Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: stem cells; luminal progenitors; mammary; breast; cell hierarchy; differentiation; single cell RNA-sequencing; lineage tracing; c-Kit
Online: 31 July 2020 (02:56:15 CEST)
The identification and molecular characterization of cellular hierarchies in complex tissues is key to understanding both normal cellular homeostasis and tumorigenesis. The mammary epithelium is a heterogeneous tissue consisting of two main cellular compartments, an outer basal layer containing myoepithelial cells and an inner luminal layer consisting of estrogen receptor-negative (ER−) ductal cells and secretory alveolar cells (in the fully functional differentiated tissue) and hormone-responsive estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) cells. Recent publications have used single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) analysis to decipher epithelial cell differentiation hierarchies in human and murine mammary glands, and reported the identification of new cell types and states based on the expression of the luminal progenitor cell marker KIT (c-Kit). These studies allow for comprehensive and unbiased analysis of the different cell types that constitute a heterogeneous tissue. Here we discuss scRNA-seq studies in the context of previous research in which mammary epithelial cell populations were molecularly and functionally characterized, and identified c-Kit+ progenitors and cell states analogous to those reported in the recent scRNA-seq studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0504.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: single cell RNAseq; single cell ATACseq; sparsely connected autoencoder; pseudo-bulk
Online: 29 September 2021 (17:26:18 CEST)
Background: Biological processes are based on complex networks of cells and molecules. Single cell multi-OMICs is a new tool aiming to provide new incites in the complex network of events controlling the functionality of the cell.; Methods: Since single cell technologies provide many sample measurements, they are the ideal environment for the application of deep learning and machine learning approaches. An autoencoder (AE) is composed of an encoder and a decoder sub-model. AE are very powerful in data compression and noise removal. However, the decoder model remains a black box from which is impossible to depict the contribution of the single input elements. We have recently developed a new class of autoencoders, called Sparsely Connected Autoencoders (SCA), which have the advantage of providing a controlled association among the input layer and the decoder module. This new architecture has the benefit that the decoder model is no anymore a black box and it can be used to depict new biologically interesting features from single cell data; Results: In this paper, we show that SCA hidden layer can grab new information usually hidden in single cell data, like as providing clustering on meta-features difficult, i.e. transcription factors expression, or impossible, miRNA expression, to depict in single cell RNAseq data. Furthermore, a SCA representation of cell clusters has the advantage of simulating a conventional bulk RNAseq, which is a data transformation allowing the identification of similarity among independent experiments; Conclusions: In our opinion, SCA represent the bioinformatics version of a “Swiss Army knife” for the extraction of hidden knowledgeable features from single cell OMICs data.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0318.v4
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: protein sequencing; single molecule; nanopore; tRNA; amino acyl tRNA synthetase; codon; optical tag
Online: 18 February 2020 (11:50:29 CET)
Single molecule de novo protein sequencing based on the 'superspecificity' of amino-acyl tRNA synthetases (aaRS) is proposed. An unfolded protein molecule is threaded through a nanopore in an electrolytic cell (e-cell) to expose the terminal residue in the e-cell's trans chamber. After the residue is cleaved with an exopeptidase, a set of tRNAs, their aaRSs, and ATP are added to trans. An aaRS charges a cognate tRNA molecule with the residue. The charged tRNA (along with the other reactants) is transferred to an extended e-cell with N (20 ≤ N ≤ 61) pores in N individual cis chambers and a single trans chamber. Each pore holds an RNA molecule ending in a unique codon that is exposed in trans. The charged tRNA's anticodon base-pairs with the terminal codon of an RNA. If tRNAs and residues are fluorescently tagged with two different colors, the residue can be identified from the observed position of the resulting color pair. As charging is 'superspecific' identification is unambiguous. The protein molecule in the first e-cell is advanced by one residue and the process repeated. In this approach there is no need for precise pore current or optical intensity measurements. Potential implementation issues are discussed. Other possibilities, including one in which the terminal residue is cleaved after charging, are also examined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0221.v1
Online: 16 February 2020 (14:56:57 CET)
ACE2, the putative receptor for the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), played an important role in cell entry of 2019-nCoV. However, it is not yet clear what cell types within the human body express ACE2. Here, a systematic analysis was undertaken using published single cell datasets. In total, our study analyzed 229652 cells, from five different organs, derived from 88 donors. The top ACE2 expressing cells include proximal tubule cells in the kidney and enterocytes in the intestine. Other major ACE2 expressing cells in the kidney include podocytes, intercalated cells and endothelial cells. Our results offer a comprehensive atlas of ACE2 expression at the single cell level and unravel the enormous potential targets of 2019-nCoVinfection beyond the lung.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0195.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: Placenta; trophoblast; SARS-CoV-2; Coronaviruses; COVID-19; Single cell RNAseq; scRNA-seq; ACE2; TMPRSS2; CD147; CTSL; inflammation
Online: 11 May 2020 (12:50:48 CEST)
Infection by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) results in the novel coronavirus disease COVID-19, which has posed a serious threat globally. Infection of SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy is associated with complications like preterm labor and premature rupture of membranes; a proportion of neonates born to the infected mothers are also positive for the virus. During pregnancy, the placental barrier protects the fetus from pathogens and ensures healthy development. However, whether or not SARS-CoV-2 can infect the placenta is unknown. Herein, utilizing single-cell RNA-seq data, we report that the SARS-CoV-2 binding receptor ACE2 and the S protein priming protease TMPRSS2 are co-expressed by a subset of syncytiotrophoblasts (STB) in the first trimester and extra villous trophoblasts (EVT) in the second trimester human placenta. The ACE2- and TMPRSS2-positive (ACE2+TMPRSS2+) placental subsets express mRNA for proteins involved in viral budding and replication. These cells also express mRNA for proteins that interact with SARS-CoV-2 structural and non-structural proteins in the host cells. We also discovered unique signatures of genes in ACE2+TMPRSS2+ STBs and EVTs. The ACE2+TMPRSS2+ STBs are highly differentiated cells and express genes involved mitochondrial metabolism and glucose transport. The second trimester ACE2+TMPRSS2+ EVTs are enriched for markers of endovascular trophoblasts. Further, both these subtypes abundantly expressed genes in Toll like receptor pathway, the second trimester EVTs (but not first trimester STBs) are also enriched for component of the JAK-STAT pathway that drive inflammation. To conclude, herein we uncovered the cellular targets for SARS-CoV-2 entry and show that these cells can potentially drive viremia in the developing human placenta. Our results provide a basic framework towards understanding the paraphernalia involved in SARS-CoV-2 infections in pregnancy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0498.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: single cell protein; probiotic; actinomycetes; fermentation optimization
Online: 28 April 2020 (10:49:09 CEST)
Single cell proteins are the dead dried cells of microorganisms or purified protein isolated from microorganism’s cell culture, used as a food supplement to humans’ food and animals feed. World suffer from malnutrition particularly developing countries, due to rapid increase in population, increased the demand for protein and nutrients requirement. Bacteria is potential microorganism for SCP production due to high protein content, fast generation time, bio-active secondary metabolites production and can grow on various substrates. Actinobacteria species and strain have capability to produce biological active compounds, produced about two-thirds of antibiotics available in the market, actively used as antibiotics, antiprotozoal, antifungal, antiviral, anticancer, anticholesterol, antihelminth and immunosuppressant. Actinomycetes can be used as probiotic as well as single cell protein that will deal with antibiotic as well as protein source.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0448.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: non-small-cell lung cancer; next-generation sequencing; bronchoscopy; Oncomine Dx target test
Online: 22 January 2021 (13:14:02 CET)
A sufficient amount of tissue sample is required to perform next-generation sequencing (NGS) with a high success rate, but the majority of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are diagnosed with small biopsy specimens. Biopsy samples were collected from 184 patients with bronchoscopically diagnosed NSCLC. The tissue surface area, tumor cell count, and tumor content rate of each biopsy sample were evaluated. The impact of the cut-off criteria for the tissue surface area (≥ 1 mm2) and tumor content rate (≥ 30%) on the success rate of Oncomine Dx Target Test (ODxTT) was evaluated. The mean tissue surface area of the transbronchial biopsies was 1.23 ± 0.85 mm2 when small endobronchial ultrasonography with a guide sheath (EBUS-GS) was used, 2.16 ± 1.49 mm2 with large EBUS-GS, and 1.81 ± 0.75 mm2 with endobronchial biopsy (EBB). The proportion of samples with a tissue surface area of ≥ 1 mm2 was 48.8% for small EBUS-GS, 79.2% for large EBUS-GS, and 78.6% for EBB. Sixty-nine patients underwent ODxTT. The success rate of DNA sequencing was 84.1% and that of RNA sequencing was 92.7% over all patients. The success rate of DNA (RNA) sequencing was 57.1% (71.4%) for small EBUS-GS (n = 14), 93.4% (96.9%) for large EBUS-GS (n = 32), 62.5% (100%) for EBB (n = 8), and 100% (100%) for endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) (n = 15). Regardless of the device used, a tissue surface area of ≥ 1 mm2 is adequate for samples to be tested with NGS.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0073.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Messenger RNA • Hospital-based mRNA therapeutics • circular mRNA • self-amplifying mRNA • RNA-based CAR T-cell • RNA-based gene-editing tools
Online: 6 January 2022 (11:20:59 CET)
Hospital-based programs democratize mRNA therapeutics by facilitating the processes to translate a novel RNA idea from the bench to the clinic. Because mRNA is essentially biological software, therapeutic RNA constructs can be rapidly developed. The generation of small batches of clinical grade mRNA to support IND applications and first-in-man clinical trials, as well as personalized mRNA therapeutics delivered at the point-of-care, is feasible at a modest scale of cGMP manufacturing. Advances in mRNA manufacturing science and innovations in mRNA biology, are increasing the scope of mRNA clinical applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0034.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: cell signaling; signaling pathways; single-cell sequencing; immunotherapy; hallmarks cancer; cancer
Online: 2 November 2020 (11:28:51 CET)
Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. It is theorized that underlying genetic and epigenetic changes enable cells to proliferate out of control by escaping regulatory mechanisms. Although traditional molecular profiling techniques, i.e., bulk sequencing, can identify common mutations and gene expression patterns in cancer cells, they cannot detect tumour heterogeneity. However, single-cell technology has provided an ample opportunity to overcome this difficulty. Since this technology allows us to detect the heterogeneous properties of all cancer cells, this can further our knowledge of the signaling pathways in cancer cells. Indeed, single-cell transcriptomics technology has paved the road for identifying novel biomarkers and signaling pathways, which can serve as targets. This study aims to review the current knowledge about pathways involved in developing cancer cells and shed light on single-cell studies as promising therapeutic approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0159.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: mathematical modeling; biological networks; sensitivity analysis; programmed cell death; single cell dynamics; cell population
Online: 22 December 2017 (01:48:00 CET)
Studies performed at single-cell resolution have demonstrated the physiological significance of cell-to-cell variability. Various types of mathematical models and systems analyses of biological networks have further been used to gain a better understanding of the sources and regulatory mechanisms of such variability. In this work, we present a novel sensitivity analysis method, called molecular density function perturbation (MDFP), for the dynamical analysis of cellular heterogeneity. The proposed analysis is based on introducing perturbations to the density or distribution function of the cellular state variables at specific time points, and quantifying how such perturbations affect the state distribution at later time points. We applied the MDFP analysis to a model of signal transduction pathway involved in TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand)-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. The MDFP analysis showed that caspase-8 activation regulates the timing of the switch-like increase of cPARP (cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase), an indicator of apoptosis. Meanwhile, the cell-to-cell variability in the commitment to apoptosis depended on mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) and events following MOMP, including the release of Smac (second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases) and cytochrome-C from mitochondria, the inhibition of XIAP (X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis) by Smac and the formation of apoptosome.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0496.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: non-coding; leukemia; B-cell; RNA-sequencing; small RNA-sequencing
Online: 22 February 2021 (16:33:30 CET)
Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) comprise a diverse class of non-protein coding transcripts that regulate critical cellular processes associated with cancer. Advances in RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) have led to the characterization of non-coding RNA expression across different types of human cancers. Through comprehensive RNA-Seq profiling, a growing number of studies demonstrate that ncRNAs, including long non-coding RNA (lncRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNA), play central roles in progenitor B-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (B-ALL) pathogenesis. Furthermore, due to their central roles in cellular homeostasis and their potential as biomarkers, the study of ncRNAs continues to provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms of B-ALL. This article reviews the ncRNA signatures reported for all B-ALL subtypes, focusing on technological developments in transcriptome profiling and recently discovered examples of ncRNAs with biologic and therapeutic relevance in B-ALL.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0212.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: positive-sense single-stranded rna viruses; innate immune evasion; type 1 interferon; viral pathogenesis; type 3 interferon
Online: 18 September 2019 (17:12:01 CEST)
Positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses comprise many (re-)emerging human pathogens that pose a public health problem. Our innate immune system and in particular the interferon response form the important first line of defense against these viruses. Given their genetic flexibility, these viruses have therefore developed multiple strategies to evade the innate immune response in order to optimize their replication capacity. Already many molecular mechanisms of innate immune evasion by +ssRNA viruses have been identified. However, research addressing the effect of host innate immune evasion on the pathology caused by the viral infection is less prevalent in literature, though very relevant and interesting. Since interferons have been implicated in inflammatory diseases and immunopathology in addition to their protective role in infection, the influence of antagonizing the immune response may have an ambiguous effect on the clinical outcome of the viral disease. Therefore, this review discusses what is currently known about the role of interferons and host immune evasion in the pathogenesis of emerging viruses belonging to the coronaviruses, alphaviruses and flaviviruses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0203.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: flower development; epigenetics; RNA biology; Genomics; single cell biology
Online: 10 November 2021 (11:00:03 CET)
The rise of data science in biology stimulates interdisciplinary collaborations to address fundamental questions. Here, we report the outcome of the first SINFONIA symposium focused on revealing the mechanisms governing plant reproductive development across biological scales. The intricate and dynamic target networks of known regulators of flower development remain poorly understood. To analyze development from the genome to the final floral organ morphology, high-resolution data that capture spatiotemporal regulatory activities are necessary and require advanced computational methods for analysis and modeling. Moreover, frameworks to share data, practices and approaches that facilitate the combination of varied expertise to advance the field are called for. Training young researchers in interdisciplinary approaches and science communication offers the opportunity to establish a collaborative mindset to shape future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0597.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: 3D printing; microfabrication; microfluidic guillotine; single cell; wound healing
Online: 27 July 2021 (09:21:04 CEST)
Micro-blade design is an important factor in the cutting of single cells and other biological structures. This paper describes the fabrication process of three dimensional (3D) micro-blades for the cutting of single cells in a microfluidic “guillotine” intended for fundamental wound repair and regeneration studies. Our microfluidic guillotine consists of a fixed 3D micro-blade centered in a microchannel to bisect cells flowing through. We show that the Nanoscribe two-photon polymerization direct laser writing system is capable of fabricating complex 3D micro-blade geometries. However, structures made of the Nanoscribe IP-S resin have low adhesion to silicon, and they tend to peel off from the substrate after at most two times of replica molding in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). Our work demonstrates that the use of a secondary mold replicates Nanoscribe printed features faithfully for at least 10 iterations. Finally, we show that complex micro-blade features can generate different degrees of cell wounding and cell survival rates compared with simple blades possessing a vertical cutting edge fabricated with conventional 2.5D photolithography. Our work lays the foundation for future applications in single cell analyses, wound repair and regeneration studies, as well as investigations of the physics of cutting and the interaction between the micro-blade and biological structures.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Proteomics, protein informatics, mass spectrometry, single cell, copy number
Online: 5 July 2021 (16:09:09 CEST)
Proteomic technology has improved at a staggering pace in recent years, with even practitioners challenged to keep up with new methods and hardware. The most common metric used for method performance is the number of peptides and proteins identified. While this metric may be helpful for proteomics researchers shopping for new hardware, this is often not the most biologically relevant metric. Biologists often utilize proteomics in the search for protein regulators that are of lower relative copy number in the cell. In this review, I re-evaluate untargeted proteomics data using a simple graphical representation of the absolute copy number of proteins present in a single cancer cell as a metric. By comparing single shot proteomics data to the coverage of the most in-depth proteomic analysis of that cell line acquired to-date we can obtain a rapid metric of method performance. Using a simple copy number metric allows visualization of how proteomics has developed in both sensitivity and overall dynamic range when using both relatively long and short acquisition times. To enable reanalysis beyond what is presented here, two available web applications have been developed for single and multi-experiment comparisons with reference protein copy number data for multiple cell lines and organisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0196.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Single cell RNA-seq; spatial reconstruction; development; coalescent embedding
Online: 5 March 2021 (21:21:59 CET)
Single cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq) profiles conceal temporal and spatial tissue developmental information. De novo reconstruction of single cell temporal trajectory has been fairly addressed, but reverse engineering single cell 3D spatial tissue localization is hitherto landmark based, and de novo spatial reconstruction is a compelling computational open problem. Here we show that a new algorithm - named D-CE - for coalescent embedding of single cell transcriptomic networks can address this open problem. We rely merely on the spatial information encoded in the expression patterns of developmental signal transcription factor (DST) genes, and we find that D-CE of cell-cell association DST-transcriptomic networks reliably reconstructs the Geo-seq or single cell samples’ 3D spatial tissue distribution. Comparison to the novoSpaRC and CSOmap (recent and only available de novo 3D spatial reconstruction methods) on 16 datasets and 681 reconstructions, reveals a significantly distinctive superior performance of D-CE.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0674.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Solar cell energy; Single Axial Solar Tracking System; Solar cell efficiency; Arduino Uno Board
Online: 30 August 2020 (15:34:39 CEST)
This paper is regarding design and program an Micro-controller Arduino Uno board by using Arduino software to work as a photo-sensor(Active) single axial solar tracker system(SASTS). A solar panel, two photo-resistors (LDR) in two sides (north/south) of the photo-voltaic(PV) and a servo motor are connected to the Uno board, which is running a code that prepared by Arduino software IDE in advanced then it works as a tracking system. Here, the LDRs send the signal of presence or absence of the light to the board and based on that sent signal the Uno reflects a new signal to the servo motor to rotate and finds the light source. Lastly, the photo-sensor single axis tracker is made while Continuously, the system tries to face the panel to the sun and whilst changing the irradiance intensity it starts searching to find the angle of highest irradiance. Based on results that are extracted from the data, the tracker system significantly boosts the output efficiency of the solar panel. By using the Micro-controller Uno board, LDRs, servo motor and special designed mechanical base, the tracking system is constructed, based on acquired data the influence of the STS on the increasing the solar panel efficiency is more obvious. Significantly, the tracker system rises the efficiency of the PV .
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0327.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: scRNA-seq; bioinformatics; subpopulations; analysis methods; single-cell RNA sequencing
Online: 21 September 2022 (11:22:50 CEST)
Single-cell RNA sequencing data facilitates investigation of cell heterogeneity and subpopulations as well as differentially abundant states however modern single-cell RNA sequencing datasets are growing in size and complexity requiring advances in the bioinformatic methods that analyze them. Many methods exist for each step of analysis including read alignment, normalization, quality control, batch effect correction, imputation and dimensionality reduction. With so many options to choose from at each step of the analysis, benchmarking and a synthesis of the literature on the methods available is necessary to inform biological researchers on the most optimal workflow for their data. Here, recent key methods of analysis are highlighted with a focus on methods that facilitate identification of cell subpopulations and differentially abundant cell states. With a constantly expanding toolset for each step in single-cell RNA sequencing dataset analysis, biological researchers should stay informed to utilize the most applicable methods for their own analyses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0004.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Spatial transcriptomics; Molecular imaging; single-cell RNA-seq; intratumoral heterogeneity
Online: 1 February 2022 (11:08:51 CET)
Intratumoral heterogeneity associates with more aggressive disease progression and worse patient outcomes. Understanding the reasons enabling the emergence of such heterogeneity remains incomplete, which restricts our ability to manage it from a therapeutic perspective. Technological advancements such as high-throughput molecular imaging, single-cell omics and spatial transcriptomics now allow recording the patterns of spatiotemporal heterogeneity in a longitudinal manner, thus offering insights into the multi-scale dynamics of its evolution. Here, we review latest technological trends and biological insights from molecular diagnostics as well as spatial transcriptomics, both of which have witnessed a burgeoning growth in recent past in terms of mapping heterogeneity within tumor cell types as well as stromal constitution. We also discuss ongoing challenges, indicating possible ways to integrate insights across these methods to have a systems-level spatiotemporal map of heterogeneity in each tumor, and a more systematic investigation of implications of heterogeneity for the patient outcomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0382.v1
Subject: Keywords: Microfluidics; surgery; single cell; multicellular systems; sectioning; ablation; biopsy; fusion
Online: 16 July 2021 (14:53:11 CEST)
Microscale surgery on single cells and small organisms have enabled major advances in fundamental biology and in engineering biological systems. Examples of applications range from wound healing and regeneration studies to the generation of hybridoma to produce monoclonal antibodies. Even today, these surgical operations are often performed manually, but they are labor-intensive and lack reproducibility. Microfluidics has emerged as a powerful technology to control and manipulate cells and multicellular systems at the micro- and nanoscale with high precision. Here, we review the physical and chemical mechanisms of microscale surgery, and the corresponding design principles, applications, and implementations in microfluidic systems. We consider four types of surgical operations: 1) Sectioning, which splits a biological entity into multiple parts, 2) ablation, which destroys part of an entity, 3) biopsy, which extracts materials from within a living cell, and 4) fusion, which joins multiple entities into one. For each type of surgery, we summarize the motivating applications and the microfluidic devices developed. Throughout the review, we highlight existing challenges and opportunities. We hope that this review will inspire scientists and engineers to continue to explore and improve microfluidic surgical methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0052.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: antibiotics; conventional; microbiology; microfluidics; microscopy; mycobacterium smegmatis; population; single cell
Online: 2 June 2021 (08:32:03 CEST)
To reveal rare phenotypes in bacterial populations conventional microbiology tools should be advanced to generate rapid, quantitative, accurate and high-throughput data. The main drawbacks of widely used traditional methods for antibiotic studies include low sampling rate and averaging data for population measurements. To overcome these limitations microfluidic-microscopy systems have great promise to produce quantitative single-cell data with high sampling rates. Using Mycobacterium smegmatis cells we applied both conventional assays and a microfluidic-microscopy method to reveal antibiotic-tolerance mechanisms of wild type and the msm2570::Tnmutant cells. Our results revealed that the enhanced antibiotic tolerance mechanism of the msm2570::Tn mutant was due to the low number of lysed cells during the antibiotic exposure compared with wild-type cells. This is the first study that characterized the antibiotic-tolerance phenotype of the msm2570::Tn mutant that has a transposon insertion in the msm2570 gene encoding a putative xanthine/uracil permease, which enrolls in uptake of nitrogen compound during nitrogen limitation. The experimental results indicate that the msm2570::Tn mutant can be further interrogated to reveal antibiotic killing mechanisms, in particularly, antibiotics those targets cell wall integrity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0307.v1
Online: 21 February 2020 (08:09:25 CET)
An outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) occurred in China towards the end of 2019, and has spread rapidly ever since. Previous studies showed that some virus could affect the reproductive system and cause long-term complications. Recent studies exploring the source of SARS-CoV-2 using genomic sequencing have revealed that SARS-CoV-2 enters the host cells via the angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2), the receptor that recognizes SARS-CoV. To investigate the expression of ACE2 and to explore the potential risk of infection in the reproductive system, we performed a thorough bioinformatic analysis on data from public databases involving RNA expression, protein expression, and single-cell RNA expression studies. The analyzed data showed high levels of ACE2 mRNA and protein expression in the testis and spermatids and equal levels of ACE2 expression in the uterus and lung. Comprehensive single-cell analysis identified ACE2 expression in the lung, testis, spermatids, and uterus. In conclusion, this study revealed the potential risk associated with the SARS-CoV-2 infection in the reproductive system and predicted that long-term complications might have a significant impact on the prevention and management of COVID-19, the disease caused upon infection with SARS-CoV-2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0259.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: long non-coding RNA; cell type specific; alternative splicing; functional enrichment; RNA-binding proteins; protein binding lncRNA sponges; secondary RNA structure; cancer
Online: 26 June 2019 (05:23:29 CEST)
Background: Recent developments in our understanding of the interactions between long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) and cellular components have improved treatment approaches for various human diseases including cancer, vascular diseases, and neurological diseases. Although investigation of specific lncRNAs revealed their role in the metabolism of cellular RNA, our understanding of their contribution to post-transcriptional regulation is relatively limited. In this study, we explore the role of lncRNAs in modulating alternative splicing and their impact on downstream protein-RNA interaction networks. Results: Analysis of alternative splicing events across 39 lncRNA wildtype and knockout RNA-sequencing datasets from three human cell lines: HeLa (Cervical Cancer), K562 (Myeloid Leukemia), and U87 (Glioblastoma), resulted in high confidence (fdr < 0.01) identification of 4432 skipped exon events and 2474 retained intron events, implicating 759 genes to be impacted at post-transcriptional level due to the loss of lncRNAs. We observed that a majority of the alternatively spliced genes in a lncRNA knockout were specific to the cell type, in agreement with the finding that genes affected by alternative splicing also displayed enriched functions in a cell type specific manner. To understand the mechanism behind this cell-type specific alternative splicing patterns, we analyzed RNA binding protein (RBP)-RNA interaction profiles across the spliced regions. Conclusions: Despite limited RBP binding data across cell lines, alternatively spliced events detected in lncRNA perturbation experiments were associated with RBPs binding in proximal intron-exon junctions, in a cell type specific manner. The cellular functions affected by alternative splicing were also affected in a cell type specific manner. Based on the RBP binding profiles in HeLa and K562 cells, we hypothesize that several lncRNAs are likely to exhibit a sponge effect in disease contexts, resulting in the functional disruption of RBPs due to altered titration of the RBPs from their target loci. We propose that such lncRNA sponges can extensively rewire the post-transcriptional gene regulatory networks by altering the protein-RNA interaction landscape in a cell-type specific manner.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: single cell oil; biomass; PUFA; docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); fish byproducts; biodiesel
Online: 5 August 2019 (04:13:54 CEST)
The following study reports on the first thraustochytrid isolates identified from Iceland. They were collected from three different locations off the northern coast of the country (Location A, Skagaströnd; Location B, Hveravík; and Location C, Eyjafjörður). Using 18S rDNA sequence analysis, isolates from Locations A and B were identified within the Thraustochytrium kinnei species while other isolates within the Sicyoidochytrium minutum species when compared to other known strains. Cells isolated from Locations A (2.10 ± 0.70 g/L) and B (1.54 ± 0.17 g/L) produced more biomass than the ones isolated from Location C (0.43 ± 0.02 g/L). This study offers the first-time examination of the utility of byproducts from fisheries as a nitrogen source in media formulation for thraustochytrids. Experiments showed that isolates produced more biomass (per unit of substrate) when cultured on nitrogen of marine (2.55 ± 0.74 g/L) as compared to of commercial origin (1.06 ± 0.57 g/L). Glycerol (2.43 ± 0.56 g/L) was a better carbon source than glucose (1.84 ± 0.57 g/L) in growth studies. Fatty acid (FA) profiles showed that the isolates from Location C (S. minutum) had low ratios of monounsaturated (4.21 ± 2.96%) and omega-6 (0.68 ± 0.59%) FAs. However, the isolates also had high ratios of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 35.65 ± 1.73%) and total omega-3 FAs (40.39 ± 2.39%), indicating that they could serve as a source of marine oils for human consumption and in aquaculture feeds. The T. kinnei isolates from Location A could be used in biodiesel production due to their high ratios of monounsaturated (18.38 ± 6.27%) long chain (57.43 ± 8.27%) FAs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0372.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: RNA genome; RNA structure; Cell compartment-specific folding; LTR-retrotransposon; gRNA dimerization; gRNA cyclization; tRNA annealing; Ty1; Gag.
Online: 25 July 2022 (10:07:00 CEST)
The structural transitions RNAs undergo during trafficking are not well-understood. Here, we used the well-developed yeast Ty1 retrotransposon to provide the first structural model of genome (g) RNA in the nucleus from a retrovirus-like transposon. Through a detailed comparison of nuclear Ty1 gRNA structure with those established in the cytoplasm, virus-like particles (VLPs), and synthesized in vitro, we detected Ty1 gRNA structural alternations that occur during retrotransposition. Full-length Ty1 gRNA serves as the mRNA for Gag and Gag-Pol proteins and as the genome that is reverse transcribed within VLPs. We show that about 60% of base pairs predicted for the nuclear Ty1 gRNA appear in the cytoplasm, and active translation does not account for such structural differences. Most of the shared base pairs are represented by short-range interactions, while the long-distance pairings seem unique for each compartment. Highly structured motifs tend to be preserved after nuclear export of Ty1 gRNA. In addition, our study highlights the important role of Ty1 Gag in mediating critical RNA:RNA interactions required for retrotransposition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0317.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: EBPR; polyphosphate chain length; NMR; polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; single-cell Raman spectroscopy
Online: 17 September 2021 (12:50:48 CEST)
Polyphosphate (polyP) accumulating organisms (PAOs) are the key agent to perform enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) activity, and intracellular polyP plays a key role in this process. Potential associations between EBPR performance and the polyP structure have been suggested, but are yet to be extensively investigated, mainly due to the lack of established methods for polyP characterization in the EBPR system. In this study, we explored and demonstrated that single-cell Raman spectroscopy (SCRS) can be employed for characterizing intracellular polyPs of PAOs in complex environmental samples such as EBPR systems. The results, for the first time, revealed distinct distribution patterns of polyP length (as Raman peak position) in PAOs in lab-scale EBPR reactors that were dominated with different PAO types, as well as among different full-scale EBPR systems with varying configurations. Furthermore, SCRS revealed distinctive polyP composition/features among PAO phenotypic sub-groups, which are likely associated with phylogenetic and/or phenotypic diversity in EBPR communities, highlighting the possible resolving power of SCRS at the microdiversity level. To validate the observed polyP length variations via SCRS, we also performed and compared bulk polyP length characteristics in EBPR biomass using conventional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and solution 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) methods. The results are consistent with the SCRS findings and confirmed the variations in the polyP lengths among different EBPR systems. Compared to conventional methods, SCRS exhibited advantages as compared to conventional methods, including the ability to characterize in situ the intracellular polyPs at subcellular resolution in a label-free and non-destructive way, and the capability to capture subtle and detailed biochemical fingerprints of cells for phenotypic classification. SCRS also has recognized limitations in comparison with 31P-NMR and PAGE, such as the inability to quantitatively detect the average polyP chain length and its distribution. The results provided initial evidence for the potential of SCRS-enabled polyP characterization as an alternative and complementary microbial community phenotyping method to facilitate the phenotype-function (performance) relationship deduction in EBPR systems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0700.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: renal progenitors; molecular mechanisms; kidney injury; single cell RNA sequencing; molecular signature
Online: 28 December 2020 (12:40:17 CET)
Kidneys of mice, rats and humans possess progenitors that maintain daily homeostasis and take part in endogenous regenerative processes following injury, owing to their capacity to proliferate and differentiate. In the glomerular and tubular compartments of the nephron, consistent studies demonstrated that well-characterized, distinct populations of progenitor cells, localized in the parietal epithelium of Bowman capsule and scattered in the proximal and distal tubules, could generate segment-specific cells in physiological conditions and following tissue injury. However, defective or abnormal regenerative responses of these progenitors can contribute to pathologic conditions. The molecular characteristics of renal progenitors have been extensively studied, revealing that numerous classical and evolutionarily conserved pathways, such as Notch or Wnt/β-catenin, play a major role in cell regulation. Others, such as retinoic acid, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, TLR2 (Toll-Like Receptor 2) and leptin, are also important in this process. In this review, we summarize the plethora of molecular mechanisms directing renal progenitor responses during homeostasis and following kidney injury. Finally, we will explore how single cell RNA sequencing could bring the characterization of renal progenitors to the next level, while knowing their molecular signature is gaining relevance in the clinic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0051.v3
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Wuhan 2019-nCov; ACE2; expression; susceptibility; race; age; gender; smoking; single cell
Online: 2 March 2020 (01:38:52 CET)
In current severe global emergency situation of 2019-nCov outbreak, it is imperative to identify vulnerable and susceptible groups for effective protection and care. Recently, studies found that 2019-nCov and SARS-nCov share the same receptor, ACE2. In this study, we analyzed five large-scale bulk transcriptomic datasets of normal lung tissue and two single-cell transcriptomic datasets to investigate the disparities related to race, age, gender and smoking status in ACE2 gene expression and its distribution among cell types. We didn’t find significant disparities in ACE2 gene expression between racial groups (Asian vs Caucasian), age groups (>60 vs <60) or gender groups (male vs female). However, we observed significantly higher ACE2 gene expression in former smoker’s lung compared to non-smoker’s lung. Also, we found higher ACE2 gene expression in Asian current smokers compared to non-smokers but not in Caucasian current smokers, which may indicate an existence of gene-smoking interaction. In addition, we found that ACE2 gene is expressed in specific cell types related to smoking history and location. In bronchial epithelium, ACE2 is actively expressed in goblet cells of current smokers and club cells of non-smokers. In alveoli, ACE2 is actively expressed in remodelled AT2 cells of former smokers. Together, this study indicates that smokers especially former smokers may be more susceptible to 2019-nCov and have infection paths different with non-smokers. Thus, smoking history may provide valuable information in identifying susceptible population and standardizing treatment regimen.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0358.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Foot-and-mouth disease virus; safe sample transport; single-stranded positive-sense RNA; TRIzol extraction; naked RNA; infectivity; RNA transfection; lipofectamine; self-transfection; BHK cells
Online: 25 July 2022 (08:14:51 CEST)
Safe sample transport is of great importance for infectious diseases diagnostics. Various treatments and buffers are used to inactivate pathogens in diagnostic samples. At the same time, adequate sample preservation, particularly of nucleic acids, is essential to allow an accurate laboratory diagnosis. For viruses with single-stranded RNA genomes of positive polarity, such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), however, naked full-length viral RNA can itself be infectious. In order to assess the risk of infection from inactivated FMDV samples, two animal experiments were performed. In the first trial, six cattle were injected with FMDV RNA (isolate A22/IRQ/24/64) into the tongue epithelium. All animals developed clinical disease within two days and FMDV was reisolated from serum and saliva samples. In the second trial, another group of six cattle was exposed to FMDV RNA by instilling it on the tongue and spraying it into the nose. The animals were observed for 10 days after exposure. All animals remained clinically unremarkable and virus isolation as well as FMDV genome detection in serum and saliva were negative. No transfection reagent was used for any of the animal inoculations. In conclusion, cattle can be infected by injection with naked FMDV RNA, but not by non-invasive exposure to the RNA. Inactivated FMDV samples that contain full-length viral RNA carry only a negligible risk of infecting animals.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Insecta; Chemosensory proteins; Odorant binding proteins; Peptide mutation; Cell evolution; Abiogenesis
Online: 30 January 2020 (03:02:21 CET)
We remind about the dogma initially established with the nucleic acid double helix, i.e. the DNA structure as the primary source of life. However, we bring into the discussion those additional processes that were crucial to enable life and cell evolution. Studying chemosensory proteins (CSPs) and odor binding proteins (OBPs) of insects, we have found a high level of pinpoint mutations on the RNA and peptide sequences. Many of these mutations are found to be tissue-specific and induce subtle changes in the protein structure, leading to a new theory of cell multifunction and life evolution. Here, attention is given to RNA and peptide mutations in small soluble protein families known for carrying lipids and fatty acids as fuel for moth cells. A new phylogenetic analysis of mutations is presented and provides even more support to the pioneer work, i.e. the finding that mutations in binding proteins have spread through moths and various groups of insects. Then, focus is given to specific mechanisms of mutations that are not random, change α-helical profilings and bring new functions at the protein level. In conclusion, RNA and peptide mutations are not seen as representative of a multitude of diseases, but rather as an alternative way by which protocells developed to acquire multifunction and totipotency. This provides a basis for the theory of RNA/peptide mutations for birth and evolution of life on earth’s crust proposed here.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0760.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Mixed culture; Lipomyces starkeyi; Chloroidium saccharophilum; Single Cell Oils (SCOs); Arundo donax; biorefinery.
Online: 30 December 2020 (15:18:12 CET)
The mutualistic interactions between the oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi and the green mi-croalga Chloroidium saccharophilum in mixed cultures were investigated to exploit possible syner-gistic effects. As a matter of facts, microalga could act as an oxygen generator for the yeast, while the yeast could provide carbon dioxide to microalga. A lignocellulosic hydrolysate from steam exploded Arundo donax (Giant reed) was used as low cost feedstock. The overall lipid content and lipid productivity obtained in the mixed culture treating the hydrolysate of Arundo donax were equal to 0.081 glipid.gbiomass-1 and 37.2 mglipid.L-1.d-1, respectively. They represented promising re-sults if compared to the model systems where synthetic media were used. This study provided new input for the integration of Single Cell Oil (SCO) production with agro-industrial feedstock and the fatty acid distribution mainly consisting of stearic (C18:0) and oleic acid (C18:1) allows promising applications in biofuels, cosmetics, food additives and other products of industrial interest.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0250.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: cell nucleus; gene expression; transcription foci; transcription factors; super-resolution microscopy; structured illumination; stimulated emission depletion; stochastic optical reconstruction; photoactivation
Online: 9 June 2021 (10:29:32 CEST)
Classical models of gene expression were built using genetics and biochemistry. Although these approaches are powerful, they have very limited consideration of the spatial and temporal organization of gene expression. Although the spatial organization and dynamics of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) transcription machinery has fundamental functional consequences for gene expression, its detailed studies have been for long time abrogated by the limits of classical light microscopy. The advent of super-resolution microscopy (SRM) techniques allowed for the visualization of the RNAPII transcription machinery with nanometer resolution and millisecond precision. In this review, we summarize the recent methodological advances in SRM, focus on its application for studies of the nanoscale organization in space and time of RNAPII transcription, and discuss its consequences for the mechanistic understanding of gene expression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0220.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Computational Mathematics Keywords: scRNA-seq; single cell; RNA-seq; DEG; differential expression; DE; benchmarking; scRNA-seq simulator
Online: 25 April 2022 (06:18:45 CEST)
To guide analysts to select the right tool and parameters in differential gene expression analysis of single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) data, we developed a novel simulator that recapitulates the data characteristics of real scRNA-seq datasets while accounting for all the relevant sources of variation in a multi-subject, multi-condition scRNA-seq experiment: the cell-to-cell variation within a subject, the variation across subjects, the variability across cell types, the mean/variance relationship of gene expression across genes, library size effects, group effects, and covariate effects. By applying it to benchmark 12 differential gene expression analysis methods (including cell-level and pseudo-bulk methods) on simulated multi-condition, multi-subject data of the 10x Genomics platform, we demonstrated that methods originating from the negative binomial mixed model such as glmmTMB and NEBULA-HL outperformed other methods. Utilizing NEBULA-HL in a statistical analysis pipeline (https://github.com/interactivereport/scRNAseq_DE) for single cell analysis will enable scientists to better understand cell-type specific transcriptomic response to disease or treatment effects and to discover new drug targets. Further, application to two real datasets showed the outperformance of our differential expression (DE) pipeline, with unified findings of differentially expressed genes (DEG) and a pseudo-time trajectory transcriptomic result. In the end, we made recommendations of filtering strategies of cells and genes based on simulation results to achieve optimal experimental goals.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0070.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: 3D cell culture; patch-clamp; spheroids; single-channel recording; ion channels; mesenchymal stem cells
Online: 8 April 2022 (03:29:15 CEST)
Tri-dimensional (3D) cell aggregates or spheroids are considered to be closer to physiological conditions than traditional 2D cell culture. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) assembling in spheroids have increased the survival of transplanted cells. The regulation of the biological processes that maintain crucial physiological reactions of MSCs is closely related to the functioning of ion channels. The pattern of expression, role and regulatory mechanisms of ion channels could be significantly different in 3D compared to 2D culture, and, thus, needed to be properly analyzed on the level of ionic currents. We developed a specific approach that allowed us to register, for the first time, endogenous ion channels in endometrial MSCs (eMSCs) assembled in spheroids. Particularly, using the single-channel patch-clamp technique, we have recorded the activity of ion channels and observed their functional interplay in mechanosensitive clusters. Our experimental protocol could be applied for identification and studying of ion channels in 3D cell cultures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0385.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Cancer; Immunotherapy; Deconvolution; Alpha diversity; Beta diversity; Precision medicine; Microenvironment; Single-cell RNA sequencing
Online: 13 November 2020 (14:18:40 CET)
Cancer immunotherapy reaches a remarkable achievement in various cancer types and brings new possibilities to improve cancer patients’ long-term survival. However, outcomes vary from case to case, and the present protocol benefits a small fraction of patients. One notable factor is the tumor microenvironment, especially the immune cell components, that may reflect the immune response's status quo on site. Thus, understanding the content of infiltrating immune cells in tumors is not only for research interesting but also a crucial subject toward precision medicine. We implement an algorithm for resolving relative proportions of twenty-one immune cell subclasses from a human tissue profiled transcriptome by microarray technology to reach the goal above. By selecting gene features and then adopting ?-Support Vector Regression, we can construct a deconvolution model and resolve the immune cell context. The excellent consistency between the estimated values and the correct immune-cell composition further demonstrates this approach provides a more natural alternative to revealing samples' immune cell content and reliable results like recent single-cell technologies. Based on this algorithm, the web-based deconvolution tool implemented named mySORT provides a user-friendly interface for estimating the immune cell content by uploading gene expression profiling. We also present comprehensive visualization 2D/3D plots in mySORT so that users can easily make a comparison between different samples. Finally, we synthesized pseudo-bulk expression data from single-cell transcriptomic datasets of 17 melanoma and 16 head and neck cancer patients. The deconvolution results of microarray-based data in the previous study and synthetic pseudo-bulk data all proved the excellent performance of mySORT. We believe that mySORT can help researchers in all fields easily understand complex immune microenvironment. The website of mySORT is freely accessible on https://symbiosis.iis.sinica.edu.tw/mySORT/.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: single particle tracking; single molecule biophysics; fluorescence
Online: 25 January 2021 (12:26:31 CET)
Single particle tracking (SPT) is a powerful class of methods for studying the dynamics of biomolecules inside living cells. The techniques reveal the trajectories of individual particles, with a resolution well below the diffraction limit of light, and from them the parameters defining the motion model, such as diffusion coefficients and confinement lengths. Most existing algorithms assume these parameters are constant throughout an experiment. However, it has been demonstrated that they often vary with time as the tracked particles move through different regions in the cell or as conditions inside the cell change in response to stimuli. In this work, we propose an estimation algorithm to determine time-varying parameters of systems that discretely switch between different linear models of motion with Gaussian noise statistics, covering dynamics such as diffusion, directed motion, and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck dynamics. Our algorithm consists of three stages. In the first stage, we use a sliding window approach, combined with Expectation Maximization (EM) to determine maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters as a function of time. These results are only used to roughly estimate the number of model switches that occur in the data to guide the selection of algorithm parameters in the second stage. In the second stage, we use change detection (CD) techniques to identify where the models switch, taking advantage of the off-line nature of the analysis of SPT data to create non-causal algorithms with better precision than a purely causal approach. Finally, we apply EM to each set of data between the change points to determine final parameter estimates. We demonstrate our approach using experimental data generated in the lab under controlled conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0268.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Turner’s syndrome; chromosomal aneuploidy; amniotic fluid; cell-free RNA; ingenuity pathway analysis
Online: 12 October 2018 (12:07:26 CEST)
Genetic disorders are quite a major topic of discussion and debate in the recent world of biological sciences. Turner’s syndrome is one such disorder caused by a chromosome aneuploidy and it has characteristic symptoms in the patient or the affected individual. The amniotic fluid is a complex biological material found in the amniotic sac of pregnant women and they can provide valuable knowledge and understanding of the pathogenesis of this particular chromosomal abnormality. In this study, global gene expression analysis of cell-free RNA in amniotic fluid supernatant was used to detect genes/organ systems which may be significant in the pathophysiology of Turner’s syndrome. The cell-free RNA from the amniotic fluid of five mid-trimester Turner’s syndrome fetuses and five euploid female fetuses matched for age of gestation were extracted, amplified and hybridized onto Affymetrix U33 Plus 2.0. array. The paired t-test was used to identify the significantly differentially regulated genes. Biological interpretation was conducted using ingenuity pathway analysis and BioGPS gene expression atlas. Of the genes, XIST was especially downregulated and SHOX was not expressed differentially. One of the most highly represented organ systems was the hematologic/immune system, differentiating the transcriptome of Turner’s syndrome from other chromosomal aneuploidies that are discussed in this area of science. The differences in the transcriptome of the Turner’s syndrome are due to genome-wide dysregulation. The hematologic/immune system differences are significant in early-onset autoimmune dysfunction. There are other genes which have been identified that are associated with the cardiovascular and the skeletal system, as these are often seen to be affected in the female patients with turner’s syndrome. Hopefully, such knowledge gained from this study will help us to understand the deeper mechanisms of this disorder and the possible treatments of this disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0624.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; Metformin; Long noncoding RNAs; CCAT1; SPRY4-IT1; c-Myc
Online: 25 June 2021 (12:41:51 CEST)
Evidence indicates that the long noncoding RNAs are involved in the metformin-mediated anti-cancer processes. However, the potential effects of the long noncoding RNAs in metformin-mediated anti-tumor processes in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC) are still elusive. This study uncovered that metformin decreases the level of long noncoding RNAs CCAT1 and SPRY4-IT1 thereby contributing to the down-regulation of c-Myc and vimentin. Also, the RNA level test of human ESCC tissue confirmed the positive correlation between CCAT1 and c-Myc. These findings demonstrated that metformin facilitated anti-cancer effects by targeting the 2 long noncoding RNAs (CCAT1 and SPRY4-IT1) and their consequential targets c-Myc and vimentin. Therefore, the CCAT1 and SPRY4-IT1 might act as novel molecular targets that mediate the anti-tumor effects in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. This helps in predicting the treatment response of metformin in patients diagnosed with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0491.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Tuberculosis; Mycobacterium; Diagnostics; Drug Discovery; Antibiotics; Antimicrobial Re-sistance; Microfluidics; Single-Cell Analysis; Bioengineered Models
Online: 29 September 2021 (11:34:04 CEST)
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global healthcare crisis with an estimated 10 million new cases and 1.4 million deaths per year TB is caused by infection with the major human pathogen Mycobacte-rium tuberculosis, which is difficult to rapidly diagnose and treat. There is an urgent need for new methods of diagnosis, sufficient in vitro models which capably mimic all physiological condi-tions of the infection, and high-throughput drug screening platforms. Microfluidic-based tech-niques provide single-cell analysis which reduces experimental time, the cost of reagents, and have been extremely useful for gaining insight into monitoring microorganisms. This review out-lines the field of microfluidics and discusses the use of this novel technique so far in M. tuberculo-sis diagnostics, research methods, and drug discovery platforms. The practices of microfluidics have promising future applications for diagnosing and treating TB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0001.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: CRISPR-Cas9; high-content screening (HCS); fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS); Parkinson's disease (PD); patient-derived iPS; single-cell clones; isogenic cell lines; SNCA; alpha-synuclein; A30P
Online: 2 May 2020 (11:20:20 CEST)
The generation of isogenic induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines using CRISPR-Cas9 technology is a technically challenging, time-consuming process with variable efficiency. Here we use fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to sort biallelic CRISPR-Cas9 edited single-cell iPS clones into high-throughput 96-well microtiter plates. We used high-content screening (HCS) technology and generated an in-house developed algorithm to select the correctly edited isogenic clones for continued expansion and validation. In our model we have gene-corrected the iPSCs of a Parkinson’s disease (PD) patient carrying the autosomal dominantly inherited heterozygous c.88G>C mutation in the SNCA gene, which leads to the pathogenic p.A30P form of the alpha-synuclein protein. Undertaking a PCR restriction-digest mediated clonal selection strategy prior to sequencing, we were able to post-sort validate each isogenic clone using a quadruple screening strategy. Subsequent transfection with mRNA encoding excision-only transposase allows for the generation of footprint-free isogenic iPSC lines. These monoclonal isogenic iPSC lines retain a normal molecular genotype, express pluripotency markers and have the ability to differentiate into the three germ layers. This combinatory approach of FACS, HCS and post-sorted restriction digestion facilitates the generation of isogenic cell lines for disease modelling to be scaled-up on an automated platform.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0424.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: high frequency dielectrophoresis; glioblastoma cells; single cell manipulation; microfluidic point-of-care device; cancer stem cells
Online: 24 September 2021 (11:11:35 CEST)
Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most aggressive solid tumors, particularly due to the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Today the characterization of this type of cells with an efficient, fast and low-cost method remains an issue. Hence, we have developed a microfluidic lab-on-a-chip based on dielectrophoresis (DEP) single cell electro-manipulation to measure the two crossover frequencies: fx01 in low frequency range (below 500 kHz) and fx02 in Ultra High Frequency range (UHF, above 50 MHz). First, in vitro conditions were investigated. U87-MG cell lines were cultured in different conditions in order to induce an undifferentiated phenotype. Then, ex vivo GBM cells from patients’ primary cell culture, were passed through the developed microfluidic system and characterized in order to reflect clinical conditions. This article demonstrates that the usual exploitation of low frequency range DEP does not allow the discrimination of the undifferentiated from the differentiated phenotypes of GBM cells. However, the presented study highlights the use of UHF-DEP as a relevant discriminant parameter. The proposed microfluidic lab-on-a-chip is able to follow the kinetic of U87-MG phenotype transformation in a CSC enrichment medium and their cancer stem cells phenotype acquirement.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0514.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms; Point Mutation; Chemokines; T-cells; Viral Infection; Tumorigenesis; T-cell Surface; Immune Response
Online: 26 October 2020 (11:08:40 CET)
C-C Chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) is expressed on the CD4 T cell surface where CXCR4 and CCR5 expressions are controlled differently during the activation of T cells and with the binding of interleukin type-2 (IL-2). IL-2 can upregulate CCR1 and CCR2 in CD45R01 T cells and increase the T lymphocyte chemotaxis toward CC-chemokines. CD4+ T cells are either apart of the T helper 1 or Th1 lymphocytes that release interferon gamma (IFNγ) and lymphotoxin that provide cellular immunity to internal pathogens and T helper cells type 2 (Th2), which secrete interleukins 4 and 5 (IL-4 and IL-5). IL-4 and IL-5 cause an allergic and humoral immune response to parasites. Th2 lymphocytes use CCR3 chemokine receptors. CCR5 and CXCR3 chemokine receptors are specific for CD4+ Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes. CCR5Δ32 is a 32-base-pair deletion of the CCR5 gene. CCR5 is a co-receptor for the entrance of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1). CCR5Δ32 creates a malfunction of the CCR5 protein that can prevent HIV-1 infection. However, the CCR5Δ32 32-base-pair deletion is not prevalent and predominant in many populations worldwide and there also exist more genetic variations of CCR5 known as CCR5-SNPs. An alternative polymorphism was identified based on the CCR5 gene that was identified as a A to G (A/G) point mutation. This point mutation is located at the 59029 locus on the promoter that lowers the expression rate of CCR5. Gurdol et al. found activity at the promoter of CCR5/590029G was 45% lesser than the CCR5/59029A. The genetic variations of CCR5 SNPs also include: 2459G>SNP of CCR5, C101X, CCR5 gene position at -2273, and the A to G SNP mutation found in two South African blacks. Therefore, more studies are needed to find more and varied chemokine polymorphisms that are present in many diverse populations in the world. The aim of this literature review is to describe the immense impact of CCR5 SNP mutations on viral infection susceptibility, on the pathogenesis of chronic conditions, to endorse the increased discovery of more novel CCR5 SNPs, and to show the significant potential of anti-CCR5 therapies to treat multiple diseased conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0408.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Wuhan SARS-CoV-2; ACE2; DC-SIGN; L-SIGN; expression; susceptibility; race; age; gender; smoking; single cell
Online: 27 February 2020 (12:45:26 CET)
The current spreading novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is highly infectious and pathogenic and has attracted global attention. Recent studies have found that SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV share around 80% of homology and use the same cell entry receptor, ACE2. These inspired us to study other receptors of SARS-CoV, which may be used for SARS-CoV-2 binding as well. In this study, we screened the gene expression of three receptors (ACE2, DC-SIGN and L-SIGN) in four datasets of normal lung tissue from lung adenocarcinoma patients and two single-cell RNA sequencing datasets from normal lung and bronchial epithelial cells separately. No significant difference in gene expression of these three receptors were found between gender groups (male vs female). We found higher gene expression of DC-SIGN in elder with age>60 and higher gene expression of L-SIGN in Caucasian than Asian. Similar to ACE2, we observed significantly higher DC-SIGN gene expression in the lungs of smokers, especially former smokers. However, smokers upregulate ACE2 and DC-SIGN gene expression in different cell types. In the whole lung, ACE2 is actively expressed in remodeled Alveolar Type II cells of former smokers, while DC-SIGN is largely expressed in monocytes of former smokers and dendritic cells of current smokers. In bronchial epithelium, no obvious gene expression of DC-SIGN and L-SIGN was observed while ACE2 was found to be actively expressed in goblet cells of current smokers and club cells of non-smokers. In conclusion, our findings may indicate that smokers, especially former smokers, and people over 60 have higher risk and are more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Also, this study provides hints on possible SARS-CoV-2 pathogenicity mechanisms in lung infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0079.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Bacteria; elasto-inertial focusing; microfluidics; microwaves; membrane potential; sensing; shear stress; single cell detection; system-on-a-chip
Online: 2 March 2021 (11:24:18 CET)
The investigation of the electromagnetic properties of biological particles in microfluidic platforms may enable wireless monitoring and interaction with functional activity of microorganisms. Of high relevance is the membrane potential as it is one of the most important parameters of living cells. In particular, the complex mechanisms of the cell’s membrane potential are comparable to the dynamics of bacteria membranes, providing a simplified platform for advancing the current techniques and knowledge of general bio-particle dynamics. In this work, we provide a theoretical analysis and experimental results on the microwave detection of bacteria on a microfluidic-based framework for sensing the membrane potential of bacteria. The results enable to further advance the state-of-the-art of electromagnetic bacteria sensing and microfluidic control, and their implication for measuring and interacting with the cell and its membrane potentials, which is of great importance for developing new biotechnological engineered systems and solutions.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0709.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: intrinsic multi-drug resistance; acquired multi-drug resistance; circulating tumor cells; single cells; cell clusters; cell monolayer; multi-cellular spheroids; cytometry of reaction rate constant; ovarian cancer
Online: 30 July 2020 (09:01:50 CEST)
Does cell clustering influence intrinsic and acquired multi-drug resistance (MDR) differently? To address this question, we studied cultured monolayers (representing individual cells) and cultured spheroids (representing clusters) formed by drug-naïve (intrinsic MDR) and drug-exposed (acquired MDR) lines of ovarian cancer A2780 cells by cytometry of reaction rate constant (CRRC). MDR efflux was characterized by accurate and robust “cell number vs. MDR efflux rate constant (kMDR)” histograms. Both drug-naïve and drug-exposed monolayer cells presented unimodal histograms; the histogram of drug-exposed cells was shifted towards higher kMDR value suggesting greater MDR activity. Spheroids of drug-naïve cells presented a bimodal histogram indicating the presence of two subpopulations with different MDR activity. In contrast, spheroids of drug-exposed cells presented a unimodal histogram qualitatively similar to that of the monolayers of drug-exposed cells but with a moderate shift towards greater MDR activity. The observed greater effect of cell clustering on intrinsic than on acquired MDR can help guide the development of new therapeutic strategies targeting clusters of circulating tumor cells.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0741.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: folding; interactions; single-chain nanoparticles
Online: 30 November 2020 (16:20:43 CET)
The folding of certain proteins (e.g., enzymes) into perfectly defined 3D conformations via multi-orthogonal interactions is critical to their function. Concerning synthetic polymers chains, the “folding” of individual polymer chains at high dilution via intra-chain interactions leads to so-called single-chain nanoparticles (SCNPs). This review article describes the advances carried out in recent years in the folding of single polymer chains into discrete SCNPs via multi-orthogonal interactions using different reactive chemical species where intra-chain bonding only occurs between groups of the same species. First, we summarize results from computer simulations of multi-orthogonally folded SCNPs. Next, we comprehensively review multi-orthogonally folded SCNPs synthesized via either non-covalent bonds or covalent interactions. Finally, we conclude by summarizing recent research about multi-orthogonally folded SCNPs prepared through both reversible (dynamic) and permanent bonds.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0351.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: photochemistry; photofolding; single-chain nanoparticles
Online: 30 October 2019 (09:03:24 CET)
Clean use of photons from light to activate chemical reactions offer many possibilities in different fields, from chemistry and biology to materials science and medicine. This review article describes the advances carried out in last decades toward the phototriggered synthesis of single-chain polymer nanoparticles (SCNPs) as soft nanomaterials with promising applications in enzyme-mimicking catalysis and nanomedicine, among other different uses. First, we summarize different strategies developed to synthesize SCNPs based on photoactivated intrachain homocoupling, phototriggered intrachain heterocoupling and photogenerated collapse induced by external cross-linker. Next, we comprehensively review the emergent topic of photoactivated multifolding applied to SCNP construction. Finally, we conclude by summarizing recent strategies towards phototriggered disassembly of SCNPs.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0161.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: stem cell; stromal cell; mesenchymal stromal cell; regeneration; cell sheet; cell delivery
Online: 16 January 2019 (09:39:55 CET)
Regeneration is a fundamental process much attributed to functions of adult stem cells. In last decades delivery of suspended adult stem cells is widely adopted in regenerative medicine as a leading mean of cell therapy. However, adult stem cells can not complete the task of human body regeneration effectively by themselves as far as they need a receptive microenvironment (the niche) to engraft and perform properly. Understanding of mechanisms underlying mammalian regeneration lead us to an assumption that improved outcomes of cell therapy requires a specific microenvironment generated in damaged area prior to stem cell delivery. To certain extent it may be achieved by delivery of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), not in dispersed form, but rather self-organized in cell sheets (CS) – tissue-like structures comprising of viable cells and microenvironment components: extracellular matrix and soluble factors deposited in the matrix. In this communication we highlight a potential role of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) as regeneration organizers and speculate that this function emerges in CS. This concept shifts our understanding of therapeutic mechanism underlying a widely known CS-based delivery method for regenerative medicine.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0238.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: stem cell, stromal cell, mesenchymal stromal cell, regeneration, histogenesis, cell sheet, cell delivery
Online: 19 December 2018 (16:22:42 CET)
Regeneration is a fundamental perpetual tissue process much attributed to functions of adult stem cell. In last decades delivery of adult stem cells to restore tissue structure is widely adopted in regenerative medicine. However, delivery of stem cells can not complete the task of human body regeneration effectively as far as cells need a basis to form a tissue. Certain improvement can be achieved when cells are organized to cells sheets (CS) – primitive tissue-engineered structures comprising of viable cells and ECM proteins. This led us to an assumption that after damage an intermediate feeder is structure formed as a ground for future tissue resulting in gradients of stimuli required to attract other cells (vascular, neural, epithelial, parenchyma etc.) in an organized manner. This feeder acquires increasing heterogeneity and becomes a guiding feeder that provides basic level of organization to increase complexity of structure up to normal tissue. We also highlight potential role of adult mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) as the main source of guiding feeder and support it by our recent knowledge of their biological function. Finally, we assume that CS known to be a feasible delivery tool in therapeutics resemble guiding feeder and show our own data indicating properties of MSC-based CS. Furthermore, this concept shifts our understanding of therapeutic mechanism underlying a widely known delivery method for regenerative medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0090.v1
Online: 7 March 2022 (07:49:51 CET)
The strong coupling between individual quantum emitters and resonant optical micro/nanocavities is beneficial to understand light and matter interactions. Here we propose a plasmonic nanoantenna placed on a metal film to achieve an ultra-high electric field enhancement in the nanogap and ultra-small optical mode volume. The strong coupling between a single quantum dot and the designed structure is investigated in detail by both numerical simulations and theoretical calculations. When a single QD is inserted into the nanogap of the silver nanoantenna, scattering spectra show remarkably large spectral splitting and typical anti-crossing behavior of the vacuum Rabi splitting, which can be realized in the scattering spectra by varying the nanoantenna thickness. Our work shows a possible way to enhance light-matter interaction at a single quantum emitter limit, which can be useful for future quantum and nanophotonic applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0207.v1
Online: 9 September 2020 (10:48:24 CEST)
Long-read single-molecule sequencing has revolutionized de novo genome assembly and enabled the automated reconstruction of reference-quality genomes. It also has been widely used to study structural variants, phase haplotypes and more. Here, we introduce the assembler— SMARTdenovo, which is an SMS assembler that follows the overlap-layout-consensus (OLC) paradigm. SMARTdenovo (RRID: SCR_017622) was designed to be a fast assembler that did not require highly accurate raw reads for error correction, unlike other, contemporaneous SMS assemblers. It has performed well for evaluating congeneric assemblers and has been successful for a variety of assembly projects. It is compatible with Canu for assembling high-quality genomes, and several of the assembly strategies in this program have been incorporated into subsequent popular assemblers. The assembler has been in use since 2015, and here we provide information on the development of SMARTdenovo and how to implement its algorithms into current projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0518.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Cattle; RNF128; RNF34; Single nucleotide polymorphisms
Online: 24 August 2020 (09:44:34 CEST)
An experiment was conducted to investigate the role of single nucleotide polymorphisms of the gene RNF34 3′UTR-588 G>A and RNF128 I1-2380C>T with carcass and meat quality traits of Chinese Simmental-cross steers. METHOD: We performed sequencing and restriction enzyme digestion to detect genotypes of RNF34 3′UTR-588 G>A and RNF128 I1-2380C>T. Then, we analyzed the association of novel single nucleotide polymorphisms in intron regions of the RNF128 gene and in the 3′UTR region of RNF34 and meat quality traits of Chinese Simmental-cross steers. RESULTS: Statistical analyses revealed that SNP of RNF128 (I1-2380C>T) was significantly associated with dressed weight, forepaw weight, carcass depth, carcass brisket depth, hind legs length (P<0.05), etc. And RNF34 (3′UTR-588 G>A) were significantly associated with testis weight, kidney weight, tare weight (P<0.05), etc. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that polymorphisms in RNF34 and RNF128 might be important genetic factors that influence carcass and meat quality in beef cattle. Thus, they might be useful markers for meat quality traits in future marker-assisted selection programs in beef cattle breeding and production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0166.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: deformation monitoring; distributed monitoring; single-cell box girder; long-gage strain; long-gage Fiber Bragg Grating; strain distribution; shear lag effect; shear action
Online: 12 June 2018 (05:47:08 CEST)
Distributed deformation based on Fiber Bragg Grating sensors or other kinds of strain sensors can be used to evaluate safety in operating periods of bridges. However, most of the published researches about distributed deformation monitoring are focused on solid rectangular beam rather than box girder—a kind of typical hollow beam widely employed in actual bridges. Considering that the entire deformation of a single-cell box girder contains not only bending deflection but also two additional deformations respectively caused by shear lag and shearing action, this paper again revises the improved conjugated beam method (ICBM) based on the LFBG sensors to satisfy the requirements for monitoring two mentioned additional deformations. The best choice for the LFBG sensor placement in box gilder is also proposed in this paper due to strain fluctuation on flange caused by shear lag effect. Results from numerical simulations show that most of the theoretical monitoring errors of the revised ICBM are 0.3%~1.5%, and the maximum error is 2.4%. A loading experiment for a single-cell box gilder monitored by LFBG sensors show that most of the practical monitoring errors are 6%~8%, and the maximum error is 11%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Glioblastoma; biomarker; TSPO; single nucleotide polymorphism; survival.
Online: 5 August 2021 (10:22:34 CEST)
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults, with few available therapies and a 5-year survival rate of 7.2%. Hence, strategies for improving GBM prognosis are urgently needed. The translocator protein 18kDa (TSPO) plays crucial roles in essential mito-chondria-based physiological processes and is a validated biomarker of neuroinflammation, which is implicated in GBM progression. The TSPO gene has a germline single nucleotide pol-ymorphism, rs6971, which is the most common SNP in the Caucasian population. High TSPO gene expression is associated with reduced survival in GBM patients; however, the relation between the most frequent TSPO genetic variant and GBM pathogenesis is not known. The present study ret-rospectively analyzed the correlation of the TSPO polymorphic variant rs6971 with overall and progression-free survival in GBM patients using three independent cohorts. TSPO rs6971 poly-morphism was significantly associated with shorter overall survival and progression-free survival in male GBM patients but not in females in one large cohort of 441 patients. We observed similar trends in two other independent cohorts. These observations suggest that the TSPO rs6971 pol-ymorphism could be a significant predictor of poor prognosis in GBM, with a potential for use as a prognosis biomarker in GBM patients. These results reveal for the first time a biological sex-specific relation between rs6971 TSPO polymorphism and GBM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0613.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: folding; single-chain nanoparticles; catalysis; click chemistry
Online: 29 January 2021 (11:51:41 CET)
“Clickase” single-chain nanoparticles (Ck-SCNPs) are folded, enzyme-mimetic unimolecular polymeric nano-objects containing copper (Cu) ions able to catalyze the azide-alkyne Huisgen cycloaddition reaction in water and/or selected organic solvents, often in the presence of a reductant. Herein, we investigate the effect of morphology on catalytic activity of Ck-SCNPs synthesized by means of two different routes. An amphiphilic random copolymer composed of oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methyl methacrylate (OEGMA) and 2-acetoacetoxy ethyl methacrylate (AEMA) units was used as precursor of these Ck-SCNPs. Folding was promoted through metal complexation between Cu(II) ions and beta-ketoester-containing AEMA moieties. The first route resulted in Ck-SCNPs1 containing Cu ions homogeneously distributed within each nanoparticle, whereas the second one promoted intra-chain clustering of Cu ions inside Ck-SCNPs2. A model fluorogenic “click” reaction between 9-(azidomethyl)anthracene and phenylacetylene, which was catalyzed either by Ck-SCNPs1 or Ck-SCNPs2, was used to unravel the effect of morphology on catalytic activity. This work paves the way to improve the catalytic activity of metallo-folded SCNPs through control of the intra-chain distribution of catalytic sites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0142.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: nanopore; peptide sensing; electrophysiology; single-molecule sequencing
Online: 9 July 2018 (13:26:06 CEST)
In this work we demonstrate the proof-of-concept of real-time discrimination between patches of serine or isoleucine monomers in the primary structure of custom-engineered, macro-dipole-like peptides, at uni-molecular level. We employed single-molecule recordings to examine the ionic current through the α-hemolysin (α-HL) nanopore, when hydrophilic serine or hydrophobic isoleucine residues, flanked by segments of oppositely charged arginine and glutamic amino acids functioning as a voltage-dependent ‘molecular brake’ on the peptide, were driven at controllable rates across the nanopore. The observed differences in the ionic currents blockades through the nanopore, visible at time resolutions corresponding to peptide threading through the α-HL’s constriction region, was explained by a simple model of the volumes of electrolyte excluded by either amino acid species, as groups of three serine or isoleucine monomers transiently occupy the α-HL. To provide insights into the conditions ensuring optimal throughput of peptide readout through the nanopore, we probed the sidedness-dependence of peptide association to and dissociation from the electrically and geometrically asymmetric α-HL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0155.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: single fiber; cutting; fracture morphology; failure mechanism
Online: 22 May 2017 (05:29:48 CEST)
The present study investigates the failure mechanisms of industrial fiber materials, using a custom designed fiber cutting performance test bench. The fracture morphologies of single PA6 fibers are examined by scanning electron microscopy. The analysis reveals that fiber cutting can be distinguished according to four distinct stages of fiber failure represented by shearing, cutting, brittle fracture, and tensile failure, which are the result of different mechanisms active during the processes of crack initiation, extension and fracture. The results of fractographic analysis are further verified by an analysis of the blade assembly speed with respect to time over the entire fracture failure process based on high-speed camera data. The results of fractographic analysis and blade assembly speed are fully consistent.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0171.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: ATP; Cancer cell; Cancer Treatment; Mitochondria; T cell
Online: 27 June 2022 (05:07:50 CEST)
Like living organisms, cancer cells require energy to survive and interact with their environment. Mitochondria are the main organelles for energy production and cellular metabolism. Recently, investigators demonstrated that cancer cells can hijack mitochondria from immune cells. This behavior sheds light on a pivotal piece in the cancer puzzle, the ‘dependence’ on the normal cells. This article illustrates the benefits of new, functional mitochondria for cancer cells that urge them to hijack mitochondria. It describes how functional mitochondria help cancer cells’ survival in the harsh tumor microenvironment, immune evasion, progression, and treatment resistance. Recent evidence has put forward the pivotal role of mitochondria in cancer stem cells’ metabolism. This theory highlights the mitochondria in cancer biology and explains how targeted anti-mitochondrial treatments can improve oncological outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0106.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: seepage characteristics; single fracture; roughness; numerical simulation; Fluent
Online: 9 May 2022 (06:13:55 CEST)
A single fracture is the basic unit of fracture medium, and the roughness of fracture wall surface is an important factor influencing hydraulic characteristics of the ﬂow in bedrock fracture. However, effects of the shape and density of roughness elements (various bulges/pits on rough fracture wall surfaces) on water ﬂow in a single rough fracture have not been thoroughly discovered. Thus the water ﬂow in single fracture with different shapes and densities of roughness elements was simulated by using Fluent software in this study. The results show that in wider fractures the flow rate mainly depends on fracture aperture, while in narrow and close fracture medium the surface roughness of fracture wall is the main factor of head loss of seepage; there is a negative power exponential relation between the hydraulic gradient index and the average fracture aperture, i.e. with the increase of fracture aperture, the relative roughness of fracture and the influence weight of hydraulic gradient both decrease; and in symmetrical-uncoupled fractures there is a super-cubic relation between the discharge per unit width and average aperture. Above results would help to deepen the understanding of rough fracture seepage.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: capillary; microfluidic device; single-molecule recycling; maximum likelihood
Online: 26 May 2021 (10:50:13 CEST)
Microfluidic devices have been extensively investigated in recent years in fields including ligand-binding analysis, chromatographic separation, molecular dynamics, and DNA sequencing. To prolong the observation of a single molecule in aqueous buffer, the solution in a sub-micron scale channel is driven by the electric field and reversed after a fixed delay following each passage, so that the molecule passes back and forth through the laser focus and the time before irreversible photobleaching is extended. However, this practice requires complex chemical treatment to the inner surface of the channel to prevent unexpected sticking to the surface and the confined space renders features, such as a higher viscosity and lower dielectric constant, which slow the Brownian motion of the molecule compared to the bulk liquid. In this paper, we have fixed a capillary microchannel with an inner diameter of 2 microns on top of a piezo stage to recycle the molecule and collected the fluorescence by a confocal microscope. The passing times of the molecule through the laser focus are calculated by a real-time control system based on an FPGA and the commands of translation are given to the piezo stage through a feedback algorithm. We have achieved a maximum number of recycles of more than 200 and developed a maximum-likelihood estimation of the diffusivity of the molecule, which attains results of the same magnitude as previous reports. This technique simplifies the overall procedure of the single-molecule recycling and could be useful for the ligand-binding studies of biomolecules.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0562.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: MgAl2O4, Single atomic Nin+, RWGS, Stability, Reaction mechanism
Online: 24 May 2021 (10:50:17 CEST)
Reverse water gas shift reaction (RWGS) is an important process which plays a vital role in many CO2 utilization related reactions. Noble metals are the most active catalysts in RWGS, but the high price and low reserve strangled their applications. In the present work, we reported a non-transition-metal MgAl2O4 catalyst which showed outstanding activity and stability at high temperatures in the RWGS reaction and improved performance after doping of single atomic Nin+. The catalyst can obtain 46% of CO2 conversion in durability test of 75 h at 800 °C under high weight hourly space velocities (225 000 ml g-1 h-1). The adsorption sites, possible reaction route, and effects of Nin+ single atoms on the (111) surface of MgAl2O4 for RWGS were investigated by in situ DRIFTS and DFT calculations. The results indicated that the rate determining reaction step of RWGS on MgAl2O4 and Ni (SA)/MgAl2O4 were both the reaction of OH* + H* → H2O* + *, but the energy barrier was significantly reduced after introducing single atomic Nin+. Nin+ atoms can increase the hydroxyl coverage on the surface of catalyst and Al3+ sites near the Nin+ ion are considered as the predominant active sites for RWGS reactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0704.v2
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: single nanowires; Symmetry breaking; rectangular cross-section; absorption
Online: 8 February 2021 (11:38:12 CET)
Light absorption in single nanowires (NWs) is one of the most crucial factors for photovoltaic applications. In this paper, we carried out a detailed investigation of light absorption in single rectangular NWs (RNWs). We show that the RNWs exhibit improved light absorption compared with the square NWs (SNWs), which can be attributed to the symmetry-breaking structure that can increase the light path length by increasing the vertical side and the enhanced leaky mode resonances (LMRs) by decreasing the horizontal side. We found that the light absorption in silicon RNWs can be enhanced by engineering the horizontal and vertical sides, the photocurrent is significantly increased by 276.5% or 82.9% compared with that of the SNWs with the same side length as the horizontal side of 100 nm or the vertical side of 1000 nm, respectively. This work provides an effective way for designing high-efficiency single NW photovoltaic devices based on the symmetry breaking from the SNWs to RNWs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0712.v2
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: silicon; single nanowires; elliptical cross-section; absorption; photocurrent
Online: 19 October 2020 (15:58:52 CEST)
Light trapping in single nanowires (NWs) are of vital importance for photovoltaic applications. However, circular NWs (CNWs) can limit its light-trapping ability due to high geometrical symmetry. In this work, we present a detailed study of light trapping in single NWs with an elliptical cross-section (ENWs). We demonstrate that the ENWs exhibit significantly enhanced light trapping compared with the CNWs, which can be ascribed to the symmetry-broken structure that can orthogonalize the direction of light illumination and the leaky mode resonances (LMRs). That is, the elliptical cross-section can simultaneously increase the light path length by increasing the vertical axis and reshape the LMR modes by decreasing the horizontal axis. We found that the light absorption can be engineered via tuning the horizontal and vertical axes, the photocurrent is significantly enhanced by 374.0% (150.3%, 74.1%) or 146.1% (61.0%, 35.3%) in comparison with that of the CNWs with the same diameter as the horizontal axis of 100 (200, 400) nm or the vertical axis of 1000 nm, respectively. This work advances our understanding of how to improve light trapping based on the symmetry breaking from the CNWs to ENWs and provides a rational way for designing high-efficiency single or self-assembled NW photovoltaic devices.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0596.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: HIV-1 assembly, Gag, single molecule microscopy, dynamics
Online: 26 November 2018 (14:12:08 CET)
HIV-1 assembly is a complex mechanism taking place at the plasma membrane of the host cell. It requires nice spatial and temporal coordination to end up with a full immature virus. Researchers have extensively studied HIV-1 assembly molecular mechanism during the past decades, in order to dissect the respective roles of viral proteins, viral genome and host cell factors. Nevertheless, the time course of the process has been observed in living cells only a decade ago. The very recent revolution of optical microscopy, combining high speed and high spatial resolution now permit to study assemblies and their consequences at the single molecule level within (living) cells. In this review, after a short description of these new approaches, we will show how HIV-1 assembly in cells has been revisited using these advanced super resolution microscopy techniques and how much it could make a bridge in studying assembly from the single molecule to the host cell.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0371.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: optical tweezers; optical trap; PDMS devices; single cells
Online: 25 June 2018 (06:10:34 CEST)
Optical tweezers offer a non-contact method for selecting single cells and translocating them from one microenvironment to another. We have characterized the optical tweezing of yeast S. cerevisiae and can manipulate single cells at velocities up to 0.77 mm/s using laser powers of 40 mW from a 785 nm diode laser. We have fabricated and tested three cell isolation devices; a micropipette, a PDMS chip and laser machined fused silica chip and we have isolated single bacteria, yeast and cyanobacteria cells. The most effective isolation was achieved in PDMS chip, where single yeast cells were grown and observed for 18 hours without contamination. The duration of budding in S. cerevisiae was not affected by the laser parameters used, but the time from tweezing until the first budding event began increased with increase laser energy (laser power x time). Cells tweezed using 25 mW for 1 minute were viable after isolation. We have constructed a micro-consortium of yeast cells, and a co-culture of yeast and bacteria, using optical tweezers in combination with the PDMS network of channels and isolation chambers, which may impact on both industrial biotechnology and understanding pathogen dynamics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0183.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: FeSe2; high pressure; low temperature; single crystal diffraction
Online: 12 June 2018 (10:25:24 CEST)
We conducted an in-situ crystal structure analysis of ferroselite at non-ambient conditions. The aim is to provide a solid ground to further the understanding of the properties of this material in a broad range of conditions. Ferroselite, marcasite-type FeSe2, was studied under high pressures up to 46 GPa and low temperatures, down to 50 K using single-crystal microdiffraction techniques. High pressure and low temperatures were generated using a diamond anvil cell and a cryostat. We found no evidences of structural instability in the explored P-T space. The deformation of the orthorhombic lattice is slightly anisotropic. As expected, the compressibility of the Se-Se dumbbell, the longer bond in the structure, is larger than that of the Fe-Se bonds. Less obvious is the behavior of the octahedral bonds, the shorter bond is the most compressible determining a small increase in the octahedron distortion with pressure. We also achieved a robust structural analysis of ferroselite at low temperature in the diamond anvil cell. Structural changes upon temperature decrease are small but qualitatively similar to those produced by pressure.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0129.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: single crystal growth; incongruent melting compound; flux method
Online: 26 September 2017 (12:04:33 CEST)
Layered superconductors are attractive because some of them show high critical temperatures. While their crystal structures are similar, those compounds are composed of many elements. Compounds with many elements tend to be incongruent melting compounds, thus, their single crystals cannot be grown via the melt-solidification process. Hence, these single crystals have to be grown below the decomposition temperature, and then the flux method, a very powerful tool for the growth of these single crystals with incongruent melting compounds, is used. This review shows the flux method for single-crystal growth technique by self-flux, chloride-based flux, and HPHT (high-pressure and high-temperature) flux method for many-layered superconductors: high-Tc cuprate, Fe-based and BiS2-based compounds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0185.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: induced cardiomyocyte; epigenetic reprogramming; cell division; cell-cycle synchronization; cell-cycle exit
Online: 21 March 2018 (05:29:25 CET)
Direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into induced cardiomyocytes (iCMs) holds a great promise for regenerative medicine and has been studied in several major directions. However, cell-cycle regulation, a fundamental biological process, has not been investigated during iCM-reprogramming. Here, our time-lapse imaging on iCMs, reprogrammed by Gata4, Mef2c, and Tbx5 (GMT) monocistronic retroviruses, revealed that iCM-reprogramming was majorly initiated at late-G1- or S-phase and nearly half of GMT-reprogrammed iCMs divided soon after reprogramming. iCMs exited cell cycle along the process of reprogramming with decreased percentage of EdU+/αMHC-GFP+ cells. S-phase synchronization post-GMT-infection could enhance cell-cycle exit of reprogrammed iCMs and yield more GFPhigh iCMs, which achieved an advanced reprogramming with more expression of cardiac genes than GFPlow cells; however, S-phase synchronization didn’t enhance the polycistronic-MGT reprogramming, in which cell-cycle exit had been accelerated. In conclusion, post-infection synchronization of S-phase facilitated the early progression of GMT-reprogramming through a mechanism of enhanced cell-cycle exit.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0386.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: CRISPR, clonal selection, totipotent, multipotent, T cell receptors, B cell receptors, precommitted, lymphocyte, T cell vaccine, T cell vaccination
Online: 31 May 2019 (11:12:33 CEST)
Transfer factor is the name given to material derived from activated lymphocytes that is probably composed of a complex of a peptide and a short segment of RNA and which has the reported ability to transfer specific T cell immunity to uncommitted lymphocytes. Many independent groups around the world reported isolating transfer factors between 1955 and 1990 and demonstrating their ability to transfer passive immunity from one animal or individual to another, often within 24 hours of inoculation. Such activity is potentially revolutionary both in making T cell vaccines readily manufacturable and also because the existence of transfer factors would undermine the basic assumptions of the clonal selection theory, which currently dominates immunological theory. Unfortunately, lack of the microanalytical and synthetic techniques required to properly identify transfer factors, combined with safety factors associated with it derivation from blood sources susceptible to HIV and prion infections, put an end to transfer factor research after 1990. This paper reviews the evidence supporting transfer factor activity and suggests that this potentially revolutionary concept be resurrected and subjected to renewed scrutiny in light of CRISPR-Cas mechanisms and because of its potential to make possible T cell vaccination and provide a novel basis for understanding immunological function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0387.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Computational Mathematics Keywords: Exponentially–fitted; Obrechkoff; Fourth–derivative; Oscillatory; Periodic; Single–step
Online: 28 June 2022 (12:50:23 CEST)
The quest for accurate and more efficient methods for solving periodic/oscillatory problems is gaining more attention in recent time. This paper presents the construction and implementation of a family of exponentially–fitted Obrechkoff methods. A single–step Obrechkoff method involving terms up to the fourth derivatives was used as the base method. We also present the stability and convergence properties of the constructed family of methods. Two numerical examples were use to illustrate the performance of the constructed methods.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0230.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Single Image Super-Resolution; Sentinel-2; VENµS; remote sening
Online: 17 May 2022 (11:13:47 CEST)
Boosted by the progress in deep learning, Single Image Super-Resolution (SISR) has gained a lot of interest in the Remote Sensing community, who sees it as an oportunity to compensate for satellite's ever-limited spatial resolution with respect to end users needs. While there has been a great amount of work on network architures in the latest years, deep learning based SISR in remote sensing is still limited by the availability of the large training sets it requires. The lack of publicly available large datasets with the required variability in terms of landscapes and seasons pushes researchers to simulate their own dataset by means of downsampling. This may impair the applicability of the trained model on real world data at the target input resolution. In this paper, we propose an open-data licenced dataset composed of 10m and 20m cloud-free surface reflectance patches from Sentinel-2, with their reference spatially-registered surface reflectance patches at 5 meter resolution acquired on the same day by the VENµS satellite. This dataset covers 29 locations on earth with a total of 132 955 patches of 256x256 pixels at 5 meters resolution, and can be used for the training of super-resolution algorithms to bring the spatial resolution of 8 of the Sentinel-2 bands down to 5 meters.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0389.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Weyl semimetal; NbAs single crystal; CVT; seed growth process
Online: 25 January 2022 (17:21:18 CET)
A Weyl semimetal is a novel crystal with low-energy electronic excitations that behave as Weyl fermions. It has received worldwide interest and was believed to have opened the next era of condensed matter physics after graphene and three-dimensional topological insulators. Howev-er, it is not easy to obtain a single large-size crystal because there are many nucleations in the preparation process. Here, a bottom-seed CVT growth method is proposed in this paper, and we acquired the large-size, high-quality NbAs single crystals up to 5x4x4 mm3 finally. X-ray diffrac-tion and STEM confirmed that they are tetragonal NbAs, which the key is to use seed crystal in vertical growth furnace. Notably, the photoelectric properties of the crystal are obtained under the existing conditions, which paves the way for the follow-up work.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0720.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: High Gain, Single Stage, Switched Inductor Buck Boost Converter
Online: 27 April 2021 (12:51:21 CEST)
In this research paper, a high gain transformer less inverter modeling which is used for the smart grid technology or as the stand alone for home appliances is proposed. The proposed transformer less topology provides a higher voltage gain, low cost, small size and simple control stand alone transformer less inverter for home appliances. The above inverter is modeled by using software which is known as MATLAB/ Simulimk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0563.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Single crystal diamond; micro-water jet guided laser; microchannel
Online: 21 April 2021 (09:05:14 CEST)
Two types of trenches cross-section in conventional vertical and brand new reverse-V-shape have fabricated on SCD substrate by micro-jet water-assist laser, the epitaxial lateral overgrowth technique has applied by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition system in forming multiple micrometer-size channels. Raman and SEM techniques have applied in analyze both types growth layer characterization. Optical microscope has used to test microchannels hollowness. As a result, with the brand new reverse-V-shape trench, epitaxial lateral overgrowth layer reaches higher SCD surface morphology and crystal quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0514.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: nanopore tweezer; peptide nucleic acid; sequencing; single molecule recordings
Online: 22 March 2021 (11:08:30 CET)
Quantum leaps advances in the single-molecule investigative science have been made possible over the past decades through the implication of nanopores, as versatile components on dedicated biosensors. Here, we employed the nanopore-tweezing technique to capture amino acid-functionalized, peptide-nucleic acids (PNA) with -hemolysin-based nanopores, and correlate the ensuing stochastic fluctuations of the ionic current through the nanopore with the composition and order of bases in the PNAs primary structure. We demonstrate that while the system enables detection of distinct bases on homopolymeric PNA or triplet bases on heteropolymeric strands, it also reveals rich insights into the conformational dynamics of the entrapped PNA within the nanopore, relevant for perfecting the recognition capability single-molecule sequencing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0258.v2
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: single nanowires; silicon; dual shells; off-resonance; absorption; photocurrent
Online: 31 August 2020 (08:30:22 CEST)
Single nanowires (NWs) are of great importance for optoelectronic applications, especially solar cells serving as powering nanoscale devices. However, weak off-resonant absorption can limit its light-harvesting capability. Here, we propose a single NW coated with the graded-index dual shells (DSNW). We demonstrate that with appropriate thickness and refractive index of the inner shell, the DSNW exhibits significantly enhanced light trapping compared with the bare NW (BNW), and the NW only coated with the outer shell (OSNW) and the inner shell (ISNW), which can be attributed to the optimal off-resonant absorption mode profiles due to the improved coupling between the reemitted light of the transition modes of the leak mode resonances of the Si core and the nanofocusing light from the dual shells with the graded refractive index. We found that the light absorption can be engineered via tuning the thickness and the refractive index of the inner shell, the photocurrent density is significantly enhanced by 134% (56%, 12%) in comparison with that of the BNW (OSNW, ISNW). This work advances our understanding of how to improve off-resonant absorption by applying graded dual-shell design and provides a new choice for designing high-efficiency single NW photovoltaic devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0626.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: multispectral lidar; single-photon lidar; building data; 3D reconstruction
Online: 28 August 2020 (08:49:07 CEST)
This paper investigated building data from multispectral and single-photon Lidar systems. The multispectral datasets from the individual channels and fused channels were explored. The multispectral and single-photon Lidar data were compared across multiple aspects: the data acquisition geometry, number of echoes, intensity, density, resolution, data defects, noise level, and the absolute and relative accuracy. In addition, we explored the performance of the multispectral and single-photon data for roof plane detection for eight complex/stylish buildings to investigate the suitability of these data for 3D building reconstruction. The building data from the single-photon and multispectral Lidar systems were evaluated with respect to the reference building vector data with an accuracy of better than 5 cm. The advantages and disadvantages of both technologies and their applications in the urban building environment are discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0215.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Electrochemistry Keywords: hydrogen evolution reaction; catalysis; supported catalysts; single atom catalysts
Online: 16 February 2020 (12:57:18 CET)
Hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is one of the most important reaction in electrochemistry. This is not only because it is the simplest way to produce high purity hydrogen and the fact that it is the side reaction in many other technologies. HER actually shaped current electrochemistry because it was in focus of active research for so many years (and it still is). The number of catalysts investigated for HER is immense, and it is impossible to overview them all. In fact, it seems that the complexity of the field overcomes the complexity of HER. The aim of this review is to point out some of the latest developments in HER catalysis, current directions and some of the missing links between a single crystal, nanosized supported catalysts and, recently emerging, single atom catalysts for HER
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0218.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Heaviside function, single valued function, real variable, integer part
Online: 18 July 2019 (14:34:55 CEST)
In this paper, the author obtains an analytic exact form of Heaviside function, which is also known as Unit Step function and constitutes a fundamental concept of the Operational Calculus.In particulat, this function is explicitly expressed in a very simple manner by the aid of purely algebraic representations. The novelty of this work is that the proposed explicit formula is not performed in terms of non – elementary special functions, e.g. Dirac delta function or Error function and also is neither the limit of a function, nor the limit of a sequence of functions with point wise or uniform convergence. Hence, it may be much more appropriate and useful in the computational procedures which are inserted into Operational Calculus techniques and other engineering practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0069.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Keywords: Single-atom catalysis; heterogeneous catalysis; chemical innovation; low atomicity
Online: 4 September 2018 (14:55:10 CEST)
Recent advances in single-atom catalysis resulted in readily accessible materials whose application in most catalytic reactions mediated by conventional nanoparticle-based catalysts often results in higher activity and selectivity. Can we expect catalysis by atomically dispersed atoms to find practical applications? Which are the hurdles to be overcome prior to widespread uptake of atomically dispersed metals in industrial synthetic processes and in hydrogen fuel cells?
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0407.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: angle estimation; microsoft kinect; single camera; markerless mocap system
Online: 23 August 2018 (05:55:56 CEST)
The use of motion capture has increased from last decade in a varied spectrum of applications like film special effects, controlling games and robots, rehabilitation system, animations etc. The current human motion capture techniques use markers, structured environment, and high resolution cameras in a dedicated environment. Because of rapid movement, elbow angle estimation is observed as the most difficult problem in human motion capture system. In this paper, we take elbow angle estimation as our research subject and propose a novel, markerless and cost-effective solution that uses RGB camera for estimating elbow angle in real time using part affinity field. We have recruited five (5) participants of (height, 168 ± 8 cm; mass, 61 ± 17 kg) to perform cup to mouth movement and at the same time measured the angle by both RGB camera and Microsoft Kinect. The experimental results illustrate that markerless and cost-effective RGB camera has a median RMS errors of 3.06° and 0.95° in sagittal and coronal plane respectively as compared to Microsoft Kinect.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0142.v2
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: graphene; cold field emission; single-tip cathode; electron microscopy
Online: 28 May 2018 (09:02:44 CEST)
Although good field emission from graphene has been demonstrated from a wide variety of different microfabricated structures, very few of them can be used to improve the design of cold field emitters for electron microscopy applications. Most of them consist of densely packed nano-emitters, which produce a large array of defocused overlapping electron beams, and therefore cannot be subsequently focused down to a single nanometer electron probe. This paper reviews the kind of single-tip cathode structures suitable in cold field emission guns for instruments such as scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope or scanning transmission electron microscopy, and reviews progress in fabricating them from graphene-based materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0212.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: polymer electrolyte; single-ion conducting; ionic conductivity; Raman spectroscopy
Online: 15 May 2018 (08:45:58 CEST)
Solvent-free, single-ion conducting electrolytes are sought after for use in electrochemical energy storage devices. Here, we investigate the ionic conductivity and how this property is influenced by segmental mobility and conducting ion number in crosslinked single-ion conducting polyether-based electrolytes with varying tethered anion and counter-cation types. Crosslinked electrolytes are prepared by the polymerization of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA), poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate, and ionic monomers. The ionic conductivity of the electrolytes is measured and interpreted in the context of differential scanning calorimetry and Raman spectroscopy measurements. A lithiated crosslinked electrolyte prepared with PEG31DA and STFSI monomers is found to have a lithium ion conductivity of 3.2 × 10-6 and 1.8 × 10−5 S/cm at 55 and 100 °C, respectively. The percentage of unpaired anions for this electrolyte was estimated at about 23% via Raman spectroscopy. Despite the large variances in metal cation – STFSI binding energies as predicted via DFT and large variations in ionic conductivity, STFSI-based crosslinked electrolytes with the same charge density and varying cations (Li, Na, K, Mg, and Ca) were estimated to all have unpaired anion populations in the range of 19 to 29%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0081.v1
Online: 12 March 2018 (06:46:12 CET)
The past two decades has seen a growing demand for high-power, high-voltage utility scale inverters mostly fueled by the integration of large solar PV and wind farms. Multilevel inverters have emerged as the industry choice for these megawatt range inverters because their reduced voltage stress, capable of generating an almost sinusoidal voltage, in-built redundancy, among others. This paper present a new Switched-Source Multilevel Inverter (SS MLI) architecture. The new inverter show superior over existing topologies. It has reduced voltage stress on the semiconductor, uses less number of switches –reduced size/weight/cost and increased efficiency. The new SSMLI is comprised of two voltage sources (V1, V2) and 6 switches. It is capable of generating 5-level output voltage in symmetric modes (i.e., V1 = V2), and 7-level output voltage in asymmetric modes (i.e., V1 ≠ V2). To demonstrate the validity of the proposed inverter, simulations results using MATLAB® /Simulink® for 5- and 7-level output voltages are presented . The simulations are also verified experimentally using a laboratory prototype.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0238.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: anisotropic exchange; single molecule magnets; Spin Hamiltonian; CASSCF; NEVPT2
Online: 31 August 2016 (10:56:43 CEST)
The rationalization of single molecule magnets’ (SMMs) magnetic properties by quantum mechanical approaches represents a major task in the field of the Molecular Magnetism. The fundamental interpretative key of molecular magnetism is the phenomenological Spin Hamiltonian and the understanding of the role of its different terms by electronic structure calculations is expected to steer the rational design of new and more performing SMMs. This paper deals with the ab initio calculation of isotropic and anisotropic exchange contributions in the Fe(III) dimer [Fe2(OCH3)2(dbm)4]. This system represents the building block of one of the most studied Single Molecule Magnets ([Fe4RC(CH2O)3)2(dpm)6] where R can be an aliphatic chain or a phenyl group just to name the most common functionalization groups) and its relatively reduced size allows the use of a high computational level of theory. Calculations were performed using CASSCF and NEVPT2 approaches on the X-ray geometry as assessment of the computational protocol, which has then be used to evinced the importance of the outer coordination shell nature through organic ligand modelization. Magneto-structural correlations as function of internal degrees of freedom for isotropic and anisotropic exchange contributions are also presented, outlining for the first time the extremely rapidly changing nature of the anisotropic exchange coupling.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0250.v1
Online: 15 November 2021 (11:07:48 CET)
Metastasis is the leading cause of cancer death and can be realized through the phenomenon of tumor cell fusion. The fusion of tumor cells with other tumor or normal cells leads to the appearance of tumor hybrid cells (THCs) exhibiting novel properties such as increased proliferation and migration, drug resistance, decreased apoptosis rate and avoiding immune surveillance. Experimental studies showed the association of THCs with a high frequency of cancer metastasis; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Many other questions also remain to be answered: the role of genetic alterations in tumor cell fusion, the molecular landscape of cells after fusion, the lifetime and fate of different THCs, and the specific markers of THCs, and their correlation with various cancers and clinicopathological parameters. In this review, we discuss the factors and potential mechanisms involved in the occurrence of THCs, the types of THCs, and their role in cancer drug resistance and metastasis, as well as potential therapeutic approaches for the prevention and targeting of tumor cell fusion. In conclusion, we emphasize the current knowledge gaps in the biology of THCs that should be addressed to develop highly effective therapeutics and strategies for metastasis suppression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0149.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: endosymbiosis, germline, vertical transmission, cell-to-cell transfer
Online: 15 January 2019 (09:55:25 CET)
Microbial symbioses exhibit astounding adaptations, yet all symbionts face the problem of how to reliably associate with host offspring every generation. A common strategy is vertical transmission, in which symbionts are directly transmitted from the female to her offspring. The diversity of symbionts and vertical transmission mechanisms is as expansive as the diversity of eukaryotic host taxa that house them. However, there are several common themes among these mechanisms based on the degree to which symbionts associate with the host germline during transmission. In this review, we detail three distinct vertical transmission strategies, starting with associations that are transmitted from host somatic cells to offspring somatic cells, either due to lacking a germline or avoiding it. A second strategy involves somatically-localized symbionts that migrate into the germline during host development. The third strategy we discuss is one in which the symbiont maintains continuous association with the germline throughout development. Unexpectedly, the vast majority of documented vertically inherited symbionts rely on the second strategy: soma-to-germline migration. Given that not all eukaryotes contain a sequestered germline and instead produce offspring from somatic stem cell lineages, this soma-to-germline migration is discussed in the context of multicellular evolution. Lastly, as recent genomics data have revealed an abundance of horizontal gene transfer events from symbiotic and non-symbiotic bacteria to host genomes, we discuss their impact on eukaryotic host evolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0137.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: cell culture; bioreactor; live cell imaging; tissue engineering
Online: 31 January 2017 (12:39:46 CET)
Here, we present a staged approach for an innovative repurposing of a portable infant humidicrib into a live cell growth, observation, and imaging system. Furthmore, humidicrib can support different variations of “umbilical” bioreactors, and can be used to conduct electrophysiology experiments and in situ immunohistochemistry. Modifications incorporate a closed loop carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration control system with umbilical CO2 and heating support for tailored bioreactors. The repurposing cost is inexpensive and allows for the continued observation and imaging of cells. This prototype unit has been used to continuously observe and image live primary neurons for up to 21 days. This demonstrates the repurposed units’ suitability for use in tissue culture based research, particularly where modifications to microscopes are required or where sensitive manipulation outside of a standard incubator is needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0431.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: HIV, cell-to-cell transmission, designer antigens, neutralizing antibody, cell-free, high multiplicity of infection
Online: 24 August 2018 (10:25:33 CEST)
Viruses can infect a cell via one or both routes viz. cell-to-cell (c-c) or cell-free (c-f) . Pathogenesis studies of various viruses, including HIV, have shown that c-c transmission yields a significantly higher infection magnitude than the c-f route. Expectedly, potent antibodies inhibited c-f infection more efficiently than with c-cell transmission. To achieve a one-step, synchronous infection cycle that provides amplified infection, we have studied a consistent and efficient c-c HIV infection model since 1992. H9 cells persistently infected with HTLV-IIIB (H3B cells) and uninfected target CD4+ lymphocyte line (HuT78) were mixed in a ratio of 1:4 respectively. We have recently used this model to produce HIV designer antigens that have been shown to elicit monoclonal as well as polyclonal specific antibodies against novel epitopes that are formed post virus-cell engagement, but prior to fusion. The model can be extended for HIV neutralizing antibody assays or drug inhibitors against high multiplicity of infection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0387.v1
Online: 18 August 2021 (14:21:46 CEST)
Novel Cellular Immunotherapy with engineered T cells has improved cancer treatment and established therapeutic promises to prevent tumor formation in clinical studies. Due to certain restrictions and difficulties, CAR and TCR T cells therapies were inadequate at points. CRISPR Cas9 genome-editing tool has a significant potential for these two cell-based therapies. As a specialized gene-editing technique, CRISPR Cas9 is used to repair genetic alternation with minimum damage. It is used as an adjunct to Immunotherapy to stimulate a more robust immune response. CRISPR has long outpaced other target-specific genome editing methods such as ZFNs and TALEN due to its high efficiency, competence in targeting, and stable operating condition. CRISPR can overcome the two major drawbacks of universal CAR T cells: allorejection and graft-vs-host disease. TCR-based T cell treatment can reduce inappropriate binding between endogenous and transgenic TCR, resulting in a reduction of severe toxicity. The CAR and TCR T based cell therapies uphold an excellent future for tumor malignancies This article has elucidated the administration of CRISPR Cas9 in Novel Cellular Immunotherapy, CAR, and TCR T cell therapy. However, this article did not fail to observe this technology's ethical concerns, limitations, and challenges. Furthermore, the article compares CRISPR-mediated allogeneic CAR T cell to TCR-T cell therapy.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0167.v1
Online: 13 February 2020 (10:53:40 CET)
The outbreak of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has rapidly spread from Wuhan, China to multiple countries, causing staggering number of infections and deaths. A systematic profiling of the immune vulnerability landscape of 2019-nCoV is lacking, which can bring critical insights into the immune clearance mechanism, peptide vaccine development, and antiviral antibody development. In this study, we predicted the potential of all the 2019-nCoV viral proteins to induce class I and II MHC presentation and form linear antibody epitopes. We showed that the enrichment for T cell and B cell epitopes is not uniform on the viral genome, with several focused regions that generate abundant epitopes and may be more targetable. We showed that genetic variations in 2019-nCoV, though fewer for the moment, already follow the pattern of mutations in related coronaviruses, and could alter the immune vulnerability landscape of this virus, which should be considered in the development of therapies. We create an online database to broadly share our research outcome. Overall, we present an immunological resource for 2019-nCoV that could significantly promote both therapeutic development and mechanistic research.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0185.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: Eye; Corneal ulcer; Canine; Mesenchymal stem cell; Cell Therapy
Online: 16 December 2019 (11:32:08 CET)
Corneal ulcer (CU) is an ophthalmopathy characterized by depression of the corneal surface with at least one stromal loss. CU is common in canine and feline species and is usually caused, among others, by trauma, infections, toxic contamination and endocrine disorders. They usually result from an increased inflammatory response and are associated with some clinical signs such as blepharospasm, photophobia, epiphora, pain and loss of corneal transparency. Despite advances in conventional and pharmacological therapy, in many cases indolent and recurrent ulcer treatments still lead to loss of visual acuity of the animal. This paper aims to report the effect of topical application of canine adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell (cATMSCs) as treatment of recurrent CU in a Poodle dog breed that showed clear difficulty in the healing process associated with diabetes. The animal was submitted to two applications of cATMSCs and showed improvement in the blepharospasm, conjunctival hyperemia, mucopurulent ocular secretion, photophobia, corneal opacity, chemosis, pigmentation, neovascularization, and pain parameters. Besides, Fluorescein test, Schirmer test and ocular fundus exam also showed improvement in their values concomitantly with lesion resolution. Due this, we showed that cATMSC therapy contribute to the regeneration of corneal tissue in CU and may contribute to the treatment to others ophthalmopathies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0768.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: silybin; prostate cancer; 2,3-dehydrosilybin; cell proliferation; cell apoptosis.
Online: 1 November 2018 (18:16:29 CET)
As part of our ongoing silybin project, this study aims to introduce a basic nitrogen-containing group to 7-OH of 3,5,20-O-trimethyl-2,3-dehydrosilybin or 3-OH of 5,7,20-O-trimethyl-2,3-dehydrosilybin via an appropriate linker for in vitro evaluation as potential anti-prostate cancer agents. The synthetic approaches to 7-O-substituted-3,5,20-O-trimethyl- 2,3-dehydrosilybins through a five-step procedure and to 3-O-substituted-5,7,20-O-trimethyl-2,3- dehydrosilybins via a four-step transformation have been developed. Thirty-two nitrogen-containing derivatives of silybin have been achieved through these synthetic methods for the evaluation of their antiproliferative activities towards both androgen-sensitive (LNCaP) and androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3 and DU145) using WST-1 cell proliferation assay. These derivatives exhibited greater in vitro antiproliferative potency than silybin. Among them, 11, 29, 31, 37, and 40 were identified as five optimal derivatives with IC50 values in the range of 1.40–3.06 µM, a 17- to 52-fold improvement in potency as compared with silybin. All these five optimal derivatives can arrest the PC-3 cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase and promote PC-3 cell apoptosis. Derivatives 11, 37, and 40 are more effective than 29 and 31 in activating PC-3 cell apoptosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0357.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Astragalin galactoside, hydrophilic modification, Th1 cell, Dendritic cell, adjuvant
Online: 20 August 2018 (12:58:07 CEST)
A flavonoid Astragalin (kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, Ast) has several biological activities including anti-oxidant, anti-HIV, and anti-allergic effects. Nonetheless, its insolubility in hydrophilic solvents imposes restrictions on its therapeutic applications. In this study, we investigated the effects of water-soluble astragalin-galactoside (kaempferol-3-O- β-D-isomaltotrioside, Ast-Gal) on dendritic cell (DC) maturation and T helper (Th) cell-mediated immune responses. Ast-Gal significantly increased maturation and activation of DCs through up-regulation of surface markers, such as CD80, CD86, and MHC II in a dose-dependent manner, while Ast had little effects. Also, Ast-Gal-treated DCs markedly secreted immune-stimulating cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12. Importantly, Ast-Gal strongly increased expression of IL-12, a polarizing cytokine of Th1 cells. In a co-culture system of DCs and CD4+ T cells, Ast-Gal-treated DCs preferentially differentiates naïve CD4+ T cells into Th1 cells. The addition of neutralizing IL-12 mAb to cultures of Ast-Gal-treated DCs and CD4+ T cells significantly increased IFN- γ production, thereby indicating that Ast-Gal-stimulated DCs enhance the Th1 response through IL-12 production by DCs. Injection with Ast-Gal-treated DCs in mice increased IFN-γ-secreting Th1 cell population. Collectively, these findings indicate that hydrophilically modified astragalin can enhance Th1-mediated immune responses via DCs, and point to a possible application of water-soluble astragalin-galactoside as an immune adjuvant.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0098.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: MicroRNA; cancer associated fibroblasts; cell-cell communication; transformation; epigenetic
Online: 28 February 2017 (10:29:27 CET)
Tumor microenvironment including cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) has developed as an important target for understanding tumor progression, clinical prognosis and treatment responses of cancer. Cancer cells appear to transform normal fibroblasts (NF) into CAFs involving direct cell-cell communication and epigenetic regulations. This review summarizes the current understanding on miR involvement in cancer cell – tumor environment/stroma communication, transformation of NFs into CAFs, their involved targets and signaling pathways in these interactions; and clinical relevance of CAF-related miR expression profiles. There is evidence that miRs have very similar roles in activating hepatic (HSC) and pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) as part of precancerous fibrotic diseases. In summary, deregulated miRs affect various intracellular functional complexes, such as transcriptional factors, extracellular matrix, cytoskeleton, EMT/MET regulation, soluble factors, tyrosine kinase and G-protein signaling, apoptosis and cell cycle & differentiation, but also formation and composition of the extracellular microenvironment. These processes result in the clinical appearance of desmoplasia involving CAFs and fibrosis characterized by deregulated stellate cells. In addition, modulated release of soluble factors can act as (auto)activating feedback loop for transition of NFs into their pathological counterparts. Furthermore, epigenetic communication between CAFs and cancer cells may confer to cancer specific functional readouts and transition of NF into their pathological counterparts. MiR related epigenetic regulation with many similarities should be considered as key factor in development of cancer and fibrosis specific environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0364.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Glioblastoma Multiforme; rat model; NK-Cell Therapy; MRI Cell traking; Fouresecent cell tracking; blood brain barrier
Online: 25 February 2020 (06:51:39 CET)
Natural killer (NK) cell therapy is one of the most promising treatments for Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM). However, this emerging technology is limited by the availability of sufficient numbers of fully functional cells. Here, we investigated the efficacy of NK cells that were expanded and treated by interleukin-2 (IL-2) and heat shock protein70 (HSP70), both in vitro and in vivo. Proliferation and cytotoxicity assays were used to assess the functionality of NK cells in vitro, after which treated and naïve NK cells were administrated intra-cranially and systemically to compare the potential antitumor activities in our in vivo rat GBM models. In vitro assays provided strong evidence of NK cell efficacy against C6 tumor cells. In vivo tracking of NK cells showed efficient homing around and within the tumor site. Furthermore, significant amelioration of the tumor in rats treated with HSP70/Il-2 treated NK cells as compared to those subjected to non-treated NK cells, as confirmed by MRI, proved the efficacy of adoptive NK cell therapy. Moreover, results obtained with systemic injection confirmed migration of activated NK cells over the blood brain barrier and subsequent targeting of GBM tumor cells. Our data suggest that administration of HSP70/Il-2 treated NK cells may be a promising therapeutic approach to be considered in the treatment of GBM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0217.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Inorganic & Nuclear Chemistry Keywords: Ruthenium; crystal structures; ferromagnetic coupling; molecular magnetism; single-ion magnet.
Online: 11 August 2022 (11:41:41 CEST)
Two mononuclear Ru(III) complexes of formula trans-[RuCl4(Hgua)(dmso)]·2H2O (1) and trans-[RuCl4(Hgua)(gua)]·3H2O (2) [Hgua = protonated guanine (gua), dmso = dimethyl sulfoxide] have been synthesized and characterized magnetostructurally. Compounds 1 and 2 crystallize in the monoclinic system with space groups P21/n and Pc, respectively. Each Ru(III) ion in 1 and 2 is six-coordinate and bonded to four chloride ions and one (1) or two (2) nitrogen atoms from guanine molecules and one sulfur atom (1) of a dmso solvent molecule, generating quasi regular octahedral geometries in both cases. In their crystal packing, the Ru(III) complexes are self-assembled mainly through an extended network of N-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds and π⋯Cl type intermolecular interactions, forming novel supramolecular structures based on this paramagnetic 4d metal ion. Variable-temperature dc magnetic susceptibility measurements performed on microcrystalline samples of 1 and 2 show a different magnetic behavior. While 1 is a ferromagnetic compound at low temperature, 2 exhibits a behavior typical of noninteracting mononuclear Ru(III) complexes with S = 1/2. Ac magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal slow relaxation of the magnetization in the presence of external dc fields only for 2, hence indicating the occurrence of field-induced single-ion magnet (SIM) phenomenon in this mononuclear guanine-based Ru(III) complex.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0312.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Geopolymer; Graphene oxide; Single fiber pullout; Bond-slip; Rate sensitive
Online: 24 February 2022 (10:46:46 CET)
In this study, the influence of graphene oxide nanoparticles on the bond-slip behavior of fiber and fly ash based geopolymer paste was examined. Geopolymer paste incorporating graphene oxide nanoparticles solution was cast in half briquetted specimens and embedded with a fiber. Three types of fibers were used: steel, polypropylene, and basalt. The pullout test was performed at two distinct speeds: 1 mm/second and 3 mm/second. Results showed that the addition of graphene oxide increased the compressive strength of geopolymer by about 7%. The bond-slip responses of fibers embedded in geopolymer mixed with graphene oxide exhibited higher peak stress and toughness as compared to those embedded in normal geopolymer. Each fiber type also showed different mode of failure. Both steel and polypropylene fibers showed full bond-slip responses due to their high ductility. Basalt fiber, on the other hand, because of its brittleness, failed by fiber fracture mode which showed no-slip in pull out responses. Both bond strength and toughness were found to be rate sensitive. The sensitivity was higher in graphene oxide/geopolymer than in conventional geopolymer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0267.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: Gestalt therapy; dementia; depression; single-case experimental design; psychosocial interventions
Online: 19 January 2022 (09:32:12 CET)
Psychotherapy is one of the evidence-based clinical interventions for the treatment of depression in older adults with dementia. Randomized Controlled Trials are often the first methodological choice to gain evidence, yet they are not applicable to a wide range of humanistic psychotherapies. Amongst all, the efficacy of the Gestalt therapy (GT) is under-investigated. The purpose of this paper is to present a research protocol aiming to assess the effects of a GT-based intervention on people with dementia (PWD) and the indirect influence on their family carers. The study implements the Single-Case Experimental Design with Time-Series Analysis that will be carried out in Italy and Mexico. Ten people in each country, who received a diagnosis of dementia and present depressive symptoms, will be recruited. Eight or more GT sessions will be provided whose fidelity will be assessed by the GT Fidelity Scale. Quantitative outcome measures are foreseen for monitoring participants’ depression, anxiety, quality of life, carers’ burden, and the caregiving dyad mutuality, at baseline and follow-up. The advantages and limitations of the research design are considered. If GT will result effective in the treatment of depression in PWD, it could enrich the range of evidence-based interventions provided by healthcare services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0126.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: Tiebout model; fiscal zoning; single-family zoning; property taxation; Miami
Online: 10 January 2022 (15:21:18 CET)
This paper examines certain implications from the literature on Tiebout’s model of local gov-ernment service provision, particularly Hamilton’s extension of the model to include local control of land use and property taxation. Our empirical analysis focuses on the use of fiscal zoning to lower property tax rates, a topic that has not been addressed in the extensive Tiebout literature. Using data for over 100 municipalities in the Miami, Florida, metropolitan area, we specify property tax rates as a function of fiscal zoning measures, other municipal characteristics, and tax mimicking. We conclude that single-family zoning is by far the most important variable ex-plaining municipal property tax rates.