Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Effects of Porphyra tenera Supplementation on the Immune System: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

Version 1 : Received: 16 April 2020 / Approved: 17 April 2020 / Online: 17 April 2020 (02:15:58 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Jung, S.-J.; Jang, H.-Y.; Jung, E.-S.; Noh, S.-O.; Shin, S.-W.; Ha, K.-C.; Baek, H.-I.; Ahn, B.-J.; Oh, T.-H.; Chae, S.-W. Effects of Porphyra tenera Supplementation on the Immune System: A Randomized, Double-Blind, and Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1642. Jung, S.-J.; Jang, H.-Y.; Jung, E.-S.; Noh, S.-O.; Shin, S.-W.; Ha, K.-C.; Baek, H.-I.; Ahn, B.-J.; Oh, T.-H.; Chae, S.-W. Effects of Porphyra tenera Supplementation on the Immune System: A Randomized, Double-Blind, and Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1642.

Journal reference: Nutrients 2020, 12, 1642
DOI: 10.3390/nu12061642

Abstract

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if Porphyra tenera extract (PTE) has immune-enhancing effects and is safe in healthy adults. Methods: Subjects (3x103 ≤ peripheral blood leukocyte levels < 8x103 cells/μl) who met the inclusion criteria were recruited for this study. Enrolled subjects (n=120) were randomly assigned to either the PTE group (n=60) who were given 2.5 g/day of PTE (as Porphyra tenera extract) in capsule form or the placebo group (n=60) who were given crystal cellulose capsules with the identical appearance, weight, and flavor as the PTE capsules for 8 weeks. Outcomes were assessed by measuring natural killer cell (NK-cell) activity, cytokines, and upper respiratory infection (URI), and safety parameters were assessed at baseline and 8 weeks. Results: Compared to baseline, NK cell activity (%) increased for all effector cell to target cell ratios in the PTE group after 8 weeks, but there were no changes in the placebo group (p<0.1). Subgroup analysis of 101 subjects without an URI revealed that NK-cell activity in the PTE group tended to be increased for all E:T ratios (E:T=12.5:1 p=0.068; E:T=25:1 p=0.036; E:T=50:1 p=0.081) compared to the placebo group. There was a significant difference between these two groups for the E:T=25:1 ratio, which increased from 20.3±12.0% at baseline to 23.2±12.4% after 8 weeks in the PTE group (p=0.036). There was no significant difference in levels of cytokines between these two groups. Conclusions: PTE supplementation appears to enhance immune function by improving NK-cell activity without adverse effects in healthy adults.

Subject Areas

Porphyra tenera; immune; clinical trial; natural killer cells; cytokines

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