Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

High Mobility Group Protein 1 and Dickkopf-Related Protein 1 in Schizophrenia and Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia: Associations with Interleukin-6, Symptom Domains, and Neurocognitive Impairments

Version 1 : Received: 8 December 2019 / Approved: 8 December 2019 / Online: 8 December 2019 (16:04:52 CET)

How to cite: Al-Dujaili, A.H.; Mousa, R.F.; Al-hakeim, H.K.; Maes, M. High Mobility Group Protein 1 and Dickkopf-Related Protein 1 in Schizophrenia and Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia: Associations with Interleukin-6, Symptom Domains, and Neurocognitive Impairments. Preprints 2019, 2019120100 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201912.0100.v1). Al-Dujaili, A.H.; Mousa, R.F.; Al-hakeim, H.K.; Maes, M. High Mobility Group Protein 1 and Dickkopf-Related Protein 1 in Schizophrenia and Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia: Associations with Interleukin-6, Symptom Domains, and Neurocognitive Impairments. Preprints 2019, 2019120100 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201912.0100.v1).

Abstract

Background: Schizophrenia and treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) are associated with aberrations in immune-inflammatory pathways. Increased High Mobility Group Protein 1 (HMGB1), an inflammatory mediator, and Dickkopf-Related Protein (DKK1), a Wnt/β-catenin signaling antagonist, affect the blood-brain-barrier and induce neurotoxic effects and neurocognitive deficits.Aim of the study: The present study aims to examine HMGB1 and DDK1 in non-responders to treatments with antipsychotics (NRTT, n=60), partial RTT (PRTT, n=55) and healthy controls (n=43) in relation to established markers of schizophrenia including IL-6, IL-10 and CLL11 (eotaxin); and to delineate whether these proteins are associated with the schizophrenia symptom subdomains and neurocognitive impairments.Results: HMGB1, DKK1, IL-6 and CCL11 were significantly higher in schizophrenia patients than in controls. DKK1 and IL-6 were significantly higher in NRTT than in PRTT and controls while IL-10 was higher in NRTT than in controls. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that schizophrenia was best predicted by increased DDK1 and HMGB1 while NRTT (versus PRTT) was best predicted by increased IL-6 and CCL11 levels. A large part of the variance in psychosis, hostility, excitation, mannerism and negative (PHEMN) symptoms, and formal thought disorders was explained by HMGB1, IL-6, and CCL11 while most neurocognitive functions were predicted by HMGB1, DDK1 and CCL11. Conclusion: The neurotoxic effects of HMGB1, DKK1, IL-6 and CCL11 including effects on the blood-brain-barrier and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway may cause impairments in executive functions, and working, episodic and semantic memory and explain, in part, PHEMN symptoms and a non-response to treatment with antipsychotic drugs.

Subject Areas

schizophrenia; treatment resistance; neuro-immune; inflammation; cytokines; neurocognition

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