Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Increased Serum Thromboxane A2 and Prostacyclin but Lower Complement C3 and C4 levels in COVID-19: Associations with Chest CT-scan Anomalies and Lowered Peripheral Oxygen Saturation

Version 1 : Received: 10 April 2021 / Approved: 12 April 2021 / Online: 12 April 2021 (13:02:20 CEST)

How to cite: Al-Hakeim, H.; Al-Hamami, S.; Maes, M. Increased Serum Thromboxane A2 and Prostacyclin but Lower Complement C3 and C4 levels in COVID-19: Associations with Chest CT-scan Anomalies and Lowered Peripheral Oxygen Saturation. Preprints 2021, 2021040304 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202104.0304.v1). Al-Hakeim, H.; Al-Hamami, S.; Maes, M. Increased Serum Thromboxane A2 and Prostacyclin but Lower Complement C3 and C4 levels in COVID-19: Associations with Chest CT-scan Anomalies and Lowered Peripheral Oxygen Saturation. Preprints 2021, 2021040304 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202104.0304.v1).

Abstract

Background. COVID-19 patients suffer from hypercoagulation and activated immune-inflammatory pathways. This study was performed to assay serum complement C3 and C4, and thromboxane A2 (TxA2) and prostacyclin (PGI2) in association with chest CT scan anomalies (CCTAs) and peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) Methods. Serum levels of C3, C4, TxA2, and PGI2 were measured by ELISA and albumin, calcium, and magnesium by spectrophotometric method in 60 COVID-19 patients and 30 controls. Results. C3 and C4 are significantly decreased and TxA2 and PGI2 significantly increased in COVID-19 patients as compared with controls. Neural networks showed that a combination of C3, albumin, and TxA2 yielded a predictive accuracy of 100% in detecting COVID-19 patients. SpO2 was significantly decreased in COVID-19 patients and was inversely associated with TxA2 and PGI2, and positively with C3, C4, albumin, and calcium. CCTAs were accompanied by lower SpO2 and albumin, and increased PGI2 levels. Patients with positive IgG results show significantly higher SpO2, TxA2, PGI2, and C4 levels than IgG negative patients. Conclusion. Hypoalbuminemia, which is strongly associated with lung lesions and lowered peripheral oxygen saturation, is characterized by increased TxA2, suggesting that interactions between immune-inflammatory pathways and platelet hyperactivity participate in the pathophysiology of COVID-19 and consequently may play a role in enhanced risk of hypercoagulability and venous thromboembolism. These mechanisms are aggravated by lowered calcium and magnesium levels.

Keywords

COVID-19; C3; C4; inflammation; cytokines; biomarkers; thromboxane A2; prostacyclin

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