Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Enhanced Optical Nonlinear Performance with Integrated 2D Graphene Oxide Thin Films in CMOS Compatible Devices

Version 1 : Received: 25 February 2021 / Approved: 26 February 2021 / Online: 26 February 2021 (11:29:51 CET)

How to cite: Zhang, Y.; Wu, J.; Moss, D. Enhanced Optical Nonlinear Performance with Integrated 2D Graphene Oxide Thin Films in CMOS Compatible Devices. Preprints 2021, 2021020611 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202102.0611.v1). Zhang, Y.; Wu, J.; Moss, D. Enhanced Optical Nonlinear Performance with Integrated 2D Graphene Oxide Thin Films in CMOS Compatible Devices. Preprints 2021, 2021020611 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202102.0611.v1).

Abstract

We report enhanced nonlinear optics in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible photonic platforms through the use of layered two-dimensional (2D) graphene oxide (GO) films. We integrate GO films with silicon-on-insulator nanowires (SOI), high index doped silica glass (Hydex) and silicon nitride (SiN) waveguides and ring resonators, to demonstrate an enhanced optical nonlinearity including Kerr nonlinearity and four-wave mixing (FWM). The GO films are integrated using a large-area, transfer-free, layer-by-layer method while the film placement and size are controlled by photolithography. In SOI nanowires we observe a dramatic enhancement in both the Kerr nonlinearity and nonlinear figure of merit (FOM) due to the highly nonlinear GO films. Self-phase modulation (SPM) measurements show significant spectral broadening enhancement for SOI nanowires coated with patterned films of GO. The dependence of GO’s Kerr nonlinearity on layer number and pulse energy shows trends of the layered GO films from 2D to quasi bulk-like behavior. The nonlinear parameter of GO coated SOI nanowires is increased 16 folds, with the nonlinear FOM increasing over 20 times to FOM > 5. We also observe an improved FWM efficiency in SiN waveguides integrated with 2D layered GO films. FWM measurements for samples with different numbers of GO layers and at different pump powers are performed, achieving up to ≈7.3 dB conversion efficiency (CE) enhancement for a uniformly coated device with 1 layer of GO and ≈9.1 dB for a patterned device with 5 layers of GO. These results reveal the strong potential of GO films to improve the nonlinear optics of silicon, Hydex and SiN photonic devices.

Subject Areas

nonlinear optics; CMOS compatible photonic platforms; graphene oxide; Kerr nonlinearity; four-wave mixing

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