Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Scapular Retraction Under Adduction Load: an Alternative to Overhead Exercises to Activate Infraspinatus, Upper and Lower Trapezius in Subjects With and Without Shoulder Pain

Version 1 : Received: 5 August 2021 / Approved: 6 August 2021 / Online: 6 August 2021 (17:21:21 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

dos Santos, J.J.; Nagy, R.O.; Souza, M.A.; Intelangelo, L.; Barbosa, M.A.; Silveira-Nunes, G.; Barbosa, A.C. Scapular Retraction under Adduction Load: An Alternative to Overhead Exercises to Activate Infraspinatus, Upper, and Lower Trapezius in Subjects with and without Shoulder Pain. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 9251. dos Santos, J.J.; Nagy, R.O.; Souza, M.A.; Intelangelo, L.; Barbosa, M.A.; Silveira-Nunes, G.; Barbosa, A.C. Scapular Retraction under Adduction Load: An Alternative to Overhead Exercises to Activate Infraspinatus, Upper, and Lower Trapezius in Subjects with and without Shoulder Pain. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 9251.

Journal reference: Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 9251
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18179251

Abstract

Exercises for lower trapezius (LT) often use overhead positions, causing compressive forces to the subacromial space. Scapular retraction would be an alternative to activate LT muscle. Electromyography of infraspinatus (IS), upper (UT) and LT was recorded during scapular retraction under progressive adduction loads of 42 participants, divided in 2 groups: with (SP, n=26) and without shoulder pain (nSP, n=16). The adduction loads of 20, 30, 40 and 50% of the maximal voluntary contraction were applied using a load cell. Normalized electromyography and the ratio between UT and LT (UT:LT) were used for statistical analysis. No differences were observed between groups, but a condition effect occurred for all muscles: UT showed higher values at 50% vs. 20% (p=0.004); LT showed higher values on 40% and 50% (p=0.001; 0.006). Higher values for IS were noted at 40% (vs 20%; p=0.04), and at 50% (vs. 20%; p=0.001, vs. 30%, p=0.001; vs. 40%; p=0.001). UT:LT showed lower values at 50% (vs. 20%; p=0.001, and vs. 30%; p=0.016). Scapular retraction with adduction loads at 40-50% is an alternative to overhead exercises aiming to activate the LT and the IS muscles. The exercise ensures higher levels of LT and IS excitation, without increasing UT excitation.

Keywords

Shoulder impingement syndrome; Scapula; Exercise therapy; Exercise movement techniques; Musculoskeletal pain

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