Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

The Immense Impact of CCR5 Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs)

Version 1 : Received: 25 October 2020 / Approved: 26 October 2020 / Online: 26 October 2020 (11:08:40 CET)

How to cite: Hillman, T. The Immense Impact of CCR5 Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs). Preprints 2020, 2020100514 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202010.0514.v1). Hillman, T. The Immense Impact of CCR5 Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs). Preprints 2020, 2020100514 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202010.0514.v1).

Abstract

C-C Chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) is expressed on the CD4 T cell surface where CXCR4 and CCR5 expressions are controlled differently during the activation of T cells and with the binding of interleukin type-2 (IL-2). IL-2 can upregulate CCR1 and CCR2 in CD45R01 T cells and increase the T lymphocyte chemotaxis toward CC-chemokines. CD4+ T cells are either apart of the T helper 1 or Th1 lymphocytes that release interferon gamma (IFNγ) and lymphotoxin that provide cellular immunity to internal pathogens and T helper cells type 2 (Th2), which secrete interleukins 4 and 5 (IL-4 and IL-5). IL-4 and IL-5 cause an allergic and humoral immune response to parasites. Th2 lymphocytes use CCR3 chemokine receptors. CCR5 and CXCR3 chemokine receptors are specific for CD4+ Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes. CCR5Δ32 is a 32-base-pair deletion of the CCR5 gene. CCR5 is a co-receptor for the entrance of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1). CCR5Δ32 creates a malfunction of the CCR5 protein that can prevent HIV-1 infection. However, the CCR5Δ32 32-base-pair deletion is not prevalent and predominant in many populations worldwide and there also exist more genetic variations of CCR5 known as CCR5-SNPs. An alternative polymorphism was identified based on the CCR5 gene that was identified as a A to G (A/G) point mutation. This point mutation is located at the 59029 locus on the promoter that lowers the expression rate of CCR5. Gurdol et al. found activity at the promoter of CCR5/590029G was 45% lesser than the CCR5/59029A. The genetic variations of CCR5 SNPs also include: 2459G>SNP of CCR5, C101X, CCR5 gene position at -2273, and the A to G SNP mutation found in two South African blacks. Therefore, more studies are needed to find more and varied chemokine polymorphisms that are present in many diverse populations in the world. The aim of this literature review is to describe the immense impact of CCR5 SNP mutations on viral infection susceptibility, on the pathogenesis of chronic conditions, to endorse the increased discovery of more novel CCR5 SNPs, and to show the significant potential of anti-CCR5 therapies to treat multiple diseased conditions.

Subject Areas

Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms; Point Mutation; Chemokines; T-cells; Viral Infection; Tumorigenesis; T-cell Surface; Immune Response

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