano-platelets was varied from 0.1% to 0.5% with an interval of 0.1%. The stability of the synthesised samples were carried out by zeta potential distribution. The thermal conductivity of the nanocomposite samples were experimentally measured using transient hot wire method. A maximum enhancement of ~24% in the thermal conductivity was observed for the 0.5% volume percentage in the liquid state while a ~53% enhancement in the solid state. Freezing and melting behaviour of water dispersed with graphene nanoplatelets were carried out using a cylindrical stainless steel capsule in a constant temperature bath. The bath temperatures considered for studying freezing characteristics were considered to be −6 °C and −10 °C, while to study the melting characteristics the bath temperature was set as 31 °C and 36 °C. The freezing and melting time decreased for all the test conditions when the volume percentage of GnP increased. The freezing rate was enhanced by ~ 43% and ~32% for the bath temperatures of −6 °C and −10 °C respectively at 0.5 vol % of graphene loading. The melting rate was enhanced by ~42% and ~63% for the bath temperature of 31 °C and 36 °C respectively at 0.5 vol % of graphene loading.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0410.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: biosensors; lipid membranes; potentiometry, graphene electrodes
Online: 28 May 2018 (13:38:53 CEST)
This review provides informations and details for the fabrication of biosensors that are composed from lipid membranes and have been utilized and applied to rapidly detect food toxic compounds, environmental pollutants and analytes of clinical interest. Biosensors based on polymeric lipid membranes have been used to rapidly detect a wide range of these analytes and offer several advantages such as fast response, high sensitivity and selectivity, can be portable for in the field applications, and small size. A description of the construction of these devices and their applications for the rapid detection of food toxic substance, environmental pollutants and analytes of clinical interest is provided in this review.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0240.v2
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: graphene; dry ice; mechanical milling; magnesium oxide
Online: 13 January 2022 (13:44:03 CET)
Although the dry ice method used to synthesize exfoliated graphite/graphene is little known and used, it has significant advantages over others: it is low cost, simple, and a large quantity of material can be obtained using some inorganic and highly available acids (which can be reused). Despite the above advantages, the main reason for its incipient development is the resulting presence of magnesium oxide in the final product. In the present work, three different treat-ments were tested to remove this remnant using some acid chemical leaching processes, making use of hydrochloric acid, aqua regia, and piranha solution. Based on the experimental evidence, it was found that using aqua regia and combining the leaching process with mechanical milling was the most efficient way of removing such a remnant, the residue being only 0.9 wt.%. This value is low when compared to that obtained with the other acid leaching solutions and purifi-cation process (2.8 - 29.6 wt.%). A mandatory high-energy mechanical milling stage was neces-sary during this treatment, in order to expose and dissolve the highly insoluble oxide without secondary chemical reactions on the graphenes. High-energy mechanical milling is an effective route to exfoliate graphite/graphene, which allows the magnesium oxide to be more susceptible to acid treatment. The obtained surface area was 504 m2g-1; this high value resulting from the in-tense exfoliation can potentiate the use of this material for a wide variety of applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0075.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: dental materials, nanomaterials, zeolite, graphene, nanoparticles, nanofibers
Online: 4 August 2020 (04:48:03 CEST)
The results of the bibliographic analysis show that the most explored nanomaterials in dentistry are graphene and carbon nanotubes, and their derivatives. A detailed analysis and a comparative study on their applications show that, although they are quite similar, graphene based materials seem to be more promising for most of the applications of interest in dentistry. The bibliographic study also demonstrated the potential of zeolite based materials, although the low number of studies on their applications shows that they have not been totally explored, as well as other porous nanomaterials that found important applications in medicine, such as metal organic frameworks, have not been explored. Subsequently, it is expected that the research effort will concentrate in graphene and zeolite based materials in the incoming years. Thus, present review paper presents a detailed bibliographic study, with more than 200 references, in order to describe briefly the main achievements that have been described in dentistry using nanomaterials, compare and analyze them in a critical way, with the aim of predicting the future challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0253.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: graphene; silver nanoparticles; PHA; electrospun biomaterial; antibacterial
Online: 14 August 2018 (14:16:21 CEST)
Many wounds are unresponsive to current available treatment techniques and therefore there is an immense need to explore suitable materials including biomaterials, which are being considered as the crucial factor to accelerate the healing cascade. In this study, we fabricated polyhydroxyalkanoate based antibacterial mats via electrospun technique. One-pot green synthesized graphene decorated silver nanoparticles (GAg) were incorporated into the fibres of poly-3 hydroxybutarate-co-12 mol% hydroxyhexanoate (P3HB-co-12mol% HHx), a co-polymer of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) family which is highly biocompatible, biodegradable and flexible in nature. The synthesised PHA/GAg biomaterial was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), elemental mapping, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In-vitro antibacterial analysis were performed to investigate the efficacy of PHA/GAg against gram positive Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) strain 12600 ATCC and gram negative Escherichia coli (E.coli) strain 8739 ATCC. The results indicated that the PHA/GAg demonstrated significant reduction of Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus strain 12600 ATCC) and Escherichia coli (E.coli strain 8739 ATCC) as compared to bare PHA or PHA-rGO in 2 hours of time. The P value (P< 0.05) was obtained by using 2 sample T-test distribution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0188.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: electrochemistry; tyrosinase; graphene; Choline–gold nanoparticals; catechol
Online: 28 April 2017 (05:25:54 CEST)
A novel catechol (CA) biosensor was developed by the immobilization of tyrosinase (Tyr) onto in situ electrochemical reduction graphene (EGR) on choline functionalized gold nanoparticals (AuNPs–Ch) film. The results of UV–visible spectra indicated that Tyr retained its original structure in the film. And electrochemical investigation of the biosensor showed a pair of well–defined, quasi–reversible redox peaks with Epa= –0.0744V and Epc= –0.114 V (vs. SCE) in 0.1 M, pH 7.0 sodium phosphate buffered saline at the scan rate of 100 mV/s. The transfer rate constant ks was 0.66 s–1. The Tyr–EGR/AuNPs–Ch showed a good electrochemical catalytic response for the reduction of CA, with the linear range from 0.2 to 270 μM and a detection limit of 0.1 μM (S/N= 3). The apparent Michaelis–Menten constant was estimated to be 109 μM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0099.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Moiré patterns; MoS2; Graphene; WS2; WSe2; HRTEM
Online: 24 October 2016 (05:03:50 CEST)
We present a series of computer-assisted high resolution transmission electron (HRTEM) simulations to determine Moiré patters by induced twisting effects between slabs at rotational angles of 3°, 5°, 8°, and 16°, for molybdenum disulfide, graphene, tungsten disulfide, and tungsten selenide layered materials. In order to investigate the electronic structure, a series of numerical simulations using DFT methods was completed using CASTEP with a generalized gradient approximation to determine both band structure and density of states on honeycomb like new superlattices. Our results indicate metallic transitions when rotation approaches 8° with respect to each other for most of the two-dimensional systems that were analyzed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0074.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: graphene; self-propagating high-temperature synthesis; few-layer graphene, biopolymers, starch, lignin, tree bark, carbonization of biopolymers, SHS, FLG.
Online: 6 January 2022 (11:28:48 CET)
For the first time, few-layer graphene (FLG) nanosheets were synthesized by the method of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) from biopolymers (starch and lignin). We suggested that biopolymers (lignin, tree bark) and polysaccharides, in particular starch, could be an acceptable source of native cycles for the SHS process. The carbonization of biopolymers under the conditions of the SHS process was chosen as the basic method of synthesis. Chemical reactions, under the conditions of the SHS process, proceed according to a specific mechanism of nonsothermal branched-chain processes, which are characterized by the joint action of two fundamentally different process-accelerating factors - avalanche reproduction of active intermediate particles and self-heating. The method of obtaining FLG nanosheets included the thermal destruction of hydrocarbons in a mixture with an oxidizing agent. We used biopolymers as hydrocarbons and ammonium nitrate as an oxidizing agent. Thermal destruction was carried out in the mode of SHS, heating the mixture in a vessel at a speed of 20–30 oC/min to 150-200 oC and keeping at this temperature for 15–20 min with the discharge of excess gases into atmosphere. A combination of spectrometric research methods, supplemented by electron microscopy data, has shown that the particles of the carbonated product powder in their morphometric and physical parameters correspond to FLG nanosheets. An X-ray diffraction analysis of the indicated FLG nanosheets was carried out, which showed the absence of formations with a graphite crystal structure in the final material. The surface morphology was also studied and the features of the IR absorption of FLG nanosheets were analyzed. It is shown that the developed SHS method makes it possible to obtain FLG nanosheets with linear dimensions of tens of microns and a thickness of not more than 1-5 graphene layers (several graphene layers).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0021.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Epitaxial graphene; buffer layer; quasi-free standing graphene; high-temperature sublimation; terahertz Optical Hall effect; free charge carrier properties
Online: 4 January 2021 (11:48:08 CET)
In this work we have critically reviewed the processes in high-temperature sublimation growth of graphene in Ar atmosphere using enclosed graphite crucible. Special focus is put on buffer layer formation and free charge carrier properties of monolayer graphene and quasi-freestanding monolayer garphene on 4H-SiC. We show that by introducing Ar at different temperatures, TAr one can shift to higher temperatures the formation of the buffer layer for both n-type and semi-insulating substrates. A scenario explaining the observed suppresed formation of buffer layer at higher TAr is proposed and discussed. Increased TAr is also shown to reduce the sp3 hybridization content and defect densities in the buffer layer on n-type conductive substrates. Growth on semi-insulating substrates results in ordered buffer layer with significantly improved structural properties, for which TAr plays only a minor role. The free charge density and mobility parameters of monolayer graphene and quasi-freestanding monolayer graphene with different TAr and different environmental treatment conditions are determined by contactless terahertz optical Hall effect. An efficient annealing of donors on and near the SiC surface takes place in intrinsic monolayer graphene grown at 2000∘C, and which is found to be independent of TAr. Higher TAr leads to higher free charge carrier mobility parameters in both intrinsically n-type and ambient p-type doped monolayer graphene. TAr is also found to have a profound effect on the free hole parameters of quasi-freestanding monolayer graphene. These findings are discussed in view of interface and buffer layer properties in order to construct a comprehensive picture of high-temperature sublimation growth and provide guidance for growth parameters optimization depending on the targeted graphene application.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0522.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: carbon dots; electrochemical synthesis; energy storage; nanotechnology; graphene
Online: 27 August 2021 (13:53:18 CEST)
Cutting-edge technologies are intensifying into new skylines and this remarkable progress has been successfully influenced by the tiny level engineering of carbon dots technology, their syn-thesis advancement and impressive applications in the field of allied sciences. The advances of science and its conjugation with interdisciplinary fields emerged in carbon dots making, their controlled characterization and applications into faster, cheaper as well as more reliable prod-ucts in various scientific domains. Thus, a new era in nanotechnology has developed into carbon dots technology. The understanding of the generation process, control on making processes and selected applications of carbon dots such as energy storage, environmental monitoring, catalysis, contaminates detections and complex environmental forensics, drug delivery, drug targeting and other biomedical applications etc. are among the most promising applications of carbon dots and thus a thrust area of research today. In this regard, various types of carbon dots nano-materials such as oxides, their composites and conjugations etc. have been flocking significant attention due to their remarkable potential in this thrust area of energy, the environment and technology. Thus, the present paper highlights the role and importance of carbon dots, recent advancements in their synthesis methods, properties and emerging applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0299.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Electromagnetic inferences; Shielding, Graphene; Metal; Polymer; Formation Methods.
Online: 13 July 2021 (11:23:46 CEST)
The electromagnetic inference is an issue from decades, where working for a better shielding material is still on-going. The purpose of this study is to review the existing methods in the formation of graphene, metal and polymer-based composites. Study indicates that in graphene and metal-based composites, the utilization of alternating deposition method showed the highest shielding effectiveness, whereas, in polymer-based composite, the utilization of chemical vapor deposition method showed highest shielding effectiveness. However, this review reveals that still there is a gap in the literature in terms of the selection of the method. Although there are various available methods which researchers adopt as per their convenience, none of the studies makes a comparison of the methods to form a similar composite. Therefore, as a future gap researcher needs to adopt various methods to form a single composite and then make a comparison of shielding effectiveness. This act will be useful for future researchers to select the appropriate method.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: graphene; silicon; photodetectors; internal photoemission effect; near-infrared
Online: 5 March 2021 (10:49:26 CET)
In this work we theoretically investigate the responsivity/noise equivalent power (NEP) trade-off in graphene/semiconductor Schottky photodetectors (PDs) operating in the near-infrared regime and working at room temperature. Our analysis shows as the responsivity/NEP ratio is strongly dependent on the Schottky barrier height (SBH) of the junction and we derive a closed analytical formula for maximizing it. In addition, we theoretically discuss as the SBH is linked to the bias applied to the junction in order to show how these devices could be optimized in practice for different semiconductors. We discover that graphene/n-silicon (Si) Schottky PDs could be optimized at 1550nm showing a responsivity and NEP of 133mA/W and 500fW/Hz, respectively, by a low reverse bias of only 0.66V. Moreover, we show that graphene/n-germanium (Ge) Schottky PDs optimized in term of responsivity/NEP ratio could be employed at 2000nm with a responsivity and NEP of 233mA/W and 31pW/Hz, respectively. We believe that our insights are of great importance in the field of silicon photonics for the realization of Si-based PDs to be employed in power monitoring, lab-on-chip and environment monitoring applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0185.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Hydrogen production; ZnO; gold nanoparticles; graphene; water splitting
Online: 9 July 2020 (12:04:21 CEST)
For some decades, the scientific community has been looking for alternatives to the use of fossil fuels that allow the planet's sustainable and environmentally friendly development. To do this, attempts have been made to mimic some processes that occur in nature, among which the photosystem-II stands out, which allows water splitting operating with different steps to generate oxygen and hydrogen. This research presents promising results using synthetic catalysts, which try to simulate some natural processes, and which are based on Au@ZnO-graphene compounds. These catalysts were prepared by incorporating different amounts of gold nanoparticles (1 wt.%, 3 wt.%, 5 wt.%, 10 wt.%) and graphene (1 wt.%) on the surface of synthesized zinc oxide nanowires (ZnO NWs), and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs), along with a commercial form (commercial ZnO) for comparison purposes. The highest amount of hydrogen (1,127 µmol/hg) was reported by ZnO NWs with a gold and graphene loadings of 10 wt.% and 1 wt.%, respectively, under irradiation at 400 nm. Quantities of 759 µmol / hg and 709 µmol / hg were obtained with catalysts based on ZnO NPs and commercial ZnO, respectively. The photocatalytic activity of all composites increased with respect to the bare semiconductors, being 2.5 times higher in ZnO NWs, 8.8 times for ZnO NPs and 7.5 times for commercial ZnO. The high photocatalytic activity of the catalysts is attributed, mainly, to the synergism between the different amount of gold and graphene incorporated, and the surface area of the composites.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0245.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: carbon nanotubes; graphene; nanomaterials; nervous tissue; regeneration; neurons
Online: 23 July 2019 (03:54:21 CEST)
Nanomedicine has allowed for emerging advances in imaging, diagnostics and therapeutics. Regenerative Medicine has taken advantage of a number of nanomaterials for reparation of diseased or damaged tissues in the nervous system involved in memory, cognition and movement. Electrical, thermal, mechanical and biocompatibility aspects of carbon-based nanomaterials (nanotubes, graphene, fullerenes and their derivatives) make them suitable candidates to drive nerve tissue repair and stimulation. This review article focuses on recent advances on the use of carbon nanotube (CNT)-based technologies on nerve tissue engineering; outlining how neurons interact with the nanomaterials interface for promoting neuronal differentiation, growth and network reconstruction for their possible use in therapies of neurodegenerative pathologies and spinal cord injuries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0363.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: graphite; diamagnetism; thickness dependence; susceptibility; interfaces; conductivity; graphene
Online: 16 October 2018 (13:56:35 CEST)
Recently published structural analysis and galvanomagnetic studies of a large number of different bulk and mesoscopic graphite samples of high quality and purity reveal that the common picture assuming graphite samples as a semimetal with a homogeneous carrier density of conduction electrons is misleading. These new studies indicate that the main electrical conduction path occurs within 2D interfaces embedded in semiconducting Bernal and/or rhombohedral stacking regions. This new knowledge incites us to revise experimentally and theoretically the diamagnetism of graphite samples. We found that the $c$-axis susceptibility of highly pure oriented graphite samples is not really constant but can vary several tens of percent for bulk samples with thickness $t \gtrsim 30~\mu$m, whereas by a much larger factor for samples with smaller thickness. The observed decrease of the susceptibility with sample thickness resembles qualitatively the one reported for the electrical conductivity and indicates that the main part of the $c-$axis diamagnetic signal is not intrinsic of the ideal graphite structure but it is due to the highly conducting 2D interfaces. The interpretation of the main diamagnetic signal of graphite agrees with the reported description of its galvanomagnetic properties and provides a hint to understand some magnetic peculiarities of thin graphite samples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0167.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: graphene grain boundaries; scattering matrix theory; dirac hamiltonian
Online: 8 August 2018 (12:20:13 CEST)
The implementation of graphene-based electronics requires fabrication processes able to cover large device areas since exfoliation method is not compatible with industrial applications. Chemical vapor deposition of large-area graphene represents a suitable solution having the important drawback of producing polycrystalline graphene with formation of grain boundaries, which are responsible for limitation of the device performance. With these motivations, we formulate a theoretical model of graphene grain boundary by generalizing the graphene Dirac Hamiltonian model. The model only includes the long-wavelength regime of the particle transport, which provides the main contribution to the device conductance. Using symmetry-based arguments deduced from the current conservation law, we derive unconventional boundary conditions characterizing the grain boundary physics and analyze their implications on the transport properties of the system. Angle resolved quantities, such as the transmission probability, are studied within the scattering matrix approach. The conditions for the existence of preferential transmission directions are studied in relation with the grain boundary properties. The proposed theory provides a phenomenological model to study grain boundary physics within the scattering approach and represents per se an important enrichment of the scattering theory of graphene. Moreover, the outcomes of the theory can contribute in understanding and limiting detrimental effects of graphene grain boundaries also providing a benchmark for more elaborated techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0281.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Graphene quantum dots, molecularly imprinted polymers, tetracycline, quenching
Online: 16 July 2018 (11:42:03 CEST)
In this work, we firstly explored a mild, clean, and highly efficient approach for the synthesis of graphene quantum dots (GQDs). GQDs with carboxyl groups or amino groups, were prepared from one-pot environmentally friendly method assisted by hydrogen peroxide, respectively. It was proved that carboxyl groups played an important role in the fluorescence quenching. Based on these findings, we developed a novel fluorescent nanosensor by combining molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with carboxyl functionalized GQDs for the determination of tetracycline (TC) in aqueous samples. The nanocomposite was prepared using a sol-gel process. GQDs-MIPs showed strong ﬂuorescent emission at 410 nm when excited at 360 nm, which was subsequently quenched in the presence of TC. Under optimum conditions, the fluorescence intensity of GQDs-MIPs decreased in response to the increase of TC concentration with good linearity rage of 1.0-104 µg L-1. The limit of detection was determined to be 1 µg L-1. The fluorescence intensity of GQDs-MIPs was more strongly quenched by TC compared to the corresponding non-imprinted polymers, GQDs-NIPs. With the high sensitivity, the material was also successfully worked for the detection of TC in real spiked milk samples.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0354.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Electrochemistry Keywords: Graphene; Mn3O4; Nanocomposites; Energy storage and conversion; Supercapacitors
Online: 22 June 2018 (10:53:49 CEST)
Mn3O4 /graphene nanosheets (GNS) composites serve as very excellent electrode materials for supercapacitors. They can fully combine the advantages of two materials such as graphene and metal oxide. Meanwhile, they can improve not only the specific energy and specific power of the materials, but also the cyclic stability of the materials. The results of the cyclic voltammetry and constant current charge discharge test on the composite electrode material have shown that the Mn3O4 /GNS powder sample has good capacitive performance. When the scanning rate is 5~50mV, the specific capacity retention rate of the composite electrode is 80.3% and 88% respectively. Mn3O4 nanoparticles, with the highest ratio of network coated GNS, exhibit a specific capacitance value of 957.6 F g−1 at a current density of 2 A g−1 in 1 M Na2SO4 solution. Besides, its network structure demonstrates high specific capacity and multiplying performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0109.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: Graphene, Dye-sensitized solar cell, Efficiency, FTO, SPEED
Online: 15 December 2017 (17:03:33 CET)
The focus of this research is to improve the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) through the adoption of high-quality FTO thin films and incorporation of graphene with DSSC photoanode to enhance its electrical transport. In this research, nanostructured FTO films were first grown with homemade Streaming Process for Electroless and Electrochemical Deposition technology (SPEED) using Tin (II) chloride dihydrate and ammonium fluoride and other chemical formulations. The FTO structural property was measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD); the films’ optical property was determined with transmittance spectra to curve over the wavelength range of 200-1000 nm measured with a spectrophotometer while scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to determine the morphological properties of the samples. The electrical transport was evaluated by Hall Effect measurements at room temperature with a four-point probe. The FTO samples with the best structural, optical and electrical properties were employed as electrodes and counter electrodes of DSSC along with titanium dioxide. Thus, effect of graphene on the efficiency of DSSC was investigated. It was shown that a graphene-based DSSC showed an efficiency of 7.98% which is slightly higher than that of DSSC prototype without graphene (6.02%). The higher efficiency obtained with graphene can be credited to the ultrahigh surface area and thermal conductivity of graphene which tend to enhance the charge mobility and photovoltaic performance of DSSC. More research is however required to determine the exact amount of graphene that could achieve optimal DSSC performance. Further studies will also offer an adequate clarification for starting point of the better incorporation of graphene in DSSCs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0133.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, graphene, reduced graphene oxide, organic functionalization, dye, organic photovoltaics, dye sensitized solar cells, perovskite solar cells, photocatalytic hydrogen evolution
Online: 5 August 2021 (10:07:43 CEST)
This review proposes an overview on the use of organic functionalized carbon nanostructures (CNSs) into solar energy conversion schemes. Our attention has focused in particular on the contribution given by organic chemistry to the development of new hybrid materials that find application in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC), organic photovoltaics (OPV), perovskite solar cells (PSC) and also in photocatalytic fuel production, focusing in particular on the most recent literature. The request for new materials able to accompany the green energy transition that are abundant, low cost, with low toxicity, from renewable sources has further increased the interest in CNSs that meet all these requirements. The inclusion of an organic molecule, thanks to both covalent and non-covalent interactions, into a CNS, leads to the development of a completely new hybrid material able of combining and improving the properties of both starting materials. Besides the numerical data, which unequivocally state the positive effect of the new hybrid material, we hope that these examples can be inspiring for further research in the field of photoactive materials from an organic point of view.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0475.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: single-atom catalysts; graphene; activity; reactivity; stability; Pourbaix plots
Online: 25 November 2022 (10:06:33 CET)
Understanding the catalytic performance of different materials is of crucial importance for further technological advancements. This especially relates to the behavior of different classes of catalysts under operating conditions. Here we analyze the effects of local coordination of metal centers (Mn, Fe, Co) in graphene-embedded Single-Atom Catalysts (SACs). We have started from well-known M@N4-graphene catalysts and systematically replaced nitrogen atoms with oxygen or sulfur atom to obtain M@OxNy-graphene and M@SxNy-graphene SACs (x+y=4). We show that local coordination strongly affects the electronic structure and the reactivity towards hydrogen and oxygen species. However, the stability is even more affected. Using the concept of Pourbaix plots, we show that the replacement of nitrogen atoms coordinating metal center with O or S destabilizes SACs towards the dissolution, while the metal centers get easily covered by O and OH acting as additional ligands at high anodic potentials and high pH values. Thus, not only should local coordination be considered in terms of the activity of SACs, but it is also necessary to consider its effects on the speciation of SACs' active centers under different potential and pH conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0383.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: linear fluorinated graphene nanoscrolls; solvent sensitive; synthesis; cathode material
Online: 19 October 2020 (13:58:55 CEST)
In this work, fluorinated graphene nanoscrolls (FGN) were synthesized via facile chemical methods under simple and mild conditions. Interestingly, the formation of the featured FGN was significantly solvent sensitive. Experimental results indicated that in the presence of aprotic solvent, for example, N,N dimethylformamide (DMF), the reaction system inclined to form the interesting FGN nanostructures. The structure and morphology of the prepared FGN were detailed characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) etc. The obtained FGN was used as a cathode material for primary lithium ion batteries with superior discharge specific capacity (eg. 979.3 mAhg-1), stable discharge platform and high energy density (eg. 2287.9 Wh kg-1), which fosters it a high density, low cost and durable candidate for cathode material for lithium ion batteries..
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0183.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: graphene; Chern-Simons current; Holo-Hilbert spectral analysis; cohomology
Online: 12 April 2020 (05:25:34 CEST)
We specify basic definitions of the Chern-Simons current in cohomology theory, then we calculate its value by using a model of quantum machine learning, the so-called supersymmetric support Dirac machine. The supercurrent is generated from the coupling between three states of a quantum flux of modified Wilson loop of the Cooper pairs. We use Holo-Hilbert spectrum in frequency modulation to visualize the network as a coupling behavior of convolutional neuron network in superstatistical theory with the application to the theory of a superconductor. We also calculate the number of carbon atoms in the stable support spinor network structure of a graphene wormhole to produce a supercurrent of Cooper pairs as graviphoton states by using the Holo-Hilbert spectral analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0183.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: electrophoretic deposition; photocatalysis; TiO2; reduced graphene oxide; water purification
Online: 15 July 2019 (11:59:23 CEST)
The preparation of immobilized graphene–based photocatalyst layers is highly desired for environmental applications. In this study, the preparation of an immobilized reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/TiO2 composite by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) was optimized. It enabled quantitative deposition without sintering and without the use of any dispersive additive. The presence of rGO had beneficial effects on the photocatalytic degradation of 4-chlorophenol in an aqueous solution. A marked increase in the photocatalytic degradation rate was observed, even at very low concentrations of rGO. Compared with the TiO2 and GO/TiO2 reference layers, use of the rGO/TiO2 composite (0.5 wt% of rGO) increased the first-order reaction rate constant by about 70%. This enhanced performance was due to the increased formation of hydroxyl radicals that attacked the 4-chlorophenol molecules. The direct charge transfer mechanism had only limited effect on the degradation. Thus, EPD-prepared rGO/TiO2 layers appear to be suitable for environmental application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0008.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Cemented carbide; Carbon nanotubes; Graphene; Thermal conductivity; Bending strength
Online: 1 February 2019 (09:43:14 CET)
In recent years, it has been found in engineering practice that the service life of cemented carbide shield machine tools used in uneven soft and hard strata is substantially reduced. The study found that thermal stress is the main reason for the failure of cemented carbide shield tunneling tools when shield tunneling is carried out in uneven soft and hard soil. To maintain the hardness of cemented carbide, improving the thermal conductivity of the shield machine tool is of great importance for prolonging its service life and reducing engineering costs. In this paper, graphene and carbon nanotubes were mixed with WC-Co powder and sintered by SPS (Spark Plasma Sintering). The morphology was observed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). A Rockwell hardness tester and bending strength tester were used to test hardness, bending strength and thermal conductivity. The results show that adding trace graphene or carbon nanotubes can increase the bending strength of the cemented carbide by approximately 50% while keeping the hardness of the cemented carbide unchanged. The thermal conductivity of the cemented carbide can be increased by 10% with the addition of 0.12% graphene alone.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0142.v2
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: graphene; cold field emission; single-tip cathode; electron microscopy
Online: 28 May 2018 (09:02:44 CEST)
Although good field emission from graphene has been demonstrated from a wide variety of different microfabricated structures, very few of them can be used to improve the design of cold field emitters for electron microscopy applications. Most of them consist of densely packed nano-emitters, which produce a large array of defocused overlapping electron beams, and therefore cannot be subsequently focused down to a single nanometer electron probe. This paper reviews the kind of single-tip cathode structures suitable in cold field emission guns for instruments such as scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope or scanning transmission electron microscopy, and reviews progress in fabricating them from graphene-based materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0201.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: graphene; two-dimensional materials; nonlinear quantum circuits; quantum bits
Online: 15 May 2018 (05:29:06 CEST)
In this letter, it is proposed that cryogenic quantum bits could operate based on the nonlinearity due to the quantum capacitance of two-dimensional Dirac materials, and in particular graphene. The anharmonicity of a typical superconducting quantum bit is calculated and the sensitivity of quantum bit frequency and anharmonicty with respect to temperature are found. Reasonable estimates reveal that a careful fabrication process could reveal the expected properties, thus putting the context of quantum computing hardware into new perspectives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0139.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: plasmonics; graphene; quantum emitter; Dyadic Green's Function; nanoparticle; polarizability
Online: 20 October 2017 (10:34:18 CEST)
We discuss the renormalization of the polarizability of a nanoparticle in the presence of either (i) a continuous graphene sheet or (ii) a plasmonic graphene grating, taking into account retardation effects. Our analysis demonstrates that the excitation of surface plasmon-polaritons in graphene produces a large enhancement of the real and imaginary parts of the renormalized polarizability. We show that the imaginary part can be changed by a factor of up to 100 relatively to its value in the absence of graphene. We also show that the resonance in the case of the grating is narrower than in the continuous sheet. In the case of the grating it is shown that the resonance can be tuned by changing the grating geometric parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0205.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: GFETs; TNT explosive; sensor; TNT peptide receptor; graphene sheet
Online: 30 May 2017 (06:02:40 CEST)
Smart sensors based on graphene field effect transistor and biologically receptors are regarded as a promising nanomaterial that could be the basis for future generations of selective real-time monitoring of target analytes and smaller electronics. So the purpose of this paper is to provide details a real-time and selective explosive sensor based on GFETs and PDA-based lipid membranes coupled with biologically inspired TNT peptide receptors. Following an introduction, this paper describes the way of fabrication of the GFETs device by investigation methods for transferring graphene sheet from Cu substrates to target substrates, which is functionalized by the TNT peptide receptors, in order to offer a system which has the capability of answering the presence of related target molecules. Field effet transistor was fabricated using graphene as a channel and monitored by the source-drain current and back-gate voltage curves in the measurement. The transport property changed compared to that of the FET made by intrinsic graphene, that is, the Dirac point position moved from positive Vg to negative Vg, indicating the transition of graphene from p-type to n-type after annealing in TNT, and GFET sensor show good sensitivity and selectivity response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0495.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Visible light; Ofloxacin; Reduced graphene oxide; photocatalytic degradation; photocurrent density
Online: 22 February 2021 (16:27:01 CET)
The ternary Bi2MoO6-reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-TiO2 catalyst were synthesized using a simple hydrothermal method. The improvement of the photocatalytic decomposition efficiency of Bi2MoO6-rGO-TiO2 composite is 92.3% than the pure and binary photocatalyst. The effects of operational parameters like catalyst ratio, the different catalyst, different ratio rGO and different pH, have been analyzed. As prepared ternary photocatalyst is low Photoluminescence and high photocurrent density responsible, it exhibited that photon-induced electron and hole-recombination were suppressed and also charged separation is effective. The present study shows the rGO is an excellent electron transfer performance and enhanced the photocatalytic reaction stability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0296.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: geopolymers; photocatalysis; nanoparticles; degradation efficiency; TiO2; Cu2O; carbon nanotubes; graphene
Online: 13 September 2020 (16:11:18 CEST)
Geopolymers are ecologically-friendly inorganic materials which can be produced at low temperatures from industrial wastes such as fly ash, blast furnace slags or mining residues. Although to date their principal applications have been as alternatives to Portland cement building materials, their properties make them suitable for a number of more advanced applications, including as photocatalytic nanocomposites for removal of hazardous pollutants from waste water or the atmosphere. For this purpose, they can be combined with photocatalytic moieties such as metal oxides with suitable bandgaps to couple with UV or visible radiation, or with carbon nanotubes or graphene. In these composites the geopolymers act as supports for the photoactive components, but geopolymers formed from wastes containing oxides such as Fe2O3 show intrinsic photoactive behaviour. This review discusses the structure and formation chemistry of geopolymers and the principles required for their utilisation as photocatalysts. The literature on existing photocatalytic geopolymers is reviewed, suggesting that these materials have a promising potential as inexpensive, efficient and ecologically-friendly candidates for the remediation of toxic environmental pollutants and would repay further development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0605.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: cationic pillararene; host–guest recognition; reduced graphene; trinitrophenol
Online: 28 November 2018 (02:49:49 CET)
We describe a selective and sensitive fluorescence platform for the detection of trinitrophenol (TNP) based on competitive host–guest recognition between pyridine-functionalized pillararene (PCP6) and probe (acridine orange, AO) that used PCP6-functionalized reduced graphene (PCP6-rGO) as the receptor. TNP is an electron-deficient and negative molecule which is captured by PCP6 via electrostatic interactions and π-π interactions. Therefore, a selective and sensitive fluorescence sensor for TNP detection is developed. It has a low detection limit of 0.0035 μM (S/N=3) and a wider linear response of 0.01−5.0 and 5.0−125.0 for TNP. The sensing platform is also used to test TNP in two water and soil samples with satisfying results. This suggests that this approach has potential applications for the determination of TNP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0054.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: few layer graphene production; aqueous suspension; pyrene derivative; molecular modelling
Online: 2 August 2018 (23:52:47 CEST)
The search for graphene or few layer graphene production methods that are simple, allow mass production and yield good quality material continues to provoke intense investigation. The present work contributes through the study of the aqueous exfoliation of four types of graphene sources, namely graphite and graphite nanoflakes with different morphologies and geographical origin. The exfoliation was achieved in an aqueous solution of a soluble pyrene derivative that was synthesized to achieve maximum interaction with the graphene surface at low concentration (5 x 10-5 M). The yield of bilayer and few layer graphene obtained was quantified by Raman spectroscopic analysis and the adsorption of the pyrene derivative on the graphene surface was studied by thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction. The whole procedure was rationalized with the help of molecular modeling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0582.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: ZnO/N-doped graphene composite; modified separator; lithium/sulfur batteries
Online: 30 July 2018 (10:33:23 CEST)
Fabrication of a nanocrystal zinc oxide (ZnO)/nitrogen-doped (N-doped) graphene composite using a novel and facile in situ sol-gel technique is demonstrated. Two-dimensional nanostructure morphology with uniform ZnO nanoparticles (average diameter of 10.25 nm) anchored on N-doped graphene nanosheets was observed via electron microscopy. Because of the polar heteroatoms on the graphene sheets, an abundance sites for polysulfide absorption were provided. More importantly, the strong chemical interaction between ZnO and polysulfides efficiently hindered the transport of polysulfides. Consequently, the lithium/sulfur (Li/S) battery with the ZnO/N-doped graphene composite-coated separator delivered enhanced performance in terms of discharge capacity and cycling stability when compared to the cell with a normal separator. With the modified separator, the battery achieved a discharge capacity as high as 942 mAh g-1 for the first cycle and remained at 90.02 mAh g-1 after the 100th charge/discharge test at 0.1 C. Results indicate that impeding the shuttling of polysulfides contributes to efficiently improving the behavior of the Li/S battery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0475.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: ZnO/N-doped graphene composite; modified separator; lithium/sulfur batteries
Online: 25 July 2018 (09:54:21 CEST)
Fabrication of a nanocrystal zinc oxide (ZnO)/nitrogen-doped (N-doped) graphene composite using a novel and facile in situ sol-gel technique is demonstrated. Two-dimensional nanostructure morphology with uniform ZnO nanoparticles (average diameter of 10.25 nm) anchored on N-doped graphene nanosheets was observed via electron microscopy. Because of the polar heteroatoms on the graphene sheets, an abundance sites for polysulfide absorption were provided. More importantly, the strong chemical interaction between ZnO and polysulfides efficiently hindered the transport of polysulfides. Consequently, the lithium/sulfur (Li/S) battery with the ZnO/N-doped graphene composite-coated separator delivered enhanced performance in terms of discharge capacity and cycling stability when compared to the cell with a normal separator. With the modified separator, the battery achieved a discharge capacity as high as 942 mAh g-1 for the first cycle and remained at 90.02 mAh g-1 after the 100th charge/discharge test at 0.1 C. Results indicate that impeding the shuttling of polysulfides contributes to efficiently improving the behavior of the Li/S battery.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0452.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: alignments, dental pulp stem cells, nanofiber, neurogenesis, reduced graphene oxide
Online: 27 June 2018 (15:53:18 CEST)
Stem cells derived from dental tissues—dental stem cells—are flavored due to their easy acquisition. Among them, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) extracted from the dental pulp have many advantages such as high proliferation and highly purified population. Although their ability for neurogenic differentiation has been highlighted and neurogenic differentiation using electrospun nanofibers (NFs) has been performed, graphene-incorporated NFs have never been applied for DPSC neurogenic differentiation. Here reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-polycaprolactone (PCL) hybrid electrospun NFs were developed and applied for enhanced neurogenesis of DPSCs. First, RGO-PCL NFs were fabricated by electrospinning with incorporation of RGO and alignments, and their chemical and morphological characteristics were evaluated. Furthermore, in vitro NF properties such as influence on the cellular alignments and cell viability of DPSCs were also analyzed. The influences of NFs on DPSCs neurogenesis was also analyzed. The results confirmed that an appropriate concentration of RGO promoted better DPSC neurogenesis. Furthermore, the use of random NFs facilitated contiguous junctions of differentiated cells, whereas the use of aligned NFs facilitated aligned junction of differentiated cells along the direction of NF alignments. Our findings showed that RGO-PCL NFs can be a useful tool for DPSC neurogenesis, which will help regeneration in neurodegenerative and neurodefective diseases.