Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Chronic Fatigue and Fibromyalgia Symptoms are Key Components of Deficit Schizophrenia and are Strongly Associated with Activated Immune-Inflammatory Pathways

Version 1 : Received: 22 July 2019 / Approved: 23 July 2019 / Online: 23 July 2019 (11:49:41 CEST)

How to cite: Almulla, A.; Al-Hakeim, H.; Abed, M.; Carvalho, A.; Maes, M. Chronic Fatigue and Fibromyalgia Symptoms are Key Components of Deficit Schizophrenia and are Strongly Associated with Activated Immune-Inflammatory Pathways. Preprints 2019, 2019070262 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201907.0262.v1). Almulla, A.; Al-Hakeim, H.; Abed, M.; Carvalho, A.; Maes, M. Chronic Fatigue and Fibromyalgia Symptoms are Key Components of Deficit Schizophrenia and are Strongly Associated with Activated Immune-Inflammatory Pathways. Preprints 2019, 2019070262 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201907.0262.v1).

Abstract

A subset of patients with schizophrenia experience physio-somatic symptoms reminiscent of chronic fatigue and fibromyalgia. In schizophrenia, these symptoms contribute to impaired quality of life, and are strongly related to neuro-cognitive deficits, and increased IgA responses to tryptophan catabolites. Negative and PHEM (psychosis, hostility, excitation, mannerism) symptoms, psychomotor retardation (PMR) and formal thought disorders, appear to be manifestations of a single trait reflecting overall severity of schizophrenia (OSOS). In this study, 120 patients with deficit schizophrenia (DEFSCZ) and 54 healthy subjects were assessed with the FibroFatigue (FF) rating scale, and the above-mentioned symptom domains as well as neuro-cognitive tests and biomarkers were measured. In DEFSCZ, there were robust associations between the FF score and all above-mentioned symptom domains, and impairments in semantic and episodic memory and executive functions. Furthermore, the FF score loaded highly on an OSOS latent vector (LV), which showed adequate convergent validity, internal consistency reliability and predictive relevance and fitted a reflective model. Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) showed that the FF items discriminated DEFSCZ from controls with an overall accuracy of 100%. Interleukin IL-1β, IL-1 receptor antagonist (sIL-1RA), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and CCL-11 (eotaxin) explained 66.8% of the variance in the FF score and 59.4% of the variance in OSOS. In conclusion, these data show that physio-somatic symptoms are a core component of the phenomenology of DEFSCZ and are largely mediated by neurotoxic effects of activated immune pathways, including aberrations in CCL-11, IL-1β and TNF-α signalling.

Subject Areas

Chronic fatigue syndrome, inflammation, neuro-immune, physio-somatic, schizophrenia, cytokines

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