REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0103.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: fructose; obesity; liver; aerobic exercise; strength exercise; combined exercise
Online: 28 February 2017 (12:02:06 CET)
Fructose consumption has been growing exponentially and, concomitant with this, the increase in the incidence of obesity and associated complications has followed the same behavior. Studies indicate that fructose may be a carbohydrate with greater obesogenic potential than other sugars. In this context, the liver seems to be a key organ for understanding the deleterious health effects promoted by fructose consumption. Fructose promotes complications in glucose metabolism, accumulation of triacylglycerol in the hepatocytes and alterations in the lipid profile, which, associated with an inflammatory response and alterations in the redox state, will imply a systemic picture of insulin resistance. However, physical exercise has been indicated for the treatment of several chronic diseases. In this review, we show how each exercise protocol (aerobic, strength or a combination of both) promote improvements in the obesogenic state created by fructose consumption as an improvement in the serum and liver lipid profile (HDL increase and decrease TG and LDL levels) and a reduction of markers of inflammation caused by an excess of fructose. Therefore, it is concluded that the practice of aerobic physical exercise, strength or a combination of both is essential for attenuating the complications developed by the consumption of fructose.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2115.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: exercise oncology; telehealth; synchronous delivery; supervised exercise; group-based exercise
Online: 29 June 2023 (11:37:23 CEST)
Alberta Cancer Exercise (ACE) is an exercise oncology program that transitioned from in-person to online delivery during COVID-19. The purpose of this work was to understand participants’ experiences in both delivery modes. Specifically, survivors' exercise facilitators and barriers, delivery mode preference, and experience with program elements targeting behaviour change were gathered. A retrospective cohort design using explanatory sequential mixed methods was used. 57 participants completed a survey, and 19 subsequent, optional interviews were conducted. Most participants indicated preferring in-person programs (58%), followed by online (32%), and no preference (10%). There were significantly fewer barriers (i.e., commute time) (p<0.01), but also fewer facilitators (i.e., social support) (p<0.01), to exercising online. Four themes were generated from the qualitative data surrounding participant experiences in both delivery modes. Key differences in barriers and facilitators highlighted a more convenient experience online relative to a more socially supportive environment in-person. For future work that includes solely online, focusing on building social support and a sense of community will be critical to optimizing program benefits. Beyond the COVID-19 pandemic, results of this research will remain relevant as we aim to increase the reach of online exercise oncology programming to more underserved populations of individuals living with cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0473.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: exercise; physical activity; postpartum; exercise prescription
Online: 7 September 2023 (11:42:43 CEST)
The postpartum period is marked by profound changes in women at a physical, psychological, and physiological level. Many of these changes persist after four to six weeks postpartum, and most women do not resume their levels of physical activity, which increases the risk of remaining inactive for many years. It is crucial to implement effective programs that promote exercise during the postpartum period. The objective of this study was to test the feasibility and analyze the effects of a structured and supervised postpartum exercise program on the maternal health and fitness parameters. To analyze the potential effects of the intervention, the level of physical activity, quality of life, pelvic girdle and low back pain, fatigue, depression, and the level of functional and physical fitness were assessed at baseline, after 8 weeks, and after 16 weeks of intervention. Feedback on the exercise program was collected after the final assessment. The results showed that a structured and supervised postpartum exercise program was feasible and safe, and produced positive effects on selected maternal health and fitness parameters. These results will encourage a study protocol with a larger sample in order to prove its effectiveness, improve the guidelines for postpartum exercise, and incorporate this program into a routine health care setting.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0761.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Peripheral Artery Disease; Exercise Intolerance; Exercise Limitations; Intermittent Claudication; Exercise Training
Online: 28 April 2021 (17:16:32 CEST)
Intermittent claudication (IC) is the most common symptom of peripheral artery disease (PAD). IC affects the quality of life and results in marked exercise intolerance and limitation to daily activities with increased risk of cardiovascular complications. Exercise training is the first line of conservative management in PAD. However, patients with IC Patient cannot tolerate exercise because of leg discomfort induced by physical effort. This review will address alternative rehabilitation strategies to reduce exercise limitations and improve exercise tolerance in patients with IC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0318.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: obesity; triglycerides; liver; aerobic exercise; resistance exercise
Online: 13 April 2023 (09:41:04 CEST)
Aim: To investigate how much aerobic and resisted physical exercise affects the behavior of AST and ALT proteins in the NAFLD spectrum. Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a pathology resulting from the excessive accumulation of triglycerides in the liver. The pathophysiology of the disease comes from several mechanisms, among them, metabolic, environmental, and genetic. The measurement of liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) are essential to perform a differential diagnosis of NAFLD with other pathologies that affect the liver. The non-pharmacological treatment of NAFLD is based on aerobic and resisted physical exercise, and one of its aims is to reduce the inflammatory markers AST and ALT. Materials and Methods: Systematic review carried out in PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Cochrane databases. Clinical trials that evaluated the effect of physical exercise on NAFLD on AST and ALT enzymes were included. Results: A total of 24 clinical trials met the inclusion criteria, with a sample size of 1141 participants, aged 20-82 years. The study protocol varied between aerobic exercise and resistance exercise with a weekly frequency between 2-6 times a week, a duration of 20-90 minutes for aerobics, and an intensity between 50-80% of peak VO2 and/or maximum HR for the resisted. Of the 24 studies included, only five showed improvements in both enzymes in the intervention group. Conclusion: Physical exercise cannot make significant changes in the behavior of AST and ALT liver parameters.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0448.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: moderate exercise; vigorous exercise; upper respiratory infection; immunity
Online: 10 January 2023 (02:31:03 CET)
The practice of physical activity is an effective non-pharmacological strategy for preventing and treating chronic diseases. A large body of evidence has contributed to establishing a positive correlation between a physically active lifestyle and health benefits, including enhanced vaccination responses, lower numbers of senescent T-cells, increased T-cell proliferative capacity, lower levels of inflammatory cytokines, and improved neutrophil and macrophage function. While females are generally thought to exert more robust immune responses than males in response to a variety of challenges, and both male and female sex hormones have been suggested as mediators of immune function, research on this topic has not always been designed with a sex-specific lens. The goal of this review is to summarize the available experimental and clinical evidence linking exercise and immune function in male and female subjects, with an emphasis on sex differences and sex-specific mechanisms. Overall, the available evidence indicates that moderate exercise and physical activity improves immune function in both sexes, whereas prolonged and high-intensity exercise temporarily impairs immune responses at a higher degree in females. A role of male and female sex hormones in these sex-specific effects is also discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0207.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: exercise intensity; training impulse; training strain; exercise volume
Online: 10 November 2021 (14:30:55 CET)
The International System of Units (SI) was adopted in 1960 as a universal measuring system to be used for all areas of science. Sports Science papers have shown lots of inaccurate and inappropriate terms for quantification of athletes’ performance and the psychobiological responses to exercise (e.g., internal load). In biomechanics, external and internal loads are forces acting externally and internally, inducing stress and strain in the biological tissues. Therefore, the current review present simple proposals to correct the inappropriate terms: 1) do not use the term external load when referring to the assessment of exercise time, distance, displacement, speed, velocity, acceleration, torque, work, power, impulse, etc.; 2) do not use the term internal load when referring to the assessment of psychobiological stress markers (i.e., session rating of perceived exertion, heart rate, blood lactate, oxygen consumption, etc.); 3) do not use the term impulse when expressing other calculus than integrating force with respect to time, and neither strain, when expressing other phenomena than the body deformation. Instead, the term exercise intensity is universal and can be used to describe all forms of exercise. Finally, duration should precisely be described according to physical quantities (e.g., time, distance, displacement, speed, velocity, acceleration, force, torque, work, power, impulse, etc.) and the units accomplish by use of the SI. These simple quantifications can be performed for the exercises, sessions, microcycles, mesocycles and macrocycles of the athletes. Such standardization will provide a consistent and clear communication among sports scientists and all areas of science.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Older adults; Physical exercise; Virtual exercise; COVID-19
Online: 11 February 2021 (11:08:37 CET)
Social isolation magnified by the restriction of movement order during the COVID-19 pandemic may lead to negative psychosocial health impact among community-dwelling older adults. We evaluated the feasibility of virtual research methods and virtual group exercises among individuals aged 60 years and over in Malaysia. Participants were recruited from the Promoting Independence in Seniors with Arthritis (PISA) pilot cohort through social media messages. A four-week course of virtual group exercise was offered. Anxiety and depression were assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) during the last attended follow-up of the cohort study (pre-pandemic), pre-intervention, and post-intervention. Exercise adherence was recorded using diary with daily entries and attendance to the virtual group exercise sessions were captured daily. The outcomes of interest were changes of anxiety and depression scores from baseline to pre-intervention (pandemic-related) and post-intervention (virtual exercise related). Forty-three individuals were recruited. A significant increase in anxiety scores from baseline to pre-intervention was observed. Comparisons using repeated-measures analysis of variance between those who attendance ≥14 and <14 group exercise sessions revealed no between-within subjects differences in depression scores. There was a 23% dropout rate in the post intervention survey and 60.5% of diaries were returned. This study demonstrated the feasibility of conducting research entirely virtually among older persons during the peak of global first wave of a pandemic. The pandemic has led to increased anxiety among community-dwelling older adults.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2173.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Glycemic control, Hyperglycemia, Exercise protocols, Exercise timing, Metabolic disorders
Online: 2 October 2023 (11:25:12 CEST)
Studies investigating the acute effect of postprandial exercise (PPE) on glucose responses exhibit significant heterogeneity in terms of participant demographic, exercise protocol, and exercise timing post-meal. As such, this study aimed to further analyze the existing literature on the impact of PPE on glycemic control in individuals with overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Literature search was conducted through databases including PubMed, CINAHL, and Google Scholar. Thirty-one original research studies that met the inclusion criteria were selected. The random-effect meta-analysis was performed to compare postprandial glucose area under the curve (AUC) and 24-h mean glucose levels between PPE and the time-matched no-exercise control (CON). Subgroup analysis was conducted to explore whether the glucose-lowering effect of PPE could be influenced by exercise duration, exercise timing post-meal, and disease status of participants. This study revealed significantly reduced glucose AUC (Hedges’ g = -0.317; SE = 0.057; p < 0.05) and 24-hour mean glucose levels (Hedges’ g = -0.328; SE = 0.062; p < 0.05) following PPE than CON. The reduction in glucose AUC was greater (p < 0.05) following PPE lasting >30 min than ≤30 min. The reduction in 24-hour mean glucose levels was also greater (p < 0.05) following PPE initiated ≥60 min than <60 min post-meal and in those with T2D than those without T2D. PPE offers a viable approach for glucose management and can be performed in various forms so long as exercise duration is sufficient. The glucose-lowering effect of PPE may be further enhanced by initiating it after the first hour post-meal. PPE represents a promising strategy, particularly for patients with T2D.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0160.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Exercise; IL-17; IL-10; Interleukin. Exercise-Induced Inflammatory State
Online: 9 March 2023 (02:11:14 CET)
Here we investigated the acute effects of an exhaustive intermittent exercise session on immunological parameters of the elderly and the subsequent incidence of upper respiratory tract infections and compare with the moderate-intensity. To do so, ixty-three old subjects were divided into three groups HIIT (n=21) submitted at one High-intensity interval training, SCG (n=21) kept in a sedentary state, and MICT (n=21) submitted at moderate intensity walking. Blood were collected at 5 time points, before, immediately after, 2h, 24h, and 48h after the intervention. In result the IL-6 and TNF-α were overexpressed immediately after the IL-10 stood overexpressed and correlated with IL-17, denoting an inflammatory process, and evidencing an immunologic competence without enhancement of the prevalence of upper respiratory infection tract (URTIs). So a modulation in the balance of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines and leukocytes, these modifications did not cause the effect characterized as an immunological window. Perhaps, the typical inflammation process, with IL-10 and IL-17 participation could also produce benefits to combat infections, a pertinent discussion during a post-pandemic time; we consider it a safe exercise program for older adults.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0106.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: ketogenic diet; exercise therapy; community health planning; natural; exercise intervention
Online: 6 October 2021 (12:40:59 CEST)
The ketogenic diet and walking exercise training activity are two key public health lifestyle factors. The potential of combined lifestyle factors interventions focused on getting to compliance in forced exercise. A balanced ketogenic diet and regular exercise activity is a key modifiable factor to the prevention and management of chronic diseases. Influence health across the lifespan and reduction of the risk of premature death through several biological mechanisms. Community older group’s lifestyle factors interventions contribute identity in their natural living environment. While the older health benefits of walking exercise training strategies are commonly to study, combined ketogenic diet and walking exercise interventions have induced greater benefits in community older groups.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0591.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: inflammation; atopy; exercise induced asthma; exercise induced bronchoconstriction; sex differences
Online: 27 August 2020 (05:31:38 CEST)
Exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is a common complication of athletes and individuals who exercise regularly. It is estimated that about 90% of patients with underlying asthma experience EIB. Sex differences in the prevalence of asthma have been widely reported, with higher rates in boys vs. girls before puberty, and higher rates in women than men after puberty. Because atopy has been reported to occur at higher rates in athletes than in non-athletes, in this study we investigated sex differences in EIB and atopy in athletes. A systematic literature review identified 60 studies evaluating EIB and/or atopy in post-pubertal adult athletes (n=7501). Collectively, these studies reported: 1) a 23% prevalence of EIB in athletes; 2) a higher prevalence of atopy in male athletes vs. females; 3) a higher prevalence of atopy in athletes with EIB; and 4) a significantly higher rate of atopic EIB in male vs. female athletes. Our analysis indicates that the physiological changes that occur during exercise may differentially affect male and female athletes, and suggest an interaction between male sex, exercise, and atopic status in the course of EIB. Understanding these sex differences is important to provide personalized management plans to athletes with underlying asthma and/or atopy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0430.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; Endurance athletes; mental health; sleep; cardiopulmonary exercise testing; cardiorespiratory fitness; exercise capacity; physical exercise; psychology
Online: 24 March 2023 (12:23:44 CET)
COVID-19 has harmful impact on health. It is especially important for endurance athletes (EAs). Sleep and psychology influence sport performance. Aims of this study were: (1) investigation of the consequences of mild COVID-19 on sleep and psychology and (2) assessment of the conse-quences of the infection on cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) results. 49 EAs (males= 43; 87.76%, females= 6; 12.24%, age= 39.9±7.8 years, height= 178.4±6.8 cm, weight= 76.3±10.4 kg; BMI= 24.0±2.6 kg·m−2) underwent maximal cycling or running CPET pre- and post- COVID-19 and completed a survey. Exercise performance was deteriorated after COVID-19 (maximal oxy-gen uptake; VO2max= 47.81±7.81 vs 44.97±7.00 ml·kg·min−1 respectively pre- and post- infection; p<0.001). Waking up at night affected heart rate (HR) at the respiratory compensation point (RCP) (p=0.028). Sleep time influenced pulmonary ventilation (p=0.013), breathing frequency (p=0.010), and blood lactate concentration (Lac) (p=0.013) at RCP. Maximal power/speed (p=0.046) and HR (p=0.070) linked with the quality of sleep. Stress management and relaxation techniques linked with VO2max (p=0.046), maximal power/speed (p=0.033), and maximal Lac (p=0.045). Cardiorespiratory fitness was deteriorated after mild COVID-19 and was correlated with sleep and mental health. Medical Professionals should encourage EAs to maintain proper mental health and sleep after COVID-19 infection to facilitate recovery.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0527.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: high intensity interval training; knee osteoarthritis; exercise therapy; rehabilitation; exercise rehabilitation
Online: 30 March 2023 (12:26:11 CEST)
Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease worldwide. Exercise therapy has been identified as a first-line treatment option in patients suffering from knee OA. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is an innovative exercise modality with potential in improving various disease-related outcomes. The purpose of this review is to explore the impact of HIIT on knee OA symptoms and physical functioning. A comprehensive search of scientific electronic databases was conducted to identify the articles on the effects of HIIT on knee OA. Thirteen studies were included in this review. Nine compared the effects of HIIT with those of low-intensity training, moderate-intensity continuous training, or a control group. Three evaluated the effects of HIIT alone. Eight reported a decrease in knee OA symptoms, and eight reported an increase in physical functioning. HIIT was shown to improve knee OA symptoms and physical functioning, but also aerobic capacity, muscle strength, and quality of life with minimal or no adverse events. However, compared to other exercise modalities, no clear superiority of HIIT was found. HIIT is a promising exercise strategy in patients with knee OA: anyway, the actual quality of evidence remains very low, and more high-quality studies are needed to confirm these promising outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0171.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Shoulder impingement syndrome; Scapula; Exercise therapy; Exercise movement techniques; Musculoskeletal pain
Online: 6 August 2021 (17:21:21 CEST)
Exercises for lower trapezius (LT) often use overhead positions, causing compressive forces to the subacromial space. Scapular retraction would be an alternative to activate LT muscle. Electromyography of infraspinatus (IS), upper (UT) and LT was recorded during scapular retraction under progressive adduction loads of 42 participants, divided in 2 groups: with (SP, n=26) and without shoulder pain (nSP, n=16). The adduction loads of 20, 30, 40 and 50% of the maximal voluntary contraction were applied using a load cell. Normalized electromyography and the ratio between UT and LT (UT:LT) were used for statistical analysis. No differences were observed between groups, but a condition effect occurred for all muscles: UT showed higher values at 50% vs. 20% (p=0.004); LT showed higher values on 40% and 50% (p=0.001; 0.006). Higher values for IS were noted at 40% (vs 20%; p=0.04), and at 50% (vs. 20%; p=0.001, vs. 30%, p=0.001; vs. 40%; p=0.001). UT:LT showed lower values at 50% (vs. 20%; p=0.001, and vs. 30%; p=0.016). Scapular retraction with adduction loads at 40-50% is an alternative to overhead exercises aiming to activate the LT and the IS muscles. The exercise ensures higher levels of LT and IS excitation, without increasing UT excitation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0363.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Resistance training; Aerobic training; Physical exercise; Exercise guidelines; Glucose; Insulin; Glycemic control.
Online: 6 September 2023 (09:27:49 CEST)
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia associated with impaired carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism, with concomitant absence of insulin secretion or reduced sensitivity to its metabolic effects. Patients with diabetes mellitus have 30% more risk of developing heart failure and cardiovascular disease with respect to healthy people. Heart and cardiovascular problems are the first cause of death worldwide and the main complications which lead to high healthcare costs. Such complications can be delayed or avoided by taking prescribed medications in conjunction with a healthy lifestyle (i.e. diet and physical activity). The American College of Sports Medicine and the American Diabetes Association recommend that diabetic people reduce total sedentary time by incorporating physical activity in their weekly routine. This narrative literature review has the aim to summarize and present the main guidelines, pre-exercise cardiovascular screening recommendations, and considerations for patients with diabetes and comorbidities who are planning to participate in regular exercise regimens.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0322.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: isometric exercise; knee osteoarthritis rehabilitation; strain gauge device; physiotherapeutic practice; exercise quantification
Online: 20 February 2023 (06:18:18 CET)
Isometric exercises for physiotherapeutic rehabilitation are often prescribed, with little quantification of the load being prescribed. This article aimed to provide a framework and practical examples of how the physiotherapist may take a more quantitative evidence-based approach to isometric assessment, monitoring, and exercise prescription of knee osteoarthritis, by integrating a strain gauge into their practice. Strength measures to monitor were discussed. A series of fourteen studies were reviewed, with the intent of identifying isometric exercises that had been utilized in the rehabilitation of knee osteoarthritis. Of the fourteen studies, the three most identified isometric exercises were seated knee extension, knee flexion, and the supine straight leg raise. The integration of strain gauge technology with these exercises provided the focus of the remainder of the article.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1850.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: mangoes; exercise; inflammation; metabolites; gallotannins
Online: 29 November 2023 (06:29:27 CET)
Mangoes have a unique nutrient profile (carotenoids, polyphenols, sugars, vitamins) that we hypothesized would mitigate post-exercise inflammation. This study examined the effects of mango ingestion in moderating exercise-induced inflammation in a randomized crossover trial with 22 cyclists. In random order with trials separated by a 2-week washout period, the cyclists ingested 330 g/day mangoes with 0.5 liters water or 0.5 liters water alone for 2 weeks, followed by a 2.25-h cycling bout challenge. Blood and urine samples were collected pre- and post-2 weeks supplementation, with additional blood samples collected immediately post-exercise, and then 1.5-h, 3-h, and 24-h post-exercise. Urine samples were analyzed for targeted mango-related metabolites. The blood samples were analyzed for 67 oxylipins that are upstream regulators of inflammation and other physiological processes. After 2-weeks mango ingestion, three targeted urine mango-related phenolic metabolites were significantly elevated compared to water alone (interaction effects, p≤0.003). Significant post-exercise increases were measured for 49 oxylipins, but various subgroup analyses showed no differences in the pattern of change between trials (all interaction effects, p>0.150). The 2.25-h cycling bouts induced significant inflammation but no countermeasure effect was found after 2-weeks mango ingestion despite the elevation of mango gut-derived phenolic metabolites.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0734.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: exercise; endocannabinoids; kynurenines; obesity; depression
Online: 12 September 2023 (16:51:21 CEST)
The kynurenine pathway (KP) and the endocannabinoid system (ECS) are known to be deregulated in depression and obesity; however, it has been recognized that acute physical exercise has an important modulating role inducing changes in the mobilization of their respective metabolites -endocannabinoids (eCB) and kynurenines (KYN)- which overlap at some points, acting as im-portant antidepressant, anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant biomarkers. There-fore, the aim of this review is to analyze and discuss some studies performed recently to investigate the potential interactions between both systems, particularly, those related with exercise-derived endocannabinoidome and kynurenine mechanisms and to elucidate how, the prescription of physical exercise could represent a new approach for the clinical manage of these two conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0466.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ageing; exercise; drosophila; proteome; mitochondria
Online: 28 September 2021 (11:23:15 CEST)
Ageing is a major risk factor for many of the most prevalent diseases, including neurodegenerative disease, cancer and heart disease. As the global population continues to age, behavioural interventions that can promote healthy ageing will improve quality of life and relieve the socio-economic burden that comes with an aged society. Exercise is recognised as an effective intervention against many diseases of ageing, but we don’t know the stage in an individual’s lifetime in which exercise is most effective at promoting healthy ageing and whether it has a direct effect on lifespan. We exercised w1118 Drosophila melanogaster, interrogating effects of sex and group size, at different stages of their lifetime and recorded their lifespan. Climbing scores at 30 days were measured to record differences in fitness in response to exercise. We also assessed the mitochondrial proteome of w1118 Drosophila that had been exercised for one week, alongside mitochondrial respiration measured using High-Resolution Respirometry, to determine changes in mitochondrial physiology in response to exercise. We found that age-targeted exercise interventions improve lifespan in male and female Drosophila, and grouped males exercised in late life had improved climbing scores, when compared with those exercised throughout their entire lifespan. The proteins of the electron transport chain were significantly upregulated in expression after one week of exercise, and complex II linked respiration was significantly increased in exercised -Drosophila. Taken together our study provides a basis to test specific proteins and complex II of the respiratory chain as important effectors of exercise induced healthy ageing.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0175.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Adherence; measurement tool, exercise, physiotherapy
Online: 4 November 2020 (08:28:30 CET)
Objective: To explore the inter-rater reliability of the Measurement Of adherence Via Exercise Demonstration (MOVED) adherence tool. Design: Reliability study of a patient adherence measurement tool.Setting: Simulated physiotherapist-patient consultations. Participants: Sixteen experienced physiotherapists rated patient adherence to exercise. Interventions: N/A Main Outcome Measure: Inter-rater reliability of MOVED.Methods: The MOVED tool consists of two parts. Part one asks patients to self-report their adherence to exercise dose (including number of completed sessions, sets and repetitions in the last seven days). Part two asks patients to demonstrate each exercise. Component scores are totalled to give an overall level of patient adherence to each exercise.Participants were provided with a copy of five physiotherapist-prescribed exercises. Participants were then shown five corresponding video vignettes of simulated physiotherapist-patient consultations where patients were asked to self-report exercise frequency, sets and repetitions and demonstrate each exercise within the context of a consultation. Participants were asked to rate the level of patient adherence to each of the five exercises using the MOVED tool. Inter-rater reliability of MOVED scores was assessed using Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and 95% Confidence Intervals. Results: The ICC of part one (self-report) was .90 (95%CI .74-.98), part two (demonstration) was .98 (95%CI .94-.99) and total score was .96 (95%CI .88-.99), demonstrating excellent inter-rater reliability. Conclusion: The MOVED tool, which can highlight whether patients are adhering to exercise technique as well as exercise dose, may provide clinicians and researchers with a more robust measure of exercise adherence when compared with other measures currently available.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0741.v1
Online: 31 July 2020 (09:55:18 CEST)
Loss of muscle mass and strength are progressing with aging. Exercise is a beneficial method to prevent physical disfunction and habitual exercise improve the muscle quality. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of a long-term habitual exercise on the senescence-accelerated mice prone8 (SAMP8). 27wk SAMP8 were used in this study. Mice were classified into 28 (28w) and 44 weeks old. The 44-week group was divided into the sedentary group (44w) and a group exercising for 16 weeks (44w+Ex). The 44w+Ex performed habitual exercise from 28 to 44 weeks. Additionally, grip strength tests were performed with mice aged 28 and 44 weeks. Mice were dissected and collected muscle samples and measured muscle weight at 44w. Gastrocnemius was decreased in 44w but were unchanged in 44w+Ex. Grip strength in 44w was lower trend, but there was no change in 44w+Ex. The phosphorylation levels of Akt and p70S6K as a protein synthesis marker were decreased in 44w. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV(COXIV) mRNA and protein levels decreased in 44w. These results suggested that long-term habitual exercise attenuated muscle mass and strength decline through improving muscle protein synthesis and mitochondrial function. In conclusion, long-term habitual exercise attenuated muscle mass and strength decline.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0040.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: diabetes; exercise; cardiomyopathy; heart failure
Online: 3 October 2019 (13:59:22 CEST)
Diabetes mellitus is associated with cardiovascular, ophthalmic, and renal comorbidities. Among these, diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) causes the most severe symptoms and is considered to be a major health problem worldwide. Exercise is widely known as an effective strategy for the prevention and treatment of many chronic diseases. Importantly, the onset of complications arising from diabetes can be delayed or even prevented by exercise. Regular exercise is reported to have positive effects on diabetes mellitus and the development of DCM. The protective effects of exercise include the prevention of cardiac apoptosis, fibrosis, oxidative stress, and microvascular diseases, as well as improvement in cardiac mitochondrial function, and calcium regulation. The present review summarizes the recent findings to describe the potential mechanisms by which exercise may prevent DCM and heart failure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0210.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: eating; exercise; self-esteem; nursing
Online: 22 January 2019 (10:56:07 CET)
Background: Since the beginning of the 20th century, the importance of creating healthy work environments and promoting the health of workers in the healthcare sector to create Healthy and Resilient Organizations has been emphasized. In this context, self-esteem is an essential construct which influences health and healthy life styles, and therefore, the general wellbeing of nurses. The objective of this study was to analyze the mediating role of reasons for exercising in the effect that self-esteem has on uncontrolled eating by nursing professionals. Methods: The sample was made up of 1094 nurses who were administered the Rosenberg General Self-esteem Scale, the Goal Content for Exercise Questionnaire and the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18. Results: Bivariate correlation analysis and multiple mediation analysis showed that self-esteem has direct and indirect effects on uncontrolled eating. More so, self-esteem predicts doing physical exercise to improve one’s image, recognition and social affiliation, although the effects on uncontrolled eating were only significant through image. Conclusions: The results have important practical implications in the framework of Positive Occupational Health Psychology (POHP) as it emphasizes self-esteem, physical exercise and eating as essential aspects of the health and wellbeing of employees in the healthcare sector, highlighting the importance of creating organizations committed to promoting the psychosocial health of their workers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0526.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Dancing, Muscle stretching exercise, Pliability
Online: 21 November 2018 (13:29:32 CET)
Objective: The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of stretching methods for flexibility, muscle activation, and pressure pain threshold in ballet dancers, and to suggest an effective stretching method. Methods: Thirty-three ballet dancers were randomized to a static stretching group (n=11), muscle energy technique stretching group (n=11), and vibration-assisted stretching group (n=11). The angle of hip joint extension in arabesque, the activation of rectus femoris in Devéloppé, and the pressure pain threshold on rectus femoris in sitting position were measured to compare the effects of different stretching methods. Results: Hip joint extension angles increased in all stretching methods (p<0.05), however, vibration-assisted stretching and muscle energy technique stretching were more effective than static stretching (p<0.05). The activation of the rectus femoris decreased in all groups (p<0.05), but the muscle energy technique stretching group and the vibration-assisted stretching group showed a significant decrease compared to the static stretching group (p<0.05). The pressure pain threshold showed significant improvement only in the static stretching group (p<0.05), and the vibration-assisted stretching group (p<0.05). Conclusion: Vibration-assisted stretching compared to static stretching and muscle energy technique stretching is a beneficial method for flexibility, muscle activation, and pressure pain threshold in ballet dancers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1712.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Plogging; Exercise Participation; Self-Determination Theory
Online: 25 June 2023 (05:01:55 CEST)
In response to escalating environmental concerns and the surge in eco-friendly sports activities, this study investigates the determinants of sustained intention to participate in plogging, a prac-tice that combines jogging and litter collection. The study seeks to discern the effects of autonomy, competence, and relatedness experiences, as suggested by Self-Determination Theory, on the intent to persist in plogging. Additionally, the study probes the moderating role of eco-friendly attitudes, thereby propelling the confluence of sports and environmental research. The research methodology encompassed surveying plogging participants and analyzing their responses. The validation of these relationships was executed using multi-group structural equation modeling. The results revealed that autonomy and competence did not significantly sway extrinsic motivation, but relatedness surfaced as the most influential factor. This suggests that plogging, primarily viewed as a volunteering activity, serves more as a prosocial behavior that bolsters relationships rather than a means to enhance physical competence. The study also found that the value participants derived from plogging and their intention to continue varied based on their eco-friendly attitudes. The study concludes that voluntary participation and socializing are the core values of plogging, and understanding these values can foster healthier and more sustainable behaviors. The findings offer valuable insights for academic, practical, and policy perspectives in promoting eco-friendly sports activities.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: aging; aerobic exercise; vascular occlusion; electromyography
Online: 19 March 2021 (11:11:26 CET)
Background and Objectives: Blood flow restriction (BFR) has been investigated as an alternative method combined with resistance training or AT to promote different health benefits for older people. Nevertheless, no study analyzed chronic effects of BFR on muscle activation in this population, and in some investigations, the application of BFR has been employed arbitrary pressures, which can be a serious methodological error, both from the results and of the risk to the health of the older. Thus, this study analyzed the effect of 24 weeks of walking with BFR on activation and muscle strength in elderly women with osteoporosis. Materials and Methods: Thirty older women (66.0±4.6 years) performed randomly to one of three training groups: WALK (moderate-intensity walking), WALK+BFR (low-intensity walking with BFR), or BFR (BFR alone). Muscle activation (sEMG) and strength of knee flexors and extensors were measured pre-intervention and after 12 and 24 weeks. Results: Only a trivial effect size (ES) for the WALK+BFR (ES= 0.16) was observed in sEMG of the knee flexors compared to WALK. A moderate effect was observed in sEMG of the knee extensors (ES= 0.65) for the WALK+BFR compared to the WALK. However, adverse effects were found in the strength of the knee flexors for the BFR (ES= −0.86) and WALK+BFR (ES= −0.69) compared to WALK. Adverse and null effects, respectively for the BFR (ES= −0.16) and WALK+BFR (ES= 0.06) groups, were also observed on the strength gain of the knee extensors. Conclusions: Low-intensity walk combined with BFR does not provide relevant chronic effects on strength gain or even limit muscle strength gain, however, due to greater activation of knee extensors over 24 weeks, it is possible to benefit from the use of similar strategies to obtain neuromuscular gains in the long‐term for elderly women with osteopenia and osteoporosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0567.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: peripheral arterial disease; exercise; platelet; mitochodria
Online: 23 July 2020 (13:12:36 CEST)
Exercise training influences the risk of vascular thrombosis in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Mitochondrial functionalities in platelets involve the cellular bioenergetics and thrombogenesis. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of cycling exercise training (CET) on platelet mitochondrial bioenergetics in PAD patients. Forty randomly selected patients with PAD engaged in general rehabilitation (GR) with CET (i.e., cycling exercise at ventilation threshold for 30 min/day, 3 days/week) (GR+CET, n=20) or to a control group that only received GR course (n=20) for 12 weeks. Systemic aerobic capacity and platelet mitochondrial bioenergetics that included oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and electron transport system (ETS) were measured using automatic gas analysis and high-resolution respirometry, respectively. The experimental results demonstrated that GR+CET for 12 weeks significantly (i) elevated VO2peak and lowered VE-VCO2 slope, (ii) raised resting ankle-brachial index and enhanced cardiac output response to exercise, (iii) increased the distance in 6-minute walk test and raised the Short Form-36 physical/mental component scores, and (iv) enhanced capacities of mitochondrial OXPHOS and ETS in platelets by activating FADH2 (Complex II)-dependent pathway. Moreover, changes in VO2peak levels were positively associated with changes in platelet OXPHOS and ETS capacities. However, no significant changes in systemic aerobic capacity, platelet mitochondrial bioenergetics, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) occurred following GR alone. Hence, we conclude that CET effectively increases the capacities of platelet mitochondrial bioenergetics by enhancing Complex II activity in patients with PAD. Moreover, the exercise regimen also enhanced functional exercise capacity, consequently improving HRQoL in PAD patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0533.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: exercise classification; motion capture; virtual rehabilitation
Online: 22 November 2018 (04:33:58 CET)
The rapid development of algorithms for skeleton detection with relatively inexpensive contactless systems and cameras opens the possibility of virtual exercise therapy for patients with different complications. However, evaluation and confirmation of posture classifications is still needed. The purpose of this study was therefore to find the most accurate algorithm for automatic classification of human exercise movement. A Kinect V2 with 25 joints identification was used to record movements for data analysis. A total of 10 subjects volunteered for this study. Four algorithms were tested for the classification of different postures in Matlab. These were based on: total error of vector lengths, total error of angles, multiplication of these two parameters and simultaneous analysis of the first and second parameters. A base of 13 exercises was then created to test the recognition of postures by the algorithm, and to analyse subject performance. The best results for posture classification was shown by the second algorithm with an accuracy of 94.9%. The average correctness of exercises among the 10 participants was 94.2% (SD1.8%). The algorithms tested in this study therefore proved to be effective and could potentially form the basis for developing a system for remote monitoring of rehabilitation involving exercise.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0199.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: disability, exercise, health promotion, framework, theory
Online: 9 August 2018 (21:01:43 CEST)
Lack of physical activity participation for adults with a disability remain a large public health concern. For those with existing, or newly acquired disability, increased sedentary behavior stemming from physical impairments often results in the development of secondary chronic health conditions (e.g., obesity or osteoarthritis) which leads to participation restrictions within major life roles. Without intervention these secondary conditions further increase physical impairment which, in turn, sets these populations up for continuous negative health trajectories over their remaining lifespan. Physical activity can attenuate the development of secondary health conditions and optimize health outcomes within these populations. However, those with disability often do not possess the necessary physical capacity to maintain physically active lifestyles. Therefore, exercise programs specifically designed to increase physical functioning have been identified as a necessary intermediate step to reduce physical limitations prior to adoption of physically active lifestyles. Adoption of exercise program participation remains a difficult task for both the general population and those with disability alike. Based on current rates of physical inactivity, it is clear that traditional health behavior change models do not adequately address the complexity of this issue. This paper highlights some of the limitations within the current health behavior change models as they relate to exercise behavior. Additionally, a novel conceptual framework is presented for the intent of its incorporation within research and health promotion interventions targeting exercise behavior within disability populations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0014.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: osteosarcopenic obesity; exercise; diet; aging; fall
Online: 2 May 2018 (08:02:13 CEST)
Osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO) is described by the simultaneous presence of osteopenia/osteoporosis, sarcopenia, and increased adiposity. Over time, older adults with OSO syndrome might be at greater risk for loss of physical function and bone fractures. Furthermore, a sedentary lifestyle, inadequate nutrition, pharmaceutical drugs and chronic conditions encompass the multifactorial nature of OSO syndrome. Physical activity and a healthy diet play a crucial role in management and treatment of OSO syndrome. Research has shown that even low-intensity physical activity or daily habitual activity can maintain bone mineral density, muscle strength and improve muscle quality, and reduce adiposity. However, older adults with high risk of fall and injuries require tailored exercise intensity. Also, balanced daily intake of vitamin D, calcium and protein is important in prevention and treatment of OSO syndrome in postmenopausal women. Effective measurement of bone mass, muscle mass and strength is required when detecting OSO syndrome and to evaluate the balance, strength and endurance of elder individuals and severity of the condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0369.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: mobile app; tobacco; cannabis; physical exercise; adherence
Online: 6 November 2023 (15:46:45 CET)
Tobacco and cannabis use pose major health risks and are major contributors to causes of death worldwide. Mobile phone-based cessation apps for these substances are gaining popularity, often used as a component of traditional interventions. This study aimed to analyze adherence to an intervention using a mobile phone application (App-therapy Prescind) as a function of sociodemographic variables (age, gender, educational level, and profession) as well as the primary activities supported by the app (reducing tobacco or cannabis use and increasing physical exercise). The participants were recruited through the web pages of the Occupational Risk Prevention Service and the Psychology Clinic of the University of Granada during the Covid-19 confinement period. The application’s content includes three components (self-report, motivational phrases, and goal-setting). Our findings indicate that being male, aged between 26 and 62, having a secondary or high school education, and being unemployed increase the likelihood of adherence to the Prescinde App-therapy three months after usage. Our findings highlight the importance of developing new therapeutic approaches and conducting in-depth studies on the factors associated with adherence to tobacco and cannabis cessation treatments via mobile phone applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1882.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Greece; mood; measurement; exercise; physical activity; validity
Online: 30 October 2023 (09:44:48 CET)
The aim of the present study was to provide initial validity evidence of a Greek translation of the 24-item Brunel Mood Scale, referred to as the BRUMS-Greek, a measure of anger, confusion, depression, fatigue, tension, and vigour. Data were collected from 1,417 Greek adult exercise participants and 369 physically inactive adults, totaling 1,786 adults (male = 578, female = 1,208) aged 18–64 years (M = 34.73 ± 11.81 years). Given the large univariate and multivariate non-normality, confirmatory factor analyses treating responses as ordered categorical variables was conducted, which supported the hypothesised six correlated-factor measurement model. Internal consistency reliability of BRUMS-Greek subscales was supported via Cronbach alpha coefficients. Construct validity of scales was supported (a) via correlations in the hypothesised direction with trait positive and negative affect, (b) with more positive and less negative moods reported immediately after participation in a single exercise class compared to pre-exercise mood, and (c) with exercise participants reporting more positive and less negative mood states compared to physically inactive adults. Women reported higher tension and lower vigour scores than men. Tension scores were higher and confusion scores lower among younger participants (≤ 35 years) than older participants (≥ 36 years). Participants with obesity reported higher negative mood scores than those who were underweight or normal weight. In sum, the BRUMS-Greek demonstrated acceptable psychometric characteristics, and is proposed to be a suitable measure for use with exercise participants, physically inactive adults, and other Greek populations to explore research questions related to mood.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0650.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: dog; physical therapy; treadmill exercise; rehabilitation; TPLO
Online: 9 August 2023 (03:07:00 CEST)
A 5.1 kg, 7-year-old, castrated Maltese dog with a tibial plateau-leveling osteotomy (TPLO) in the right hindlimb 42 days prior to presentation. The patient’s right hind limb showed lameness, intermittent limping, and atrophy, and had never experienced rehabilitation since TPLO surgery. The patient showed a pain reaction at the end of the stifle extension, and an increased body temperature was identified on the medial side of the right hindlimb compared with the left hindlimb using a digital thermal imaging device. In addition, a type of lameness, partial weight bearing in the right hindlimb, was also identified in the gait analysis. The pain was relieved by applying a cold pack and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and the patient was trained on muscles that were atrophied during treadmill exercise. In this study, physical therapy and rehabilitation exercises controlled pain and induced rapid recovery, indicating that rehabilitative intervention is required after TPLO surgery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1077.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: aerobic exercise training; metabolic programming; DOHaD; adolescence
Online: 17 July 2023 (10:58:52 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of fructose consumption during the peri-pubertal period on the later onset of metabolic syndrome in rats. Additionally, the study sought to explore the potential of moderate-intensity physical training as a non-pharmacological approach to mitigate the fructose effects. Male rats, 30 days old, received 10% fructose, and were submitted to concomitant moderate-intensity training until 60 days old. They were divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (SC), sedentary fructose (SF), trained control (TC), and trained fructose (TF). Fructose consumption mainly affected adult animals, resulting in glucose intolerance, increased periepididymal fat, and increased total cholesterol, triglycerides, and insulin levels. Furthermore, these rats exhibited reduced sympathetic nerve activity. The moderate running led to a decrease in periepididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue, as well as a reduction in total cholesterol and improved glucose tolerance. Peri-pubertal rats that received combination treatments exhibited lower levels of glucose and insulin during an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. The results indicate that 10% fructose supplementation during peripuberty predisposes to metabolic syndrome in adulthood. However, simultaneous moderate-intensity exercise training attenuates these effects and induces positive changes in glycemic homeostasis, lipid metabolism, and autonomic nervous system activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1359.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: left atrial function, heart failure; stepwise exercise
Online: 19 June 2023 (12:59:37 CEST)
Background: the aim of this study was to assess acute changes on left atrial (LA) function a during a progressive exercise in patients with heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF) in comparison to healthy controls (HS). Methods: twenty patients with established HFmrEF were compared with 10 HS, age-matched controls. All subiects performed a stepwise exercise test on cyclette. Echocardiography was performed at baseline, during submaximal effort, at peak of exercise, and after 5 minutes of recovery. Results: HS obtained an higher value of METs at peak exercise than HFmrEF (7.4 vs 5.6; between group p 0.002). Heart rate and systolic blood pressure presented a greater increase in the HS group than in HFmrEF (between-groups p 0.006 and p 0.003 respectively). In the HFmrEF group peak atrial longitudinal strain (PALS), and conduit strain were both increased at submaximal exercise (p<0.05 for both versus baseline) and remained constant at peak exercise. Peak atrial contraction strain (PACS) did not show significant changes during the exercise. In the control group PALS and PACS increased significantly at submaximal level (p<0.05 for both versus baseline) but PALS returned near baseline values at peak exercise; conduit strain decreased progressively during the exercise in HS. Stroke volume (SV) increased in both groups at submaximal exercise; at peak exercise SV remained constant in the HFmrEF while it decreased in controls (between-groups p 0.002). Conclusions: Patient with HFmrEF, show a proper increase of LA reservoir function during incremental exercise that contributes to maintain SV throughout the exercise.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0420.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: diabetes; anaerobic exercise; glut4 gene expression; streptozocin
Online: 6 June 2023 (08:52:56 CEST)
Diabetes is a chronic condition that worsens living conditions and causes significant problems, particularly in the vascular system. Many different treatment options are used to prevent these negative effects of diabetes. The most important of these is changing living conditions and exercising regularly.This study aimed todetermining the impacts of a 6-week anaerobic exercise protocol on the blood glucose levels and Glut4 gene expression in the muscle tissues of streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. A total of 45 rats were separate control, sedentary, and exercise groups (n=15 each). The STZ used to induce diabetes in rats was applied once with a single intraperitoneal injection. No diabetes was created in the control group, and no exercise was performed, whereas in the sedentary group, diabetes was induced, and no exercise was applied. It was determined that the Glut4 gene expression in the muscle tissue of the exercise group was importantly increased when compared with the sedentary diabetes group.Glut4 gene is an important gene involved in blood glucose regulation and anaerobic exercise significantly increased the expression level of this gene in our study.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0258.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: prostate cancer; androgen deprivation therapy; exercise; adherence
Online: 27 April 2022 (10:43:52 CEST)
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer treatment is associated with adverse physiological changes, however exercise can improve outcomes. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine exercise intervention adherence, and its effects on physiological outcomes in men diagnosed with prostate cancer undergoing ADT. Uniquely, this review incorporates a meta-aggregation of qualitative data, providing perspectives from the men’s experiences. A systematic review and meta-analysis were completed following PRISMA Guidelines. Databases (CINAHL, Cochrane, PubMed) were searched for studies using “prostate cancer”, “exercise intervention”, and “androgen deprivation therapy”. Quantitative randomised controlled trials describing adherence to exercise interventions were selected, with qualitative articles selected based on descriptions of experiences around participation. Subgroup meta-analyses of adherence, exercise mode, and intervention duration were completed for quality of life, aerobic fitness, fatigue, and strength. Articles (n=64) articles were identified, with 29 (n=23 quantitative; n=6 qualitative) articles from 25 studies included. Exercise had no effects (p<0.05) on quality of life and fatigue. Significant effects (all p<0.05) were observed for aerobic fitness, and upper- and lower-body strength. Adherence to exercise-based interventions was 80.38%, with improvements observed in aerobic fitness and strength. Subgroup analysis revealed exercise adherence impacted fatigue and strength, with greater improvements observed in programs >12-weeks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0380.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Exercise training; arrhythmias; Drosophila; apolipoprotein B; aging
Online: 29 March 2022 (10:07:13 CEST)
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) places a heavy burden on older patients and the global healthcare system. A large body of evidence suggests that exercise training is essential in preventing and treating cardiovascular disease, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we used the Drosophila melanogaster animal model to study the effects of early-life exercise training (ELET) on the aging heart and lifespan. We found in flies that age-induced arrhythmias are conserved across different genetic backgrounds. The fat body is the primary source of circulating lipoproteins in flies. Inhibition of fat body apoLpp (the flies apoB homolog) demonstrated that low expression of apoLpp reduced the development of arrhythmias in aged flies but did not affect average lifespan. At the same time, ELET can also reduce the expression of apoLpp mRNA in aged flies and have a protective effect on the heart, which is similar to the inhibition of apoLpp mRNA. Although treatment of apoLppRNAi and ELET alone had no significant effect on lifespan, the combination of apoLppRNAi and ELET extended the average lifespan of flies. Therefore, we conclude that apoLppRNAi and ELET are sufficient to resist age-induced arrhythmias, which may be related to the decreased expression of apoLpp mRNA, and that apoLppRNAi and ELET have a combined effect on prolonging the average lifespan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0034.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Functional fitness training; athletic performance; exercise testing
Online: 1 June 2021 (12:32:59 CEST)
This study analyzed the relationship between anthropometric measures, cardiorespiratory capacity, strength, power and local muscle endurance with performance in the CrossFit® Open 2020. For this, 17 volunteers (6 women) (29.0 ± 7.2 years; 70.5 ± 9.8 kg) completed, on separate weeks, body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), maximal oxygen consumption (2km row test), muscle strength (1RM back and front squat, isometric peak torque), and muscle power (1RM snatch and clean & jerk), and muscle endurance (Tibana test), which were compared with performance during the CrossFit® Open 2020. Multiple linear regression showed that for the CrossFit Open 2020.1 and 2020.2 workouts, the score in the Tibana test was the only variable that explained the outcomes (Beta = -0.78, p < 0.01 for 2020.1 workout and Beta = 0.82, p < 0.01 for 2020.2 workout). Performance in the CrossFit Open 2020.3 and 2020.4 workouts were explained through the relative strength (Beta = 0.58, p = 0.02 for 2020.3 workout and Beta = 0.50, p = 0.04 for 2020.4 workout). Lastly, Tibana test had the greatest influence on CrossFit Open 2020.5 workout (Beta = -0.75, p < 0.01). A local muscle endurance and muscle strength may be used to predict CrossFit® open workout performance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0555.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; physical therapy; rehabilitation; exercise
Online: 21 November 2020 (10:50:28 CET)
What do you want to do ?New mailCopyBackground: to analyze the changes that a therapeutic physical exercise program is capable of causing in the functionality of patients suffering from ALS and in addition, to analyze the respiratory capacity. Methods: a systematic review of the PubMed, SCOPUS, Cochrane, SciELO, PEDro, CINAHL and MEDline databases is carried out. The information was filtered using the following MeSH terms: "Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis", "Physical Therapy", "Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine". Clinical trials published in the last 5 years were included in which one of the interventions was therapeutic physical exercise in patients with ALS, which included the ALSFRS-R as a result variable. Results: 10 clinical trials with a total of 421 patients were analyzed, of which 183 underwent rehabilitation with physical exercise and were part of the case group; the rest belong to the control group and their treatment was mostly passive. The observed trend is of a decrease of approximately 6 points in the ALSFRS-R scale at 6 months in the case groups; however, no behavior pattern was met in the controls. Conclusions: Therapeutic physical exercise could contribute to slow down the deterioration of the musculature of people with ALS, thus facilitating the performance of their daily activities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0540.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; physical therapy; rehabilitation; exercise
Online: 20 November 2020 (11:53:01 CET)
Background: to analyze the changes that a therapeutic physical exercise program is capable of causing in the functionality of patients suffering from ALS and in addition, to analyze the respiratory capacity. Methods: a systematic review of the PubMed, SCOPUS, Cochrane, SciELO, PEDro, CINAHL and MEDline databases is carried out. The information was filtered using the following MeSH terms: "Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis", "Physical Therapy", "Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine". Clinical trials published in the last 5 years were included in which one of the interventions was therapeutic physical exercise in patients with ALS, which included the ALSFRS-R as a result variable. Results: 10 clinical trials with a total of 421 patients were analyzed, of which 183 underwent rehabilitation with physical exercise and were part of the case group; the rest belong to the control group and their treatment was mostly passive. The observed trend is of a decrease of approximately 6 points in the ALSFRS-R scale at 6 months in the case groups; however, no behavior pattern was met in the controls. Conclusions: Therapeutic physical exercise could contribute to slow down the deterioration of the musculature of people with ALS, thus facilitating the performance of their daily activities.What do you want to do ?New mailCopy
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0475.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: pulmonary arteriovenous malformation; exercise intolerance; oxygen desaturation
Online: 18 November 2020 (12:29:02 CET)
Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVMs) in children are rare lesions characterized by abnormal low resistance vascular structures connecting a pulmonary artery to a pulmonary vein, resulting in an intrapulmonary right-to-left shunt. The insidious onset and variable signs and symptoms make diagnosis difficult, especially in children. PAVMs can be single or multiple, congenital or acquired, and up to 47-80% of cases are associated with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT).We present the case of a 12-year-old female teenager referred to our center for epistaxis, headache, fatigue and weakness, with evidence of mild oxygen desaturation. Bubble test showed a right-to-left shunt and pulmonary angio-CT confirmed the diagnosis. Percutaneous selective embolization was performed with full recovery of normal arterial oxygen saturation. When differentiating between mild oxygen desaturation and exercise intolerance in children and adolescents, physicians should be aware of the possibility of PAVMs as a cause.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0346.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: immunity; leukocyte; lymphocyte; flow cytometry; glucose; exercise
Online: 16 October 2018 (08:59:44 CEST)
Using a randomized, crossover approach, cyclists (N = 20, overnight fasted) engaged in three 75-km time trials while ingesting water (WAT) or carbohydrate (0.2 g/kg every 15 minutes) from bananas (BAN) or a 6% sugar beverage (SUG). Blood samples were collected pre-exercise and 0 h-, 1.5 h-, and 21 h-post-exercise, and analyzed for NK cytotoxicity activity (NKCA) using pure NK cell populations. The two carbohydrate trials (BAN, SUG) compared to WAT were associated with higher post-exercise glucose, and lower cortisol, total blood leukocyte, neutrophil, and NK cell counts (interaction effects, P < 0.001). The immediate post-exercise increase in NK cell counts was higher in WAT (78%) compared to BAN (32%) and SUG (15%) trials (P ≤ 0.017). The 1.5 h post-exercise decrease in NK cell counts did not differ after WAT (−46%), BAN (−46%), and SUG (−51%) trials. The pattern of change in post-exercise NKCA differed between trials (P < 0.001). The 1.5 h post-exercise decreases in NKCA were 23%, 29%, and 33% in the WAT, BAN, and SUG trials, respectively, but trial contrasts did not differ significantly. Carbohydrate ingestion from BAN or SUG attenuated immediate-post-exercise increases in leukocyte, neutrophil, and NK cell counts, but did not counter the 1.5-h decreases in NK cell counts and NKCA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0287.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: exercise; polyphenol; metabolite; Hippurate; intestinal tract; colon
Online: 15 October 2018 (07:39:26 CEST)
Using a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel group design, this investigation determined if the combination of 2-weeks flavonoid supplementation (329 mg/day, quercetin, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols mixture) and a 45-minute walking bout (62.2±0.9% VO2max) enhanced the translocation of gut-derived phenolics into circulation in a group of walkers (N = 77). The walkers (flavonoid, placebo groups) were randomized to either sit or walk briskly on treadmills for 45 minutes (thus four groups: placebo-sit, placebo-walk, flavonoid-sit, flavonoid-walk). A comparator group of runners (N = 19) ingested a double flavonoid dose for 2 weeks (658 mg/day) and ran for 2.5 h (69.2±1.2% VO2max). Four blood samples were collected (pre- and post-supplementation, immediately-post- and 24-h post-exercise/rest). Of the 76 metabolites detected in this targeted analysis, 15 increased after the 2.5-h run, and when grouped were also elevated post-exercise (versus placebo-sit) for the placebo- and flavonoid-walking groups (P < 0.05). A secondary analysis showed that pre-study plasma concentrations of gut-derived phenolics in the runners were 40% higher compared to walkers (P = 0.031). These data indicate that acute exercise bouts (brisk walking, intensive running) are linked to an increased translocation of gut-derived phenolics into circulation, an effect that is amplified when combined with a 2-week period of increased flavonoid intake or chronic training as a runner.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0023.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: physical exercise; irisin; neurodegeneration; aging; Alzheimer’s disease
Online: 11 February 2018 (04:28:07 CET)
Irisin, a skeletal muscle-secreted myokine, produced in response to physical exercise, has protective functions in both the central and the peripheral nervous systems, including the regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factors and modification of telomere length. Such beneficial effects may inhibit or delay the emergence of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This review is based on the hypothesis that irisin produced by physical exercise helps control AD progression. Herein, we describe the physiology of irisin and its potential role in delaying or preventing AD. Although current and ongoing studies on irisin show promising results, further research is required to clarify its potential as a meaningful therapeutic target for treating human diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0081.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: insulin resistance; diet; exercise; microbiome; metabolic disorders
Online: 9 January 2018 (10:05:09 CET)
Insulin resistance is a prominent pathophysiologic syndrome in a plethora of metabolic disorders including obesity, prediabetes, type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Ten et al., 2007), impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, polycystic ovary syndrome and hypercoagulability (Smith & LeRoith, 2004). It is strongly associated with obstructive sleep apnea, hypoventilation syndrome, pancreatitis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, gall bladder disease, multiple cancers (breasts, uterus, cervix prostate, kidney, colon, esophagus, pancreas and liver), stroke, cataracts, coronary heart disease, and hypertension. It is also associated with causation of abnormal menses, infertility, polycystic ovary syndrome, osteoarthritis, phlebitis and other venous diseases. Insulin resistance is thought to be caused by intrinsic and extrinsic factors that contribute to its development. Once present, insulin resistance affects the metabolism, behavior, physical appearance and has lasting effects. This paper will review the latest evidence in development of insulin resistance, its pathogenesis and manifestation and its relation to other conditions. The final aim is to raise awareness of its role on diet, metabolic, genetics and microbiome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1631.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: VR; Technology; Physical activity; Physical fitness; Exercise adherence.
Online: 27 November 2023 (11:18:31 CET)
Outdoor exercise is beneficial for psychophysical well-being. Limited studies have compared outdoor and virtual reality (VR) indoor physical activities, especially in coastal settings. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the impact of outdoor coastal walking and indoor walking in a VR simulation with a similar environment on physiological and psychological variables in healthy adults. Twenty-six subjects (14M and 12F; age 25.2 ± 2.5 years) voluntarily participated in this crossover randomized controlled and counterbalanced study and were allocated under three conditions: VR indoor walking (INVR), outdoor walking (OUT) and standard indoor walking (IN). IN and INVR conditions were performed on a treadmill (speed 4.5 Km/h) and the OUT was per-formed on a seaside pedestrian road. The same outdoor environment was displayed in the visor during the INVR. Heart rate (HRmean/max), Physical Activity Enjoyment (PACES-It) and State of Mindfulness for Physical Activity (SMS-PA) were assessed at the end of each condition. The OUT condition showed significantly greater PACES-It scores and HRmean than IN and INVR (p<0.001) and greater SMS-PA scores and HRmax than IN (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). No significant dif-ferences were found between OUT and INVR regarding HRmax and SMS-PA scores (p>0.05). Findings suggest that physical activity in an immersive technology may lead to physiological loads comparable to the outdoor environment. OUT is more enjoyable than IN and INVR but exhibits a mindfulness response comparable to INVR. Therefore, INVR could be an alternative to OUT for those who cannot engage in outdoor activities for various reasons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1625.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: graded exercise test; gas exchange analysis; metabolic cart
Online: 31 October 2023 (08:21:46 CET)
Several factors, such as internal algorithm, sensor technology, and obsolescence might skew outcomes when comparing different gas analysers measurements during CPET. Besides aerosol borne infectious disease are a source of contamination during cardiopulmonary exercise tests (CPET). Thus, the main aim of this study was to determine the agreement degree between the Quark RMR and the Jaeger Oxycon Pro, using an antibacterial filter with the latter. Forty-two participants (19-54 years old) performed two non-consecutive maximal graded exercise tests on a cycle-ergometer on two counterbalance and different days using the Oxycon Pro and the Quark RMR in a randomized order. Differences between devices were tested using a generalized linear model adjusted by Bonferroni, and correlation and agreement was assessed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient (R), intraclass coefficient correlation (ICC), Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) and Bland-Altman plots. No significant differences were found between devices in any of metabolic or ventilatory parameters for cardiorespiratory fitness assessment (VO2max: 3131.3±882.1 vs. 3189.8±894.8, p=0.071, VCO2max: 3436.3±936.0 vs. 3550.3±1043.2, p=0.071, for Quark RMR and Oxycon Pro, respectively). However, Bland-Altman plots showed a trivial tendency towards Oxycon Pro overestimation relative to Quark RMR as air flow volume increases. Both devices showed strong correlation and high level of agreement during maximal and submaximal exercise intensities (Pearson’s R: 0.974 & 0.977; ICC: 0.985 & 0.987; Lin’s CCC: 0.971 & 0.974, for VO2 and VCO2, respectively). Therefore, providing consistency to CPET data comparison between both devices, and insight into whether the use of these metabolic carts could be interchangeable or combined when a single device cannot be used for CPET assessment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0157.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities; Gait; Exercise Program; Kinematics
Online: 22 September 2023 (12:53:06 CEST)
This study examines the effects and durability of postural exercise on gait kinematics in people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Thirty-four men with mild IDD were assigned to either the training group (n = 19) or the control group (n = 15). The TG performed the intervention over 8 weeks, 3 days/week, 1 h/day. The results indicated that the intervention program had a significant effect on some variables of gait. Also, in the TG between post-test and follow-up, there was no significant difference, which indicated that gait variables were maintained by the TG one month after the end of the program. This study provides evidence that postural exercises can be used as an effective intervention for improving gait in individuals with IDD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1493.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; brace; exercise; Dichotic Listening Paradigm
Online: 22 September 2023 (10:56:55 CEST)
Background: Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) patients have been found to exhibit cortical asymmetry. This study aimed to examine the impact of conservative treatments on perceptual and cognitive asymmetry in the auditory system of AIS patients with thoracic major curve. Method: The study involved 30 AIS patients and 21 healthy subjects. The intervention group used a Cheneau brace and performed 18 Schroth Best Practice (SBP) exercise sessions. Auditory lateralization was assessed with a Dichotic Listening Paradigm (DLP) in both groups before and after the intervention. Results: The six-week intervention resulted in a significant increase in left ear responses in the force-left condition in the AIS (p<0.05). Left ear responses were lower in AIS at baseline (p<0.05). Sixth-week results were similar in all conditions (p>0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that SBP exercises and Cheneau brace treatment can improve perceptual and cognitive asymmetry in the auditory system in AIS patients with thoracic major curve. Scoliosis-associated changes in the spine and postural control may affect auditory perception by causing adaptations in sensory and motor networks. Future studies are needed to examine the connectivity in brain regions related to motor control and auditory processing after conservative treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2061.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: warm-up; oxidative stress; anaerobic exercise; handball players
Online: 31 July 2023 (10:49:13 CEST)
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of three warm-up durations on post-exercise oxidative stress biomarkers, as well as recovery from the Wingate test in 14 amateur handball players. These players completed the Wingate test three times: after 5-min, after 10-min, and then after 15-min of warm-up, spread over two weeks with an interval of one week between each session. At the end of each session of the Wingate test, blood samples were taken: at rest (PR), after warming up (PWU) and immediately at the end of the test (P0), then after 10-min (P10) and after 20-min (P20) of recovery. The measured parameters are the total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), malondialdehyde (MDA), protein-bound-carbonyls (PC) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The main findings revealed that anaerobic exercise induces oxidative stress, as evidenced by changes in antioxidant status and significant increases in concentrations of the majority of oxidative stress indicators (p < 0.05). At P20, plasma GPx, SOD, GR, TBARS, and PC contents, are lower and significantly different after a 15-min warm-up than after a 10-min or 5-min warm-up. ANOVA showed a significant ‘‘warm-up×recovery’’ effect on plasma GPx, SOD, GR, TBARS, and PC contents [F(8.104)=3.61; p<0.001; η2p=0.22, F(8.104): from 1.88 to 19.97; η2p: from 0.19 to 0.61: 0.05<p<0.001], respectively. We concluded that a 15-min warm-up was more efficient than the other duration in reducing free radical rise, emphasizing the importance of warm-up length on plasma oxidative stress biomarkers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0991.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: exercise; diabetes; obesity; hypertension; ventricular remodeling; heart failure
Online: 14 June 2023 (05:34:21 CEST)
Left ventricular (LV) remodeling is a dynamic process which is characterized by abnormal LV wall thickness and altered myocardial geometry, and it is considered as a negative prognostic factor in both heart failure with reduced eject fraction (HFrEF) and heart failure with preserved eject fraction (HFpEF). Hypertension, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity are strongly correlated with the development and the progression of LV remodeling, LV hypertrophy and LV systolic and/or diastolic dysfunction. Indeed, the beneficial impact of exercise training on primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been well-established. Recent studies highlight that exercise training enhances functional capacity, muscle strength and endurance, cardiac function and cardiac-related biomarkers, among patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD) or HF, thus improving substantially their cardiovascular prognosis, survival rates and needs for rehospitalization. Therefore, in this review article, we discuss the evidence of LV remodeling in patients with cardiometabolic risk factors, such as hypertension, T2D, obesity, and also highlight the current studies evaluating the effect of exercise training on LV remodeling in these patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0797.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Heart failure; Malnutrition; Exercise; Amino-acids; mTOR; Deptor
Online: 23 April 2023 (08:45:26 CEST)
Malnutrition, clinically evident primarily with sarcopenia, is present in more than 50% of CHF patients and is an independent factor of morbidity and mortality. Several pathophysiological mechanisms, such as reduced appetite, metabolic imbalance and altered protein synthesis/degradation rate, due to the blood increase of hypercatabolic molecules, have been proposed to explain this phenomenon. Nutritional supplementation with proteins, amino acids and vitamins have all been used to treat malnutrition, acting through mTOR stimulation. However, the success and efficacy of these procedures are often contradictory and not conclusive. Interestingly, data on exercise training show that exercise reduces mortality and increase functional capacity, although it also increases energy expenditure and nitrogen providing substrate needs. Therefore, this paper discusses the molecular mechanisms of integrated nutritional approaches that would stimulate metabolic anabolic pathways. Pivotal in our opinion, is the relationship between exercise and Deptor, a subunit of the mTOR complex. Consequently, we propose a combination of personalized and integrate nutritional supplementation as well as exercise to treat malnutrition and related anthropometric and functional CHF-related disorders.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0421.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: stroke; aerobic exercise; cycling; moderate intensity; home-based
Online: 24 February 2023 (08:50:13 CET)
Objective: To investigate the feasibility and preliminary effects of a 12-week home-based moderate intensity cycling programme in stroke survivors. Design: Single-blinded, parallel group, Randomised Controlled Trial Setting: Home-based Participants: Participants will be survivors of first-ever stroke and randomly assigned to an Active Cycling Group (ACG) or control group. Intervention: The ACG performed a 12-week home-based cycling programme, three sessions per week. Work intervals were executed at 75% of the maximal heart rate (HRmax), recovery intervals at 50% of HRmax. Work interval duration increased from three ten-minute intervals to 30 minutes continuous cycling. The control group completed a 12-week neurocognitive exercise programme. Main outcome measurements: Primary outcome measures are compliance with training, adherence to protocol and safety as measured by adverse events. Secondary outcome measurements included a: simplified modified Rankin Scale questionnaire (stroke severity), Six-Minute Walking Test (walking ability), Ten-meter Walk Test (walking ability), Rivermead Mobility Index (walking ability), graded submaximal cycling test (exercise capacity), Physical Activity for Individuals with Physical Disability questionnaire (physical activity), EQ-5D-5L (quality of life), Stroke Specific Quality of Life questionnaire (quality of life), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (cognition), General Self-Efficacy Scale (self-efficacy), and Exercise Self-Regulation Questionnaire (self-regulation).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0580.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Exercise; Sport; Team Sport; Resilience; Identity; Health; School
Online: 26 July 2021 (14:24:29 CEST)
Covid-19 restrictions impacted many people’s daily lives through infection, fear of infection and the implementation of restrictions on movement. Restrictions and fear of contamination impacted physical activity patterns activity and increased mental health issues globally across a variety of ages. This re-issue of a questionnaire sought to examine the impact of Covid-19 restrictions on frequency of physical activity, participation in sports, wellbeing and symptoms of anxiety and depression in Irish adolescents. 3,021 adolescents from 61 post-primary schools in the Republic of Ireland completed questionnaires. Consistent with a previous issue of the questionnaire, a minority of adolescents were found to meet the WHO’s physical activity guidelines (11.6% of males and 5.2% of females) although there were large decreases in 1st year males and females. Adolescents reporting elevated symptoms of depression increased from 39% to 46% with almost 3 in 5 females reporting symptoms of depression ranging from mild to extreme. Highest levels of wellbeing were found in adolescents who participated in 3 or more sports, although there was an 8% reduction in the amount of adolescents who participated in 3 or more sports. There were no changes in physical activity levels overall, despite changes within sub-groups and patterns of physical activity. There was a clear increase in symptoms of depression, with females impacted more than males. Previously active individuals were more likely to increase activity and therefore report higher levels of mental health while those who were less active were more likely to decrease activity and report lower mental health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0630.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Exercise; Runners; Near-infrared spectroscopy; Respiratory muscles; Respiration.
Online: 28 June 2021 (09:44:55 CEST)
The study aimed to evaluate the association between the changes in ventilatory variables (tidal volume (Vt), respiratory rate (RR), and lung ventilation (VE)) and deoxygenation of m.intescostales (∆SmO2-m.intercostales) during a maximal incremental exercise in nineteen male competitive marathon runners. The ventilatory variables and oxygen-consumption (VO2) were recorded breath-by-breath by exhaled gas analysis. A near-infrared spectroscopy device (MOXY) located in the right-hemithorax allowed recording SmO2-m.intercostales. To explore changes in oxygen levels in muscles with high demand during exercise, a second MOXY records SmO2-m.vastus laterallis. The triphasic model of exercise intensity was used for evaluating changes in SmO2 in both muscle groups. We found that ∆SmO2-m.intercostales correlated with VO2-peak (r=0.65; p=0.002) and the increase of VE (r=0.78; p=0.001), RR (r=0.54; p=0.001), but not Vt (p=0.210). The interaction of factors (muscles X exercise-phases) in SmO2 expressed as an arbitrary unit (a.u) was significant (p=0.005). At VT1 were no difference (p=0.177), but SmO2-m.intercostales was higher at VT1 (p<0.001) and VO2-peak (p<0.001). In competitive marathon runners, the m.intercostales deoxygenation during incremental exercise is directly associated with the aerobic capacity and increased lung ventilation and respiratory rate, but not tidal volume. Besides, it shows less deoxygenation than m.vastus laterallis at intensities above the aerobic ventilatory threshold.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0374.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: cfDNA; next generation sequencing; full marathon; exercise; physiology
Online: 15 March 2021 (11:52:33 CET)
Plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is frequently analyzed using liquid biopsy to investigate cancer markers. Accordingly, we hypothesized this concept could be applied to the field of exercise physiology. Here, we aimed to identify specific cfDNA (spcfDNA) sequences in the plasma of non-treated human participants using next generation sequencing (NGS) and to clearly define the dynamics regarding the amounts of spcfDNA-fragments upon extreme exercise, such as running a full marathon. NGS analysis was performed using cfDNA of pooled plasma collected from non-treated participants. We confirmed the TaqMan-qPCR assay had a high sensitivity and found the spcfDNA sequence abundance was 16,600-fold higher than a normal genomic region. We then used the TaqMan-qPCR assay to investigate the dynamics of the levels of spcfDNA-fragments upon running a full marathon. Quantities of the spcfDNA fragments were significantly increased post marathon. Furthermore, the amounts of spcfDNA fragments strongly correlated with the numbers of white blood cells and plasma myoglobin concentrations. These results suggest the spcfDNA fragments identified in this study were highly sensitive response markers to extreme physical stress. The findings of this study may provide new insights into exercise physiology and genome biology on the human.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0662.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Exercise; Health; Obesity; Northern Latitudes; Cross-country skiing
Online: 25 December 2020 (13:15:58 CET)
Background: Physical activity is recommended to mitigate the incidence of obesity, but delivery of community wide initiatives is cumbersome. The challenges met by such programs are magnified when implementation transpires in the remote villages of Alaska. To overcome the difficulty of this challenge in the Arctic, the Skiku/AK Nordic cross-country skiing program was developed. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether access to Skiku/AK Nordic program would promote physical activity levels that met the daily recommendations for physical activity in Alaska Native children. Methods: Eight children (4 females and 4 males; 10±2 years/age) were recruited from Kaktovik, Alaska for participation in this study. Expert coaches and staff provided one week of cross-country ski instruction and access to ski equipment. Physical activity was monitored using ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers. Data collected from the devices was then downloaded and analyzed using ActiLife software. Results: The participants expended ~586 calories/day devoted to physical activity. Light and moderate physical activity was 68±38 minutes/day and 447±248 minutes/day, respectively. Conclusions: Delivery of the Skiku/AK Nordic program promoted favorable levels of physical activity in Alaska Native children. Further research is needed to assess the longitudinal and seasonal effectiveness of the Skiku/AK Nordic program.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0270.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: sedentism; exercise; immunometabolism; SARS-COV-2; Cytokines; immunity
Online: 13 October 2020 (09:48:59 CEST)
Many reports showed a dramatic decrease in the levels of physical activity during the current pandemic of SARS-COV-2. This has substantial immunometabolic implications, especially in those at risk or with metabolic diseases including individuals with obesity and Type 2 diabetes. Here we discuss the route from physical inactivity to immnometabolic aberrancies; focusing on how insulin resistance could represent an adaptive mechanism to the low physical activity levels and/or high energy intake and on how such an adaptive mechanism could derail to be a pathognomonic feature of metabolic diseases creating a vicious circle of immune and metabolic aberrancies. We provide a theoretical framework to the severe immunopathology of COVID-19 in patients with metabolic diseases. We finally discuss the idea of exercise as a potential adjuvant against COVID-19 and emphasize how even interrupting prolonged periods of sitting with short time breaks of very light activity could be a feasible strategy to limit the deleterious effects of sedentary behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0179.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Physical Education; knowledge; proper exercise; back care; adolescents
Online: 8 September 2020 (07:55:23 CEST)
The aim of this study was to analyze the level of specific back-health-related physical activity and exercise knowledge. This is a cross-sectional study. A representative sample of 1500 students were recruited with a confidence level of 95% and an accepted standard error of ±2.53%. Individuals were aged between 13 and 18 years old (mean age= 15.18; SD = ±1.446). Self-reported questionnaires were used to record back-health-related physical activity and exercise knowledge concerning back care in adolescents. The level of specific knowledge of back health education related to physical activity and exercise in adolescents was low (X = 2.05, SD = ±2.264). Only 10.9% of the students passed the specific knowledge test, achieving a grade equal or superior to 5. The boys average score was higher (X = 2.17, SD = ±2.312) than the girls (X = 1.94, SD = ±2.212) with statistically significant differences (p = .048). The level of specific knowledge increased with age (F = 11.531; p < .001). High school students have a low level of specific knowledge. Physical Education teachers should apply the conceptual content properly. Knowledge is the first step towards changing behavioral habits. Back care education in the school curriculum is recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0343.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: protein; exercise; muscle damage; creatine kinase; myoglobin; inflammation
Online: 16 July 2020 (06:33:18 CEST)
This randomized trial compared pea protein, whey protein, and water-only supplementation on muscle damage, inflammation, delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS), and physical fitness test performance during a 5-day period after a 90-minute eccentric exercise bout in non-athletic, non-obese males (n=92, ages 18-55 years). The two protein sources (0.9 g protein/kg divided into three doses/day) were administered under double blind procedures. The eccentric exercise protocol induced significant muscle damage and soreness, and reduced bench press and 30-second Wingate performance. Whey protein supplementation significantly attenuated post-exercise blood levels for biomarkers of muscle damage compared to water-only, with large effect sizes for creatine kinase and myoglobin during the 4th and 5th days of recovery (Cohen's d >0.80); pea protein versus water supplementation had an intermediate, non-significant effect (Cohen's d <0.50); and no significant differences between whey and pea protein were found. Whey and pea protein compared to water supplementation had no significant effects on post-exercise DOMS and the fitness tests. In conclusion, high intake of whey protein for 5 days after intensive eccentric exercise mitigated efflux of muscle damage biomarkers, with intake of pea protein having an intermediate effect in part due to the 24% lower leucine amino acid content.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0061.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: diabetes; saffron; turmeric; food supplements; supplementation; physical exercise
Online: 7 June 2020 (06:01:12 CEST)
Diabetes Mellitus is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in the world and one of its main features is chronic hyperglycemia. Among the therapeutic forms used to control the pathology are pharmacotherapy and the use of other alternatives such as regular exercise, which participates in glycemic control and the ingestion of plant extracts with antioxidant effects in the body. Among the different plants used, curcumin is a possible plant to be used to attenuate the hyperglycemic picture triggered by Diabetes Mellitus. Some studies suggest that this plant is antioxidant and hypoglycemic. The review aimed to know the antioxidant and hypoglycemic potential of curcumin supplementation in DM. The search was performed considering articles published between 2010 to 2019, in English and Portuguese, and a theoretical survey of relevant information was conducted in the main databases of scientific publications: Virtual Health Library and its indexed databases as Pubmed, LILACS, Scielo and Scientific Electronic Library Online. The associated use Turmeric and Physical Exercise demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and hypoglycemic activity caused by Diabetes Mellitus. We may suggest that these are potential therapeutic ways to improve the quality and survival of diabetic patients.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0435.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: coronavirus; fevers; pneumonia; nutrients; sauna baths; physical exercise
Online: 29 March 2020 (11:25:23 CEST)
The recent outbreak and spread of the COVID-19 virus infection across the world has seen a massive global system-wide shutdown of human social and economic activity. Both developed and developing nations have been forced to contain and isolate their citizens as much as possible. However, the continuous rising cases in both categories of nations, especially those with poor or nonexistent testing facilities and healthcare systems pose a hidden danger. The seemingly lack of and access to a truly global concerted research effort in both temporary but effective symptom mitigation may lead to more deaths in infected cases. We propose that a fusion of both technological and home-grown solutions can be utilized effectively to manage symptoms. This would add to the preventive methods of social distancing, isolation, quarantine and frequent handwashing to halt the impact of the disease. We also hope to spur further research in such drug/non-drug combination therapy-based methods with emphasis on effectiveness based on quality of nutrient sources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0196.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: motor evoked potential; MEP; arm cranking; pedaling; exercise
Online: 13 February 2019 (09:54:08 CET)
Background: The present study compared corticospinal excitability to the biceps brachii muscle during arm cycling at a self-selected and a fixed cadence (SSC and FC, respectively). We hypothesized that corticospinal excitability would not be different between the two conditions. Methods: The SSC was initially performed and the cycling cadence was recorded every 5 seconds for one minute. The average cadence of the SSC cycling trial was then used as a target for FC of cycling that the participants were instructed to maintain. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited via transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex were recorded from the biceps brachii during each trial of SSC and FC arm cycling. Results: Corticospinal excitability as assessed via normalized MEP amplitudes (MEPs were made relative to a maximal compound muscle action potential) were not different between groups. Conclusions: Focusing on maintaining a FC cadence during arm cycling does not influence corticospinal excitability as assessed via TMS-evoked MEPs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0189.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: beta-alanine; carnosine; oxidative stress; antioxidant; physical exercise
Online: 12 November 2018 (06:48:00 CET)
The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the articles that addressed the effect BA or carnosine supplementation on Physical exercise (PE)-induced oxidative stress (OS). We searched throughout PubMed, CAPES Periodic and SPORTDiscus human model peer review, randomized control studies with chronic BA or carnosine supplementation on PE-induced OS. We search papers published before May 2018. A total of 128 citations were found. Only four articles met criteria for inclusion. All four studies used healthy young (21y) sedentary, recreationally active or athletic participants. After a chorionic BA (~30 days) or carnosine (14 days) supplementation, the studies evaluated PE-induced OS both immediately and several hours after exercise (0.5 to 48 h). In response to PE-induced OS, when compared to placebo, BA/carnosine supplementation increased total antioxidant capacity [TAC; Effect Size (ES) = 0.35, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.06 to 0.65, p = 0.02] and glutathione (GSH; ES = 0.75, 95% CI 0.32 to 1.19, p = 0.0007) concentrations while decreased pro-oxidant markers (ES = −1.19, 95% CI −1.48 to -0.80, p < 0.01) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (ES = −0.58, 95% CI −1.10 to −0.06, p = 0.03). BA or carnosine supplementation did not prevent the increase in peroxidation markers (ES: −0.20, 95% CI −0.59 to 0.20, p = 0.33). In humans, following PE-induced OS, initial treatment trials of BA or carnosine supplementation seemed to increase TAC and GSH concentrations, while decreasing SOD activity. Also, albeit mitigating the acute increase in pro-oxidants, treatment did not decrease measured values of peroxidation markers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0348.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: exercise; cigarette; smokeless tobacco; substance use; health behavior
Online: 16 October 2018 (09:49:28 CEST)
Background: Exercise is increasingly understood as an important resource for people with harmful substance use, including those in prison. Little is known about how inmates adopt various health behaviors during incarceration, without interventions. Methods: This study analyzed self-reports from 1468 inmates in Norwegian prisons, compared them according to harmful substance use pre-incarceration, and explored changes in exercise and nicotine use during incarceration. Results were presented in accordance with the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) guidelines. Results: Inmates with harmful substance use reported higher rates of smoking, smokeless tobacco, and physical inactivity pre-incarceration than inmates without harmful use. However, inmates with harmful use also exhibited more behavioral changes: they adopted exercise, ceased smoking, and adopted smokeless tobacco at higher rates during incarceration than the non-harmful group. Conclusions: Exercise is being taken up by a significant proportion of inmates, and may in particular be a replacement behavior for substance use. However, unhealthy behaviors are also begun or maintained. If prisons were used as an arena to facilitate healthy behaviors, the public health benefits to a marginalized group such as substance-using inmates could be substantial.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0469.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: aerobic capacity, graded‑exercise test, total work-load
Online: 27 August 2018 (16:31:45 CEST)
The aim of this study was to clarify effects of 3-week work-matched high-intensity intermittent cycling training (HIICT) with different cadences on VO2max in university athletes. Eighteen university athletes performed HIICT with either 60 rpm (n = 9) or 120 rpm (n = 9). HIICT consisted of eight sets of 20-s exercise with a 10-s passive rest between each sets. The initial training intensity was set at 135% of VO2 max and was decreased by 5% every two sets. Athletes in both groups performed 9 sessions of HIICT during 3-week. The total work-load and achievement rate of the work load calculated before experiments in each group were used for analysis. VO2max was measured pre and post-training. After 3-week of training, no significant differences in the total work-load and achievement rate of the work load were found between the two groups. VO2max similarly increased in both groups from pre to post training (p = 0.016), with no significant differences between the groups (p = 0.680). These results suggest that cadence during HIICT is not training variable affecting effect of VO2max.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0269.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: dietary intervention; multilevel intervention; diet & exercise; health outcomes
Online: 16 July 2018 (09:59:19 CEST)
There is a growing need to utilize community interventions to address modifiable behaviors that lead to poor health outcomes like obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. Poor health outcomes can be tied to community-level factors such as food deserts (identified areas with low access to fresh fruit, vegetables, and other healthful whole foods) and individual behaviors like sedentary lifestyles, consuming large portion sizes, and eating high-calorie fast food and processed foods. Through a social ecological approach with family, organization and community, the Faithful Families Cooking and Eating Smart (FFCES) intervention was created to address these concerns in a rural South Carolina community. FFCES used gatekeepers to identify 18 churches and 4 apartment complexes in low-income areas. 176 participants completed both pre- and post- survey measures. Student’s t-test measures found statistically significant change in participant perception of food security (0.39, p-value=0.005), self-efficacy with physical activity and healthy eating (0.26, p-value=000), and cooking confidence (0.17, p-value=.01). There was not significant change in cooking behaviors as assessed through the Cooking Behaviors Scale. FFCES shows that a social ecological approach can be effective at increasing and improving individual healthy behaviors and addressing community-level factors in low-income rural communities.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: physical activity; depression; elderly people living alone; Patient Health Questionnaire-10; flexibility exercise; muscular strength exercise; complex sample logistic regression
Online: 25 March 2019 (11:10:17 CET)
Background and objectives: Only a few studies analyzed the physical activity level of elderly people living alone in local communities and evaluated the relationship between it and mental health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical activity and depression in the elderly living alone and to provide basic data for the prevention of depression in the elderly. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 256 elderly people living alone aged 65 years or older who completed the 2014 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Depression was defined as a score of 10 or higher using Patient Health Questionnaire-10(PHQ-9). This study investigated walking per week, days of muscular strength exercise performance in the past one week, days of flexibility exercise in the past one week, mean hours in a sitting position per day, the numbers of days and hours conducting a high intensity physical activity in the past one week, and numbers of days and hours conducting a medium intensity physical activity in the past one week to define physical activity. Our study presented prevalence odds ratios (pOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) by using complex sample logistic regression analysis in order to identify the relationship between physical activity and depression. Results: The results of complex sample logistic regression analysis showed that flexibility exercise was significantly related to depression (p <0.05). On the other hand, the mean hours in a sitting position per day, aerobic physical activity, walking, and muscular strength exercise were not significantly related to geriatric depression. Conclusions: The results of our study implied that persistent flexibility exercise might be more effective to maintain a healthy mental status than muscular strength exercise. A longitudinal study is required to prove the causal relationship between physical activity and depression in the old age.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1429.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Post Mastectomy Pain Syndrome; pain; physical exercise; depression; anxiety
Online: 22 November 2023 (13:01:57 CET)
Background: Chronic post-surgical pain is a condition persisting at least three months after surgery. It is estimated that 25-60% of patients who underwent breast cancer removal surgery suffer from post-mastectomy pain syndrome and occurred anxiety, depression, sleep disturbance and catastrophizing. Physical activity can reduce the risk of chronic diseases and has a good impact on mood and cognitive function. Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of physical activity on the intensity of pain, depression and anxiety in women underwent mastectomy for breast cancer removal. Methods: A prospective observational unicentric cohort study was performed. Patients were female underwent unilateral or bilateral mastectomy. Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), was used to assess pain intensity, Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI) for depression and Generalized Anxiety Disorders-7 (GAD-7), for anxiety evaluation. Physical activity was assessed by International Physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ). Interleukin (IL)-17, IL-1β, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were also evaluated in the blood of patients. All the evaluation was assessed 3 and 6 months after the surgery. Results: Adequate physical activity reduced intensity of pain, depression and anxiety symptoms in women affected by post-mastectomy pain syndrome. Moreover, adequate active women, showed a reduction of biomarkers of inflammation, cortisol, ACTH and an increase of BDNF. Conclusions: Our results suggest that physical activity can improve quality of life, reducing intensity of pain, inflammatory markers and it can be useful in the reduction of associated anxiety and depression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0830.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: whey protein hydrolysate; LDIQK; neuroprotective effect; treadmill exercise; scopolamine
Online: 13 November 2023 (13:46:56 CET)
In this study, the potential of whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) containing LDIQK peptide and treadmill exercise to prevent cognitive decline was investigated along with the neuroprotective mechanisms. Cognitive dysfunction was induced in mice by 1 mg/kg scopolamine, followed by administration of WPH at 100 and 200 mg/kg and/or treadmill exercise at 15 m/min for 30 min five days per week. Both WPH administration and treadmill exercise significantly improved memory in mice with scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment, which was attributed to several key mechanisms, including a reduction in oxidative stress based on decreased levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde in the brain tissue and an increase in acetylcholine by increasing choline acyltransferase and decreasing acetylcholine esterase levels. Exercise and WPH also exerted neuroprotective effects by inhibiting the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein, enhancing the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and inhibiting apoptosis by reducing the Bax/Bcl2 ratio in conjunction with downregulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Moreover, the impact of WPH and treadmill exercise extended to the gut microbiome, suggesting a potential link with cognitive improvement. These findings suggest that both WPH intake and treadmill exercise are effective strategies for mitigating cognitive impairment, providing promising avenues for treating neurodegenerative diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0358.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: rotator cuff; shoulder; rehabilitation; physiotherapy; physical therapy; exercise, pain.
Online: 6 September 2023 (10:23:45 CEST)
Rehabilitation after rotator cuff repair is crucial for functional recovery and for minimizing the risk of retear. There are two rehabilitation protocols (early and traditional) and the debate about which is the best is still open. This umbrella review aimed to compare the effect of these rehabilitation protocols in terms of reduction of pain, functional recovery and retear risk. We selected systematic reviews and meta-analyses published between 2012 to 2022 dealing with the aim. Nineteen systematic reviews were included. No significant differences were found between early and traditional protocols in terms of pain reduction. Early rehabilitation provided better short-term results regarding Range of Motion improvement, but long-term functional outcomes were similar. Retear risk remains a significant concern for the early protocol. We found major differences between the analyzed protocols. This review suggests that both protocols are useful to recover global shoulder function, but the standard protocol has a greater safety profile for larger tears. On the other hand, the early protocol may be preferable for smaller lesions, allowing a faster recovery and having less impact on medical costs. Further research is needed to identify optimal rehabilitation strategies tailored to the individual patient's needs and characteristics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0505.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: exercise microbreaks; office workers; middle-aged; musculoskeletal disorders; workplace
Online: 7 July 2023 (15:47:26 CEST)
Office workers often experience occupational musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of the current systematic review was to investigate the effectiveness of workplace exercise intervention on the oldest age group of office workers who have been reported in the literature so far, in terms of workability and well-being. Randomized Controlled Trials were used and the methodological guidelines of PRISMA were followed. The keywords used were: office workers, older, exercise intervention, workplace, microbreaks, workability and well-being. The databases searched were: PubMed, PEDro, ResearchGate, CINAHL, PsychINFO and Science Direct. PROSPERO ID: CRD42022329656. Five studies (total number of participants: 1190, mean age: 46,4) met the inclu-sion criteria. Their quality was deemed to be moderate to high, according to PEDro and MPSER scales. Workplace interventions of gradually increased strengthening and moderate stretching exercises, isometric positioning and postural reminders, either with or without supervision, result in decreasing musculoskeletal pain, disability, sick-leave from work and in the improvement of quality of life and physical activity of the middle-aged office workers, without negative impact on their workability. Despite the worldwide aging workforce, there is a knowledge gap due to research absence in the field of microbreak exercise interventions in the group of older office workers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0645.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Exercise; Rehabilitation; Nature incidental or intentional interaction; Scoping review
Online: 9 May 2023 (11:53:03 CEST)
Abstract Introduction Exercise is an effective component in rehabilitation of a range of chronic conditions. There is a growing interest in the use of exercise-based nature interacted rehabilitation (EBNIR), but an overview of current evidence is missing. To provide an informed base for future work within this field of EBNIR, the objective of this scoping review was to map existing exercise-based rehabilitation interventions conducted with incidental or intentional nature interaction focusing on its populations, types of outcomes, and theoretical rationale for people with physical and mental disabilities. Methods This scoping review identified peer-reviewed publications, registered upcoming trials and grey literature. To map all available knowledge, we performed a comprehensive search of selected databases (MEDLINE; EMBASE; CINAHL; Cochrane; Web of Science; Pedro) from inception to October 2022. Data was synthesised in a thematic presentation guided by TIDieR, supplemented by a checklist developed for this study accounting nature incidental or intentional interaction by measuring all nature elements implemented in the intervention. Results Twelve studies including 856 participants met the inclusion criteria. 11 were completed trials and 1 was registered in clinicaltrials.gov to be run in 2023. A total of 856 patients were enrolled in the 12 studies (range 18-262, median 50). The included studies were different in terms of design (observational n=4, qualitative n=1, RCT=7), intervention dosage and frequency, control intervention, diagnosis, number of patients, and outcomes included. The used exercise-based interventions consisted of outdoor walks, neck exercises and surfing interventions in patients with physical or mental health conditions. The interventions were incidental or intentional interacted with nature to a varying degree. Conclusion This scoping review presents an overview of limited and diverse evidence within the field of exercise-based rehabilitation incidental or intentional interacting with nature, in patients with physical or mental health conditions. Our review provides an overview that will be helpful in the design of future EBNIR trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0552.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: virtual reality; exercise; overweight; body mass index; depression; immersion
Online: 29 December 2022 (03:52:25 CET)
Background: This study explored the effects of a virtual reality exercise program on overweight middle-aged women. Methods: This randomized controlled trial included women 4065 years of age with a body mass index (BMI) of 23 kg/m2 or more living in D city. The virtual reality environment was set up by attaching an IoT sensor to an indoor bicycle and linking it with a smartphone, enabling exercise in an immersive virtual reality through a head-mounted display. Results: In the virtual reality exercise group, the BMI was significantly decreased after the 8-week intervention compared with the baseline value (F=100.806, p<.001). The depression scores were significantly different among the three groups, with the intervention effect being more significant in the virtual reality exercise group than in the indoor bicycle exercise and con-trol groups (F=3.462, p<.001). Furthermore, the levels of exercise fun (F=12.373, p<.001) and exer-cise immersion (F=14.629, p<.001) were significantly higher in the virtual reality exercise group than in the indoor bicycle exercise and control groups. Conclusions: The virtual reality exercise program positively affected the BMI and the levels of depression, exercise fun, and exercise im-mersion in overweight middle-aged women. It is an effective home exercise program for obesity management in this population.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0127.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: youth; adiposity; psychopathology; anxiety; depression; physical activity; exercise; MRI
Online: 7 November 2022 (14:34:46 CET)
Obesity during childhood has been associated with many important physiological and neurological health considerations. Specifically concerning are the associations between youth obesity and declines in mental health, as shown with increasing rates of adolescent depression and anxiety worldwide. The emergence of mental health disorders commonly arises during adolescent development, and approximately half the global population satisfy the criteria for at least one psychiatric disorder in their lifetime, suggesting a need for early intervention. Adolescence is critical time whereby brain structure and functions are not only negatively associated with obesity and declines in mental health, while also coinciding with significant declines in rates of physical activity among individuals in this age group. Physical activity is thus a prime candidate to address the intersection of obesity and mental health crises occurring globally. This review addresses the important considerations between physiological health (obesity, aerobic fitness, physical activity), brain health (structure and function), and mental wellbeing symptomology. Lastly, we pose a theoretical framework which asks important questions regarding the influence of physiological health on the association between brain health and the development of depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0407.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: public health; physical activity; rural resident; physical exercise; epidemiology
Online: 26 October 2022 (09:51:36 CEST)
Physical inactivity is a well-known risk factor for various non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Sufficient physical activity (PA) is essential for the prevention of NCDs and thus it is imperative to study the current status of PA and its influencing factors among rural residents in China. A population-based survey was conducted in rural areas of Shandong, Shanxi and Yunnan Provinces using a stratified random sampling method. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form (IPAQ-S) was used to collect the data on PA. A total of 3780 rural residents participated in the survey. The result showed that 22.2% of rural residents were physical inactivity. The proportion of rural residents reporting practice of physical exercise was 54.4%. The most frequently performed physical exercise was walking/brisk walking(78.3%).Binary logistic regression analyses showed that being female, people at age between 15 to 34 years or 60 years old and above, employees of governmental departments/retirees, school students, the unemployed, people with NCDs were risk factors of PA and ethnic minority groups,smoking and alcohol consumption were risk factors of physical exercise. Health promotion programme aiming at increasing people’s PA in rural China is needed and it should focus on the populations groups of the female, people at age 60 years and above ,school students, the unemployed, and people with NCDs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0040.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: jump header shooting; soccer, trunk muscle activity; stabilization exercise
Online: 5 May 2022 (12:38:08 CEST)
Background: This study aimed to clarify trunk muscle activity during jump header shooting and examine the immediate effects of trunk stabilization exercises on trunk muscle activity. Methods: Nineteen male college students who had played soccer in junior high and high school clubs and youth sports teams for over 5 years were assigned to either the trunk stabilization exercise group (n = 10) or the control group (n = 9). Muscle activity during jump header shooting was measured before and after intervention. The intervention in the trunk stabilization exercise group was trunk muscle training, whereas that in the control group was sitting. The phases of jump header shooting and the effects of the interventions were compared. Results: The internal oblique activity during the push-off phase and early floating phase was significantly greater than that during the late floating phase. The muscle activity of the internal oblique increased from the push-off phase, prior to the increase in muscle activity of the rectus abdominis and external oblique, whereas the muscle activity of all abdominal muscles increased immediately after take-off. The trunk stabilization exercise intervention decreased the muscle activity of the erector spinae during jump header shooting. Conclusions: These results provide useful coaching-related insights for jump header shooting.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0081.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Critical speed; exercise prescription; team sports; thresholds; shuttle running
Online: 2 February 2021 (10:05:08 CET)
The overarching purpose of this review was to highlight the utility of different aerobic field tests in terms of the parameters they provide, with a specific focus on shuttle running and all-out testing. Various field tests are discussed in detail and are categorised according to linear continuous running tests (e.g. 12-minute Cooper Test, University of Montreal Track Test [UMTT], 1200/1600 m time trials, 3-minute all-out test for running [3MT]), intermittent shuttle running tests (e.g. yo-yo inter-mittent recovery test level 1 [YYIR1], 30-15 intermittent fitness test [IFT], and the intermittent all-out shuttle test [IAOST]), and continuous shuttle running tests (e.g. 1.2 km shuttle run test [1.2SRT], maximal multi-stage 20-m shuttle test [MSR], 25-m, 30 m and 50-m 3-minute all-out shuttle test [AOST]). Readers will be guided through the theoretical and practical underpinnings of the 3MT methodology, where the all-out testing methodology is stationed within the testing paradigm, and how to practically implement and interpret the results thereof.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0666.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: hydrogen supplement; acid status; muscle deoxygenation; ventilation; incremental exercise
Online: 25 December 2020 (14:13:30 CET)
We investigated effects of molecular hydrogen (H2) supplementation on acid-base status, pulmonary gas exchange responses, and local muscle oxygenation during incremental exercise. Eighteen healthy, trained subjects in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design received H2-rich calcium powder (HCP) (1500 mg/day, containing 2.544 µg/day of H2) or H2-depleted placebo (1500 mg/day) for 3 consecutive days. They performed cycling incremental exercise starting at 20-watts work rate, increasing by 20 watts/2 min until exhaustion. Breath-by-breath pulmonary ventilation (VE) and CO2 output (VCO2) were measured and muscle deoxygenation (deoxy[Hb + Mb]) was determined via time-resolved-NIRS in the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF). Blood gases' pH, lactate, and HCO3− concentrations were measured at rest and 120-, 200-, and 240-watt work rates. At rest, the HCP group had significantly lower VE, VCO2, and higher HCO3−, PCO2 versus placebo. During exercise, a significant pH decrease and greater HCO3− continued until 240-watts work rate in HCP. The VE was significantly lower in HCP versus placebo, but HCP did not affect the gas exchange status of VCO2 or oxygen uptake (VO2). HCP increased absolute values of deoxy[Hb + Mb] at the RF but not VL. Thus, HCP-induced hypoventilation would lead to lower pH and secondarily impaired balance between O2 delivery and utilization in the local RF during exercise, suggesting that HCP supplementation, which increases the at-rest antioxidant potential, affects the lower ventilation and pH status during incremental exercise. HPC induced a significantly lower O2 delivery/utilization ratio in the RF but not the VL, which may be because these regions possess inherently different vascular/metabolic control properties, perhaps related to fiber-type composition.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0700.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: physical fitness; exercise self-efficacy; quality of life; adulthood
Online: 29 July 2020 (12:57:08 CEST)
Background: The aim of the present work is the elaboration of a systematic review of existing research on physical fitness, self-efficacy for physical exercise, and quality of life in adulthood. Method: Using the PRISMA statement guidelines, and based on the findings in 396 articles, the final sample was composed of 31 articles, which were reviewed to show whether self-efficacy has previously been studied as a mediator in the relationship between physical fitness and quality of life in adulthood. Results: The results indicate that little research exists in relation to healthy, populations with the majority being people with pathology. Physical fitness should be considered as a fundamental aspect in determining the functional capacity of the person. Conclusions: We discuss the need to investigate the mediation of self-efficacy in relation to the value of physical activity on quality of life and well-being in the healthy adult population in adult life.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0403.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: olive nutraceuticals; functional foods; exercise; nutrition; type-2 diabetes
Online: 26 June 2018 (09:37:44 CEST)
Lifestyle is the primary prevention of diabetes, especially type-2 diabetes (T2D). Nutritional intake of olive oil (OO), the key Mediterranean diet component has been associated with the prevention and management of many chronic diseases including T2D. Several OO bioactive compounds such as monounsaturated fatty acids, and key polyphenols including hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, have been associated with preventing inflammation and cytokine-induced oxidative damage, glucose lowering, reducing carbohydrate absorption and increasing insulin sensitivity and related gene expression. However, research into the interaction of OO nutraceuticals with lifestyle components, especially physical activity is lacking. Promising postprandial effects have been reported when OO or other similar monounsaturated fatty acids was the main dietary fat compared with other diets. Animal studies have shown a potential anabolic effect of oleuropein. Such effects could be further potentiated via exercise, especially strength training, which is an essential exercise prescription for individuals with T2D. There is also an evidence from in vitro, animal and limited human studies for a dual preventative role of OO polyphenols in diabetes and cancer, especially that they share similar risk factors. Putative anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory mechanisms and associated gene expressions resulting from OO phenolics, have produced paradoxical results making suggested inferences from dual prevention T2D and cancer outcomes difficult. Well-designed human interventions and clinical trials are needed to decipher such a potential dual anti-cancer and anti-diabetic effects of OO nutraceuticals. Exercise combined with OO consumption, individually or as part of a healthy diet is likely to induce reciprocal action for T2D prevention outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0165.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, anti-inflamatory cytokines, resistance exercise
Online: 23 May 2017 (07:30:43 CEST)
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation on anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β during an acute bout of resistance exercise (RE) in young resistance trained men. Ten resistance-trained men in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled and crossover study, were administered a 7-day HMB supplementation (3×1 g.d-1 of HMB) and placebo (3×1 g.d-1 of Maltodextrin) with a 7 days washout period. After supplementation periods, subjects performed three sets of bench press, lat pull down, leg extension, leg curl, biceps curl, triceps curl and shoulder press to failure with 85% of one repetition to maximum (1RM). Blood samples were obtained before- (Pre), immediately post- (IP) and 1 hour-post RE (1h P) to assess serum concentrations of IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β1. The data were analyzed using 2 (treatment: HMB and PL) × 3 (time points: Pre, IP and 1hP) repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the Bonferroni post hoc test with a significant level of p<0.05. Serum IL-4 was significantly higher at IP resistance exercise in HMB compared to placebo. Circulating IL-4 and TGF-β1 were significantly raised at IP compared to Pre in both HMB and placebo treatments. No significant differences between treatments were observed for IL-10 and TGF-β1at any time points. In conclusion, HMB supplementation increased the circulating level of IL-4 during RE in resistance-trained men, which may attenuate inflammation and facilitate adaptation to RE.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0562.v1
Subject: Psychology, Social Sciences Keywords: Exercise Habits; Sports Consumption; Sports Behavior; College Students; China; Britain
Online: 8 December 2023 (05:59:25 CET)
The purpose of this study is to reveal the differences in the status, psychology, and behaviour of sports consumption between Chinese and UK college students. The questionnaire was distributed through the British JISC questionnaire system, and 1,318 valid questionnaires were obtained. The results showed that the sports consumption ratio of Chinese students was significantly higher than that of UK students, and they were more inclined to choose strengthening the body, recreational leisure, low income, high commodity prices, lack of field equipment, and lack of sports atmosphere as subjective and objective factors that affect sports consumption. Moreover, Chinese students prefer participatory, ornamental, game-class, and training consuming behaviors. In terms of consumption motivation, the reality-seeking motive score of Chinese students was significantly higher, but their consumption cognition score was lower than that of British students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1874.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: dehydration; drinking pattern; exercise; heat stress; physiological and perceptual functions
Online: 27 September 2023 (10:36:15 CEST)
A drinking strategy aiming to replace a given percentage of the sweat losses incurred during exercise should result in reproducible fluid intake volume and, hence, fluid balance from one exercise session to the other performed under similar scenarios. Whether this may also be the case with ad libitum drinking during exercise is unclear. We characterized the repeatability of ad libitum fluid intake during repeated 1 h exercise sessions and examine its effect over time on fluid balance and selected physiological functions and perceptual sensations. Twelve (3 women) healthy individuals participated in this study. At weekly intervals, they completed 4, 2 x 30 min walking/jogging exercise bouts (55% VO2max, 40°C, 20-30% relative humidity) interspersed by a 3 min recovery period. During exercise, participants replaced water (20°C) ad libitum. There were no significant differences among the 4 exercise sessions for absolute fluid intake volume (~ 1000 mL · h-1), percent body mass loss (~ 0.4%), sweat rate (~ 1300 mL · h-1) and percent of sweat loss replaced by fluid intake (~ 80%). Heart rate, rectal temperature and perceived thirst and heat stress did not differ significantly between the first and fourth exercise session. Perceived exertion was significantly lower during the fourth vs. the first exercise session, but the difference was trivial, < 1 arbitrary unit. In conclusion, ad libitum fluid intake during 4 successive identical 1 h walking/jogging sessions conducted in the heat will result in similar fluid intake volumes and perturbations in fluid balance, heart rate, rectal temperature and perceived thirst, heat stress and exertion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1424.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: dabigatran etexilate; exercise training; atherosclerosis; plaque stability; matrix metalloproteinases; inflammation
Online: 21 September 2023 (07:36:12 CEST)
Aim: Complementary effects of dabigatran etexilate (DE), exercise training (ET) and combination (DE+ET) on the development and composition of the atherosclerotic lesions in diabetic apoE knockout (apoE-/-) mice. Methods: In 48 male apoE-/- diabetic mice, streptozotocin (STZ) was induced for 5 consecutive days. Mice received figh-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks and were randomized into 4 groups (1.Control/CG, 2.DEG: HFD with DE, 3.ETG: ET on treadmill, 4.DE+ETG: Combination DE and ET treatment). At the end of 8th week, all mice were euthanatized and morphometry of the aortic lesions at the level of aortic valve was obtained. Collagen, elastin, TNF-a, MCP-1, matrix-metalloproteinases (MMP-2,-3,-9), and TIMP-1 concentration within plaques at aortic valve were determined. Results: All active groups had significantly smaller aorta stenosis (DEG:7.9±2.2%, ETG:17.3±5.3%, DE+ETG:7.1±2.7%) compared to CG (23.3±5.5% p<0.05), reduced the relative intra-plaque concentrations of macrophages, MCP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-9, and considerably increased collagen, elastin and TIMP-1 (p<0.05). Group 4 showed the most pronounced results (p<0.05). Both DEG and DE+ETG significantly reduced MMP-2 and TNF-a concentrations compared to ETG and CG (p<0.010). Conclusion: DE and ET treatment in diabetic apoE-/- mice showed complementary amelioration of atherosclerotic lesions development and stability, mediated by the anti-inflammatory modulation of both DE and ET.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2123.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Breast tumor; exercise training; gastrocnemius; soleus; cancer-induced muscle wasting
Online: 31 August 2023 (09:36:52 CEST)
Background: Muscle wasting is a common phenomenon in oncology and appears to be alleviated by exercise training. This study aims to determine the degree of aggressiveness of cancer-induced muscle wasting in two different phenotypic muscles, and whether exercise training can attenuate this muscle dysfunction. Methods: Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four experimental groups, two control groups (sedentary and exercised) and two breast cancer model groups (sedentary and exercised) induced by 1-methyl-1-nitrosoureia (MNU). After 35 weeks of endurance training the animals were sacrificed and the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were harvested for morphometric analysis. Results: A significant reduction in cross-sectional area (P < 0.05) was found in both muscles of sedentary tumor-bearing animals. Interstitial fibrosis was significantly higher in the gastrocnemius of sedentary tumor-bearing animals (P < 0.05), but not in the soleus. A shift from large to small fibers was observed in the gastrocnemius of sedentary tumor-bearing animals. Long-term exercise training was able to prevent this cancer-related mus-cle dysfunction. Conclusions: The Gastrocnemius muscle showed a very pronounced reduction in cross-sectional area and marked interstitial fibrosis in sedentary animals with tumors. The soleus muscle showed a less pronounced but significant reduction in cross-sectional area, and collagen deposition did not differ between tumor groups. These contrasting results confirm that can-cer-induced muscle wasting can affect specific fiber types, and specific muscles, namely fast glycolytic muscles, and that exercise training can act to improve it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0893.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: functional food; music aerobic exercise; complete blood counts; biochemistry; frailty
Online: 13 July 2023 (09:49:28 CEST)
(1) Background: The elderly who have chewing difficulty (CD) are prone to malnutrition, frail-ty, and sarcopenia, and those with insufficient physical activity (IPA) are also prone to frailty, overweight, and high blood cholesterol. There is an urgent need to prepare functional foods and to promote healthy physical activity for the elderly over 70 years of age to prevent poor nutri-tion and frailty. (2) Methods: This study prepared functional foods (FF) with softened chicken moose and milkfish without fin for the elderly and compared the different effects of FF from those of music aerobic exercise (MAE) on the complete blood counts, blood biochemistry, in-cluding nutrition index of albumin, and cholesterol levels, and frailty scores before and after in-stitution of FF and MAE among residents of long-term care institutes. (3) Results: The FF signif-icantly increased the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and albumin levels. In contrast, MAE significantly increased red blood cells (RBC), and decreased the rates of frailty items on fatigue feeling and low physical activity. In comparison between FF and MAE groups, we found that the FF for 5 weeks significantly improved better on HDL-C and MCV while the MAE for 10 weeks improved significantly better on hematopoiesis as increases in red blood cells and platelets. (4) Conclusions: Results from this study suggest that FF and MAE for the elderly have different ef-fects on nutrition status, blood biochemistry and frailty. A combination of both FF and MAE might provide better benefits of nutrition status, physical function, and frailty for the elderly.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0500.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: vertebrates; arterial pressure; cardiac output; exercise; heart rate; stroke volume
Online: 7 July 2023 (15:39:26 CEST)
Exercise is the greatest stress for the cardiovascular system, not only for the human being but for the rest of vertebrates. For this reason, the cardiovascular response cannot be considered as only one “anthropocentric” meaning. The adjustment of cardiac output to exercise in the five large groups of vertebrates is highly variable. The response of the heart rate and the stroke volume as the main two basic factors that determine the increase in cardiac output is also highly variable. The difference in the range of heart rate is difficult to determine in many vertebrates, both at rest and maximum effort. The increase in stroke volume also differs among vertebrates. For example, while rainbow trout and leopard increase their stroke volume by increasing final diastolic volume (Frank Starling's law), humans do so at the expense of both increasing final diastolic volume and reducing final stroke volume (contractility). The variation in arterial pressure that occurs during exercise also differs considerably among vertebrates. Large differences in cardiovascular response between different vertebrates could be related to their habitat or living environment. This review aims to analyze the cardiovascular response to exercise, as the most common stress condition in vertebrates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2093.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: transcatheter aortic valve implantation; cardiac rehabilitation; exercise training; vascular function
Online: 29 June 2023 (11:27:06 CEST)
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVI) improves event-free survival in patients with severe aortic stenosis, but patients’ exercise capacity remains poor after the procedure. Therefore, we sought to compare the effects of supervised centre-based exercise training program and unsupervised exercise routine on exercise capacity and vascular function in patients after TAVI. Patients were randomised to either centre-based exercise training (12-24 sessions of combined aerobic and low-weight resistance training twice weekly for 8-12 weeks) or unsupervised home-based exercise routine (initial appraisal with detailed recommendations and monthly follow-up). Exercise capacity (cardiopulmonary testing) and vascular function (ultrasonographic measurement of flow-mediated vasodilation [FMD] and arterial stiffness) were assessed at baseline and after the study period. We included 23 patients (mean age 81 years, 61% women), with higher-than-expected drop-out rates (41%) because of the coronavirus-19 pandemic outbreak. Exercise capacity improved over time, irrespective of intervention group: 0.09 ml/min/kg increase in peak oxygen uptake (95%CI [0.01-0.16]; p=0.02), 8.2 Watts increase in workload (95%CI [0.6-15.8]; p=0.034), and 47 seconds increase in cumulative exercise time (95% CI [5.0-89.6]; p=0.029). A between-group difference in change over time (treatment effect) was detected only for FMD (4.49%; 95% CI [2.35; 6.63], p < 0.001), but not for other outcome variables. Both supervised and unsupervised exercise training improve exercise capacity and vascular function in patients after TAVI, with supervised exercise training possibly yielding larger improvements in vascular function, as determined by FMD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1867.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: knee pain; frequency of knee pain; exercise training; physical activity
Online: 26 May 2023 (05:38:21 CEST)
Abstract: Background: Adolescents frequently self-report pain, according to epidemiological research. The knee is one of the sites where the pain is most common. One of the main factors contributing to the number of years people spend disabled and having substantial personal, societal, and economic burdens globally is musculoskeletal disorders. Insidious, slowly building onset that neither the adolescent nor the parent is aware of . Patellofemoral Pain (PFP) is a clinical knee pain commonly affecting adolescents. In the present study, the authors aimed to estimate the frequency of knee pain in Saudi adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional survey carried out from June to November 2022 included 676 adolescents, ages 10 to 18. The data are presented as frequencies and percentages for categorical variables. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare means between groups, while the chi-square test was used for the comparison of categorical variables. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: Adolescents were invited to take part in the study; 57.5% were female and 42.5% were male, and 68.8% were aged between 15 and 18. The prevalence of knee pain was considerably high among females (26%), while it was 19.2% among males. Moreover, age was a significant predictor for knee pain, and BMI was as well. We also found a significant difference between BMI classification and stiffness of the knee (p = 0.008). There is a difference between adolescents who do physical activities in leisure and difficulty bending (p = 0.03). Conclusion: Our study noted a high rate of knee pain among adolescents, so we need to raise awareness about risk factors. Adolescent knee pain can be prevented with conservative methods and some minor lifestyle/activity modifications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0863.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: body image; appearance-concerns; context; PE kit choice; exercise motives
Online: 25 April 2023 (02:19:06 CEST)
It is widely acknowledged that adolescent females are particularly at risk of low body-esteem. Low body-esteem is associated with poor mental health and other negative outcomes. Interventions to help raise body-image could have considerable impact, especially if the intervention is low-cost, easy to implement and scalable. We investigated the efficacy of an intervention where participnants could chose their own clothes to wear during a Physical Education (PE lesson) on changes in body-esteem. We hypothesized that body-esteem would improve with choice. To show that body-esteem is not a transient construct, we tested its stability when assessed in a test-retest design when completed in a classroom setting, hypothesizing body-esteem would be stable. Participants (N =110; Mage =14.9; SDage = 0.68) females completed a 14-item body-esteem scale 4 times; a) wearing school uniform in an assembly, b) during a PE lesson separated by a 2-week gap. The intervention was implemented where students got a choice of PE kit and could wear their own clothes. Findings indicate that body-esteem was stable in the classroom setting where clothes and context were stable, but improved significantly when participants were given a free choice of kit to wear during PE. We argue that this low-cost and scalable intervention represents a useful start point for helping support low body-esteem among a potentially vulnerable population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0300.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Health behaviors; gastrointestinal symptoms; gut microbiota; diet; exercise; cancer survivors
Online: 16 March 2023 (08:57:56 CET)
Background: Health behaviors, such as diet and exercise, are actions individuals take that can potentially impact gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and the gut microbiota. Little is known about how health behaviours impact GI symptoms and the gut microbiota after anti-cancer therapies. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study that investigated relationships between GI symptoms, gut microbiota, and patient-reported outcomes in adult cancer survivors. Gut microbiota was assessed from stool samples using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. GI symptoms and health behaviors were measured via self-report. Descriptive statistics, linear regression, and correlation analyses are reported. Results: A total of 334 cancer survivors participated and a subsample of 17 provided stool samples. Most survivors rated their diet as moderately healthy (55.7%) and reported engaging in low intensity exercise (53.9%) for ≤5 hours/week (69.1%). Antibiotic use was associated with more belly pain, constipation, and diarrhea (p< .05). Survivors consuming a healthier diet had fewer symptoms of gas/bloating (p= 0.02). Better diet health was positively correlated with Lachnospiraceae abundance, and negatively with Bacteroides abundance (ps <.05). Greater exercise frequency positively correlated with abundance of Lachnospiraceae, Faecalibacterium, Bacteroides, Anaerostipes, Alistipes, and Subdoligranulum. (ps<.05). Conclusion: Results provide evidence for associations between dietary health behaviours and GI symptoms. Diet and exercise behaviours are related to certain types of bacteria, but the direction of causality is unknown. Dietary-based interventions may be optimally suited to address survivors’ GI symptoms by influencing the gut microbiota. Larger trials are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0403.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: cardiovascular diseases; physical activity; physical exercise; sedentarism; quality of life
Online: 22 November 2022 (03:39:54 CET)
Obesity is related to the establishment of chronic inflammation and metabolic diseases, but it can be positively influenced by the regular practice of physical activity. The study aimed to compare the anthropometric, metabolic, and inflammatory parameters of physically active Military Police Officers (MPOs) with those who are less physically active. Sixty male MPOs, low activity (n=28) and physically active (n=32) participated. The following parameters were measured: plasma cytokine levels, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, circulating glucose triglyceride (TAG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, and plasma glutamic oxalacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvate transaminase (GPT), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activities. The physically active group presented lower body fat and reduced TAG and IL-8 levels compared to the low activity group. Moreover, a negative correlation between SPE and SBP, DBP, BPM was detected for the physically active group (p<0.05) but not in the low activity group. Furthermore, the physically active group's work time (WT) values were not correlated with the important metabolic markers SBP, DBP, BPM, GLU, TAG (p>0.05) but could be in the low activity group (p<0.05). These findings highlight the fundamental protective role of physical activity in controlling body composition, subclinical inflammation, and cardiovascular risk in MPOs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0297.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Athlete´s heart; Cardiac biomarkers; Echocardiography; Exercise; Functional cardiac capacity.
Online: 13 August 2021 (09:23:48 CEST)
This single-blind and cross-sectional study evaluated the role of Rho-kinase (ROCK) as a biomarker of the cardiovascular remodelling process assessed by echocardiography in competitive long-distance runners (LDR) during the training period before a marathon race. Thirty-six healthy male LDR (37.0±5.3 years; 174.0±7.0 height; BMI: 23.8±2.8; VO2-peak: 56.5±7.3 mL·kg-1·min-1) were separated into two groups according to previous training level: high-training (HT, n=16) ≥100 km·week-1 and low-training (LT, n=20) ≥70 and <100 km·week-1. Also, twenty-one healthy nonactive subjects were included as a control group (CTR). A transthoracic echocardiography was performed and ROCK activity levels in circulating leukocytes were measured at rest (48-hr without exercising) the week before the race. HT group showed higher left ventricular mass index (LVMi) and left atrial volume index (LAVi) than other groups (p<0.05, for both), also higher levels of ROCK activity were found in LDR (HT=6.17±1.41 vs CTR=1.64±0.66 (p<0.01); vs LT=2.74±0.84; (p<0.05)). In LDR a direct correlation between ROCK activity levels and LVMi (r=0.83; p<0.001), and LAVi (r=0.70; p<0.001) were found. In conclusion, in male competitive long-distance runners, the load of exercise implicated in marathon training is associated with ROCK activity levels and the left cardiac remodelling process assessed by echocardiography.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0267.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Cancer dormancy; Low-grade chronic inflammation; Healthy aging; Physical exercise
Online: 11 August 2021 (17:57:09 CEST)
The paradigm of the Somatic Mutation Theory (SMT) is failing and a new paradigm is in the making but not yet established. What is being challenged is a conceptual approach that involves the entire human biology and the development of chronic diseases. The behavior of breast cancer is well compatible with the concept that the primary tumor is able to control its microscopic metastases, in the same way that an organ (e.g., the liver) is able to control its physiological size. This finding suggested that breast cancer and its metastases may behave as an organoid. The new paradigm under construction considers the origin of tumors as a disturbance in the communication network between tissue cell populations and between cells and extracellular matrix, and supports a systemic approach to the study of both healthy and pathologic tissues. The commentary provides a rationale for the role of physical exercise in the control of tumor dormancy according to a human evolutionary perspective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0450.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: tDCS; cycling time trial; exercise performance; prefrontal cortex; muscle oxygenation
Online: 17 June 2021 (08:21:49 CEST)
Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory technique that delivers low levels of a constant current via scalp electrodes to specifically targeted areas of the brain. The effects of tDCS on whole-body exercise performance has been of interest in recent literature. The purpose of the current investigation was to investigate if tDCS, administered via Halo Sport, influences time trial performance in trained cyclists, and if changes in exercise performance are associated with prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation and/or muscle oxygenation (SmO2). Methods: Twelve recreationally trained cyclists volunteered to participate in two 10-kilometer time trials following 20 minutes of tDCS or a sham condition. Results: T-tests showed there was no significant difference in performance (time to completion) or physiological measures (BLa-, HR, SmO2, PFC oxygenation) between the Halo and sham conditions. Conclusions: These results indicate that the application of tDCS via Halo Sport does not induce changes in exercise performance or related physiological parameters during a 10-kilometer cycling time trial.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0150.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Philippines; Cebu city; physical activity; Zumba, exercise; non-communicable diseases
Online: 5 April 2021 (15:57:11 CEST)
The prevalence of overweight/obesity in the adult population in the Philippines has doubled in the past 20 years. Zumba exercise has recently been implemented throughout the Philippines. However, there is scarce information on the effects of Zumba on obesity and Zumba participants’ characteristics in the Philippines. This study described the current practice of Zumba in the Philippines, along with the practitioners’ characteristics, and identified factors associated with Zumba participation. In this observational, cross-sectional study, a structured questionnaire was used to survey 10 Zumba locations in September 2019. Anthropometric measurements of participants were assessed. Respondents included 171 women (88.6%) and 22 men (11.4%), with a mean (±SD) age of 44.1 (± 8.9) years. All respondents answered that Zumba was enjoyable, and some answered “very enjoyable.” Determinants of frequent participation were as follows: being older than the mean age of participants, starting Zumba to enjoy dancing, starting Zumba not to lose weight, shopping mall location, and participation fee required. “To enjoy dance” being a motivation for Zumba practice was identified as a determinant of frequent participation, rather than “to lose weight.” The element of “enjoyable” may strongly influence continuation and frequent participation of Zumba exercise in the Philippines.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0039.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Exercise; Angiotensin-converting enzyme; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Ecology
Online: 3 May 2020 (08:45:12 CEST)
We hypothesize that the reason severe COVID-19 is closely linked to a limited number of conditions such as obesity, hypertension, older age and diabetes is that these conditions are characterized by a pro-inflammatory state in general and an angiotensin converting enzyme-1-bias in particular. We review recent evidence that this pro-inflammatory state can be reversed via regular exercise and a healthy diet. Studies are suggested that could test this hypothesis.