ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0289.v1
Subject: Keywords: lipopolysaccharide; Cyclosporin A; pro-inflammatory cytokines; anti-inflammatory cytokines; rabbit
Online: 13 November 2018 (03:47:12 CET)
In this study, we evaluated the effects of Cyclosporine A (CsA) on Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine production in the genital tract of female rabbits. Twelve sexually mature and healthy female rabbits were randomly divided into four groups (n = 3 each). The rabbits in the LPS group were given an intrauterine infusion of Escherichia coli LPS (4 mg/kg body weight (BW)). Rabbits in the CsA group were given CsA (20 mg/kg BW). Rabbits in the LPS + CsA group were given LPS (4 mg/kg BW) and CsA (20 mg/kg BW). The control group received only LPS and CsA carrier. The gene expression and protein levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were observed using qRT-PCR and immuno-histochemical (IHC) assay, respectively. Our study showed that IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, and TGF-β were expressed in female genital organs. The LPS challenge increased the mRNA expression of IL-6 and TNF-α in the uterine body and IL-1β in the uterotubal junction compared to the control group. CsA increased the basal mRNA expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (i.e., IL-4 in the uterine body, uterotubal junction, and oviductal ampulla; IL-10 in the cervix, oviductal isthmus, and ampulla; and TGF-β in the uterotubal junction and oviductal ampulla) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (i.e., IL-6 and IL-8 in the cervix; IL-1β in the oviductal isthmus; TNF-α in the oviductal ampulla; and IFN-γ in the uterine body compared to the control group). In addition, CsA inhibited the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 in the uterine body, uterotubal junction, and oviductal isthmus; TNF-α in the uterine body; and IFN-γ in the uterotubal junction and oviductal isthmus induced by the LPS challenge. The IHC assay showed the LPS-induced increase in protein production of IL-6 in the uterine body and oviductal isthmus. CsA increased the protein production of IL-10 in the cervix, uterine body, oviductal ampulla, and isthmus. Moreover, CsA decreased the protein production of IL-6 in the uterine body and oviductal isthmus induced by LPS.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0104.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: pediatric; depression; biomarker; BDNF; cytokines
Online: 5 July 2021 (14:48:24 CEST)
Depressive disorder in childhood and adolescence is a highly prevalent mood disorder that tends to recur throughout life. Untreated mood disorders can adversely impact a patient's quality of life and cause socioeconomic loss. Thus, an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment is crucial. However, until now, diagnoses and treatments are conducted according to clinical symptoms. Objective and biological validation are lacking. This may result in a poor outcome for patients with depressive disorder. Research has been conducted to identify the biomarkers that are related to depressive disorder. Cumulative evidence has revealed that certain immunologic biomarkers in-cluding brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cytokines, gastrointestinal biomarkers, hormones, oxidative stress, and certain hypothalamus-pituitary axis biomarkers are associated with depressive disorder. This article reviews the biomarkers related to the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric depressive disorders. To date, clinical biomarker tests are not yet available for diagnosis or for the prediction of treatment prognosis. However, cytokines such as Interleukin-2, interfer-on-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and BDNF have shown significant results in previous studies of pediatric depressive disorder. These biomarkers have the potential to be used for diagnosis, prognostic assessment, and group screening for those at high risk.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0186.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: Sleep deprivation; Cytokines; curcumin; nano – curcumin
Online: 11 November 2022 (02:06:44 CET)
In this review, the following information describes the manifestation of sleep deprivation by human beings and its adverse effect on their health. Sleep deprivation has been demonstrated into namely two types known as REM sleep and NREM sleep affecting our health in so a problematic way that it is making our body immune to many diseases leading to lethal problems. Therefore, great research by many scientists has discovered that the turmeric “Curcuma longa” which is been used in every Indian kitchen since ancient times, has shown a remarkable effect on the problem caused by sleep deprivation but due to its poor solubility and low bioavailability drawn it into a great disadvantage. But the help of the study of nanotechnology and the evolution of curcumin into nano–curcumin made the possibility of the remarkable effect by making the curcumin more potent and enhancing its stability. Immunological changes due to sleep deprivation lead to Alzheimer’s disease, glioma, neuropathic pains, and many more. Therefore, this review has been summarized as it is been providing information related to curcumin and its affection for sleep deprivation.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0328.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: platelets; cytokines; angiogenesis; embryo; menopause; fertility
Online: 18 November 2021 (13:56:53 CET)
The first published description of intraovarian platelet-rich plasma (PRP) appeared in mid-2016, when a new experimental technique was successfully used in adult human ovaries to correct the reduced fertility potential accompanying advanced maternal age. Considering the potential therapeutic scope of intraovarian activated PRP and/or condensed platelet cytokines would likely cover both menopause treatment and infertility, the mainstream response has ranged from skeptical disbelief to welcome astonishment. Indeed, reports of restored menses in menopause (as an alternative to conventional hormone replacement therapy) and healthy term livebirths for infertility patients (either with IVF or as unassisted conceptions) after intraovarian PRP injection continue to draw notice. Yet any proper criticism of ovarian PRP applications will be difficult to rebut given the heterogenous patient screening, varied sample preparations, wide differences in platelet incubation and activation protocols, surgical/anesthesia techniques, and delivery methods. Notwithstanding these features, no adverse events have been reported thus far and ovarian PRP appears well tolerated by patients. Here, early research guiding the transition of ‘ovarian rejuvenation’ from experimental to clinical is outlined. Likely mechanisms are presented to explain results observed in both veterinary and human ovarian PRP research. Current and future challenges for intraovarian cytokine treatment are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0186.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: transcription factors; cytokines; autoimmunity; dendritic cells
Online: 15 December 2019 (13:16:35 CET)
Tolerogenic dendritic cells are crucial to control development of autoreactive T cell responses and prevention of autoimmunity. We have reported that NOD.CD11cStat5b-CA transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active form of Stat5b under the control of CD11c promoter are protected from diabetes and that Stat5b-CA-expressing DCs are tolerogenic and halt ongoing diabetes in NOD mice. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Stat5b-CA modulates DC tolerogenic function is not fully understood. Here, we used bone marrow-derived DCs from NOD.CD11cStat5b-CA transgenic mice (Stat5b-CA.BMDC) and found that Stat5b-CA.BMDC displayed high levels of MHC class II, CD80, CD86, PD-L1 and PD-L2 and produced elevated amounts of TGFβ but low amounts of TNF and IL-23. Stat5b-CA.BMDCs upregulated Irf4 and downregulated Irf8 genes and protein expression and promoted CD11c+CD11b+ DC2 subset differentiation. Interestingly, we found that the histone methyltransferase Ezh2 interacted with Stat5b-CA complex that bound GAS sequences in the Irf8 enhancer whereas Ezh2 did not interact with GAS sequences in the case of the Irf4 promoter. Injection of Stat5b-CA.BMDCs to prediabetic NOD mice halted progression of islet inflammation and protected against diabetes. Importantly, inhibition of Ezh2 in tolerogenic Stat5b-CA.BMDCs reduced their ability to prevent diabetes development in NOD recipient mice. Taken together, our data suggest that the active form of Stat5b induces tolerogenic DC function by modulating IRF4 and IRF8 expression through recruitment of Ezh2 and highlight the fundamental role of Ezh2 in Stat5b-mediated induction of tolerogenic DCs function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0417.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: cytokines; pulmonary; COVID-19; CORADS; moderate; severe
Online: 22 November 2022 (09:56:04 CET)
Aim: In individuals with COVID-19, the study assessed the relationship between cytokine expression and pulmonary dysfunction. These correlations may help to suggest strategies for prevention and therapies of coronavirus disease outbreak. Patients and methods: 50 healthy participants and 100 COVID-19 patients participated in this study. COVID-19 participants were subdivided into moderate and severe groups based on the severity of their symptoms. In both patients and controls, measurements of white blood cells (WBCs), lymphocytes, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-18, and IL-35 were estimated. All the patients performed chest CT and CO-RADS score was assessed. Results: All patients had increased WBCs count and CRP, IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-18, and IL-35 levels than healthy controls. While WBCs, CRP, and cytokines like IL-1β and IL-6 showed significantly higher levels in the severe group as compared to moderate patients, IL-4, IL-35, and IL-18 showed comparable levels in both disease groups. Furthermore, CO-RADS score was positively connected with WBCs, CRP, and cytokine levels (IL-35, IL-18, IL-6, IL-4 and IL-1β) in both groups, and lymphocyte levels in all patient groups considerably decreased as compared to the controls. CO-RADS score, also demonstrated a positive correlation with lymphocytes in the moderate COVID-19 patients, whereas in the severe patients, it demonstrated a negative correlation with lymphocytes. Conclusion: Severe COVID-19 patients, compared to individuals with moderate illness and healthy controls, patients had lower lymphocyte counts and increased CRP with greater WBCs counts. In contrast to moderate COVID-19 patients, severe COVID-19 patients had higher levels of IL-1β and IL-6, but IL-4, IL-18, and IL-35 between both illness categories at close levels. CO-RADS 5 was the most frequent category in both moderate and severe cases. Patients with a typical CO-RADS involvement had a higher CRP and white blood cell count with a lower lymphocyte count than the others. Cytokine levels were considered a surrogate markers of severe lung affection in COVID 19 patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0089.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Tibouchina granulosa; anti-inflammatory activity; hispiduloside; cytokines
Online: 4 November 2022 (07:24:02 CET)
The ethanol extract (EE) prepared from the leaves of Tibouchina granulosa, and its fraction in ethyl acetate (fEA) were evaluated concerning their capacity to reduce inflammation in different experimental models. fEA was also studied concerning its chemical constituents. EE and fEA were assayed for their anti-inflammatory potential, using formalin-induced licking behaviour and carrageenan-induced inflammation into the subcutaneous air pouch (SAP) models. Reduction in polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) activation was performed in freshly isolated PMN. Chromatographic analysis of fEA was done by HPLC. Hispiduloside was isolated as the main constituent in fEA and its quantity was estimated to be 11.75% in fEA, 3.05% in EE, and 0.2% (w/w) in the plant. EE (30 mg/kg) significantly reduced the second phase of formalin-induced licking. fEA demonstrated a reduction in leukocyte migration into the SAP. EE and fEA drastically reduced cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ), nitric oxide (NO) production, in vitro PMN migration induced by C5a and IL-8, and TNF-α and IL-1β gene expression. Taken together our data indicate that either ethanol extract or its fEA fraction from leaves of T. granulosa present an anti-inflammatory effect contributing to the pharmacological and chemical knowledge of this species and confirming the rationale behind its traditional use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0208.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Disease; fibroid; micronutrients; inflammation; antioxidants; cytokines; diets
Online: 15 June 2022 (02:24:41 CEST)
Uterine fibroid (UF) is a tumour in some parts of the uterus, which introduces health challenges or death due to failed surgery among women globally. This study was designed to ascertain the involvement of micro-nutrients, inflammation, and antioxidant enzymes in the UF development to gain further insights and provide a strategy for managing the disease. One hundred ninety reproductive-aged women were recruited and classified equally into case and control subjects. The supernatant obtained from excised tissues from the fibroid and the normal samples from the adjacent myometrium were assessed for the selected biochemical parameters with standard methods. The levels of vitamin A and sodium between 26-35 years; vitamins D, E, zinc, and selenium between 46-55 years; and vitamin E at 56 years and above significantly decreased (p<0.05). Interleukin-2 (IL-2) level significantly increased (P < 0.05) among the case between 36-45 years. An increase in the activity of glutathione-s-transferase and the reduction in glutathione peroxidase activity and vitamin A level in the uterus between 26-45 years were the most pronounced significant findings (p<0.05) recorded. Prolonged vitamin A deficiency coupled with excess sodium salts facilitating inflammation induced by IL-2 are critical factors for UF development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0249.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: HIV Nef; neurotoxicity; inflammatory cytokines; kynurenine metabolite
Online: 21 February 2022 (10:00:10 CET)
HIV-1 Nef is a multifunctional protein with well-known lethal properties. HIV infects various cells from the brain compartment and expressed nef is responsible for developing neuropathogenic potential. HIV-infected glial cells express nefvirotoxinand stimulate the cascade of various pathways to activate uninfected cells to release neurotoxic elements damaging cells themselves. A lot of genetic variabilities of this protein have been reported from patients with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. To determine the neurotoxic potential of subtype-specific nef plasmids and nef plasmids of clinical samples with and without HAND were transfected in normal human astrocytes (NHA) and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) using nef-pCMV-HA plasmid constructs. Supernatants from subtype-specific Nef plasmids indicated the upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines. The induced expression might be due to the nef genetic variability or variations in the transfection efficiency and expression levels of nef.The mRNA expression of IL-6, IP-10, and TNF-α indicated upregulation of 5.0-fold in NHA and 3-fold in MDM with respect to empty vector control transfection. Further, the kynurenine metabolites were also assessed from culture supernatants of NHA and MDM indicating the upregulation of IDO and KYNU in NHA by 3.0-fold and 3.2-fold in MDM.The expression levels of nef and cytokines at the translational level were confirmed by western blotting and bio-plex Pro cytokine estimation assay respectively along with controls expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP).The oxidative stress was also found to be elevated as compared to control cells as determined by the estimation of nitric oxide from the culture supernatant to confirm the neurotoxic potential of HIV nef plasmids. The downregulation in the levels of cytokines, as well as kynurenine metabolites, was observed in culture supernatants after blocking the expression of nef using HIV nef siRNA. Phylogenetic analysis of Nef sequences indicated subtype C predominance except one sequence showing the partial sequence of HIV-1 subtype B sequence forming BC recombinantThe upregulation in the cytokine and pathway-specific metabolites might be linked with the neurotoxic potential of HIV-1 Nef leading to neuropathogenesis. In conclusion, the variation in the transfection efficiency, nef expression levels, and the genetic variability of Nef might be responsible for upregulating the expression levels of cytokines and kynurenine metabolites in astrocytes and MDM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0054.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: periodontitis; diagnosis; saliva; biomarkers; matrix metalloproteinase; cytokines.
Online: 3 September 2020 (04:43:01 CEST)
This study was to investigate and assess salivary biomarkers as a means of diagnosing periodontitis. A total of 121 subjects were included: 28 periodontally healthy subjects, 24 with stage I, 24 with stage II, 23 with stage III, and 22 with stage IV periodontitis. Salivary proteins including active matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), pro-MMP-8, total MMP-8, C-reactive protein, secretory immunoglobulin A and planktonic bacteria including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas nigrescens, Parvimonas micra, Campylobacter rectus, Eubacterium nodatum, Eikenella corrodens, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Actinomyces viscosus were measured from salivary samples. The performance of the diagnostic models was assessed by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and area under the ROC curve (AUC) analysis. The diagnostic models were constructed based on the subjects’ proteins and/or microbial profiles, resulting in two potential diagnosis models, which achieved better diagnostic powers with an AUC value > 0.750 for the diagnosis of stage II, III, and IV periodontitis (Model PC-I; AUC: 0.796, sensitivity: 0.754, specificity: 0.712) and for the diagnosis of stage III and IV periodontitis (Model PC-II; AUC: 0.796, sensitivity: 0.756, specificity: 0.868). This study can contribute to screening for periodontitis based on salivary biomarkers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0186.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: bipolar depression; inflammation; neuroimmunomodulation; cytokines; psychoneuroimmunology; staging
Online: 11 March 2020 (10:45:16 CET)
There is now evidence that, based on cytokine profiles, bipolar disorder (BD) is accompanied by simultaneous activation of the immune-inflammatory response system (IRS) and the compensatory immune-regulatory system (CIRS), and that both components may be associated with the staging of illness. Nevertheless, no BD studies have evaluated the IRS/CIRS ratio using CD (cluster of differentiation) molecules expressed by peripheral blood activated T effector (Teff) and T regulatory (Treg) subpopulations. This study examined T cell subsets both before and after ex vivo anti CD3/CD28 stimulation using flow cytometric immunophenotyping in 25 euthymic BD patients and 21 healthy controls as well as human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-specific IgG antibodies. BD is associated with a significantly lowered frequency of baseline (unstimulated) CD3+CD8+CD71+ and CD4+CD25+FOXP3 and increased CD4+CD25+FOXP3+CD152+ frequencies and with lowered stimulated frequencies of CD3+CD8+CD71+, CD4+CD25+FOXP3+CD152+ and CD4+CD25+FOXP3+GARP cells and, consequently, by an increased stimulated Teff/Treg ratio. Moreover, the number of manic, but not hypomanic or depressive episodes, is significantly and negatively associated with the stimulated proportions of CD3+CD4+CD154+, and CD69+ and CD71+ expression on CD4+ and CD8+ cells, while duration of illness (≥ 10 years) is accompanied by a depleted frequency of stimulated CD152+ Treg, and CD154+ and CD71+ CD4+ T cells. BD and anti-human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) IgG levels significantly interact to decrease the expression of CD4+CD25+FOXP+GARP T phenotypes. In conclusion, BD is characterized by deficits in immune-regulatory functions while the staging of illness is characterized by additional impairments is Teff and Treg activation. HCMV seropositivity may contribute to an immune-risk phenotype associated with BD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0176.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: depression; cytokines; inflammation; endogenous opioid; opioid receptor
Online: 16 April 2019 (09:49:14 CEST)
Background: There is now evidence that immune and opioid systems show functional reciprocal relationships and that both systems may participate in the pathophysiology of major depression (MDD). Objective: The present study was carried out to delineate differences between MDD patients and healthy controls in dynorphin and kappa opioid receptor (KORs) in association with levels of β-endorphins and mu opioid receptors (MORs), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10. Method: The present study recruited 60 drug-free male participants with MDD aged 24-70 year and 30 age-matched healthy males as control group and measured serum levels of dynorphin, KOR, β-endorphin, MOR, IL-6 and IL-10. Results: Serum dynorphin, KOR, β-endorphin and MOR are significantly increased in MDD as compared with controls. The increases in the dynorphin/KOR system and β-endorhin/MOR system are significantly intercorrelated and are both strongly associated with increased IL-6 and IL-10 levels. Dynorphin, β-endorphin, KOR and both cytokines showed a good diagnostic performance for MDD versus controls, whereby both opioid peptides and cytokines show a bootstrapped (n=2000) area under the receiver operating curve of 0.972. KOR and the dynorphin/KOR system are both significantly decreased in depressed subjects with comorbid nicotine dependence. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that in MDD, immune activation is associated with a simultaneous activation of dynorphin/KOR and β-endorhin/MOR signaling and that these opioid systems may participate in the pathophysiology of depression by a) exerting immune regulatory activities attenuating the primary immune response; and b) modulating reward responses and mood as well as emotional and behavioral responses to stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0201.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: proteoliposome, Neisseria meningitidis, LPS, proinflammatory cytokines, adjuvant
Online: 11 July 2018 (12:49:21 CEST)
Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane vesicles or proteoliposomes (PLs) has been used as vaccines and adjuvant. Despite the presence of potentially toxic amounts of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), they have been shown to be safe, well tolerated, and immunogenic. This suggests that LPS-PL may have reduced LPS toxicity. We show here that the ability of PL to induce pro-inflammatory cytokine production in human U937 histiocytic cell line is significantly lesser than that of an equivalent concentration of purified LPS, thus confirming that certain components or physical properties of PL reduce the pro-inflammatory activity of their endogenous LPS. To investigate the mechanisms responsible for this protective effect, PLs were fractionated and assayed the ability of the resulting fractions to induce inflammatory cytokine expression. Several individual PLs fractions were more potent inducers of pro-inflammatory cytokine production than the unfractionated PLs. The majority of the pro-inflammatory activities appeared to be mediated by the presence of LPS in the fractions, as shown by the ability of an anti-CD14 antibody to block it. However, in two PL fractions, the production of IL-8 and to a lesser extent IL-6 was not inhibited by anti-CD14 treatment, indicating that pro-inflammatory components other than LPS could also be present in PL. Eight proteins present in the fractions were identified by n-terminal sequencing. Our results suggest that two of them PorB and particularly the RmpM protein may also contribute to the pro-inflammatory activity of N. meningitidis PL. Our results could support the development of PLs as vaccine adjuvant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0030.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Meniere Disease; cytokines; WGBS; Hearing Loss; DNA methylation
Online: 1 October 2021 (16:03:48 CEST)
Meniere Disease (MD) is a multifactorial disorder of the inner ear characterized by vertigo attacks associated with sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus with a significant heritability. Although MD has been associated with several genes, no epigenetic studies have been performed in MD. Here we performed whole genome bisulfite sequencing in 14 MD patients and 6 healthy controls, with the aim of identifying a MD methylation signature and potential disease mechanisms. We observed a high number of differentially methylated CpGs (DMC) when comparing MD patients to controls (N= 9,545), several of them in hearing loss genes such as PCDH15, ADGRV1 and CDH23. Bioinformatic analyses of DMCs and cis-regulatory regions predicted phenotypes related to abnormal excitatory postsynaptic currents, abnormal NMDA-mediated receptor currents and abnormal glutamate-mediated receptor currents when comparing MD to controls. Moreover, we identified various DMCs in genes previously associated with cochleovestibular phenotypes in mice. We have also found 12 undermethylated regions (UMR) that were exclusive to MD, including 2 UMR in an inter CpG island in the PHB gene. We suggest that the DNA methylation signature allows to distinguish between MD patients and controls. The enrichment analysis confirms previous findings of a chronic inflammatory process underlying MD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0162.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: vertigo; migraine; cytokines; inflammation; vestibular disorders; hearing loss
Online: 6 August 2021 (12:29:43 CEST)
Background: Meniere disease (MD) is an inner ear disorder associated with comorbidities such as autoimmune diseases or migraine. This study describes clinical and cytokine profile in MD according to the age of onset of the condition. Methods: A cross-sectional study including 83 MD patients: 44 with early onset MD (EOMD, <35 years old), and 39 with late onset MD (LOMD, > 50 years old), 64 patients with migraine and 55 controls was carried out. Clinical variables and cytokines levels of CCL3, CCL4, CCL18, CCL22, CXCL1 and IL-1β were compared among the different groups. Results: CCL18 levels were higher in patients with migraine or MD than in controls. Elevated levels of IL-1β were observed in 11.4% EOMD and in 10.3% LOMD patients and these levels were not dependent on the age of individuals. EOMD had a longer duration of the disease (p=0.004) and a higher prevalence of migraine than LOMD (p=0.045). Conclusions: Patients with EOMD have a higher prevalence of migraine than LOMD, but migraine is not associated with any cytokine profile in patients with MD. The levels of CCL18, CCL3 and CXCL4 were different between patients with MD or migraine and controls.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0270.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: sedentism; exercise; immunometabolism; SARS-COV-2; Cytokines; immunity
Online: 13 October 2020 (09:48:59 CEST)
Many reports showed a dramatic decrease in the levels of physical activity during the current pandemic of SARS-COV-2. This has substantial immunometabolic implications, especially in those at risk or with metabolic diseases including individuals with obesity and Type 2 diabetes. Here we discuss the route from physical inactivity to immnometabolic aberrancies; focusing on how insulin resistance could represent an adaptive mechanism to the low physical activity levels and/or high energy intake and on how such an adaptive mechanism could derail to be a pathognomonic feature of metabolic diseases creating a vicious circle of immune and metabolic aberrancies. We provide a theoretical framework to the severe immunopathology of COVID-19 in patients with metabolic diseases. We finally discuss the idea of exercise as a potential adjuvant against COVID-19 and emphasize how even interrupting prolonged periods of sitting with short time breaks of very light activity could be a feasible strategy to limit the deleterious effects of sedentary behavior.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0426.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Anesthesiology Keywords: COVID-19; ARDS; Adenosine; CT-scan; Cytokines Storm
Online: 19 July 2020 (19:31:13 CEST)
Some COVID-19 patients develop interstitial pneumonia that can evolve into Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). This is accompanied by an inflammatory cytokine storm. SarS-CoV has proteins capable of promoting cytokine storm, especially in patients with comorbidities, including obesity. Since there is currently no resolutive therapy for ARDS and given the scientific literature regarding the use of adenosine, its application has been hypothesized. Adenosine through its receptors is able to inhibit the acute inflammatory process, increase the protection capacity of the epithelial barrier and reduce the damage due to an overactivation of the immune system, such as in cytokine storms. These features are known in ischemia / reperfusion models and could also be exploited in acute lung injury, with hypoxia. In light of these hypotheses, for compassionate use, a COVID-19 patient, with unresponsive respiratory failure, was treated with adenosine. The results showed a rapid and clear improvement in clinical conditions, with the negative effect of detection of SarS-CoV2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0463.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: diabetes mellitus; insulin resistance; cytokines; adaptor proteins; CLNK
Online: 25 April 2020 (11:32:48 CEST)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an endocrine illness associate with various changes in the immune system and adaptor protein levels. Cytokine dependent hematopoietic cell linker (CLNK) is an adapter protein that regulates immune receptor signaling and acts as a regulator of the receptor signaling of T-cells and natural killer T-cell. The role of CLNK in T2DM is not studied previously. In the present study, serum CLNK level was measured and correlated with some sociodemographic and insulin resistance (IR) parameters. This is achieved by performing measurement of CLNK and insulin parameters (glucose, insulin, and HbA1c in addition to the calculation of the functions of IR (HOMA2IR), insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S), and beta-cell function (HOMA%B)) in 60 T2DM patients and 30 controls. The results indicated a significant increase (p=0.025) in serum CLNK in patients group in comparison with the controls. Multivariate generalized linear model (GLM) analysis revealed no significant effect of age, BMI, and sex on the CLNK level. The results of tests for between-subjects showed that the CLNK affects diagnosis significantly (F=7.445, p=0.008, partial η2 =0.081) and its effect is approximately the same as the effect of insulin (F=8.107, p=0.006, partial η2 =0.087). The correlation study showed a highly significant positive correlation between CLNK and the duration of disease (rho=0.420, p<0.001). It can be concluded that the increase CLNK in T2DM revealing the role of the adaptor proteins level in the nature of disease. Elevation of CLNK level may be used as a predictor for diabetes complications, which needs more investigations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0084.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: depression; leaky gut; microbiota; cytokines; neuroimmunomodulation; oxidative stress
Online: 6 February 2020 (10:30:36 CET)
There is robust evidence that major depression (MDD) is accompanied by a low-grade activation of the immune-inflammatory response system, which is involved in the pathophysiology of this disorder. It is also becoming apparent that glia cells are in reciprocal communication with neurons and orchestrate various neuromodulatory, homeostatic, metabolic, and immune mechanisms and have a crucial role in neuroinflammatory mechanisms in MDD. Those cells mediate the central nervous system (CNS) response to systemic inflammation and psychological stress, but at the same time, they may be an origin of the inflammatory response in the CNS. The sources of activation of the inflammatory response in MDD are immense, however, in recent years, it is becoming increasingly evident that the gastrointestinal tract with gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and increased intestinal permeability to bacterial LPS and food-derived antigens contribute to activation of low-grade inflammatory response with subsequent psychiatric manifestations. Furthermore, an excessive permeability to gut-derived antigenic material may lead to subsequent autoimmunities which are also known to be comorbid with MDD. In this chapter, we discuss fascinating interactions between the gastrointestinal tract, increased intestinal permeability, intestinal microbiota, and glia-neuron crosstalk, and their roles in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory hypothesis of MDD. To emphasize those crucial intercommunications for the brain functions, we propose the term of microbiota-gut-immune-glia (MGIG) axis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0100.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: schizophrenia; treatment resistance; neuro-immune; inflammation; cytokines; neurocognition
Online: 8 December 2019 (16:04:52 CET)
Background: Schizophrenia and treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) are associated with aberrations in immune-inflammatory pathways. Increased High Mobility Group Protein 1 (HMGB1), an inflammatory mediator, and Dickkopf-Related Protein (DKK1), a Wnt/β-catenin signaling antagonist, affect the blood-brain-barrier and induce neurotoxic effects and neurocognitive deficits.Aim of the study: The present study aims to examine HMGB1 and DDK1 in non-responders to treatments with antipsychotics (NRTT, n=60), partial RTT (PRTT, n=55) and healthy controls (n=43) in relation to established markers of schizophrenia including IL-6, IL-10 and CLL11 (eotaxin); and to delineate whether these proteins are associated with the schizophrenia symptom subdomains and neurocognitive impairments.Results: HMGB1, DKK1, IL-6 and CCL11 were significantly higher in schizophrenia patients than in controls. DKK1 and IL-6 were significantly higher in NRTT than in PRTT and controls while IL-10 was higher in NRTT than in controls. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that schizophrenia was best predicted by increased DDK1 and HMGB1 while NRTT (versus PRTT) was best predicted by increased IL-6 and CCL11 levels. A large part of the variance in psychosis, hostility, excitation, mannerism and negative (PHEMN) symptoms, and formal thought disorders was explained by HMGB1, IL-6, and CCL11 while most neurocognitive functions were predicted by HMGB1, DDK1 and CCL11. Conclusion: The neurotoxic effects of HMGB1, DKK1, IL-6 and CCL11 including effects on the blood-brain-barrier and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway may cause impairments in executive functions, and working, episodic and semantic memory and explain, in part, PHEMN symptoms and a non-response to treatment with antipsychotic drugs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0033.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: depression; cytokines; neuro-immune; inflammation; oxidative stress; antioxidants
Online: 3 September 2019 (16:20:18 CEST)
Beta-thalassemia major (β-TM) patients are treated with repeated blood transfusions, which may cause iron overload (IO), which in turn may induce immune aberrations. Patients with β-TM have an increased risk of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aims of the present study are to examine whether repeated blood transfusions, IO and immune-inflammatory responses are associated with MDD in children (6-12 years) with β-TM. The Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), iron status (serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, TS%) and serum levels of CCL11, IL-1β, IL-10, and TNF-α were measured in β-TM with (n=54) and without (n=57) MDD and in healthy children (n=55). The results show that MDD in β-TM is associated with a greater number of blood transfusions, increased IO and IL-1β levels. Partial Least Squares path analysis shows that 68.8% of the variance in the CDI score is explained by the number of blood transfusions, IO, and increased levels of IL-1β and TNF-α. The latter two cytokines partly mediate the effects of IO on the CDI score, while the effects of blood transfusions on the CDI score are partly mediated by IO and the path from IO to immune activation. IO is also associated with increased IL-10 and lower CCL11 levels but these alterations are not significantly associated with MDD. In conclusion, blood transfusions may be causally related to MDD in β-TM children and their effects are in part mediated by increased IO and the consequent immune-inflammatory response. The results suggest that not only IO and its consequences including inflammation and ferroptosis, but also other factors related to the number of transfusions may cause MDD including psychosocial stressors. Current treatment modalities with folic acid and vitamin C are insufficient to attenuate IO and immune-inflammatory responses and to prevent MDD is children with β-TM undergoing blood transfusions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0236.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: depression; neuro-immune; cytokines; inflammation; indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase
Online: 26 February 2019 (11:05:49 CET)
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with changes in the levels of the cations calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) as well as circulating pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The immune-inflammatory nature of MDD has encouraged researchers to use anti-inflammatory drugs as an adjuvant treatment for MDD. However, the effect of this treatment on cation levels has not been studied. The present study examined a) differences in both cations between drug-naïve MDD patients and controls, and b) the effects of a combination of sertraline and ketoprofen, an anti-inflammatory drug, on Ca and Mg (both total and ionized). In the same patients we also examined the associations between both cations and IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-18, IFN-γ, TGF-β1, zinc and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Clinical improvement was estimated using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) at baseline and after follow up for two months. Serum Ca and Mg (total and ionized) were significantly lower in MDD patients as compared with controls, while treatment significantly increased calcium but decreased magnesium levels. There were significant and inverse correlations between the BDI-II scores from baseline to endpoint and Ca (both total and ionized), but not Mg, levels. The effects of calcium on the BDI-II score remained significant after considering the effects of zinc, IDO and an immune activation z unit weighted composite score based on the sum of all cytokines. There was a significant and inverse association between this immune activation index and calcium levels from baseline to endpoint. In conclusion, reduced levels of both cations play a role in the pathophysiology of major depression. Increased calcium levels are coupled to the clinical efficacy of antidepressants and attenuation of immune activation. The suppressant effect of antidepressants on Mg levels may be a side effect of those drugs. New antidepressant treatments should be developed that increase the levels both Ca and Mg.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0314.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: schizophrenia; first episode psychosis; antipsychotic; immune; inflammation; cytokines
Online: 17 September 2018 (14:13:38 CEST)
Background: First episode psychosis (FEP), schizophrenia and affective disorders are accompanied by activation of the immune inflammatory response system (IRS). The compensatory immune-regulatory reflex system (CIRS) is a regulatory immune response that is induced by the IRS but exerts negative feedback through, for example, increased levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-4, IL-13 and IL-10. Different phenotypes of schizophrenia may exhibit distinct IRS and CIRS immune profiles.Aims: This study aims to examine the IRS and CIRS components, including macrophagic M1, T-helper (Th)-1, Th-2, Th-17 and T-regulatory (Treg) phenotypes, in antipsychotic-naïve FEP patients before and after risperidone treatment.Methods: We included 31 antipsychotic-naïve FEP patients who had measurements of IRS and CIRS biomarkers before and after treatment with risperidone for 10 weeks, and 22 healthy controls.Results: Antipsychotic-naive FEP patients showed interrelated increments in M1, Th-1, Th-2, Th-17 and Treg phenotypes and a relatively greater IRS response (especially granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-12) as compared with the CIRS response (IL-4, IL-13, IL-5 and IL-10). Inflammatory markers, especially IL-6 and IL-8, were significantly correlated with negative, psychotic, affective and excitation symptom dimensions. Treatment with risperidone significantly suppressed the IRS and CIRS. Baseline levels of CIRS biomarkers, especially higher soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 and IL-10 predicted clinical improvement during treatment.Discussion: Our findings indicate that FEP is characterized by robust IRS (M1 + Th-1 + Th-17) and CIRS responses, suggesting that monocytes, macrophages, Th-1, Th-2, Th-17 and Treg cells are activated. The findings indicate that a) FEP patients are prone to the detrimental effects of M1, Th-1, Th-17 and Th-2 cells, which may contribute to long-lasting abnormalities in brain circuitry; and b) in FEP, the CIRS may contribute to recovery from the acute phase of illness. Enhancing the CIRS is a new drug target to treat FEP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0120.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: colitis disease; Eucheuma cottonii; inflammatory cytokines; red seaweed
Online: 7 June 2018 (12:22:21 CEST)
This study aims to determine the protective effects of red seaweed Eucheuma cottonii (EC) ethanol extract on acute colitis disease in mice. Male BALB/c mice used for acute colitis disease model by induced 2.5% (w/v) of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 7 days for all groups, except control group. The DSS-induced mice then treated by three different doses of EC extracts (0.35, 0.70, 1.75 g/kg body weight), curcumin (as a positive control, 0.10 g/kg), and a group was orally only by water. In 8th day, the mice sacrificed and collected the blood, then measured the body weight, colon weight, and colon length. Disease activity index (DAI), pro-inflammatory such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6, as well as IL-10 as anti-inflammatory were measured. The results showed that after treatment for 7 days, EC extract protected the weight loss and decreased the colon weight per length ratio. In addition, EC extract also decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in serum and increased the IL-10. Moreover, EC extract protected the colonic tissue damage. According to this results, the EC ethanol extract might be can used for the treatment of colitis disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0286.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: cytokines; haplotypes; immune response; Leishmania; regulatory mechanisms; resistance; susceptibility
Online: 19 October 2022 (11:30:49 CEST)
Background: The Ibizan Hound is a canine breed native to the Mediterranean region, where leishmaniasis is an endemic zoonosis. Several studies indicate a low prevalence of this disease in dogs, whereas other canine breeds present a high prevalence. However, the molecular underlaying mechanisms yet remains unknown. Methods: In this study, we analyze the haplotypes of genes encode cytokines related to immune response of Leishmania infantum infection in twenty-four Boxer and twenty-four Ibizan hound apparently healthy using CanineHD DNA Analysis BeadChip including 165,480 mapped positions. Results: The results show that several haplotypes of genes encoding Interleukin 6 (IL6) and Interferon gamma (IFNG) are related to Interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and Interleukins (IL) 2 and 18 serum levels. Our results indicate that the regulation of immune response is different in the two canine breeds analyzed and are related to the haplotype compositions of the genes encoding these cytokines. Conclusions: Future studies are needed to elucidate whether these differences and haplotypes are related to different phenotypes in immune response and expression gene regulation to L. infantum infection in dogs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0361.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Anti-inflammation; Phlebia sp; RAW264.7 macrophages; AP-1; cytokines
Online: 22 December 2021 (12:14:09 CET)
Lichens are a life form in which algae and fungi have a symbiotic relationship. A lichen has various biological activities, including anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities. Inflammation is a response caused by various factors, such as infection by pathogens or tissue damage; excessive reactions can contribute to the etiology of chronic diseases, such as asthma, brain damage, and serious tissue damage. This study demonstrates the anti-inflammatory effect of ethyl acetate extract from Phlebia sp. on NF-κB and AP-1 pathways in the lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW 264.7 cell. Especially, Phlebia sp. extract inhibits the phosphorylation of AP-1 signaling (c-Fos and c-Jun) and its upstream MKK/MAPKs (MKK4, MKK7 and JNK), which induced a decrease in the production of the inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in downstream of AP-1 signaling. Furthermore, Phlebia sp. extract inhibited the production of final inflammatory effector molecules involved in AP-1 signaling, including nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Here, we report that Phlebia sp. extract has the potential to be developed as an anti-inflammatory agent.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0046.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: ageing; inflammation, cytokines, inflammageing; inflammageing; immunosenescence; immunosurveillance; senescence; SASP
Online: 4 October 2021 (11:00:22 CEST)
Acute inflammation is a physiological response to injury or infection, with a cascade of steps that ultimately leads to recruitment of immune cells to clear invading pathogens and heal wounds. However, chronic inflammation arising from continued presence of the initial trigger, or dysfunction of signalling and/or effector pathways, is harmful to health. While successful ageing in older adults including centenarians is associated with low levels of inflammation, elevated inflammation increases the risk of poor health and death [1–3]. Hence inflammation has been described as one of seven pillars of ageing. Age-associated sterile, chronic, and low-grade inflammation is commonly termed inflammageing - it is not simply a consequence of increasing chronological age, but is also a marker of biological ageing, multimorbidity and mortality risk. While inflammageing was initially thought to be caused by “continuous antigenic load and stress”, reports from the last two decades describe a much more complex phenomenon also involving cellular senescence and ageing of the immune system. In this review, we explore the sources and consequences of inflammageing and highlight potential interventions. In particular, we assess the contribution of cellular senescence to age-associated inflammation, identify patterns of pro- and anti-inflammatory markers characteristic of inflammageing, describe alterations in the ageing immune system that lead to elevated inflammation, and finally assess the ways that diet, exercise and pharmacological interventions can reduce inflammageing and thus improve later life health.
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Breast cancer; metastasis; cytokines; microenvironment; bisphenol A; endocrine disruptors.
Online: 13 September 2021 (14:48:05 CEST)
Background: Metastasis is a complex process that involves the spread of the tumor to distant parts of the body from its original site. Metastatic dissemination represents the main physiopathology of cancer. Soluble factors such as cytokines have been closely related to breast cancer (BC) metastasis. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting chemical compound with estrogenic properties, which exposure in the early stages of neonatal life leads to an increase in the size and weight of breast tumors and cellular changes in the tumoral immune microenvironment. Methods: Thus, we used female BALB/c mice that were exposed neonatally to a single dose of BPA. Once sexual maturity was reached, a mammary tumor was induced injecting 4T1 cells in situ. After 25 days of injection, we evaluated endocrine alterations, cytokine expression, tissue alterations denoted by macro and micro metastases in the lung, and metastasis-induced cell infiltration. Results: BPA neonatal treatment did not show significant endocrine alterations. Nevertheless, BPA induced a great rate of metastasis to the lung associated with higher intratumoral expression of IL-1b, IL-6, IFN-g, TNF-a and VEGF. Conclusions Our data suggest that cytokines are key players in BC metastasis induction, and that BPA is a risk factor to be considered. This knowledge must be considered with the aim of recognizing environmental pollution in the clinical history of patients to possibly counter BC metastases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0292.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Porphyra tenera; immune; clinical trial; natural killer cells; cytokines
Online: 17 April 2020 (02:15:58 CEST)
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if Porphyra tenera extract (PTE) has immune-enhancing effects and is safe in healthy adults. Methods: Subjects (3x103 ≤ peripheral blood leukocyte levels < 8x103 cells/μl) who met the inclusion criteria were recruited for this study. Enrolled subjects (n=120) were randomly assigned to either the PTE group (n=60) who were given 2.5 g/day of PTE (as Porphyra tenera extract) in capsule form or the placebo group (n=60) who were given crystal cellulose capsules with the identical appearance, weight, and flavor as the PTE capsules for 8 weeks. Outcomes were assessed by measuring natural killer cell (NK-cell) activity, cytokines, and upper respiratory infection (URI), and safety parameters were assessed at baseline and 8 weeks. Results: Compared to baseline, NK cell activity (%) increased for all effector cell to target cell ratios in the PTE group after 8 weeks, but there were no changes in the placebo group (p<0.1). Subgroup analysis of 101 subjects without an URI revealed that NK-cell activity in the PTE group tended to be increased for all E:T ratios (E:T=12.5:1 p=0.068; E:T=25:1 p=0.036; E:T=50:1 p=0.081) compared to the placebo group. There was a significant difference between these two groups for the E:T=25:1 ratio, which increased from 20.3±12.0% at baseline to 23.2±12.4% after 8 weeks in the PTE group (p=0.036). There was no significant difference in levels of cytokines between these two groups. Conclusions: PTE supplementation appears to enhance immune function by improving NK-cell activity without adverse effects in healthy adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: cytokines, neuro-immune, inflammation, antioxidants, oxidative stress, paraoxonase 1
Online: 12 November 2019 (17:02:22 CET)
Accumulating evidence suggests that TNF-α-mediated immune-neurotoxicity contributes to cognitive impairments and the overall severity of schizophrenia (OSOS). There are no data whether peripheral IL-6 and IL-4 may affect the phenome of schizophrenia above and beyond the effects of TNF-α and whether those cytokines are regulated by lowered natural IgM to malondialdehyde (MDA) and paraoxonase 1 enzyme activity. We assessed the aforementioned biomarkers in schizophrenia patients with (n=40) and without (n=40) deficit schizophrenia and 40 healthy controls. Deficit schizophrenia was best predicted by a combination of increased IL-6 and PON1 status (QQ genotype and lowered CMPAase activity) and lowered IgM to MDA. Partial Least Squares bootstrapping shows that 41.0% of the variance in negative symptoms, psychosis, hostility, excitation, mannerism, psychomotor retardation, and formal thought disorders was explained by increased TNF-α and PON1 status (QQ genotype and lowered CMPAase activity), lowered IL-4 and IgM to MDA as well as male sex and lowered education. We found that 47.9% of the variance in verbal fluency, word list memory, true recall, Mini-Mental State Examination, and executive functions was predicted by increased TNF-α and lowered IL-4, IgM to MDA and education. In addition, both TNF-α and IL-4 levels were significantly associated with lowered IgM to MDA, while TNF-α was correlated with PON1 status. These data provide evidence that the symptomatic (both the deficit subtype and OSOS) and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia are to a large extent mediated by the effects of immune-mediated neurotoxicity as well as lowered regulation by the innate immune system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0239.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: deficit schizophrenia; machine learning; cytokines; cognition; inflammation; neuro-immune
Online: 20 October 2019 (17:21:05 CEST)
In Schizophrenia, pathway-genotypes may be constructed by combining interrelated immune biomarkers with changes in specific neurocognitive functions that represent aberrations in brain neuronal circuits. These constructs provide insight on the phenome of schizophrenia and show how pathway-phenotypes mediate the effects of genome X environmentome interactions on the symptomatology/phenomenology of schizophrenia. Nevertheless, there is a lack of knowledge how to construct pathway-phenotypes using Partial Least Squares (PLS) path modeling and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA). This paper aims to provide a step-by-step utilization guide for the construction of pathway-phenotypes that reflect aberrations in the neuroimmune - brain circuit axis (NIBCA) in deficit schizophrenia. This NIBCA index is constructed using immune biomarkers (CCL-2, CCL-11, IL-1β, sIL-1RA, TNF-α, sTNFR1, sTNFR2) and neurocognitive tests (Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia) predicting overall severity of schizophrenia (OSOS) in 120 deficit SCZ and 54 healthy participants. Using SmartPLS path analysis, a latent vector is extracted from those biomarkers and cognitive tests, which shows a good construct reliability (Cronbach alpha and composite reliability) and replicability and which is reflectively measured through its NIBCA manifestations. This NIBCA pathway-phenotype explains 75.0% of the variance in PHEMN (psychotic, hostility, excitation, mannerism and negative) symptoms. Using SIMCA, we constructed a NIBCA pathway-class that defines deficit schizophrenia as a qualitatively distinct nosological entity and which allows patients with deficit schizophrenia to be authenticated as belonging to the deficit schizophrenia class. In conclusion, our nomothetic approach to develop a nomological network combining neuro-immune and neurocognitive phenome markers to predict OSOS and cross-validate a diagnostic class generated replicable models reflecting the key phenome of the illness, which may mediate the effects of genome X environmentome interactions on the final outcome phenome features, namely symptomatology and phenomenology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0078.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: mixed cereal grains; pro-inflammatory cytokines; inflammation; colon carcinogenesis
Online: 4 July 2019 (11:41:51 CEST)
The chemopreventive effects of various mixed cereal grain (MCG) samples on azoxymethane (AOM, 10 mg/kg) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS, 2% w/v)-induced colorectal cancer (CRC) in C57BL/6J mice were studied. The main MCG preparation consisted of fermented brown rice (FBR), glutinous brown rice, glutinous Sorghum bicolor, glutinous Panicum miliaceum, Coix lacryma-jobi and black soybean at an appropriate mixing ratio. Other MCG preparations contained rice coated with 5% Phellinus linteus and 5% Curcuma longa (MGR-PC), or 10% Phellinus linteus (MCG-P), or 10% Curcuma longa (MCG-C). Consumption of dietary MCG-PC by CRC mice significantly increased colon length, decreased the ratio of colon weight to length, and reduced the number of colon tumors. Similar effects, although to a lower extent, were observed in CRC mice fed with MCG-P, followed by those fed with MCG-C, MCG, FBR or white rice (WR). MCG-PC significantly suppressed colonic neoplasia, and decreased the levels of various cytokines (tumor necrosis factor: Tnf, interleukin 1 beta: Il1b, interleukin 6: Il6, and interferon gamma: Ifng) in serum and colon tissue of the CRC mice. In addition, MCG-PC increased the mRNA expressions of tumor protein p53(Tp53) and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A(Cdkn1a), activated pro-apoptotic caspase 3(Casp3), and reduced expression of both mRNA and protein of inducible inducible nitric oxide synthase 2 (Nos2), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (Ptgs2), and cyclin D1(Ccnd1) in colon tissue. These findings suggest that than compared with other cereal grain preparations, MCG-PC had a greater activity against AOM/DSS-induced CRC by reducing intestinal inflammation, and modulating the expression of certain carcinogenesis related factors (Nos2, Ptgs2, Tp53, Cdkn1a, Ccnd1 and Casp3) in colon tissue of CRC mice.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: supervised learning, major depression, cytokines, inflammation, neuro-immune, opioids
Online: 25 March 2019 (10:14:02 CET)
Rationale: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by signaling aberrations in interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, beta-endorphins as well as mu (MOR) and kappa (KOR) opioid receptors. Here we examined whether these biomarkers may aid in the classification of unknown subjects into the target class MDD.Methods: The aforementioned biomarkers were assayed in 60 first-episode, drug-naïve depressed patients and 30 controls. We analyzed the data using joint principal component analysis (PCA) performed on all subjects to check whether subjects cluster by classes; support vector machine (SVM) with 10-fold validation; and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and SIMCA performed on calibration and validation sets and we computed the figures of merit and learnt from the data. Results: PCA shows that both groups were well separated using the first three PCs, while correlation loadings show that all 5 biomarkers have discriminatory value. SVM and LDA yielded an accuracy of 100% in validation samples. Using SIMCA there was a highly significant discrimination of both groups (model-to-model distance=87.5); all biomarkers showed a significant discrimination and modeling power, while 10% of the patients were identified as outsiders and no aliens could be identified.Discussion: We have delineated that MDD is a distinct class with respect to neuro-immune and opioid biomarkers and that future unknown subjects can be authenticated as having MDD using this SIMCA fingerprint. Precision psychiatry should employ SIMCA a) to authenticate patients as belonging to the claimed target class and identify other subjects as outsiders, members of another class or aliens; and b) to acquire knowledge through learning from the data by constructing a biomarker fingerprint of the target class.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0108.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: schizophrenia, inflammation, nitrosative stress, tryptophan catabolites, cytokines, oxidative stress
Online: 11 January 2019 (10:37:50 CET)
BACKGROUND: Stable-phase schizophrenia may comprise two distinct nosological entities namely Major Neuro-Cognitive Psychosis (MNP, largely overlapping with the deficit syndrome) and simple NP (SNP), which are defined by neuroimmune and neurocognitive abnormalities. Furthermore, cognitive impairments and PHEM (psychotic, hostility, excitation, mannerism) and negative symptoms load on the same dimension.METHODS: The current study aimed to investigate associations of psychomotor retardation (PMR) and clinical as well as biomarker characteristics of schizophrenia. We recruited 40 healthy controls and 79 schizophrenia patients and measured IgA responses to tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs), IgM to malondialdehyde and nitroso (NO)-cysteinyl, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1), soluble interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist (sIL-1RA), IL-10, CCL-11 as well as PMR items of different rating scales and motor screening task (MOT). RESULTS: PMR differentiated schizophrenia from controls and MNP from SNP. In addition, PMR was strongly associated with executive functions, deficits in episodic and semantic memory, PHEM and negative (PHEMN) symptoms. Around 50% of the variance in PMR was predicted by the cumulative effects of immune activation, CCL-11, TRYCATs and NO-Cysteinyl levels, and lowered natural IgM. PRM may be reliably combined with PHEMN symptoms and memory and executive impairments into one latent vector reflecting overall psychopathology.CONCLUSIONS: Current findings indicate that PMR may be a key psychopathological feature of schizophrenia and mainly MNP. In addition, PMR and associated impairments in memory and executive functions, and PHEMN symptoms may be driven by deficits in the compensatory immune regulatory system (natural IgM) combined with increased production of neurotoxic immune products, namely TRYCATs and IgM to NO-cysteinyl, and an endogenous cognition deteriorating chemokine, namely CCL-11.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0376.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: bone repair; macrophages; immune system; cytokines; mesenchymal stem cells
Online: 16 November 2018 (06:42:10 CET)
A new mathematical model is presented to study the effects of macrophages on the bone fracture healing process. The model consists of a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations that represents the interactions among classically and alternatively activated macrophages, mesenchymal stem cells, osteoblasts, and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. A qualitative analysis of the model is performed to determine the equilibria and their corresponding stability properties. Numerical simulations are also presented to support the theoretical results and to monitor the evolution of a broken bone for different types of fractures under various medical interventions. The model can be used to guide clinical experiments and to explore possible medical treatments that accelerate the bone fracture healing process either by surgical interventions or drug administrations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0165.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, anti-inflamatory cytokines, resistance exercise
Online: 23 May 2017 (07:30:43 CEST)
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation on anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β during an acute bout of resistance exercise (RE) in young resistance trained men. Ten resistance-trained men in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled and crossover study, were administered a 7-day HMB supplementation (3×1 g.d-1 of HMB) and placebo (3×1 g.d-1 of Maltodextrin) with a 7 days washout period. After supplementation periods, subjects performed three sets of bench press, lat pull down, leg extension, leg curl, biceps curl, triceps curl and shoulder press to failure with 85% of one repetition to maximum (1RM). Blood samples were obtained before- (Pre), immediately post- (IP) and 1 hour-post RE (1h P) to assess serum concentrations of IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β1. The data were analyzed using 2 (treatment: HMB and PL) × 3 (time points: Pre, IP and 1hP) repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the Bonferroni post hoc test with a significant level of p<0.05. Serum IL-4 was significantly higher at IP resistance exercise in HMB compared to placebo. Circulating IL-4 and TGF-β1 were significantly raised at IP compared to Pre in both HMB and placebo treatments. No significant differences between treatments were observed for IL-10 and TGF-β1at any time points. In conclusion, HMB supplementation increased the circulating level of IL-4 during RE in resistance-trained men, which may attenuate inflammation and facilitate adaptation to RE.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0070.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: stroke; inflammation; neuro-immune; cytokines; hemostasis; coagulation; protein-protein interactions
Online: 3 September 2021 (15:11:00 CEST)
This study used established biomarkers of death due to ischemic stroke (IS) and performed network, enrichment, and annotation analysis. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis revealed that the backbone of the highly connective network of IS death consisted of IL6, ALB, TNF, SERPINE1, VWF, VCAM1, TGFB1, and SELE. Cluster analysis revealed immune and hemostasis subnetworks, which were strongly interconnected through the major switches ALB and VWF. Enrichment analysis revealed that the PPI immune subnetwork of death due to IS was highly associated with TLR2/4, TNF, JAK-STAT, NOD, IL10, IL13, IL4, and TGF-β1/SMAD pathways. The top biological and molecular functions and pathways enriched in the hemostasis network of death due IS were platelet degranulation and activation, the intrinsic pathway of fibrin clot formation, the urokinase-type plasminogen activator pathway, post-translational protein phosphorylation, integrin cell surface interactions, and the proteoglycan-integrin-extra cellular matrix complex (ECM). Regulation Explorer analysis of transcriptional factors shows: a) that NFKB1, RELA and SP1 were the major regulating actors of the PPI network; and b) hsa-mir-26-5p and hsa-16-5p were the major regulating microRNA actors. In conclusion, prevention of death due to IS should consider that current IS treatments may be improved by targeting VWF, VEGFA, proteoglycan-integrin-ECM complex, NFKB/RELA and SP1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0304.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19; C3; C4; inflammation; cytokines; biomarkers; thromboxane A2; prostacyclin
Online: 12 April 2021 (13:02:20 CEST)
Background. COVID-19 patients suffer from hypercoagulation and activated immune-inflammatory pathways. This study was performed to assay serum complement C3 and C4, and thromboxane A2 (TxA2) and prostacyclin (PGI2) in association with chest CT scan anomalies (CCTAs) and peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) Methods. Serum levels of C3, C4, TxA2, and PGI2 were measured by ELISA and albumin, calcium, and magnesium by spectrophotometric method in 60 COVID-19 patients and 30 controls. Results. C3 and C4 are significantly decreased and TxA2 and PGI2 significantly increased in COVID-19 patients as compared with controls. Neural networks showed that a combination of C3, albumin, and TxA2 yielded a predictive accuracy of 100% in detecting COVID-19 patients. SpO2 was significantly decreased in COVID-19 patients and was inversely associated with TxA2 and PGI2, and positively with C3, C4, albumin, and calcium. CCTAs were accompanied by lower SpO2 and albumin, and increased PGI2 levels. Patients with positive IgG results show significantly higher SpO2, TxA2, PGI2, and C4 levels than IgG negative patients. Conclusion. Hypoalbuminemia, which is strongly associated with lung lesions and lowered peripheral oxygen saturation, is characterized by increased TxA2, suggesting that interactions between immune-inflammatory pathways and platelet hyperactivity participate in the pathophysiology of COVID-19 and consequently may play a role in enhanced risk of hypercoagulability and venous thromboembolism. These mechanisms are aggravated by lowered calcium and magnesium levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0421.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: deficit schizophrenia; cytokines; inflammation; neuro-immune; oxidative stress; leaky gut
Online: 20 August 2020 (03:24:47 CEST)
Current case definitions of schizophrenia (DSM-5, ICD), made through a consensus among experts, are not cross-validated and lack construct reliability validity. The aim of this paper is to explain how to use bottom-up pattern recognition approaches to construct a reliable and replicable nomothetic network reflecting the direct effects of risk resilience (RR) factors, and direct and mediated effects of both RR and adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) on the schizophrenia phenome. This study was conducted using data of 40 healthy controls and 80 patients with schizophrenia. Using partial least Squares (PLS) analysis, we found that 39.7% of the variance in the phenomenome (lowered self-reported quality of life) was explained by the unified effects of AOPs (IgA to tryptophan catabolites, LPS, and the paracellular pathway, cytokines, and oxidative stress biomarkers), the cognitome (memory and executive deficits), and symptomatome (negative symptoms, psychosis, hostility, excitation, mannerism, psychomotor retardation, formal thought disorders); 55.8% of the variance in the symptomatome was explained by a single trait extracted from AOPs and the cognitome; and 22.0% of the variance in the latter was explained by the RR (Q192R polymorphism and CMPAaase activity, natural IgM, and IgM levels to zonulin). There were significant total effects (direct + mediated) of RR and AOPs on the symptomatome and phenomenome. In the current study, we built a reliable nomothetic network that reflects the associations between RR, AOPs, and the phenome of schizophrenia and discovered new diagnostic subclasses of schizophrenia based on unified RR, AOPs, and phenome scores.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0145.v1
Subject: Keywords: oxidative stress; antioxidants; biomarkers; deficit schizophrenia; inflammation; cytokines; neuro-immune
Online: 9 May 2020 (03:29:18 CEST)
Background: There is now evidence that schizophrenia and deficit schizophrenia are neuro-immune conditions and that oxidative stress toxicity (OSTOX) may play a pathophysiological role. Aims of the study: To compare OSTOX biomarkers and antioxidant (ANTIOX) defenses in deficit versus non-deficit schizophrenia. Methods: We examined lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), sulfhydryl (-SH) groups, paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity and PON1 Q192R genotypes, total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) as well as immune biomarkers in patients with deficit (n=40) and non-deficit (n=40) schizophrenia and healthy controls (n=40). Results: Deficit schizophrenia is characterized by significantly increased levels of AOPP and lowered -SH, and PON1 activity, while no changes in the OSTOX/ANTIOX biomarkers were found in non-deficit schizophrenia. An increased OSTOX/ANTIOX ratio was significantly associated with deficit versus non-deficit schizophrenia (Odds ratio=3.15, p<0.001). Partial least squares analysis showed that 47.6% of the variance in a latent vector extracted from psychosis, excitation, hostility, mannerism, negative symptoms, psychomotor retardation, formal thought disorders, and neurocognitive test scores was explained by LOOH+AOPP, PON1 genotype + activity, CCL11, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IgA responses to neurotoxic tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs), whereas -SH groups and IgM responses to MDA showed indirect effects mediated by OSTOX and neuro-immune biomarkers. Discussion: Our findings indicate that with increasing overall severity of schizophrenia, neuro-immune and neuro-oxidative (especially protein oxidation indicating chlorinative stress) toxicities become more prominent and together with lowered antioxidant defenses and impairments in innate immunity-associated resilience against neurotoxic processes shape a distinct nosological entity, namely deficit schizophrenia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0262.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Chronic fatigue syndrome, inflammation, neuro-immune, physio-somatic, schizophrenia, cytokines
Online: 23 July 2019 (11:49:41 CEST)
A subset of patients with schizophrenia experience physio-somatic symptoms reminiscent of chronic fatigue and fibromyalgia. In schizophrenia, these symptoms contribute to impaired quality of life, and are strongly related to neuro-cognitive deficits, and increased IgA responses to tryptophan catabolites. Negative and PHEM (psychosis, hostility, excitation, mannerism) symptoms, psychomotor retardation (PMR) and formal thought disorders, appear to be manifestations of a single trait reflecting overall severity of schizophrenia (OSOS). In this study, 120 patients with deficit schizophrenia (DEFSCZ) and 54 healthy subjects were assessed with the FibroFatigue (FF) rating scale, and the above-mentioned symptom domains as well as neuro-cognitive tests and biomarkers were measured. In DEFSCZ, there were robust associations between the FF score and all above-mentioned symptom domains, and impairments in semantic and episodic memory and executive functions. Furthermore, the FF score loaded highly on an OSOS latent vector (LV), which showed adequate convergent validity, internal consistency reliability and predictive relevance and fitted a reflective model. Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) showed that the FF items discriminated DEFSCZ from controls with an overall accuracy of 100%. Interleukin IL-1β, IL-1 receptor antagonist (sIL-1RA), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and CCL-11 (eotaxin) explained 66.8% of the variance in the FF score and 59.4% of the variance in OSOS. In conclusion, these data show that physio-somatic symptoms are a core component of the phenomenology of DEFSCZ and are largely mediated by neurotoxic effects of activated immune pathways, including aberrations in CCL-11, IL-1β and TNF-α signalling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0141.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: schizophrenia; leaky gut; neuro-immune; inflammation; oxidative stress; TRYCATs; cytokines
Online: 15 January 2019 (07:17:55 CET)
In 2001, the first author of this paper reported that schizophrenia is associated with an increased frequency of the haptoglobin (Hp)-2 gene. The precursor of Hp-2 is zonulin, a molecule that affects intercellular tight junction integrity. Recently, we reported increased plasma IgA/IgM responses to Gram-negative bacteria in deficit schizophrenia indicating leaky gut and gut dysbiosis. The current study was performed to examine the integrity of the paracellular (tight and adherens junctions) and transcellular (cytoskeletal proteins) pathways in deficit versus non-deficit schizophrenia. We measured IgM responses to zonulin, occludin, E-cadherin, talin, actin and vinculin in association with IgA responses to Gram-negative bacteria, CCL-11, IgA responses to tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs), immune activation and IgM to malondialdehyde (MDA) and NO-cysteinyl in 78 schizophrenia patients and 40 controls. We found that the ratio of IgM to zonulin + occudin / talin + actin + viculin (PARA/TRANS) was significantly greater in deficit than in non-deficit schizophrenia and higher in schizophrenia than controls and was significantly associated with increased IgA responses to Gram-negative bacteria. IgM responses to zonulin were positively associated with schizophrenia (versus controls), while IgM to occludin was significantly associated with deficit schizophrenia (versus non-deficit schizophrenia and controls). A large part of the variance (90.8%) in negative and PHEM (psychosis, hostility, excitation and mannerism) symptoms was explained by PARA/TRANS ratio, IgA to Gram-negative bacteria, IgM to E-cadherin and malondialdehyde (MDA) and memory dysfunctions, while 53.3% of the variance in the latter was explained by PARA/TRANS ratio, IgA to Gram-negative bacteria, CCL-11, TRYCATs and immune activation. The results show an upregulated paracellular pathway with breakdown of the tight and ahherens junctions and increased bacterial translocation in deficit schizophrenia. These dysfunctions in the intestinal paracellular route together with lowered natural IgM, immune activation and production of CCL-11 and TRYCATs contribute to the phenomenology of deficit schizophrenia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0137.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS); oxidative stress; cytokines; inflammation; 5-Azacitidine; somatic alterations
Online: 8 December 2021 (14:36:28 CET)
This study focused on the impact of the treatment with the hypomethylating agent 5-Azacitidine on the redox status and inflammation in 24 MDS patients. Clinical and genetic features of MDS patients were recorded and peripheral blood samples were used to determine the activity of the endogenous antioxidant defense system (superoxide dismutase, SOD, catalase, CAT, glutathion peroxidase, GPx, and reductase, GRd, activities), markers of oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation, LPO, and advanced oxidation protein products, AOPP). Moreover, pro-inflammatory cytokines and plasma nitrite plus nitrate levels as markers of inflammation, and CoQ10 plasma levels, were also measured. Globally, MDS patients showed less redox status in terms of a reduction in the GSSG/GSH ratio and in the LPO levels, and increased CAT activity compared with healthy subjects, with not changes in SOD, GPx and GRd activities, and AOPP levels. When analyzed the evolution from early- to advanced stages of the disease, the GPx activity, GSSG/GSH ratio, LPO and AOPP increased, with a reduction in CAT. GPx changes were related with the presence of risk factors such as high-risk IPSS-R or mutational score. Besides, there was an increase in IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α plasma levels, with further increase of IL-2 and IL-10 from early to advanced stage of the disease. However, we did not observe any association between inflammation and oxidative stress. Finally, 5-azacitidine treatment generates oxidative stress in MDS patients, without affecting inflammation levels, suggesting that oxidative status and inflammation are two independent processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0455.v1
Subject: Keywords: inflammation; neuro-immune; cytokines; major depression; chronic fatigue syndrome; affective disorders
Online: 27 September 2021 (16:30:00 CEST)
Background. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disorder which affects the joints in the wrists, fingers, and knees. RA is often associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms as well as chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)-like symptoms.Aim. To examine the association between depressive symptoms (measured with the Beck Depression Inventory, BDI), anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, HAMA), and CFS-like (Fibro-fatigue Scale) symptoms and immune-inflammatory, autoimmune, and endogenous opioid system (EOS) markers, and lactosylceramide in RA. Methods. The serum biomarkers were assayed in fifty-nine RA and fifty-nine patients without increased psychopathology (PP) and fifty healthy controls.Results. There were highly significant correlations between the BDI, FF, and HAMA scores and severity of RA, as assessed with the DAS28-4, clinical and disease activity indices, the number of tenders and swollen joints, and patient and evaluator global assessment scores. A common latent vector (reflective model) could be extracted from the PP and RA-severity scales, which showed excellent psychometric properties. Partial least squares analysis showed that 69.7% of the variance in this common core underpinning PP and RA symptoms could be explained by the regression on immune-inflammatory pathways, rheumatoid factor, anti-citrullinated protein antibodies, CD17, and mu-opioid receptor levels. Conclusions. Depression, anxiety, and CFS-like symptoms due to RA are reflective manifestations of the phenome of RA and are mediated via the effects of the same immune-inflammatory, autoimmune, and EOS pathways and lactosylceramide that underpin the pathophysiology of RA. These PP symptoms are clinical manifestations of the pathophysiology of RA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0067.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: ABC transporters; SLC transporters; in vitro; skin; inflammation; cytokines; UVA; UVB
Online: 2 December 2020 (14:48:32 CET)
The majority of skin cancers are caused by over exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The effects of UV radiation on the expression of drug transporters expressed in human skin has never been studied. In this the effects of UVA and UVB irradiation on the expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and Solute carrier (SLC) transporters was evaluated in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) and normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) in primary culture. First experiments were intended to validate the inflammatory reaction in response to stimulation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in NHEK, NHDF and 3D-reconstructed human epidermis (3D-RHE) model. LPS treatment has shown to increase the expression of IL-8 and TNF-alpha in all three in vitro models. Expression of the most expressed ABC and SLC transporters was then measured in NHEK and NHDF after UVA (30 J/m²) and UVB (40 mJ/m²) irradiation. The most striking result was a significant 29-fold increase of the expression of SLCO4A1 in normal human dermal fibroblasts. In summary, this study shows for the first time a significant regulation of the expression of SLCO4A1 in human dermal fibroblasts induced by UVA irradiation. This finding is of particular interest as most of skin cancers are caused by over exposure to ultraviolet radiation and need to be considered in pharmacokinetic evaluation of topical drugs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0714.v1
Subject: Keywords: Osteoclasts; microgravity, spaceflight, osteoblasts; osteocytes; M-CSF; RANKL; bone; microgravity; cytokines.
Online: 30 July 2020 (10:46:17 CEST)
Astronauts are at risk of losing 1.0 to 1.5% of their bone mass for every month they spend in space despite their adherence to high impact exercise training programs and dietary regimens designed to preserve their musculoskeletal system. This loss is the result of microgravity-related impairment of osteocyte and osteoblast function and the consequent upregulation of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. This review describes the ontogeny of osteoclast hematopoietic stem cells, the contributions of macrophage colony stimulating factor, activator of NFkB and the calcineurin pathways make in osteoclast differentiation, and provides details of bone formation, the osteoclast cytoskeleton, the immune regulation of osteoclasts, and osteoclast mechanotransduction on Earth, in the microgravity of space, and in conditions of simulated microgravity. The article discusses the need to better understand how osteoclasts are able to function in zero gravity and reviews current and prospective therapies that may be used to treat osteoclast-mediated bone disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0105.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: depression, bipolar disorder, oxidative and nitrosative stress, neuro-immune, inflammation, cytokines
Online: 8 March 2019 (09:13:40 CET)
Objective: Major depression (MDD) and a lifetime history of MDD are characterized by increased nitrosylation, while bipolar disorder type 1 (BP1), but not BP2, is accompanied by highly increased levels of oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO) production. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether nitrosylation is involved in BP and whether there are differences in nitrosylation between BP1 and BP2.Methods: Serum IgM antibodies directed against nitroso (NO)-adducts were examined in MDD, BP1, BP2 and healthy controls, namely IgM responses to NO-cysteine, NO-tryptophan (NOW), NO-arginine and NO-albumin (SBA) in association with IgA/IgM responses to Gram-negative bacteria, IgG responses to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and serum peroxides.Results: Serum IgM levels against NO adducts were significantly higher in BP1 and MDD as compared with healthy controls, whereas BP2 patients occupied an intermediate position. IgM responses to NO-albumin were significantly higher in BP1 and MDD than in BP2 patients. There were highly significant associations between the IgM responses to NO-adducts and IgG responses to oxLDL and IgA/IgM responses to Gram-negative bacteria.Conclusions: BP1 and MDD are characterized by an upregulation of the nitrosylome (the proteome of nitrosylated proteins), and increased IgM responses to nitrosylated conjugates. Increased nitrosylation may be driven by increased bacterial translocation and is associated with lipid peroxidation processes. Innate like (B1 and marginal zone) B cells and increased nitrosylation may play a key role in the major affective disorders through activation of immune-inflammatory and oxidative pathways, cardiovascular comorbidity and impairments in antioxidant defenses, neuro-glial interactions, synaptic plasticity, neuroprotection, neurogenesis, etc.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0029.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: major depressive disorder, microglia, cytokines, neuro-immune, chronic fatigue, oxidative stress
Online: 4 February 2019 (11:41:22 CET)
In 2011, it was reviewed that there is a strong co-occurrence between major depression and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), with fatigue and physio-somatic symptoms being key symptoms of depression, and depressive symptoms appearing during the course of CFS. Moreover, the comorbidity between both conditions may in part be explained by activated immune-inflammatory pathways, including increased translocation of Gram-negative bacteria and increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1. Nevertheless, the possible involvement of activated microglia in this comorbidity has remained unclear. This paper aims to review microglial disturbances in major depression, CFS and their comorbidity. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using the PubMed / MEDLINE database to identify studies that are relevant to this current review. Depressed patients present neuroinflammatory alterations, probably related to microglial activation, while animal models show that a microglial response to immune challenges including lipopolysaccharides is accompanied by depressive-like behaviors. Recent evidence from preclinical studies indicate that activated microglia have a key role in the onset of fatigue. In chronic inflammatory conditions, such as infections and senescence, microglia orchestrate an inflammatory microenvironment thereby causing fatigue. In conclusion, based on our review we may posit that shared immune-inflammatory pathways and activated microglia underpin comorbid depression and CFS and that activated microglia are the main orchestrators of this comorbidity. As such, microglial activation and neuro-inflammation may be promising targets to treat the overlapping manifestations of both depression and CFS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0319.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Oxidative stress; blackcurrant; biofunctional cookie; simulated digestion; bioactive metabolites; inflammatory cytokines
Online: 17 September 2018 (15:05:44 CEST)
The improved understanding of the underlying mechanisms of oxidative damage and/or chronic diseases is of high priority in dietary research. Although the chemical extraction of biofunctional molecules from different fruits and cereals have been studied extensively, the impact of food processing and digestion on bioactivity has not been studied systematically. The aim of this study was to investigate the biofunctional potential of blackcurrant powder incorporated into wholemeal wheat and barley cookies in after simulated in vitro digestion. The incorporation of blackcurrant significantly (p<0.05) increased the total phenolic content (about 60 %), significantly improved oxygen radical absorbance capacity (about 25 %) of the cookie digesta. Additionally cellular antioxidant and anti-proliferative activity (lowest EC₅₀ value 1.02 mg/mL) on human liver cancer cell model, HepG2 was significantly enhanced. Bioactive metabolites of blackcurrant incorporated cookies were significantly supressed the inflammatory cytokine genes IL-1β (about 3-fold), IL-6 (about 0.5-fold) and NF-kB (about 2-fold) regulation and upregulated satiety gene NUCB-2/Nesfatin-1 (about 5-fold) compare with wholemeal wheat and barley control cookies. The exerted synergistic effects of this study suggest that there may be a new and effective option to prevent and control chronic diseases in human.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0289.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: schizophrenia, immune system, inflammation, cytokines, immune regulatory, CIRS, psychiatry, immunology, psychosis
Online: 17 September 2018 (08:57:53 CEST)
In this paper we propose a novel theoretical framework, which was previously developed for major depression and bipolar disorder, namely the compensatory immune-regulatory reflex system (CIRS), as applied to the neuro-immune pathophysiology of schizophrenia and its phenotypes, including first episode psychosis (FEP), acute relapses, chronic and treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS), comorbid depression, and deficit schizophrenia. These schizophrenia phenotypes and manifestations are accompanied by increased production of positive acute phase proteins, including haptoglobin and α2-macroglobulin, complement factors, and macrophagic M1 (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α), T helper (Th)-1 (interferon-γ and IL-2R), Th-2 (IL-4, IL-5), Th-17 (IL-17) and T regulatory (Treg; IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1) cytokines, cytokine-induced activation of the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway as well as chemokines, including CCL-11 (eotaxin), CCL-2, CCL-3 and CXCL-8. While the immune profiles in the different schizophrenia phenotypes indicate activation of the immune-inflammatory response system (IRS), there are simultaneous signs of CIRS activation, including increased levels of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (sIL-1RA), sIL-2R and tumor necrosis factor-a receptors, Th-2 and Treg phenotypes with increased IL-4 and IL-10 production, and increased levels of TRYCATs and haptoglobin, α2-macroglobulin and other acute phase reactants, which have immune-regulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Signs of activated IRS and CIRS pathways are also detected in TRS, chronic and deficit schizophrenia indicating that these conditions are accompanied by a new homeostatic setpoint between upregulated IRS and CIRS components. In FEP, increased baseline CIRS activity is a protective factor which may predict favorable clinical outcomes. Moreover, impairments in the CIRS are associated with deficit schizophrenia and greater impairments in semantic and episodic memory. It is concluded that CIRS plays a key role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia by negatively regulating the primary IRS and contributing to recovery from the acute phase of illness. Components of the CIRS may offer promising therapeutic targets for schizophrenia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0247.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: vitamin D receptor, cytokines, miR-346, primary sclerosing cholangitis, colorectal cancer
Online: 13 July 2018 (17:36:38 CEST)
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a cholestatic liver disorder frequently associated with ulcerative colitis (UC). Patients with PSC and UC have higher risk of colorectal neoplasia than patients with UC without PSC. Oncogenic properties of micro RNA 346 (miR-346) have been recently reported. In this study we investigated expressions of miR-346 and its two target genes i.e. the receptor of vitamin D (VDR) and the tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), which are known to modulate carcinogenesis. Biopsies from ascending and sigmoid colon were obtained from patients with PSC with and without UC, patients with UC and healthy controls. MiR-346 expression was increased in ascending but not sigmoid colon of patients with PSC and UC when compared to other analyzed groups (p<0.001 for all). In patients with UC an exceptionally low colonic expression of miRNA-346 was accompanied by the increase in VDR expression, and the extensive upregulation of TNF-α gene which protein product is known to be cytotoxic to tumor cells at high concentration. In summary, a substantial upregulation of miRNA-346 in ascending colon of patients with PSC and UC may be responsible for the inhibition of VDR and TNF-α signaling -pathway which may result in an inadequate suppression of neoplasia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0194.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: Caveolin 1; Obesity; Adipose tissue; Metabolic inflammation; Cytokines; TNF-α; NF-κB
Online: 12 December 2022 (06:02:18 CET)
Obesity is characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation. Caveolin-1 (CAV1), a structural and functional protein found in adipose tissues (AT), is augmented in obese individuals. We aimed to define the inflammatory mediators that influence CAV1 gene regulation and associated mechanism in obesity. Using subcutaneous AT from 27 (7 lean/20 obese) normoglycemic individuals, in vitro human adipocyte models, and in vivo mice models, we found elevated CAV1 expression in obese AT and a positive correlation between the gene expression of CAV1, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB). CAV1 gene expression was associated with that of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines, and their cognate receptor (r ≥ 0.447, p ≤ 0.030) but not with anti-inflammatory markers. CAV1 expression was correlated with CD163, indicating a prospective role for CAV1 in adipose inflammatory microenvironment. Unlike wild-type animals, mice lacking TNF-α exhibited reduced levels of CAV1 mRNA/proteins, which were elevated by administering exogenous TNF-α. Mechanistically, TNF-α induces CAV1 gene transcription by mediating NF-kB binding to its two regulatory elements located in the CAV1 proximal regulatory region. The interplay between CAV1 and TNF-α signaling pathway is interesting and has potential as a target for therapeutic interventions in obesity and metabolic syndromes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0560.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: airways obstruction; biomass smoke; COPD; cytokines; eosinophils; impulse oscillome-try; tobacco smoking
Online: 30 November 2022 (03:40:46 CET)
COPD is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by progressive airflow obstruction. Tobacco smoking is the main cause of COPD (COPD-TS), but chronic exposure to biomass smoke (COPD-BS), mainly wood smoke, is the second risk factor; both are considered to cause different phenotypes of COPD. COPD-BS is more eosinophilic than COPD-TS. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the serum level of interleukins involved in eosinophil maturation, recruitment, and survival, and their association with small airway obstruction, measuring cytokines by multiplex test (Bio-Plex) and evaluating the central airway resistance with impulse oscillometry (IOS), comparatively in patients with COPD due to biomass and smoking. The results showed that IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-9, IL-13, IL-17, and eotaxin were increased in COPD-BS related to COPD-TS. Resistance parameters showed that R5, X5, AX (area reactance), and R5-R20 were significantly higher in COPD-BS than in the COPD-TS group (p < 0.05). R20 was not different between the groups. These data suggest that the cytokines involved in the effect of eosinophils on airway inflammation in COPD-BS were increased compared with COPD-TS, which appears to be related to a predominance of peripheral airway obstruction in patients with COPD-BS more than in COPD-TS
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0300.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Endocrine disruptors; gender; female; atherosclerosis; Cadmium; Bisphenol A; inflammatory cytokines; cardiovascular diseases
Online: 17 November 2021 (10:53:12 CET)
The number of aged individuals is increasing worldwide, rendering essential the comprehension of pathophysiological mechanisms of age-related alterations, that could facilitate the development of interventions contributing to “successful aging” and improvement of quality of life. Cardio-vascular diseases (CVD) include pathologies affecting heart or blood vessels, such as hyperten-sion, peripheral artery disease and coronary heart disease. Indeed, age-associated modifications in body composition, hormonal, nutritional and metabolic factors, as well as a decline in physical activity are all involved in the increased risk of developing atherogenic alterations raising the risk of CVD development. Several factors have been claimed to play a role in the alterations observed in muscle and endothelial cells and leading to increased CVD, such as genetic pattern, smoking, unhealthy lifestyle. Moreover, a difference in the risk of these diseases in women and men has been reported. Interestingly, in the last decades attention has been focused on a potential role of several pollutants which disrupt human health by interfering with hormonal pathways, and more specifically in non-communicable diseases such as obesity, diabetes and CVD. This review will focus on the potential alteration induced by Endocrine Disruptors (Eds) in the attempt to characterize a potential role in the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the atheromatic process and CVD progression.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0383.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Inflammatory; cytokines; biomarkers; intra-articular fracture; cartilage; joint injury; synovial fluid; osteoarthritis
Online: 15 March 2021 (13:08:12 CET)
Intra-articular fractures are a major cause of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). Despite adequate surgical treatment, the long-term risk for PTOA is high. Previous studies reported that joint injuries initiate an inflammatory cascade characterized by elevation of synovial pro-inflammatory cytokines, which can lead to cartilage degradation and PTOA development. This review summarizes the literature on the post-injury regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the markers of cartilage destruction in patients suffering from intra-articular fractures. METHODS We searched Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases (1960–February 2020) and included studies that were performed on human participants and included control groups. Two investigators assessed the quality of the included studies using Covidence and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. RESULTS Based on the surveyed literature, several synovial pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p70, interferon-y, and tumor necrosis factor-α, were significantly elevated in patients suffering from intra-articular fractures compared to control. A simultaneous elevation of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and IL-1RA was also observed. In contrast, IL-13, CTX-II, and aggrecan concentrations did not differ significantly between the compared cohorts. CONCLUSIONS Overall, intra-articular fractures are associated with an increase in inflammation-related synovial cytokines. However, more standardized studies which focus on the ratio of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines at different time points are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0306.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus; osteoblast-like cells; internalization; inflammation; immune system; host-pathogen interaction; cytokines
Online: 10 November 2020 (12:06:04 CET)
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterium causing a range of mild to life-threatening infections including bone infections such as osteomyelitis. S. aureus is able to invade and persist within non-professional phagocytic cells such as osteoblasts. In the present study four different S. aureus strains, 2SA-ST239-III, 5SA-ST5-II, 10SA-ST228-I, and 14SA-ST22-IVh were tested for their ability to modulate cell viability in MG-63 osteoblast-like cells following a successful invasion and persistence. Methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) ATCC-12598-ST30 was used as control. Despite the demonstrated similar abilities of internalization and persistence of ATCC-12598-ST30, 2SA-ST239-III, and 14SA-ST22-IVh strains in MG-63 osteoblast-like cells under our experimental conditions, we demonstrated that the decrease in cell viability was due to the different behavior of the considered strains, with the number of intracellular bacteria playing a limited role. We focused our attention on different cellular biochemical functions related to inflammation, cell metabolism, and oxidative stress during osteoblast infections. We were able to show that: 1) ATCC-12598-ST30 and 2SA-ST239-III were the only two clones able to persist and maintain their number into the cellular hostile environment during the entire period of infection; 2) 2SA-ST239-III was the only clone able to significantly increase the gene expression (3 and 24 h) and protein secretion (24 h) of both interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in MG-63 osteoblast-like cells; 3) the same clone determined a significant up-regulation of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and the metabolic marker glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) mRNAs at 24 h post infection; 3) neither the MSSA nor the four MRSA strains induced oxidative stress phenomena in MG-63 cells, although a very different expression pattern towards nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its downstream gene heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) activation was observed among the different clones. Our results can open a new way of considering therapies, going in the direction of an individualized therapeutic strategy that should take into account the difference existing between MSSA and MRSA as well as the distinctive features of the different clones. Not only, therefore, a different antibiotic approach but also a starting point for considering different host factors, i.e. the modulation of specific cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β1.
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: propolis; pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines; LPS stimulation; bone marrow derived macrophages; metabolomics
Online: 14 September 2020 (00:36:37 CEST)
Previous research has shown that propolis has immunomodulatory activity. Extracts from two UK propolis samples were assessed for their anti-inflammatory activities by investigating their ability to alter the production of the cytokines tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6 and IL-10 from mouse bone marrow derived macrophages co-stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The propolis extracts suppressed secretion of IL-1β and IL-6 with less effect on TNFα. In addition, propolis reduced the levels of nitric oxide formed by LPS-stimulated macrophages. Metabolomic profiling was carried out by liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) on a ZIC-pHILIC column. LPS increased the levels of intermediates involved in nitric oxide biosynthesis; propolis lowered many of these. Also, LPS produced an increase in itaconate and citrate and propolis treatment increased itaconate still further while greatly reducing citrate levels. Moreover, LPS treatment increased levels of GSH and intermediates in its biosynthesis while propolis treatment boosted these still further. In addition, propolis treatment greatly increased levels of UDP-sugar conjugates. Overall, the results showed that propolis extracts exert an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and by metabolic reprogramming of LPS activity in macrophages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0254.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: alcohol use disorder; gut-dysfunction; gut-thyroid axis; pro-inflammatory cytokines; thyroid-associated hormones
Online: 19 September 2022 (03:09:51 CEST)
(1) Background: Heavy and chronic alcohol intake causes altered gut-permeability and dysfunction; and exhibits a unique pro-inflammatory state. Thyroid-associated hormones and proteins may be dysregulated by alcohol administration; however, the impact of altered gut-derived changes on thyroid function is unclear. This study investigated the role of gut-dysfunction and pro-inflammatory activity on thyroid function in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD). (2) Methods: Male and female AUD patients (n=44) were grouped as Gr.1 with normal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels (n=28, 0.8≤TSH≤3 mIU/L); and Gr.2 with clinically elevated TSH levels (n=16, TSH> 3 mIU/l). Demographics, drinking measures, comprehensive metabolic panel, and candidate thyroid markers (TSH, circulating triiodothyronine [T3] and free thyroxine [fT4]) were tested. Plasma-derived gut-dysfunction associated markers (lipopolysaccharide [LPS], LPS-binding protein [LBP], and LPS-induced pathogen-associated protein [CD14]), and cytokine profile (IL1-β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, PAI-1) were analyzed and compared with the thyroid, demographic, and drinking markers. (3) Results: Both groups presented with a borderline overweight category of BMI. Gr.2 presented with numerically higher level of chronic and heavy drinking patterns vs Gr.1. fT4 levels were elevated while T3 was within normal limits in both the groups. Gut-dysfunction markers LBP and CD14 were numerically elevated in Gr.2 vs Gr.1 suggesting subtle ongoing changes; however, the difference was not statistically significant. All pro-inflammatory cytokines were significantly elevated in Gr.2 among IL1-, MCP-1, and PAI-1. Gr.2 showed a strong and statistically significant effect of gut-immune-pituitary response (r=0.896, p=0.002) on TSH levels in a multivariate regression model with LBP, CD14, and PAI-1 levels as upstream variables; this assessment was not significant in Gr.1. In addition, AUROC analysis demonstrated that many of the cytokines strongly predicted TSH in Gr.2, including IL-6 (area=0.774, p<0.001) and TNF- (area=0.708, p=0.017) among others. This was not observed in Gr.1. Gr.2 demonstrated elevated fT4 as well as TSH, which suggests that there was subclinical thyroiditis with underlying CNS dysfunction and lack of a negative feedback loop. (4) Conclusions: These findings reveal the toxic effects of heavy and chronic drinking that play a pathological role in thyroid gland dysregulation employing the gut-brain axis. These results also strongly emphasize potential directions to strongly consider thyroid dysregulation in the overall medical management of AUD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0069.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Neuroimmunoendocrinology; Spleen; Parasite immunity; Sexual dimorphism; Neurotransmitters; Cytokines; Helminths; Cysticercosis; Taenia crassiceps; Immunity; Infection
Online: 2 June 2021 (11:41:26 CEST)
The interaction of the nervous, immune, and endocrine systems is crucial in the maintenance of homeostasis in vertebrates, and vital in mammals. The spleen is a key organ that regulates the neuroimmunoendocrine system. The Taenia crassiceps mouse system is an excellent experimental model to study the complex host-parasite relationship, particularly sex-associated susceptibility to infection. The aim of the present study was to determine the changes in neurotransmitters, cytokines, sex steroids, and sex-steroid receptors in the spleen of cysticercus-infected male and female mice, and the association of these different components with whole parasite counts. We found that parasite load was higher in female in comparison to male mice. The levels of the neurotransmitter epinephrine were significantly decreased in infected male animals. The expression of IL-2 and IL-4 in the spleen was markedly increased in infected mice; however, the expression of Interleukin (IL)-10 and Interferon (IFN)-γ decreased. We also observed sex-associated differences between non-infected and infected mice. Interestingly, the data show that estradiol levels increased in infected males but decreased in females. Our studies provide evidence that infection leads to changes on neuroimmunoendocrine molecules in the spleen during infection. These changes are dimorphic and impact the establishment, growth, and reproduction of T. crassiceps. Our findings support the key role of the neuroimmune network in determining sex-associated susceptibility to the helminth parasite.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0058.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: depression; leaky gut; microbiota; cytokines; neuroimmunomodulation; oxidative stress; glia; blood-brain barrier; LPS; TLR
Online: 5 June 2020 (15:06:57 CEST)
In the last three decades, the robust scientific data emerged, demonstrating that the immune-inflammatory response is a fundamental component of the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Psychological stress and various inflammatory comorbidities contribute to such immune activation. Still, this is not uncommon that patients with depression do not have defined inflammatory comorbidities, and alternative mechanisms of immune activation need to take place. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract, along with gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), constitutes the largest lymphatic organ in the human body and forms the biggest surface of contact with the external environment. It is also the most significant source of bacterial and food-derived antigenic material. There is a broad range of reciprocal interactions between the GI tract, intestinal microbiota, increased intestinal permeability, activation of immune-inflammatory response, and the CNS that has crucial implications in brain function and mental health. This intercommunication takes place within the microbiota-gut-immune-glia (MGIG) axis, and glial cells are the main orchestrator of this communication. A broad range of factors, including psychological stress, inflammation, dysbiosis and other, may compromise the permeability of this barrier. This leads to excessive bacterial translocation and the excessive influx of food-derived antigenic material that contributes to activation of the immune-inflammatory response and depressive psychopathology. This chapter summarizes the role of increased intestinal permeability in MDD and mechanisms of how the "leaky gut" may contribute to immune-inflammatory response in this disorder.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0322.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: crotoxin; macrophages; neutrophils; inflammation; ATP; reactive oxygen and nitrogen species; cytokines; co-culture model
Online: 23 May 2018 (09:12:45 CEST)
Crotoxin (CTX), the predominant toxin in Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom (CdtV), has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Despite its inhibitory action on neutrophil migration and phagocytosis, CTX does not directly affect the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the neutrophils. In contrast, it enhances the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates by macrophages. Given the importance of macrophage-neutrophil interactions in innate antimicrobial defense, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CTX on neutrophil ROS production and killing activity, either through CTX-treated macrophage co-culture or conditioned medium of CTX-treated macrophages. The results showed an important modulatory action of CTX on the neutrophil function as well as neutrophil-macrophage interactions, as demonstrated by the increased production of hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous acid, nitric oxide and TNF-α, along with the increased fungicidal activity of neutrophils.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0147.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: antineuronal autoantibodies; autoimmune diseases; autoimmune encephalitis; food antigens; kynurenine pathway; microbiota; prolactin; cytokines; schizophrenia; stress
Online: 3 November 2020 (12:53:38 CET)
The review analyzes a possible role of autoimmune processes in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and evolution of concepts on this issue from its origin to present. Risks of autoimmune processes causing schizophrenia are associated with several factors: an impaired functioning of dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems in the brain, kynurenine pathway disorder with overproduction of quinolinic, anthranilic and kynurenic acids (possibly altering both neurons and T-regulators), increased intestinal permeability, as well as food antigens’ effects, stress and infections with various pathogens at different stages of ontogenesis. An increase in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines as well as a decrease in the levels of anti-inflammatory ones also may contribute to schizophrenia risks. Schizophrenia often occurs in those patients having various autoimmune diseases and their first-degree relatives. Cases of schizophrenia resulted from autoimmune pathogenesis (including autoimmune encephalitis caused by autoantibodies against various neuronal antigens) are characterized by quite severe cognitive and psychotic symptoms and less favorable prognosis. This severe course may result from the chronic immune damage of the neuronal receptors such as NMDA, GABA, and others and depend on hyperprolactinemia, induced by antipsychotics, but aggravating autoimmune processes [with 2 tables, 4 figures, bibliography: 99 references].
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0197.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: periodontitis; Pelargonium sidoides DC root extract; proanthocyanidins; bacteriotoxicity; inflammatory cytokines; gene expression; fibroblasts; macrophages; leukocytes
Online: 18 September 2019 (04:07:50 CEST)
The study explores antibacterial, antiinflammatory and cytoprotective capacity of Pelargonium sidoides DC root extract (PSRE) and proanthocyanidin fraction from PSRE (PACN) under conditions characteristic for periodontal disease. Following previous finding that PACN exerts stronger suppression of Porphyromonas gingivalis compared to the effect on commensal Streptococcus salivarius, the current work continues antibacterial investigation on Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Escherichia coli. PSRE and PACN are also studied for their ability to prevent gingival fibroblast cell death in the presence of bacteria or bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), to block LPS- or LPS+IFNγ-induced release of inflammatory mediators, gene expression and surface antigen presentation. Both PSRE and PACN were more efficient in suppressing Staphylococcus and Aggregatibacter compared to Escherichia, prevented A. actinomycetemcomitans- and LPS induced death of fibroblasts, decreased LPS-induced release of interleukin 8 and prostaglandin E2 from fibroblasts and IL-6 from leukocytes, blocked expression of IL-1β, iNOS, and surface presentation of CD80 and CD86 in LPS+IFNγ-treated macrophages, and IL-1β and COX-2 expression in LPS-treated leukocytes. None of the investigated substances affected either the level of secretion or expression of TNFα. In conclusion, PSRE, and especially PACN, possess strong antibacterial, antiinflammatory and gingival tissue protecting properties under periodontitis mimicking conditions and are suggestable candidates for treatment of the disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0296.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: atherosclerosis; COVID-19; inflammation; cardiovascular system; cytokines; endothelium; lipoproteins; renin-angiotensin system; atheroma; autoimmunity; vasa vasorum.
Online: 16 December 2022 (06:32:21 CET)
The article describes how atherosclerosis and coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) may affect each other. The features of this comorbid pathogenesis at various levels (vascular, cellular and molecular) are considered. A bidirectional influence of these conditions is described: the presence of cardiovascular diseases affects different individual susceptibility to viral infection. In turn, SARS-CoV-2 can have a negative effect on the endothelium and cardiomyocytes, causing blood clotting, secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and thus exacerbating the development of atherosclerosis. In addition to the established entry into cells via ACE2 принимая во внимание его влияние на, other mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 entry are currently under investigation, for example, through CD147. Pathogenesis of comorbidity can be determined by the influence of the virus on various links which are meaningful for atherogenesis: generation of oxidized forms of LDL, launch of a cytokine storm, damage to the endothelial glycocalyx, and mitochondrial injury. The transformation of a stable plaque into an unstable one plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis complications and can be triggered by COVID-19. The impact of SARS-CoV-2 on large vessels such as aorta is more complex than previously thought considering its impact on vasa vasorum. Current information on the mutual influence of the medicines used in the treatment of atherosclerosis and acute COVID-19 is briefly summarized
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0265.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Post-translational modifications; Epigenetics; Histone Phosphorylation; Histone Ubiquitination; Histone methylation; inflammation; proinflammatory cytokines; DNA methylation; COPD
Online: 15 August 2022 (15:10:21 CEST)
Numerous genes expression lead to inflammation in the individuals’ lungs that have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may be affected by epigenetic alteration. Important epigenetic processes include methylation of DNA and different histones post-translational changes, including ubiquitination, phosphorylation, methylation, SUMOylation and acetylation. Smoking can trigger the enzymes that control these epigenetic changes. According to the majority of publications, both environmental and genetic variables have a substantial role in the development of COPD. Although, the information about COPD epigenetic is not much but, a better perception of the disease pathophysiology and identifying new markers to create novel therapeutics for patients can be achieved via a better understanding of the epigenetic processes involved.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0268.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Keywords Exercise; osteoarthritis; osteoporosis; mesenchymal stem cells; hematopoietic stem cells; stem cell transplantation; chondroblasts; chondrocytes; cytokines.
Online: 9 November 2020 (10:00:10 CET)
Abstract: This article provides a brief review of the ontogeny of chondrocytes and the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA), and details how physical exercise improves the health of osteoarthritic joints and enhances the potential of mesenchymal stem cells for successful transplantation therapy. In response to exercise chondrocytes increase their production of glycosaminoglycans, bone morphogenic proteins and antiinflammatory cytokines and decrease their production of proinflammatory cytokines and matrix degrading metalloproteinases. These changes are associated with improvements in cartilage organization and reductions in cartilage degeneration. Studies in humans indicate that exercise increases peripheral blood recruitment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) and upregulates BM-MSC expression of osteogenic and chondrogenic genes, osteogenic micro-RNAs, and osteogenic growth factors. Rodent experiments are uniform in demonstrating that exercise enhances the osteogenic potential of BM-MSC while diminishing their adipogenic potential, and that exercise done after stem cell implantation may benefit stem cell transplant viability. Physical exercise also exerts a beneficial effect on the skeletal system by decreasing immune cell production of osteoclastogenic cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon (INF)-γ while increasing their production anti-osteoclastogenic cytokines IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. In conclusion, physical exercise done both by stem cell donors and recipients may improve the outcome of mesenchymal stem cell transplantation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0237.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; cytokines; chemokines; neuroinflammation; neurotrophic factors; pathophysiology; Blood brain barrier; mild cognitive impairment; brain health; therapeutics
Online: 10 August 2021 (15:49:12 CEST)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized mainly by the gradual decay in neuronal function as a consequence of diverse degenerating events primarily including mitochondria dysfunction and cascades of neuro-immune reactions. Besides the acquired harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS), neurotoxins, and amyloid-beta (Aβ) and TAU pathologies in neurons, accumulating evidence with time underlined the roles of cytokines and growth factors in the AD pathogenesis. It may help us in evaluating the propensities and specific mechanism(s) of cytokines and factors impacting neuron upon apoptotic decline. Proinflammatory cytokines often induce inflammation in AD and AD-like pathogenesis in response to the apoptotic scenarios where some growth factors are involved in cytokinetic reactions to activate microglia and causing inflammation in AD. In this report, we comprehensively reviewed role of cytokines and chemokines in immune response to AD and neuropsychiatry. We provided insights into the neuroinflammation and the role of diverse factors including the pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines, APP, TAU phosphorylation, glycation end products, complement system, and the role of glial cells. Also, we discussed the pathogenic and protective role of macrophage migration inhibitory factors, choroid plexus-, neurotrophic- and hematopoietic -related growth factors in AD. We further shed light on the availability and accessibility of the cytokines across the blood-brain barrier in AD pathophysiology. Taken together, the emerging role of these factors in AD pathology emphasized the importance of building novel strategies for an effective therapeutic/neuropsychiatric management of AD in clinics.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: amyloid-β; endotoxin; short chain fatty acids; clasmatodendrosis; cytokines; neurovascular unit; vagus nerve; Toll-like Receptor 4
Online: 26 April 2021 (13:22:47 CEST)
Much evidence has accumulated over the past decade in favor of a significant association between dysbiosis, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Presently, the pathogenetic mechanisms triggered by molecules produced by the altered microbiota, also responsible for the onset and evolution of Alzheimer Disease will be described. Our attention will be focused on the role of astrocytes and microglia. Numerous studies have progressively demonstrated how these glial cells are important to ensure an adequate environment for neuronal activity in healthy conditions. Furthermore, it is becoming evident how both cell types can mediate the onset of neuroinflammation and lead to neurodegeneration when subjected to pathological stimuli. Based on this information, the role of major microbiota products in shifting the activation profiles of astrocytes and microglia from a healthy to a diseased state will be discussed focussing on Alzheimer Disease pathogenesis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0242.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: mouse models; Plasmodium; Adaptive immunity; Innate immunity; T cells; B cells; Macrphages; Neutrophils; Antibodies; Cytokines; parasite control; immunopathogensis
Online: 18 July 2022 (03:12:30 CEST)
Malaria comprises a spectrum of disease syndromes and the immune system is a major participant in malarial disease. This is particularly true in relation to the immune responses elicited against blood stages of Plasmodium-parasites that are responsible for the pathogenesis of infection. Mouse models of malaria are commonly used to dissect the immune mechanisms underlying disease. While no one mouse model of Plasmodium infection completely recapitulates all the features of malaria in humans, collectively the existing models are invaluable for defining the events that lead to the immunopathogenesis of malaria. Here we review the different mouse models of Plasmodium infection that are available, and highlight some of the main contributions these models have made with regards to identifying immune mechanisms of parasite control and the immunopathogenesis of malaria.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0034.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: migraine; neuropathic pain; calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP); kynurenine; glia; cytokines; neuroinflammation; transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels; endocannabinoids
Online: 4 January 2023 (01:53:45 CET)
Migraine and neuropathic pain (NP) are evocative of painful, disabling, chronic conditions which exhibit resembling symptoms and thus considered to share a common etiology. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has gained credit as a target for migraine management; nevertheless, the efficacy and the applicability of CGRP modifiers warrant search for more effective therapeutic targets for pain management. This scoping review overviews human studies of common pathogenic factors in migraine and NP to explore potential novel therapeutic targets. CGRP causes inflammation in the meninges; monoclonal antibodies and inhibitors target CGRP. Gluta-mate-induced hyperexcitability and subsequent sensitization are closely linked to an alteration of the tryptophan (Trp)-kynurenine (KYN) metabolic system; the Trp-KYN system may serve as a potential target. Microglial overaction is observed in migraine and NP; modifying the microglial activity may be a possible approach. Cytokine-induced inflammation is a leading hypothesis of the pathogenesis of the conditions; alleviating neuroinflammation may complement a pain-relieving armamentarium. Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels evoke the release of several substances; TRP ion channels may potentially emerge as new targets. The endocannabinoid system plays a major role in the pain trafficking pathway; modification of the system may open a new path toward discovery of new analgesics. Here we highlight the mechanism of those common pathogenic factors to explore therapeutic targets for innovative pain management in migraine and NP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0194.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Helicobacter pylori; urease; neuroinflammation; tau hyperphosphorylation; pro-inflammatory cytokines; object recognition test; elevated plus maze; SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells; BV-2 microglia
Online: 13 January 2022 (15:37:01 CET)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) causes dementia and memory loss in the elderly. Deposits of beta-amyloid peptide and hyperphosphorylated tau protein are present in AD’s brain. A filtrate of Helicobacter pylori’s culture was previously found to induce hyperphosphorylation of tau in vivo, suggesting that bacterial exotoxins could permeate the blood brain barrier and directly induce tau’s phosphorylation. H. pylori, which infects ~60% of the world population and causes gastritis and gastric cancer, produces a pro-inflammatory urease (HPU). Here the neurotoxic potential of HPU was investigated in cultured cells and in rats. SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells exposed HPU (50-300 nM) produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and had an increased [Ca2+]i. HPU-treated BV-2 microglial cells produced ROS, cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α, expressed Iba1 and showed reduced viability, consistent with a neurotoxic effect of HPU. Rats received daily i.p. HPU (5 µg) for 7 days. Hyperphosphorylation of tau at Thr205, Ser199 and Ser396 sites was seen in hippocampal homogenates of treated rats, with no alterations in total tau or GSK-3b levels. HPU was not detected in the brain homogenates. Behavioral tests were performed to assess cognitive impairments. Our findings support previous data suggesting an association between infection by H. pylori and tauopathies such as AD, possibly mediated by its urease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0552.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: ozone; ozone therapy; cytokines; biomarkers; IL-6; inflammation; chronic inflammation; IGF-1; anabolism; knee osteoarthritis; pain; function; c-reactive protein; uric acid
Online: 29 November 2021 (19:08:10 CET)
Objectives: 1) to demonstrate the anti-inflammatory and anabolic effect of Ozone by determining in serum samples the biochemical levels of IL-6 and IGF-1 in knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients in a real world in Rehabilitation Setting; 2) to evaluate clinical effectiveness by Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and WOMAC scale, and biochemical effect by C-reactive protein (CRP), uric acid and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Material and methods: 65 patients with knee OA Kellgren Lawrence (KL) grade 2 or more were analyzed in a retrospective observational study. The study run from January 2018 to September 2021. Inclusion criteria: a) patients 18 years or older; b) with knee OA KL 2º or more; c) biochemical analysis before-and-after treatment; d) pain more than 3 on VAS. Exclusion Criteria: a) previous knee surgery; b) favism; c) pregnancy; d) any other disease that originates lack of collaboration for infiltration. Primary Outcome variables: a) IL-6; b) IGF-1 in diabetes mellitus (DM)/obese and non-DM/non-obese patients; both before-and-after Ozone treatment. Secondary Outcome variables: a) CRP, b) ESR, c) uric acid, d) VAS pain, e) WOMAC pain, function and stiffness. Ozone protocol consisted of 4 sessions (once a week) of an intra-articular infiltration of 20 mL (20µg/mL concentration) of a gas mixture of Oxygen-Ozone 95-5% (produced by Ozone generator Ozonosan-α Plus ®). For biochemical evaluation, SNIBE MAGLUMI ™ IL-6 (CLIA) and SNIBE MAGLUMI ™ IGF-1 (CLIA) kits were used. CRP and uric acid were analyzed by Abbott Alinity c kit; and ESR was evaluated by DIESSE VES MATIC CUBE 30. Results: There is a linear correlation between age and OA severity. IL-6 decreased both in DM and non-DM patients and in all OA KL grades (from 2.7 to 1.59 pg/mL). IGF-1 decreased in total group (OA + DM + obesity) from 112.09 to 107.19 ng/mL. When only knee OA patients were analyzed, Ozone improved IGF-1 levels (from 100.17 to 102.03 ng/mL). Ozone decreased CRP, ESR, uric acid, and improved VAS pain, WOMAC pain, function and stiffness (p<0.05). Conclusions: Ozone is a valid option for the management of knee osteoarthritis in real world Rehabilitation Setting, because of its anti-inflammatory, metabolic and anabolic properties. Ozone downregulates pro-inflammatory IL-6 cytokine. Ozone has a metabolic/hypoglycemic effect on obese/diabetic knee osteoarthritis patients by reducing IGF-1. Ozone has an anabolic effect on non-diabetic/non-obese patients by improving IGF-1. Ozone reduces other biomarkers of inflammation (CRP, ESR and uric acid) and improves, pain, function and quality of life.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0418.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: COVID-19; B Cells; Neutrophils; T Cells; NK Cells; Innate; Adaptive; Cytokines; Chemokines; Adhesion Molecules; Antibody; Cluster of Differentiation; Receptors; Proteins; SARS-CoV-2; Serology
Online: 27 December 2022 (03:19:48 CET)
The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was caused by a positive sense single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, other human coronaviruses (hCoVs) exist, of which Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and SARS-CoV (SARS) showed higher mortality rates without causing a pandemic. As of December 2022, SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in over 6.6 million deaths worldwide through an array of acute to chronic pathologies. Historical pandemics include smallpox and influenza with efficacious therapeutics utilized to reduce overall disease burden. Therefore, immune system process analysis is required to compare innate and adaptive immune system interactions. Lymphatic system organs include bone marrow and thymus using a network of nodes throughout which white blood cells traverse glycolipid membranes utilizing cytokines and chemokine gradients that affect cell development, differentiation, proliferation, and migration processes as well as genetic factors affecting cell receptor expression. Innate processes involve antigen-presenting cells and B lymphocyte cellular responses to pathogens relevant to other viral and bacterial infections but also in oncogenic diseases. Such processes utilize cluster of differentiation (CD) marker expression, major histocompatibility complexes (MHC), pleiotropic interleukins (IL) and chemokines. The adaptive immune system consists of Natural Killer (NK) and T cells. Other viruses are also contributory to cancer including human papillomavirus (cervical carcinoma ), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) ( lymphoma), hepatitis B and C (hepatocellular carcinoma) and human T cell leukemia virus-1 (adult T-cell leukemia). Bacterial infections also increase the risk of developing cancer( e.g. H. pylori). Therefore, as the above factors can cause both morbidity and mortality along-side being transmitted within clinical and community settings, it is appropriate to now examine advances in single cell sequencing, FACS analysis and many other laboratory techniques that allow insights into discoveries of newer cell types. These developments offer improved clarity and understanding that over-lap with known autoimmune conditions that could be affected by innate B cell or T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Thus, this review quantifies and outlines the nature of specific receptors and proteins relevant to clinical laboratories and medical research by documenting both innate and adaptive immune system cells within current coronavirus immunology case study data and other pathologies to date.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0016.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: prostate cancer; castrate-resistant growth; metastases; androgen receptor; glucocorticoid receptor; cytokines; transmembrane receptors; cell signaling; pharmacological targeting; neuroendocrine differentiation; lineage plasticity; prostate cancer stem cells
Online: 1 October 2021 (12:19:03 CEST)
Understanding of the molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer has led to development of therapeutic strategies targeting androgen receptor (AR). These androgen-receptor signaling inhibitors (ARSI) include androgen synthesis inhibitor- abiraterone and androgen receptor antagonists- enzalutamide, apalutamide, and darolutamide. Although these medications provide significant improvement in survival among men with prostate cancer, drug resistance develops in nearly all patients with time. This could be through androgen-dependent or androgen-independent mechanisms. Even weaker signals and non-canonical steroid ligands can activate AR in the presence of truncated AR-splice variants, AR overexpression, or activating mutations in AR. AR splice variant, AR-V7 is the most studied among these and is not targeted by available ARSIs. Non-androgen receptor dependent resistance mechanisms are mediated by activation of an alternative signaling pathway when AR is inhibited. DNA repair pathway, PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, BRAF-MAPK and Wnt signaling pathway and activation by glucocorticoid receptors can restore downstream signaling in prostate cancer by alternative proteins. Multiple clinical trials are underway exploring therapeutic strategies to overcome these resistance mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0112.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: cell cycle; cell synchronization; pro-inflammatory cytokines; Anaphase promoting complex subunit 10, Anapc10; Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome, APC/C; PYRIN domain containing-3, NLRP3; The NLRP3 inflammasome
Online: 3 February 2021 (10:32:38 CET)
Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome plays a crucial role in innate immune response. During cell division, the NLRP3 inflammasome activation must be strictly controlled. Here, we discovered the anaphase promoting complex subunit 10 (Anapc10, APC10), a substrate recognition protein of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), is a critical mediator of the NLRP3 inflammasome activation. APC10 protein interacts with NLRP3, and co-localizes with NLRP3 protein in the cytoplasm. During interphase, APC10 interacts with NLRP3 to promote the NLRP3 inflammasome activation. During mitosis, APC10 disassociates from the NLRP3 inflammasome to inhibit the inflammatory responses. This study reveals a distinct mechanism by which APC10 serves as a switch of the NLRP3 inflammasome activation during cell cycle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0317.v3
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Boswellia serrata Roxb.; Curcuma longa L.; intestinal bowel diseases (IBD); Caco-2; PBMC; HMC-1.1; mast cells; cytokines; trans epithelial electrical resistance (TEER); reactive oxygen species (ROS)
Online: 8 November 2018 (04:53:46 CET)
Inflammatory bowel diseases, which consist of chronic inflammatory conditions of the colon and the small intestine, are considered a global disease of our modern society. Recently, the interest toward the use of herbal therapies for the management of inflammatory bowel diseases has increased because of their effectiveness and favorable safety profile, compared to conventional drugs. Boswellia serrata Roxb. and Curcuma longa L. are amongst the most promising herbal drugs, however, their clinical use in inflammatory bowel diseases is limited and little is known on their mechanism of action. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of two phytochemically characterized extracts of B. serrata and C. longa in an in vitro model of intestinal inflammation. Their impact on cytokine release and reactive oxygen species production, as well as the maintenance of the intestinal barrier function and on intestinal mucosa immune cells infiltration, has been evaluated. The extracts showed a good protective effect on the intestinal epithelium at 1 µg/ml, with TEER values increasing by approximately 1.5 fold, compared to LPS-stimulated cells. C. longa showed an anti-inflammatory mechanism of action, reducing IL-8, TNF-α and IL-6 production by approximately 30%, 25% and 40%, respectively, compared to the inflammatory stimuli. B. serrata action was linked to its antioxidant effect, with ROS production being reduced by 25%, compared to H2O2-stimulated Caco-2 cells. C. longa and B. serrata resulted to be promising agents for the management of inflammatory bowel diseases by modulating in vitro parameters which have been identified in the clinical conditions.