Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

External and Internal Loads in Sports Science: Time to Rethink?

Version 1 : Received: 9 November 2021 / Approved: 10 November 2021 / Online: 10 November 2021 (14:30:55 CET)

How to cite: Ide, B.; Silvatti, A.; Staunton, C.; Marocolo, M.; Oranchuk, D.; Mota, G. External and Internal Loads in Sports Science: Time to Rethink?. Preprints 2021, 2021110207 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202111.0207.v1). Ide, B.; Silvatti, A.; Staunton, C.; Marocolo, M.; Oranchuk, D.; Mota, G. External and Internal Loads in Sports Science: Time to Rethink?. Preprints 2021, 2021110207 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202111.0207.v1).

Abstract

The International System of Units (SI) was adopted in 1960 as a universal measuring system to be used for all areas of science. Sports Science papers have shown lots of inaccurate and inappropriate terms for quantification of athletes’ performance and the psychobiological responses to exercise (e.g., internal load). In biomechanics, external and internal loads are forces acting externally and internally, inducing stress and strain in the biological tissues. Therefore, the current review present simple proposals to correct the inappropriate terms: 1) do not use the term external load when referring to the assessment of exercise time, distance, displacement, speed, velocity, acceleration, torque, work, power, impulse, etc.; 2) do not use the term internal load when referring to the assessment of psychobiological stress markers (i.e., session rating of perceived exertion, heart rate, blood lactate, oxygen consumption, etc.); 3) do not use the term impulse when expressing other calculus than integrating force with respect to time, and neither strain, when expressing other phenomena than the body deformation. Instead, the term exercise intensity is universal and can be used to describe all forms of exercise. Finally, duration should precisely be described according to physical quantities (e.g., time, distance, displacement, speed, velocity, acceleration, force, torque, work, power, impulse, etc.) and the units accomplish by use of the SI. These simple quantifications can be performed for the exercises, sessions, microcycles, mesocycles and macrocycles of the athletes. Such standardization will provide a consistent and clear communication among sports scientists and all areas of science.

Keywords

exercise intensity; training impulse; training strain; exercise volume

Subject

MEDICINE & PHARMACOLOGY, Sport Sciences & Therapy

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