ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0907.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: 3D LiDAR sensor; Semantic segmentation; Deep learning; LiDAR intensity
Online: 12 May 2023 (08:49:25 CEST)
Recently, new semantic segmentation and object detection methods have been proposed for direct processing of three-dimensional (3D) LiDAR sensor point clouds. LiDAR can produce highly accurate and detailed 3D maps of natural and man-made environments and is used for sensing in many contexts due to its ability to capture more information and its robustness to dynamic changes in the environment. In addition, the cost of LiDAR sensors has decreased in recent years, which is an important factor for many application scenarios. The challenge with 3D LiDAR sensors like the Velodyne HDL-64E S2 is that they can output large 3D data at up to 1,300,000 points per second, which is difficult to process in real time when applying complex algorithms and models for efficient semantic segmentation. Most existing approaches are either only suitable for relatively small point clouds or rely on computationally intensive sampling techniques to reduce their size. As a result, most of these methods do not work in real-time in realistic field robotics application scenarios, making them unsuitable for practical applications. Systematic point selection is a possible solution to reduce the amount of data to be processed, but although it is memory and computationally efficient, it selects only a small subset of points, which may result in important features being missed. To address this problem, we propose a new approach to semantic segmentation in forestry that uses a systematic sampling method in which the local neighbors of each point are retained to preserve geometric details. Our approach has been shown to process up to 1 million points in a single pass. It outperforms the state of the art in efficient semantic segmentation in large datasets such as Semantic3D. We also present a preliminary study on the performance of LiDAR-only data, i.e., intensity values from LiDAR sensors without RGB values for semi-autonomous robot perception.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0626.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: multispectral lidar; single-photon lidar; building data; 3D reconstruction
Online: 28 August 2020 (08:49:07 CEST)
This paper investigated building data from multispectral and single-photon Lidar systems. The multispectral datasets from the individual channels and fused channels were explored. The multispectral and single-photon Lidar data were compared across multiple aspects: the data acquisition geometry, number of echoes, intensity, density, resolution, data defects, noise level, and the absolute and relative accuracy. In addition, we explored the performance of the multispectral and single-photon data for roof plane detection for eight complex/stylish buildings to investigate the suitability of these data for 3D building reconstruction. The building data from the single-photon and multispectral Lidar systems were evaluated with respect to the reference building vector data with an accuracy of better than 5 cm. The advantages and disadvantages of both technologies and their applications in the urban building environment are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0017.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: coherent Doppler lidar; multi-Doppler lidar; WindScanner; wind energy
Online: 7 October 2016 (12:19:05 CEST)
In this paper, the technical aspects of a multi-lidar instrument, the long-range WindScanner system, will be presented accompanied by an overview of the results from several field campaigns. The long-range WindScanner system consists of three spatially separated coherent Doppler scanning lidars and a remote master computer that coordinates them. The lidars were carefully engineered to perform arbitrary and time controlled scanning trajectories. Their wireless coordination via the master computer allows achieving and maintaining lidars’ synchronization within ten milliseconds. As a whole, the long-range WindScanner system can measure an entire wind field by emitting and directing three laser beams to intersect, and then by moving the beam intersection over the points of interest. The long-range WindScanner system was developed to tackle the need for high-quality observations of wind fields from scales of modern wind turbine and wind farms. It has been in operation since 2013.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0396.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: wind lidar; Doppler lidar; bistatic; metrology; traceability; wind energy; meteorology
Online: 19 July 2021 (08:45:02 CEST)
The high-resolution bistatic lidar developed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) aims to overcome the limitations of conventional monostatic lidar technology which is widely used for wind velocity measurements in wind energy and meteorology applications. Due to the large measurement volume of a combined optical transmitter and receiver tilting in multiple directions, monostatic lidar generally has poor spatial and temporal resolution. It also exhibits large measurement uncertainty when operated in inhomogeneous flow, for instance, over complex terrain. In contrast, PTB’s bistatic lidar uses three dedicated receivers arranged around a central transmitter, resulting in an exceptionally small measurement volume. The coherent detection and modulation schemes used allow the detection of backscattered, Doppler shifted light down to the scale of single aerosols, realising the simultaneous measurement of all three wind velocity components. This paper outlines design details and the theory of operation of PTB’s bistatic lidar and provides an overview of selected comparative measurements. The results of these measurements have shown that the measurement uncertainty of PTB’s bistatic lidar is well within the measurement uncertainty of traditional cup anemometers, while being fully independent of its site and traceable to the SI units. This allows its use as a transfer standard for the calibration of other remote sensing devices. Overall, PTB’s bistatic lidar shows great potential to universally improve the capability and accuracy of wind velocity measurements, such as for the investigation of highly dynamic flow processes upstream and in the wake of wind turbines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1964.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: LiDAR Sensor Technology; Signalized Intersections; Delay Time; Microsimulation; AIMSUN Software; LiDAR-Derived Data
Online: 30 October 2023 (16:32:49 CET)
Efficient traffic management at signalized intersections is integral to urban infrastructure development, requiring accurate estimation of delay times to mitigate congestion and enhance overall transportation systems. Traditional methodologies, including empirical observations and microsimulation software, have been prevalent in assessing delay times; however, their limitations have prompted the exploration of novel technologies like LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) sensors. This research study investigates and compares the accuracy of delay time estimations obtained from LiDAR sensor technology with those derived from microsimulation in AIMSUN. LiDAR sensors, known for their high-resolution, real-time data collection capabilities, offer a promising avenue for precise measurement of delay times at signalized intersections. Nonetheless, challenges in sensor placement, environmental influences, and data processing complexities suggest the need for further development and validation. In parallel, microsimulation software, exemplified by AIMSUN, provides a virtual platform for scenario testing but relies on assumptions that may not always mirror real-world traffic dynamics accurately. The comparative analysis conducted in this study aims to critically examine the discrepancies and potential complementarity between delay times obtained from LiDAR sensor technology and those derived from microsimulation in AIMSUN. The research involves an in-depth evaluation of real-time, high-resolution data collected by LiDAR sensors, assessing their accuracy in capturing the intricate movements and behavior of vehicles at signalized intersections. Simultaneously, AIMSUN microsimulation delay time models are scrutinized for their ability to accurately replicate these observed delay times. The disparities identified serve as critical insights into the challenges of both methodologies, prompting the discussion on the prospects of integrating LiDAR-derived data and microsimulation calibration processes to enhance the precision and reliability of delay time estimations. Future traffic management strategies can significantly benefit from a more accurate understanding of delay times, and this study endeavors to contribute to the advancement of methodologies in traffic engineering for more effective urban transportation systems.The paper's findings illuminate the potential and limitations of both LiDAR sensor technology and microsimulation in estimating delay times at signalized intersections. The results highlighted that the LiDAR sensors could accurately calculate delay times at a signalized intersection. Furthermore, the calculated delay time differences by LiDAR and AIMSUN at three days with the highest vehicle volumes (counts) are always less than 6.5%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0120.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: lidar; direct time-of-flight; dToF; flash lidar; SPADs; stereo depth; 3D vision
Online: 3 October 2023 (10:13:45 CEST)
Self-driving vehicles demand efficient and reliable depth sensing technologies. Lidar, with its capacity for long-distance, high-precision measurement, is a crucial component in this pursuit. However, conventional mechanical scanning implementations suffer from reliability, cost, and frame rate limitations. Solid-state lidar solutions have emerged as a promising alternative, but the vast amount of photon data processed and stored using conventional direct time-of-flight (dToF) prevents long-distance sensing unless power-intensive partial histogram approaches are used. In this paper, we introduce a groundbreaking ‘guided’ dToF approach, harnessing external guidance from other onboard sensors to narrow down the depth search space for a power and data-efficient solution. This approach centers around a dToF sensor in-which the exposed time widow of independent pixels can be dynamically adjusted. We utilize a 64-by-32 macropixel dToF sensor and a pair of vision cameras to provide the guiding depth estimates. Our demonstrator captures a dynamic outdoor scene at 3 fps with distances up 75 m. Compared to a conventional full histogram approach, on-chip data is reduced by over 25 times, while the total laser cycles in each frame are reduced by at least 6 times compared to any partial histogram approach. The capability of guided dToF to mitigate multipath reflections is also demonstrated. For self-driving vehicles where a wealth of sensor data is already available, guided dToF opens new possibilities for efficient solid-state lidar.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0138.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: DIAL; differential absorption lidar; IPDA; integrated path differential absorption LIDAR; cloud aerosol retrievals
Online: 3 October 2023 (09:35:01 CEST)
We discuss a remote sensing system that is used to simultaneously detect range-resolved differential absorption LIDAR (light detection and ranging; DIAL) signals and integrated path DIAL signals (IP-DIAL) from aerosol targets for ranges up to 22 km. The DIAL/IP-DIAL frequency converter consists of an OPO pumped at 1064 nm to produce light at 1.6 μm and operates at 100 Hz pulse repetition frequency. The probe light is free space coupled to a movable platform that contains one transmitter and two receiver telescopes. Hybrid photon counting/current systems increase the dynamic range for detection by two orders of magnitude. Range resolved and column integrated dry-air CO2 and CH4 mixing ratios are obtained from line shape fits of CO2 and CH4 centered at 1602.2 nm and 1645.5 nm, respectively and measured at 10 different frequencies over ≈ 1.5 cm-1 bandwidth. The signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) of the IP-DIAL returns from cloud aerosols approach 1000:1 and the uncertainties in the mixing ratios weighted according to the integrated counts over the cloud segments range from 0.1 % to 1 %. The range averaged DIAL mixing ratios are in good agreement with the IP-DIAL mixing ratios at the 1 % to 2 % level for both CO2 and CH4. These results can serve as a validation method for future active and passive satellite observational systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0366.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: landslides; debris-flows; LiDAR; morphometry
Online: 14 June 2021 (13:30:09 CEST)
On the 6th September at 03:08AM local time, the Iburi-Hokkaido Earthquake, only 33 km deep triggers >5,000 co-seismic mass-movements in the hills in a 25 km radius from the epicenter. Although the majority of the mass-movements occurred in complex-geometry valley with the coalescence of deposits, a small sub-set of 59 events deposited on the semi-horizontal val-ley-floor generating separated deposits that were studied in the present contribution. The aim of the present contribution was to contribute to the existing databases of empirical relationships based on planform and vertical dataset, and to define the scalars of those relations that charac-terize the mass-movements of the Iburi-Hokkaido earthquake, with the overarching goal of generating predictors for hazard-mapping. To reach these objectives, the methodology relies on LiDAR data flown in the aftermath of the earthquake as well as aerial photographs. Using Geo-graphical Information Science (GIS) tools planform and vertical parameters were extracted to calculate the power-law relations between areas and volume, between the Fahrböschung and the volume of the deposits, as well as other geometric relationships. Results have shown that the relation S=k〖V_d〗^(2/3) where S is the surface area of a deposit and Vd the volume, and k a scalar that is function of S: k=2.1842 ln(S)-10.167 with a R2 of 0.52, and this relation is improved for the open-slope mass-movements but not the valley-confined ones, that present more varia-bility. The Fahrböschung for events that started as valley-confined mass-movements was Fc = -0.043ln(D) + 0.7082 with a R2 of 0.5m while for open-slope mass-movements, the Fo = -0.046ln(D) + 0.7088 with a R2 of 0.52. These results contribute to the growing co-seismic land-slide database and they can also be the base to understand the role of the counter-slopes and complex topography on the spread and distance travelled by the mass-movement deposits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0042.v1
Online: 4 February 2020 (10:27:59 CET)
Topographic mapping using stereo plotting is not effective because it takes much time and labor-intensive. Thus, this research was conducted to find the effective way to extract building footprint for mapping acceleration. Building extraction method in this process comprises four steps: ground / non-ground filtering, building classification, segmentation, and building extraction. Non-ground points from filtering process were classified as building with the algorithm based on multi-scale local dimensionality to separate points at the maximum separability plane. Segmentation using segment growing was used to separate each building, so edge detection could be conducted for each segment to create boundary of each building. Lastly, building extraction was conducted through three steps: edge points detection, building delineation, and building regularization. With 10 samples and step 0.5, classification resulted quality and miss factor of 0.597 and 0.524, respectively. The quality was improved by segmentation process to 0.604, while miss factor was getting worse to 0.561. Meanwhile, on average shape index value from extracted building had 0.02 difference and the number of errors was 30% for line segment comparison. Regarding positional accuracy using centroid accuracy assessment, this method could produce RMSE of 1.169 meters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0507.v1
Online: 29 March 2023 (11:47:00 CEST)
In this paper, we propose a system to create high-precision maps using UAV-LiDAR and to determine the location of individual fruit trees (apple trees) on the maps. The system is based on a UAV-LiDAR system that flies over an actual orchard. A UAV was flown over an actual orchard, and the point cloud of the onboard LiDAR and the location information of RTK-GNSS were obtained. The system records the LiDAR point cloud and RTK-GNSS position information. Automated software processes point cloud data offline and Automated software processes point cloud data offline and automatically segments each apple tree in the map. The RTK-GNSS position information is used for the segmented trees. The positional information obtained from RTK-GNSS was georeferenced to the segmented trees without using ground evaluation points. As a sample, location information was obtained from trees using the Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS) MICHIBIKI. The positional accuracy of the trees was evaluated using the positional information obtained from the Quasi-Zenith Satellite System MICHIBIKI as a reference. As a result, the alignment accuracy was sufficient to identify individual fruit trees.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0357.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: Remote Sensing; Archaeology; Lidar; Dacians; Romania
Online: 18 November 2022 (13:37:21 CET)
Throughout history, the unique Dacian landscape has aroused the imagination of many. For decades, researchers have been fascinated by the magnificent structures the Dacians built and how they altered the mountains to their advantage. Dacian sites, despite their grandeur, remain mostly unknown due to their position deep within Romania's vast forests, generally in remote regions and hidden from the naked eye. Ground exploration in densely forested mountain regions is extremely difficult, and even if such campaigns existed, they would be insufficient to provide a comprehensive picture of the Dacian world. The lack of high-resolution remote-sensing data for wide areas made big-scale assessments of the landscape impractical. This is about to change, as new large datasets of LiDAR-derived digital elevation models, covering the entire heart of Dacian world, are now freely available. This paper reports on one of the most recent freely available LiDAR-based high-resolution digital elevation models in Romania, its impact on Romanian mountain archaeology, and how this can shape future research directions in understanding the Dacian landscape.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0093.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: WRF; Modelling; Climate; Climate Extremes; LIDAR
Online: 6 September 2021 (12:57:23 CEST)
Storm Ophelia made landfall over Ireland as an extra-tropical storm on the morning of the 16th of October 2017. The storm caused major power outages, lifted roofs, caused coastal flooding in Ireland, and resulted in the loss of three lives. A model’s capability to forecast extreme weather events such as Storm Ophelia is of utmost importance and now with a changing climate, it becomes more important to improve and enhance model forecasting capability. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model V3.9 has been configured for the Irish domain and this study presents a preliminary evaluation of the Model during Storm Ophelia. Simulated wind speed and direction were compared with hourly remote sensing (lidar) and in-situ (wind speed and wind direction at 10m) observations at the coastal site of Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station on the West coast of Ireland (53.33◦ N, 9.90 49 ◦ W). The model simulation has generally small biases in the simulated wind speed and wind direction during this case study. The model also realistically simulated the magnitude and geographical distribution of the wind speed and wind direction observed during Ophelia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0415.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: LiDAR: structural complexity; species richness; topography
Online: 23 April 2020 (14:59:15 CEST)
Questions: Elevation, biodiversity, and forest structure are commonly correlated, but their relationships near the positive extremes of biodiversity and elevation are unclear. We asked 1) How does forest structure vary with elevation in a high biodiversity, high topographic complexity region? 2) Does forest structure predict vascular plant biodiversity? 3) Is plant biodiversity more strongly related to elevation or to forest structure? Location: Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USAMethods: We used terrestrial LiDAR scanning (TLS) to characterize vegetation structure in 12 forest plots. We combined two new canopy structural complexity metrics with traditional TLS-derived forest structural metrics and vascular plant biodiversity data to investigate correlations among forest structure metrics, biodiversity, and elevation. Results: Forest structure varied widely across plots spanning the elevational range of GRSM. Our new measures of canopy density (Depth) and structural complexity (σDepth) were sensitive to structural variations and effectively summarized horizontal and vertical dimensions of structural complexity. Vascular plant biodiversity was negatively correlated with elevation, and more strongly positively correlated with vegetation structure variables. Conclusions: The strong correlations we observed between canopy structural complexity and biodiversity suggest that structural complexity metrics could be used to assay plant biodiversity over large areas in concert with airborne and spaceborne platforms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0069.v1
Online: 13 December 2016 (10:01:29 CET)
Taiwan developing offshore wind power to promote green energy and self-electricity production. In this study, a Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) was set up at Chang-Hua development zone one on the sea and 10km away from the seashore. At Lidar location, WRF (3.33km & 2km grid lengths) model and WAsP were used to simulate the wind speed at various elevations. Three days mean wind speed of simulated results were compared with Lidar data. From the four wind data sets, developed five different comparisons to find an error% and R-Squared values. Comparison between WAsP and Floating Lidar was shown good consistency. Lukang meteorological station 10 years wind observations at 5m height were used for wind farm energy predictions. The yearly variation of energy predictions of traditional and TGC wind farm layouts are compared under purely neutral and stable condition. The one-year cycle average surface heat flux over the Taiwan Strait is negative (-72.5 (W/m2) and 157.13 STD), which represents stable condition. At stable condition TGC (92.39%) and 600(92.44%), wind farms were shown higher efficiency. The Fuhai met mast wind data was used to estimate roughness length and power law exponent. The average roughness lengths are very small and unstable atmosphere.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0086.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: atmosphere; high-level clouds; ice particles; polarization lidar; interpretation of lidar data; radiosonde observations; ERA5 reanalysis.
Online: 7 May 2022 (03:12:44 CEST)
This article presents results of the polarization laser studies of the optical and microphysical characteristics of the high-level clouds (HLC). The high-altitude matrix polarization lidar (HAMPL; Tomsk, Russia) is described. HAMPL measures vertical profiles of all elements of the backscattering phase matrix (BSPM) of the HLC. Based on the joint analysis of lidar and radiosonde observations it is shown that the spatial structure of the HLC containing oriented ice crystals is inhomogeneous in the horizontal wind direction. It includes local areas with oriented particles; the sizes of such areas are estimated together with the most probable meteorological conditions of their formation. The shortcomings of the radiosonde observations performed closest to the location of the HAMPL are described. The applicability of the ERA5 reanalysis data of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts for use as an alternative source of information on the vertical profiles of meteorological quantities for the interpretation of HLC lidar sensing data in Western Siberia was checked.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1058.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: LiDAR; Point cloud; Quantitative detection; Pipeline deformation
Online: 16 November 2023 (10:28:05 CET)
Traditional underground pipeline inspection primarily relies on closed-circuit television (CCTV) systems, capturing visual data of deformations within sewer systems for manual assessment of their types and severity. However, these methods heavily rely on human expertise, which leads to subjective detection with limited accuracy. Moreover, they lack the capability for quantitative analysis of deformation extent, hindering accurate assessments and limiting overall inspection effectiveness. To address these challenges, this paper proposes a method for quantitatively detecting geometric deformations in underground pipe corridors using laser point cloud data. The approach, employing laser scanning with a 3D scanner, enables objective detection of internal pipeline deformations and quantitative assessment of blockage levels. In comparison to traditional CCTV-based methods, this approach offers advantages in objectivity and quantification, thereby improving detection reliability, accuracy, and overall efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1388.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: LiDAR; IMU; undreground shaft mapping; mine mapping
Online: 23 October 2023 (08:24:38 CEST)
This paper provides a data set collected with an underground shaft mobile mapping system equipped with rotated Velodyne VLP-16, Velodyne Ultra Puck VLP-32c, Livox Tele-15, and IMU Xsens MTi-30. The ground truth data was acquired with a geodetic survey including 15 ground control points and 6 Faro Focus 3D Terrestrial Laser Scanner stations of a total 273,784,932 of 3D measurement points. The aim of the paper is to describe the data set of a mining shaft. Obtained mobile mapping data can be the basis for detailed analyzes of the technical condition of the shaft. This data set provides an end-user case study of realistic applications in mobile mapping technology. It provides ground truth data, mobile mapping data and software tools for manipulation and visualization. The project is released and maintained at https://michalpelka.github.io/mine-mapping-dataset/.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1120.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: pointcloud registration; iterative closest point; transformation; lidar
Online: 18 October 2023 (11:35:20 CEST)
Non-rigid registration presents a significant challenge in the domain of point cloud processing. The general objective is to model complex non-rigid deformations between two or more overlapping point clouds. Applications are diverse and span multiple research fields, including registration of topographic data, scene flow estimation, and dynamic shape reconstruction. To provide context, we begin with a general introduction to the topic of point cloud registration, including a categorization of methods. Next, we introduce a general mathematical formulation for point cloud registration and extend it to address non-rigid registration. A detailed discussion and categorization of existing approaches to non-rigid registration follows. We then introduce our own method where the usage of piece-wise tricubic polynomials for modeling non-rigid deformations is proposed. Our method offers several advantages over existing methods. These advantages include easy control of flexibility through a small number of intuitive tuning parameters, a closed-form optimization solution, and an efficient transformation of huge point clouds. We demonstrate our method through multiple examples that cover a broad range of applications, with a focus on remote sensing applications - namely, the registration of Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS), Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS), and Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) point clouds. The implementation of our algorithms is open source and can be found on GitHub.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0176.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: water vapour; micro-pulse laser; Raman lidar
Online: 5 September 2023 (02:45:44 CEST)
It was for long time believed that lidar systems based on the use of high-repetition micro-pulse lasers could be effectively used to only stimulate atmospheric elastic backscatter echoes, and thus only exploited in elastic backscatter lidar systems. Their application to stimulate rotational and roto-vibrational Raman echoes, and consequently their exploitation in atmospheric thermodynamic profiling, was considered not feasible based on the technical specifications possessed by these laser sources until a few years ago. However, recent technological advances in the design and development of micro-pulse lasers, presently achieving high UV average powers (1-5 W) and small divergences (0.3-0.5 mrad), in combination with the use of large aperture telescopes (0.3-0.4 m diameter primary mirrors), allow to presently develop micro-pulse laser-based Raman lidars capable to measure the vertical profiles of atmospheric thermodynamic parameters, namely water vapour and temperature, both in daytime and nighttime. This paper is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of these measurements and at illustrating and discussing the high achievable performance level, with a specific focus on water vapour profile measurements. The technical solutions identified in the design of the lidar system and their technological implementation within the experimental setup of the lidar prototype are also carefully illustrated and discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0713.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: typhoon; LIDAR; wind profiler; dropsonde; ocean radar
Online: 9 August 2023 (07:10:12 CEST)
Extensive surface and upper air measurements of a typhoon over the northern part of the South China Sea, namely, Typhoon Talim in July 2023, are documented and analyzed in this paper. A number of features have been observed from the upper air measurements. First, the log law and the power law are found to be appropriate in fitting the wind profiles of the typhoon in the first 1000 m or so above the sea surface. A low level jet is observed in the lower troposphere from the observations of the radar wind profilers. The paper is also novel from the perspectives that the vertical wind profile from a Doppler LIDAR on an offshore platform over the northern part of the South China sea, and that ocean radar data are used to analyze the surface wind observations of a typhoon in the region. The results of this paper would be useful in understanding the structure of tropical cyclones, e.g. in wind engineering applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0890.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: LiDAR; Odometry and Mapping; SLAM; Urban Environment
Online: 13 July 2023 (12:12:25 CEST)
Solid-state LiDAR offers multiple advantages over mechanism mechanical LiDAR, including higher durability, improved coverage ratio, and lower prices. However, solid-state LiDARs typically possess a narrow field of view, making them less suitable for odometry and mapping systems, especially for mobile autonomous systems. To address this issue, we propose a novel rotating solid-state LiDAR system that incorporates a servo motor to continuously rotate the solid-state LiDAR, expanding the horizontal field of view to 360∘. Additionally, we propose a multi-sensor fusion odometry and mapping algorithm for our developed sensory system that integrates an IMU, wheel encoder, motor encoder and the LiDAR into an iterated Kalman filter to obtain a robust odometry estimation. Through comprehensive experiments, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach in both outdoor open environments and narrow indoor environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0176.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: aerosol; AERONET; lidar; air pollution; sun-photometer
Online: 12 October 2022 (10:33:32 CEST)
The climate change impacts on some regions of the planet faster and stronger. These areas are known as the hot spots for climate change and Cyprus (Nicosia) in the Mediterranean is one of these spots. This paper aims to analyze the significant changes of atmospheric aerosol characteristics in 2019 and during the extreme event of 25 April 2019. We study the aerosol optical thickness (AOT), Ångström exponent, single scattering albedo, refractive index (imaginary and real parts), size, and vertical distribution of aerosol particles during the event of a high atmospheric aerosol contamination over Nicosia in details. For this purpose, we used the ground-based lidar, observations of the sun-photometer AERONET Nicosia station, satellite products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and back trajectories of air movements calculated using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT). On 23–25 April, according to lidar and sun-photometer observations, strong aerosol pollution over Nicosia was detected. On April 25, 2019, the AOT value exceeds 1.0 at λ = 440 nm. Analysis of the optical and microphysical characteristics supported that the pollution consists of mainly Saharan dust and partly urban aerosols. This assumption was confirmed by HYSPLIT backward trajectories and MODIS images where air masses containing dust particles came from North Africa and from the Eastern part of Europe.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0343.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: Depth Completion; Depth Maps; Image-Guidance; Lidar
Online: 25 May 2022 (05:26:16 CEST)
Depth maps produced by LiDAR based approaches are sparse. Even high-end LiDAR sensors produce highly sparse depth maps, which are also noisy around the object boundaries. Depth completion is the task of generating a dense depth map from a sparse depth map. While the traditional approaches focus on directly completing this sparsity from the sparse depth maps, modern techniques use RGB images as a guidance tool to resolve this problem. Whilst many others rely on affinity matrices for depth completion. Based on these approaches, we have sub-divided the literature into two major categories; traditional approaches and backbone-based approaches. The latter is further sub-divided into two-branch, and spatial propagation approaches. The two-branch approaches still have a sub-category named guided-kernel approaches. In this paper, for the first time ever we present a comprehensive survey of depth completion methods. We present a novel taxonomy of depth completion approaches, review and detail different state-of-the art techniques within each category for depth completion of LiDAR data, and provide quantitative results for the approaches on KITTI and NYUv2 depth completion benchmark datasets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0690.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: tls; tree; QSM; PAVD; foliage; sensor; lidar
Online: 30 July 2021 (09:32:59 CEST)
The increasingly affordable price point of terrestrial laser scanners has led to a democratization of instrument availability, but the most common low-cost instruments have yet to be compared in terms of the consistency to measure forest structural attributes. Here, we compared two low-cost terrestrial laser scanners (TLS): the Leica BLK360 and the Faro Focus 120 3D. We evaluate the instruments in terms of point cloud quality, forest inventory estimates, tree-model reconstruction, and foliage profile reconstruction. Our direct comparison of the point clouds showed reduced noise in filtered Leica data. Tree diameter and height were consistent across instruments (4.4% and 1.4% error, respectively). Volumetric tree models were less consistent across instruments, with ~29% bias, depending on model reconstruction quality. In the process of comparing foliage profiles, we conducted a sensitivity analysis of factors affecting foliage profile estimates, showing a minimal effect from instrument maximum range (for forests less than ~50 m in height) and surprisingly little impact from degraded scan resolution. Filtered unstructured TLS point clouds must be artificially re-gridded to provide accurate foliage profiles. The factors evaluated in this comparison point towards necessary considerations for future low-cost laser scanner development and application in detecting forest structural parameters.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0226.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: CALIPSO; space lidar; ocean; depolarization ratio; crosstalk
Online: 8 June 2021 (13:05:13 CEST)
Recent studies indicate that the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) aboard the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite provides valuable information about ocean phytoplankton distributions. CALIOP’s attenuated backscatter coefficients, measured at 532 nm in receiver channels oriented parallel and perpendicular to the laser’s linear polarization plane, are significantly improved in the Version 4 data product. However, due to non-ideal instrument effects, a small fraction of the backscattered optical power polarized parallel to the receiver polarization reference plane is misdirected into the perpendicular channel, and vice versa. This effect, known as polarization crosstalk, typically causes the measured perpendicular signal to be higher than its true value and the measured parallel signal to be lower than its true value. Therefore, the ocean optical properties derived directly from CALIOP’s measured signals will be biased if the polarization crosstalk effect is not taken into account. This paper presents methods that can be used to estimate the CALIOP crosstalk effects from on-orbit measurements. The global ocean depolarization ratios calculated both before and after removing the crosstalk effects are compared. Using CALIOP crosstalk-corrected signals is highly recommended for all ocean subsurface studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0333.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: LIDAR; UV laser; high spectral resolution; aerosols
Online: 14 December 2020 (13:11:08 CET)
ATLID (ATmospheric LIDar) is the atmospheric backscatter LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) on board of the EarthCARE (Earth Cloud, Aerosol and Radiation Explorer) mission, the sixth Earth Explorer Mission of the ESA (European Space Agency) Living Planet Programme [1-5]. ATLID’s purpose is to provide vertical profiles of optically thin cloud and aerosol layers, as well as the altitude of cloud boundaries [6-10]. In order to achieve this objective ATLID emits short duration laser pulses in the UV, at a repetition rate of 51 Hz, while pointing in a near nadir direction along track of the satellite trajectory. The atmospheric backscatter signal is then collected by its 620 mm aperture telescope, filtered through the optics of the instrument focal plane assembly, in order to separate and measure the atmospheric Mie and Rayleigh scattering signals. With the completion of the full instrument assembly in 2019, ATLID has been subjected to an ambient performance test campaign, followed by a successful environmental qualification test campaign, including performance calibration and characterization in thermal vacuum conditions. In this paper the design and operational principle of ATLID is recalled and the major performance test results are presented, addressing the main key receiver and emitter characteristics. Finally, the estimated instrument, in-orbit, flight predictions are presented; these indicate compliance of the ALTID instrument performance against its specification and that it will meet its mission science objectives for the EarthCARE mission, to be launched in 2023.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0162.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: lidar; sensor calibration; heteroskedastic; landmark position estimation
Online: 7 December 2020 (14:00:39 CET)
We consider the problem of calibrating distance measurement of Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) sensor without using additional hardware, but rather exploiting assumptions on the environment surrounding the sensor during the calibration procedure. More specifically we consider the assumption of calibrating the sensor by placing it in an environment so that its measurements lie in a 2D plane that is parallel to the ground, and so that its measurements come from fixed objects that develop orthogonally w.r.t. the ground, so that they may be considered as fixed points in an inertial reference frame. We moreover consider the intuition that moving the distance sensor within this environment implies that its measurements should be such that the relative distances and angles among the fixed points above remain the same. We thus exploit this intuition to cast the sensor calibration problem as making its measurements comply with this assumption that “fixed features shall have fixed relative distances and angles”. The resulting calibration procedure does thus not need to use additional (typically expensive) equipment, nor deploying special hardware. As for the proposed estimation strategies, from a mathematical perspective we consider models that lead to analytically solvable equations, so to enable deployment in embedded systems. Besides proposing the estimators we moreover analyse their statistical performance both in simulation and with field tests, reporting thus the dependency of the MSE performance of the calibration procedure as a function of the sensor noise levels, and observing that in field tests the approach can lead to a ten-fold improvement in the accuracy of the raw measurements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0260.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: LiDAR; Bergama; Alluvial Fan; Geomorphology; Bakırçay River
Online: 13 September 2020 (11:25:59 CEST)
Topography represented by high resolution digital elevation models are able to inform past and present morphological process on the terrain. High resolution LiDAR data taken by the General Directorate of Map at the surroundings of the Bergama city shows great opportunities to understand the morphological process on alluvial fan on which the city is located and the flood plain of Bakırçay river near the alluvial fan. In this paper the LiDAR data collected in 2015 have been used to create DEM’s to understand the geomorphological evolution of the alluvial fan and the flood plain around it. Since the proximal roots and medial parts of the alluvial fan have been the scene for a long human settlement most topographical traces of the morphological process have been distorted. Nevertheless, the traces of past and present morphological process at the distal fan which consist the contact zone with the flood plain are very clear on the DEM created from LiDAR data. The levees and some old courses of Bergama and Bakırçay rivers have been shown on the maps which are also important to understand the ancient roads which follows these levees.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0065.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: active contour models; LiDAR, segmentation; road edges
Online: 8 May 2017 (12:24:55 CEST)
Active contour models present a robust segmentation approach which make efficient use of specific information about objects in the input data rather than processing all the data. They have been widely used in many applications including image segmentation, object boundary localisation, motion tracking, shape modelling, stereo matching and object reconstruction. In this paper, we investigate the potential of active contour models in extracting roads from Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS) data. The categorisation of active contours based on their mathematical representation and implementation are discussed in detail. We discuss an integrated version in which active contour models are combined to overcome their limitations. We review various active contour based methodologies which have been developed to extract roads and other features from LiDAR and digital imaging datasets. We present a small case study in which an integrated version of active contour models is applied to automatically extract road edges from MLS dataset. An accurate extraction of left and right edges from the tested road section validates the use of active contour models. The present study provides a valuable insight on the potential of active contours for extracting roads and other infrastructures from 3D LiDAR point cloud data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0499.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: autonomous driving; perception algorithms; LiDAR; anomaly detection; COPOD
Online: 7 June 2023 (07:08:34 CEST)
The increased demand and use of autonomous vehicles and advanced driver-assistance systems has been constrained by an incidence of accidents involving errors with the perception layer’s functionality. In tandem, recent papers have noted the lack of standardized, independent testing formats and insufficient methods with which to analyze, verify and qualify LiDAR-based data and categorization. While camera-based approaches benefit from an ample amount of research, camera images can be unreliable in situations with impaired visibility such as dim lighting and fog. This paper aims to introduce a novel method based entirely on LiDAR data with the capability to detect anomalous patterns as well as complementing other performance evaluators using a Copula-based approach. With a promising set of preliminary results, this methodology may be used to evaluate an algorithm’s confidence score, the impact conditions may have on LiDAR data and detect cases in which LiDAR data may be insufficient or otherwise unusable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0303.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: time-of-flight; LiDAR; indoor mapping; ROS; SLAM
Online: 5 June 2023 (10:17:11 CEST)
This manuscript presents a system that can generate a 2D grid map and a 3D voxel model of an environment by fusing multiple sensors integrated into a robot. The fusion of these sensors is done by utilizing Robot Operating System (ROS) and some of its libraries. The sensors that are fused in the robot are a Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR), Inertial Measurement Units (IMU), wheel encoders, and a Time-of-Flight camera. With the fusion of the point cloud data information obtained with the Time-of-Flight camera, the laser information of the LIDAR sensor, in addition to the odometry generated with the other sensors, a 2D grid map and a 3D model of two different environments were created, thus testing the performance of the system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0870.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Range-gated; lidar; Conoscopic interference; Electro-optic crystal
Online: 25 April 2023 (03:21:09 CEST)
In this paper, a range-gated lidar system utilizing an LN crystal as the electro-optical switch and a SCMOS (Scientific Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) imaging device is designed. To achieve range-gated, we utilize two polarizers and a LN (LiNbO3) crystal to form an electro-optical switch. The optical switch is realized by applying a pulse voltage at both ends of the crystal due to the crystal's conoscopic interference effect and electro-optical effect. The advantage of this system is that low-bandwidth detectors such as CMOS and CCD (Charge-coupled Device) can be used to replace conventional high-bandwidth detectors such as ICCD (Intensified Charge Coupled Device), and time it has better imaging performance under specific conditions at the same. However, after using an electro-optical crystal as an optical switch, a new inhomogeneity error will be introduced due to the conscopic interference effect of the electro-optical crystal, resulting in range error of the lidar system. To reduce the influence of inhomogeneity error on the system, this paper analyzes the sources of inhomogeneity error caused by the electro-optical crystal and gives the crystal inhomo-geneity mathematical expression. A compensation method is proposed based on the above inho-mogeneity mathematical expression. An experimental lidar system is constructed in this paper to verify the validity of the compensation method. The experimental results of the range-gated lidar system show that in a specific field of view (2.6mrad), the lidar system has a good imaging per-formance, its ranging standard deviation is 3.86cm and further decreased to 2.86cm after com-pensation, which verifies the accuracy of the compensation method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0438.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Auto-labeled; LiDAR, Point of View, Deep Learning
Online: 27 February 2023 (04:12:52 CET)
Auto-labeling is one of the main challenges in 3D vehicle detection. Auto-labeled datasets can be used to identify objects in LiDAR data, which is a challenging task due to the large size of the dataset. In this work, we propose a novel methodology to generate new 3D based auto-labeling datasets with a different point of view setup than the one used in the most recognized datasets (KITTI, WAYMO, etc.). The performance of the methodology has been further demonstrated with the development of our own dataset with the auto-generated labels and tested under boundary conditions on a bridge in a fixed position. The proposed methodology is based on the YOLO model trained with the KITTI dataset. From a camera-LiDAR sensory fusion, it is intended to auto-label new datasets while maintaining the consistency of the Ground Truth. The main contribution of this work is a novel methodology to auto-label autonomous driving datasets using YOLO as the main labelling system. The performance of this approach is measured retraining the contrast models of the KITTI benchmark.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0237.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Atmospheric-Observing-System; Aerosol; High-Spectral-Resolution-lidar
Online: 13 December 2022 (09:51:59 CET)
In the context of the Atmospheric Observing System (AOS) international program, a new generation spaceborne lidar is expected to be in polar orbit for deriving new observations of aerosol and clouds. In this work, we analyze the added values of these new observations for characterizing aerosol vertical distribution. For this, synthetic observations are simulated using the BLISS lidar simulator in terms of backscatter coefficient at 532 nm. We consider two types of lidar instruments, an elastic backscatter lidar instrument and a high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL). These simulations are performed with atmospheric profiles from a Nature Run (NR) modeled by the MOCAGE Chemical Transport Model. In three case studies involving large events of different aerosol species, the added value of the HSRL channel for measuring aerosol backscatter profiles with respect to simple backscatter measurements is shown. Observations independent from an a-priori lidar Ratio assumption, as done typically for simple backscattering instruments, allows probing the vertical structure of aerosol layers without divergence, even in case of intense episodes. Relative error in the backscatter coefficient profiles are observed to lay between +40% and -40% for low abudancies, with mean biases between +5% and -5%. A 5-day study in the case of desert dust completes the study of the added value of the HSRL channel with relative mean bias from the NR of the order of 1.5%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0562.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: autonomous driving; LiDAR; perception systems; evaluation and testing
Online: 30 November 2021 (11:44:38 CET)
The world is facing a great technological transformation towards full autonomous vehicles, where optimists predict that by 2030, autonomous vehicles will be sufﬁciently reliable, affordable and common to displace most human driving. To cope with these trends, reliable perception systems must enable vehicles to hear and see all the surroundings, being light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensors a key instrument for recreating a 3D visualization of the world in real time. However, perception systems must rely in accurate measurements of the environment. Thus, sensors must be calibrated and benchmarked before being placed on the market or assembled in a car. This article presents an Evaluation and Testing Platform for Automotive LiDAR sensors with the main goal of testing not only commercially available sensors, but also sensor prototypes currently under development in Bosch Automotive Electronics division. The testing system can benchmark any LiDAR sensor under different conditions, recreating the expected driving environment to which such devices are normally subjected. To characterize and validate the sensor under test, the platform evaluates several parameters such as the ﬁeld of view (FoV), angular resolution, sensor’s range, etc. This project results from a partnership between the University of Minho and Bosch Car Multimedia Portugal, S.A.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0233.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Unzen Volcano; Lahars; Erosion; Entropy; LiDAR; Photogrammetry; GPR
Online: 14 September 2021 (10:37:56 CEST)
In the aftermath of pyroclastic-flow –dominated eruptions, lahars are the main geomorphic agent, but at the decadal scale, different sets of processes take place in the volcanic sediment cascade. At Unzen Volcano, in the Gokurakudani Gully we investigated the geomorphologic evolution and how the topographic change and the sediment change over time is controlling this transition. For this purpose, a combination of LiDAR data, aerial photography and photogrammetry, Ground Penetrating Radar and sediment grain-size analysis was done. The results show chocking zones and zones of enlargement of the gully, partly controlled by pre-eruption topography, but also by the overlapping patterns of the pyroclastic flow deposits of 1990 – 1995. The Ground Penetrating Radar revealed that on top of the typical lahar structure at the bottom of the gully, side-wall collapses were trapping finer sandy sediments formed in relatively low-energy deposition environment. This shows that secondary processes are taking place in the sediment transport process, on top of lahar activity, but also that these temporary dams may be a source of sudden sediment and water release, leading to lahars. Finally, the sediments from the gully walls are being preferentially oozed out of the pyroclastic-flow deposit, meaning that over longer period of time, there may be a lack of fines, increasing permeability and reducing internal pore-pressure needed for lahar triggering. It also poses the important question of how much of a past-event one can understand from outcrops in coarse heterometric material, as the deposit structure can remain, even after loosing part of its fine material.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0727.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Boreal Forest; LiDAR; Landsat 8; Surface Reflectance; Alaska
Online: 30 June 2021 (09:51:47 CEST)
Forests are critical in regulating the world’s climate and they maintain overall Earth’s energy balance. The variability in forest canopy structure, topography and underneath vegetation background condition creates uncertainty in the estimation and modelling of Earth’s surface radiation particularly for boreal regions in high latitude. We studied seasonal variation in surface reflectance with respect to land cover classes, canopy structures, and topography in a boreal region of Alaska by fusing together Landsat 8 surface reflectance and LiDAR-derived canopy matrices. Our study shows that canopy structure and topography interplay and influence surface reflectance in a complex way particularly during the snow season. Topographic aspect and elevation control vegetation growth, type and structure. The southern slope is featured with more deciduous and taller trees having greater rugosity than the northern slope. Higher elevation is associated with taller trees for both vegetation types, particularly in the southern slope. In general, surface reflectance shows similar relationships with canopy cover, height and rugosity, mainly due to close relationships between these parameters. Surface reflectance decreases with canopy cover, tree height, and rugosity especially for evergreen forest. Deciduous forest shows larger variability of surface reflectance, particularly in March, mainly due to the mixing effect of snow and vegetation. The relationship between vegetation structure and surface reflectance is greatly impacted by topography. The negative relationship between elevation and surface reflectance may be due to taller and denser vegetation distribution in higher elevation. Surface reflectance in the southern slope is slightly larger than the northern slope for both deciduous and evergreen forest. The shadow effect from topography and tree crowns on surface reflectance play a different role for deciduous and evergreen forests. For deciduous forest, topographic shadow effect on surface reflectance is stronger than from tree shadowing in all seasons. For evergreen forest, shadow effects from topography and tree crowns on surface reflectance are both equally dominant, however tree shadow effect is more significant in March than in May and August. The generalized additive models (GAM) based on non-linear relationships between response (surface reflectance) and predictor (canopy structures and topography) variables confirms such observations. Our study not only provides accurate quantification of surface radiation budget but also helps in parametrization of climate change models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0690.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: lidar, atmosphere, DIAL, optical parametric oscillator, trace gases
Online: 29 October 2018 (14:22:24 CET)
Data on the atmospheric gas concentrations can be received with high efficiency and on a large spatial scale only from remote laser sounding instruments. The remote laser techniques with the use of lidars are widely used in the study of the atmosphere and control of its state. The aims of this work are the design and test in numerical and field experiments of a DIAL OPO lidar system based on KTA and KTP crystals for gas analysis of the atmosphere. Lidar measurements of atmospheric gases in the near/mid infrared region have been numerically simulated. The differential absorption lidar system based on optical parametric oscillators with nonlinear KTA and KTP crystals which allow laser radiation tuning both in the near and in the middle IR spectral region is described; it allows tuning laser radiation in the near/mid-IR wavelength regions. Lidar echo signals have been experimentally recorded in the 1.8–2.5 and 3–4 m wavelength ranges. The results of H2O and CO2 profile measurements along the surface sounding path are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0095.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Lidar system; depolarization channel; calibration; stability; depolarizing particles
Online: 13 October 2017 (18:07:24 CEST)
A new approach to the measurement with elastic lidar of depolarization produced by atmospheric aerosols is presented. The system uses two different telescopes: one for depolarization measurements and another for total-power measurements. The system architecture and principle of operation are described. The first experimental results are also presented, corresponding to a collection of atmospheric conditions over the city of Barcelona.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0088.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: canopy; root; biomass; spatial wavelet coherence; radar; lidar
Online: 21 October 2016 (06:05:11 CEST)
Ecosystem physical structure, defined by the quantity and spatial distribution of biomass, influences a range of ecosystem functions. Remote sensing tools permit the non-destructive characterization of canopy and root features, potentially providing opportunities to link above- and belowground structure at fine spatial resolution in functionally meaningful ways. To test this possibility, we employed ground-based portable canopy lidar (PCL) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) along co-located transects in forested sites spanning multiple stages of ecosystem development and, consequently, of structural complexity. We examined canopy and root structural data for coherence at multiple spatial scales ≤ 10 m within each site using wavelet analysis. Forest sites varied substantially in vertical canopy and root structure, with leaf area index and root mass more evenly distributed by height and depth, respectively, as forests aged. In all sites, above- and belowground structure, characterized as mean maximum canopy height and root mass, exhibited significant coherence at a scale of 3.5-4 meters, and results suggest that the scale of coherence may increase with stand age. Our findings demonstrate that canopy and root structure are linked at characteristic spatial scales, which provides the basis to optimize scales of observation. Our study highlights the potential, and limitations, for fusing lidar and radar technologies to quantitatively couple above- and belowground ecosystem structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0070.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: coastal; experiment; lidar; near-shore; offshore; wind resources
Online: 18 October 2016 (07:51:46 CEST)
We present a comprehensive database of near-shore wind observations that were carried out during the experimental campaign of the RUNE project. RUNE aims at reducing the uncertainty of the near-shore wind resource estimates from model outputs by using lidar, ocean, and satellite observations. Here we concentrate in describing the lidar measurements. The campaign was conducted from November 2015 to February 2016 at the west coast of Denmark and comprises measurements from eight lidars, an ocean buoy and three types of satellites. The wind speed was estimated based on measurements from a scanning lidar performing PPIs, two scanning lidars performing dual synchronized scans, and five vertical profiling lidars, of which one was operating offshore on a floating platform. The availability of measurements is highest for the profiling lidars, followed by the lidar performing PPIs, those peforming the dual setup, and the lidar buoy. Analysis of the lidar measurements reveals good agreement between the estimated 10-m wind speeds, although the instruments used different scanning strategies and measured different volumes in the atmosphere. The campaign is characterized by strong westerlies with occasional storms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0449.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: hand-held scanner; LiDAR; anthropometric measurements; 3D model reconstruction
Online: 7 December 2023 (03:20:58 CET)
Background: Anthropometric measurements play a crucial role in medico-legal practices. Actually, several scanning technologies are employed in post-mortem investigations for forensic anthropological measurements. This study aims to evaluate the precision, in-ter-rater reliability, and accuracy of a hand-held scanner in measuring various body parts. Methods: Three independent raters measured seven longitudinal distances using an iPad Pro equipped with a LiDAR sensor and specific software. These measurements were sta-tistically compared to manual measurements conducted by an operator using a laser level and a meterstick (considered the gold standard). Results: The Friedman’s test revealed minimal intra-rater variability in digital measurements. Inter-rater variability analysis yielded an ICC=1, signifying high agreement among the three independent raters. Addi-tionally, the accuracy of digital measurements displayed errors below 2%. Conclusions: Preliminary findings demonstrate that the pairing of LiDAR technology with the Polycam app showcases high precision, inter-rater agreement, and accuracy. Hand-held scanners show potential in forensic anthropology due to their simplicity, affordability, and porta-bility. However, further validation studies under real-world conditions are essential to es-tablish the reliability and effectiveness of handheld scanners in medico-legal settings.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1688.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: tropical cyclone; radar wind profiler; LIDAR; weather radar; microburst
Online: 26 September 2023 (05:21:59 CEST)
Super Typhoon Saola came very close to Hong Kong on 1 and 2 September 2023, necessitating the issuance of No. 10 hurricane signal, the highest tropical cyclone warning signal, in Hong Kong. While there were widespread damages in Hong Kong, no people were killed in the event with effective early warning. It is rare that a super typhoon came very close to Hong Kong and this paper is the first part in the series of the documentation of Saola to summarize the interesting observations of Saola near Hong Kong for future reference by weather forecasters, including sur-face observations, upper air observations, microburst alert from weather radars, and turbulence intensity based on spectral width measurement of radars.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0598.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: short wave infrared; LiDAR; photodetector array; dark current detection
Online: 20 April 2023 (03:09:20 CEST)
The shortwave infrared Ge-Si photodetector will become the core device of the LiDAR optical receiver. In order to meet the urgent demand for photodetectors in the LiDAR field, we have designed and produced a 32×32 pixel Ge-Si photodetector array proposed and developed to meet the performance requirements of the detector array. A dark current detection system for fast scanning and detecting large-scale Ge-Si detector arrays is proposed and developed to achieve rapid detection of dark current in each pixel of the detector. The system was used to validate the main performance indicators of the detector array we designed, achieving rapid discrimination of array performance and rapid localization of damaged pixels. The scanning test results show that the average dark current of the detector array chip we designed is at the nano ampere level, and the proportion of bad points is less than 1%. The consistency of the array chip is high, which can meet the requirements of light detection at the receiving end of the LiDAR. This work laid the foundation for our subsequent development of a LiDAR prototype system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0527.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: lidar-inertial slam; dynamic objects; sliding-window; dynamic scenarios
Online: 19 April 2023 (03:19:30 CEST)
Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) is considered as a challenge in environments with many moving objects. This paper proposes a novel LiDAR Inertial Odometry framework, ID-LIO, for dynamic scenes that builds on LIO-SAM. To detect the pointclouds on the moving objects, a dynamic point detection method is integrated, which is based on pseudo occupancy along the spatial dimension. Then, we present a dynamic points propagation and removal algorithm based on indexed points to remove more dynamic points in the local map along the temporal dimension and update the status of the point features in keyframes. In the LiDAR odometry module, a delay removal strategy is proposed for history keyframes and the sliding window-based optimization includes the LIDAR measurement with dynamic weights to reduce error from dynamic points in keyframes. We perform the experiments both on the public low dynamic and highly dynamic data set. The results show that the proposed method greatly increases the localization accuracy in high dynamic environments. And the ATE(Absolute Trajectory Error) average RMSE((Root Mean Square Error) of our ID-LIO can be improved by 67% and 85% in the UrbanLoco-CAMarketStreet dataset and UrbanNav-HK-Medium-Urban-1 dataset respectively when compared with LIO-SAM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0524.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Camera; Radar; Lidar; Automotive Engineering; Adverse Weather; Sensor Perception
Online: 18 April 2023 (12:40:48 CEST)
Vehicle safety promises to be one of the Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) biggest benefits. Higher levels of automation remove the human driver from the chain of events that can lead to a crash. Sensors play an influential role in vehicle driving as well as in ADAS by helping the driver to watch the vehicle’s surroundings for safe driving. Thus, the driving load is drastically reduced from steering as well as accelerating and braking for long-term driving. The baseline for the development of future intelligent vehicles relies even more on the fusion of data from surrounding sensors such as Camera, Lidar and Radar. These sensors not only need to perceive in clear weather but also need to detect accurately adverse weather and illumination conditions. Otherwise, a small error could have an incalculable impact on ADAS. As most of the current study is based on indoor or static testing. In order to solve this problem, this paper designs a series of dynamic test cases with the help of outdoor rain and intelligent lightning simulation facilities to make the sensor application scenarios more realistic. As a result, the effect of rainfall and illumination on sensor perception performance is investigated. As speculated, the performance of all automotive sensors is degraded by adverse environmental factors, but their behaviour is not identical. Future work on sensor model development and sensor information fusion should therefore take this into account.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0276.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Sensor fusion; Camera and LiDAR fusion; Odometry; Explainable AI
Online: 19 September 2022 (10:27:42 CEST)
Recent deep learning frameworks draw a strong research interest in the application of ego-motion estimation as they demonstrate a superior result compared to geometric approaches. However, due to the lack of multimodal datasets, most of these studies primarily focused on a single sensor-based estimation. To overcome this challenge, we collect a unique multimodal dataset named LboroAV2, using multiple sensors including camera, Light Detecting And Ranging (LiDAR), ultrasound, e-compass and rotary encoder. We also propose an end-to-end deep learning architecture for fusion of RGB images and LiDAR laser scan data for odometry application. The proposed method contains a convolutional encoder, a compressed representation and a recurrent neural network. Besides feature extraction and outlier rejection, the convolutional encoder produces a compressed representation which is used to visualise the network's learning process and to pass useful sequential information. The recurrent neural network uses this compressed sequential data to learn the relation between consecutive time steps. We use the LboroAV2 and KITTI VO datasets to experiment and evaluate our results. In addition to visualising the network's learning process, our approach gives superior results compared to other similar methods. The code for the proposed architecture is released in GitHub and accessible publicly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0530.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: airborne LiDAR; forest attributes; multivariate power model; sample size
Online: 22 June 2021 (13:03:33 CEST)
Exploring the effect of the sample size on the estimation accuracy of airborne LiDAR forest attributes in a large-scale area can help in optimizing the technical application scheme of operational ALS-based large-scale forest stand inventories. In our study, sample datasets composed of different sample plots were constructed by repeated sampling from 1003 sample plots in a subtropical study area covering 2376 × 103 km2. Sixteen multiplicative power models were built in each forest type consisting of four forest attributes. Through these models, the variations of standard deviation (SD) and coefficient of variation (CV) of R2 and rRMSE of forest attribute estimation models for different quantity levels of sample plots were also analyzed. The results showed that, first, when the sample size increased from 30 to the top limit, the SD of the forest attributes and LiDAR variables showed a decreasing trend. Second, as the sample size increased, the rRMSE of the 16 forest attribute estimation models gradually decreased, while the R2 gradually increased. Third, when the sample size was small, both the SD of R2 and rRMSE of the models were large, and the SD of R2 and rRMSE gradually decreased as the sample size increased. In 50 models conducted for each attribute at the same sample size, for the mean standard deviations of forest attributes, the ten best performing models were lower than those of the total 50 models, and the worst ten models were the opposite. When the sample size increased, the accuracy of each forest attribute estimation model for each forest type gradually improved. The variation of forest attributes and the LiDAR variable of the construction model are critical factors that affect the model’s accuracy. To efficiently apply airborne LiDAR in order to survey large-scale subtropical forest resources, the sample size of the Chinese fir forest, pine forest, eucalyptus forest, and broad-leaved forest should be 110, 80, 85, and 70, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0538.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: LiDAR; swash zone; nearshore waves; probability distributions; sandy beaches
Online: 21 December 2020 (15:58:37 CET)
Understanding swash zone dynamics is of crucial importance for coastal management as the swash motion, consisting of the uprush of the wave on the beach face and the subsequent downrush, is responsible for driving changes the beach morphology trough sediment exchanges between the sub-aerial and sub-aqueous beach. Improved understanding of the probabilistic characteristics of these motions has the potential to allow coastal engineers to develop improved sediment transport models which, in turn, can be further developed into coastal management tools. In this paper, novel descriptors of swash motions are obtained by combining field data and statistical modelling. Our results indicate that the probability distribution function (PDF) of shoreline height (p(ζ)) and trough-to-peak swash heights (p(ρ)) measured at a high energy, sandy beach were both inherently multimodal. Based on the observed multimodality of these PDFs, Gaussian Mixtures are shown to be the best method to statistically model them. Further, our results show that both offshore and surf zone dynamics are responsible for driving swash zone dynamics, which indicates unsaturated swash. The novel methods and results developed in this paper, both data collection and analysis, could aid coastal managers to develop improved swash zone models in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0082.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: ecology; disturbance; forest ecosystems; lidar; disturbance detection; forest structure
Online: 8 November 2019 (03:31:45 CET)
The study of vegetation community and structural change has been central to ecology for over a century, yet how disturbances reshape the physical structure of forest canopies remains relatively unknown. Moderate severity disturbance including fire, ice storms, insect and pathogen outbreaks, affects different canopy strata and plant species, which may give rise to variable structural outcomes and ecological consequences. Terrestrial lidar (light detection and ranging) offers an unprecedented view of the interior arrangement and distribution of canopy elements, permitting the derivation of multidimensional measures of canopy structure that describe several canopy structural traits with known linkages to ecosystem functioning. We used lidar-derived canopy structural measured within a machine learning framework to detect and differentiate among various disturbance agents, including moderate severity fire, ice storm damage, age-related senescence, hemlock woolly adelgid, beech bark disease, and chronic acidification. We found that disturbance agents such as fire and ice storms primarily affected the amount and position of vegetation within canopies, while acidification, pathogen and insect infestation, and senescence altered canopy arrangement and complexity. Only two of the six disturbance agents significantly reduced leaf area, indicating that this commonly quantified canopy feature is insufficient to characterize many moderate severity disturbances. Rather, measures of canopy structure, including those that describe multidimensional change, are needed to characterize disturbance at moderate severities because structural changes from these events are spatially and quantitatively variable. Our findings suggest that standard disturbance detection methods, such as optical based remote sensing platforms, may currently be limited in their ability to detect, differentiate, and characterize disturbance. Further, we conclude that a more broadly inclusive definition of ecological disturbance that incorporates multiple aspects of canopy structure change will improve the modeling, detection, and prediction of functional implications of moderate severity disturbance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0294.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: speckle; coherence; interference; differential absorption lidar; radiometry; space mission
Online: 26 July 2019 (00:47:56 CEST)
In the context of the French-German space lidar mission MERLIN dedicated to the determination of the atmospheric methane content, an end-to-end mission simulator is being developed. In order to check whether the instrument design meets the performance requirements, simulations have to count all the sources of noise on the measurements like the optical energy variability induced by speckle. Speckle is due to interference as the lidar beam are quasi monochromatic. Speckle contribution to the error budget has to be estimated but also simulated. In this paper, the speckle theory is revisited and applied to MERLIN double pulsed IPDA lidar and also to the DLR demonstrator CHARM-F. Results show: on the signal path, speckle noise depends mainly on the size of the illuminating area on ground; on the solar flux, speckle is fully negligible both because the pixel size and the optical filter spectral width; on energy monitoring path a decorrelation mechanism is needed to reduce speckle noise on averaged data. Speckle noises for MERLIN and CHARM-F can be simulated by Gaussian noises with only one random draw by shot separately for energy monitoring and signal paths.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0354.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: open LiDAR; terrestrial images; building reconstruction; point cloud registration
Online: 16 October 2018 (11:20:43 CEST)
Recent advances in open data initiatives allow us to free access to a vast amount of open LiDAR data in many cities. However, most of these open LiDAR data over cities are acquired by airborne scanning, where the points on façades are sparse or even completely missing due to the viewpoint and object occlusions in the urban environment. Integrating other sources of data, such as ground images, to complete the missing parts is an effective and practical solution. This paper presents an approach for improving open LiDAR data coverage on building façades by using point cloud generated from ground images. A coarse-to-fine strategy is proposed to fuse these two different sources of data. Firstly, the façade point cloud generated from terrestrial images is initially geolocated by matching the SFM camera positions to their GPS meta-information. Next, an improved Coherent Point Drift algorithm with normal consistency is proposed to accurately align building façades to open LiDAR data. The significance of the work resides in the use of 2D overlapping points on the outline of buildings instead of limited 3D overlap between the two point clouds and the achievement to a reliable and precise registration under possible incomplete coverage and ambiguous correspondence. Experiments show that the proposed approach can significantly improve the façades details of buildings in open LiDAR data and improving registration accuracy from up to 10 meters to less than half a meter compared to classic registration methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0003.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: LiDAR; smooth contour line; break line; point cloud; forests
Online: 1 February 2018 (03:37:44 CET)
A methodology for both accurate and smooth contour line generation from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) point clouds is proposed in this paper. In order to improve the accuracy of contour lines in the area of forests, constrained triangulation networks with break lines are then constructed to generate contour lines. In break line extraction, a bi-threshold method for edge line detection is used to extract both complete and reliable break lines. A point clouds elevation adjustment with constrain of break lines and an interpolator considering a contour interval is proposed to improve the smoothness of contour lines. The proposed interpotator is also can avoid contour line intersection when contour lines are interpolated. Statistical parameters and shape index are then used to evaluate quantitatively the accuracy and smoothness of the resultant contour lines, which fill in the blank of contour lines evaluation in theory. The experiments show that high-quality contours in terms of smoothness and accuracy can be generated from LiDAR point clouds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0100.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: lidar; calibration; uncertainties; nacelle-mounted; wind turbine; power performance
Online: 27 September 2016 (10:37:43 CEST)
Nacelle-based Doppler wind lidars have shown promising capabilities to assess power performance, detect yaw misalignment or perform feed-forward control. The power curve application requires uncertainty assessment. Traceable measurements and uncertainties of nacelle-based wind lidars can be obtained through a methodology applicable to any type of existing and upcoming nacelle lidar technology. The generic methodology consists in calibrating all the inputs of the wind field reconstruction algorithms of a lidar. These inputs are the line-of-sight velocity and the beam position, provided by the geometry of the scanning trajectory and the lidar inclination. The line-of-sight velocity is calibrated in atmospheric conditions by comparing it to a reference quantity based on classic instrumentation such as cup anemometers and wind vanes. The generic methodology was tested on two commercially developed lidars, one continuous wave and one pulsed systems, and provides consistent calibration results: linear regressions show a difference of ∼ 0.5 % between the lidar-measured and reference line-of-sight velocities. A comprehensive uncertainty procedure propagates the reference uncertainty to the lidar measurements. At a coverage factor of two, the estimated line-of-sight velocity uncertainty ranges from 3.2 % at 3 m s−1 to 1.9 % at 16 m s−1. Most of the line-of-sight velocity uncertainty originates from the reference: the cup anemometer uncertainty accounts for ∼ 90 % of the total uncertainty. The propagation of uncertainties to lidar-reconstructed wind characteristics can use analytical methods in simple cases, which we demonstrate through the example of a two-beam system. The newly developed calibration methodology allows robust evaluation of a nacelle lidar’s performance and uncertainties to be established in order to further be used for various wind turbines’ applications in confidence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0145.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: clumping index; crown architecture; crown projection area; lidar-based crown metrics; discrete-return lidar; fire severity; leaf area density; post-fire effects
Online: 13 October 2019 (15:34:43 CEST)
Fire-tolerant eucalypt forests of south eastern Australia are assumed to fully recover from even the most intense fires but surprisingly very few studies have quantitatively assessed that recovery. Accurate assessment of horizontal and vertical attributes of tree crowns after fire is essential to understand the fire’s legacy effects on tree growth and on forest structure. In this study, we quantitatively assessed individual tree crowns 8.5 years after a 2009 wildfire that burnt extensive areas of eucalypt forest in temperate Australia. We used airborne lidar data validated with field measurements to estimate multiple metrics that quantified the cover, density, and vertical distribution of individual-tree crowns in 51 plots of 0.05 ha in fire-tolerant eucalypt forest across four wildfire severity types (unburnt, low, moderate, high). Significant differences in the field-assessed mean height of fire scarring as a proportion of tree height, and in the proportions of trees with epicormic (stem) resprouts were consistent with the gradation in fire severity. Linear mixed-effects models indicated persistent effects of both moderate- and high-severity wildfire on tree crown architecture. Trees at high-severity sites had significantly less crown projection area and live crown width as a proportion of total crown width than those at unburnt and low-severity sites. Significant differences in lidar-based metrics (crown cover, evenness, leaf area density profiles) indicated that tree crowns at moderate- and high-severity sites were comparatively narrow and more evenly distributed down the tree stem. These conical-shaped crowns contrasted sharply with the rounded crowns of trees at unburnt and low-severity sites, and likely influenced both tree productivity and the accuracy of biomass allometric equations for nearly a decade after the fire. Our data provide a clear example of the utility of airborne lidar data for quantifying the impacts of disturbances at the scale of individual trees. Quantified effects of contrasting fire severities on the structure of resprouter tree crowns provide a strong basis for interpreting post-fire patterns in forest canopies and vegetation profiles in lidar and other remotely-sensed data at larger scales.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0060.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Autonomous Driving; Deep Learning; LIDAR Data; Wavelets; 3D Object Detection
Online: 5 September 2022 (13:03:00 CEST)
3D object detection is crucial for autonomous driving to understand the driving environment. Since the pooling operation causes information loss in the standard CNN, we have designed a wavelet multiresolution analysis-based 3D object detection network without a pooling operation. Additionally, instead of using a single filter like the standard convolution, we use the lower-frequency and higher-frequency coefficients as a filter. These filters capture more relevant parts than a single filter, enlarging the receptive field. The model comprises a discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and an inverse wavelet transform (IWT) with skip connections to encourage feature reuse for contrasting and expanding layers. The IWT enriches the feature representation by fully recovering the lost details during the downsampling operation. Element-wise summation is used for the skip connections to decrease the computational burden. We train the model for the Haar and Daubechies (Db4) wavelets. The two-level wavelet decomposition result shows that we can build a lightweight model without losing significant performance. The experimental results on the KITTI’s BEV and 3D evaluation benchmark show our model outperforms the Pointpillars base model by up to 14 \% while reducing the number of trainable parameters. Code will be released.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0154.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: spatiotemporal; time series; bi-temporal; ground-based LiDAR; tree growth
Online: 8 July 2020 (11:56:08 CEST)
Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) has been adopted as a feasible technique to digitize trees and forest stands, providing accurate information on tree and forest structural attributes. However, there is limited understanding on how a variety of forest structural changes can be quantified using TLS in boreal forest conditions. In this study, we assessed the accuracy and feasibility of TLS in quantifying changes in the structure of boreal forests. We collected TLS data and field reference from 37 sample plots in 2014 (T1) and 2019 (T2). Tree stems typically have planar, vertical, and cylindrical characteristics in a point cloud, and thus we applied surface normal filtering, point cloud clustering, and RANSAC-cylinder filtering to identify these geometries and to characterize trees and forest stands at both time points. The results strengthened the existing knowledge that TLS has the capacity to characterize trees and forest stands in space and showed that TLS could characterize structural changes in time in boreal forest conditions. Root-mean-square-errors (RMSEs) in the estimates for changes in the tree attributes were 0.99-1.22 cm for diameter at breast height (Δdbh), 44.14-55.49 cm2 for basal area (Δg), and 1.91-4.85 m for tree height (Δh). In general, tree attributes were estimated more accurately for Scots pine trees, followed by Norway spruce and broadleaved trees. At the forest stand level, an RMSE of 0.60-1.13 cm was recorded for changes in basal area-weighted mean diameter (ΔDg), 0.81-2.26 m for changes in basal area-weighted mean height (ΔHg), 1.40-2.34 m2/ha for changes in mean basal area (ΔG), and 74-193 n/ha for changes in the number of trees per hectare (ΔTPH). The plot-level accuracy was higher in Scots pine-dominated sample plots than in Norway spruce-dominated and mixed-species sample plots. TLS-derived tree and forest structural attributes at time points T1 and T2 differed significantly from each other (p < 0.05). If there was an increase or decrease in dbh, g, h, height of the crown base, crown ratio, Dg, Hg, or G recorded in the field, a similar outcome was achieved by using TLS. Our results provided new information on the feasibility of TLS for the purposes of forest ecosystem growth monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0191.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: forest types; forest mapping; Sentinel-2; SAR; LiDAR; canopy metrics
Online: 16 July 2019 (08:12:02 CEST)
Indigenous forests cover 24% of New Zealand and provide valuable ecosystem services. However, a national map of forest types, that is, physiognomic types, which would benefit conservation management, does not currently exist at an appropriate level of detail. While traditional forest classification approaches from remote sensing data are based on spectral information alone, the joint use of space-based optical imagery and structural information from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and canopy metrics from air-borne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) facilitates more detailed and accurate classifications of forest structure. We present a support vector machine (SVM) classification using data from ESA’s Sentinel-1 and 2 missions, ALOS PALSAR, and airborne LiDAR to produce a regional map of physiognomic types of indigenous forest in New Zealand. A five-fold cross-validation of ground data showed that the highest classification accuracy of 80.9% is achieved for bands 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 11, and 12 from Sentinel-2, the ratio of bands VH and VV from Sentinel-1, HH from PALSAR, and mean canopy height and 97th percentile canopy height from LiDAR. The classification based on the optical bands alone was 73.1% accurate and the addition of structural metrics from SAR and LiDAR increased accuracy by 7.8%. The classification accuracy is sufficient for many management applications for indigenous forest in New Zealand, including biodiversity management, carbon inventory, pest control, ungulate management, and disease management. National application of the method will be possible in several years, once national LiDAR coverage is achieved, and a national canopy height model is available.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0518.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: solar; LiDAR; rooftop photovoltaics; building characteristics; wide-area solar yield
Online: 21 November 2018 (06:59:32 CET)
A new method for wide-area urban roof assessment of suitability for solar photovoltaics is introduced and validated. Knowledge of roof geometry and physical features is essential for evaluation of the impact of multiple rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV) system installations on local electricity networks. This paper begins by reviewing and testing a range of existing techniques for identifying roof characteristics. It was found that no current method is capable of delivering accurate results with publicly available input data. Hence a different approach is developed, based on slope and aspect using LIDAR data, building footprint data, GIS tools and aerial photographs. It assesses each roof’s suitability for PV installation. That is, its properties should allow the installation of at least a minimum size photovoltaic system. In this way the minimum potential solar yield for region or city may be obtained. The accuracy of the new method is then established, by ground-truthing against a database of 886 household systems. This is the largest validation of a rooftop assessment method to date. The method is flexible with few prior assumptions. It is based on separate consideration of buildings and can therefore generate data for various PV scenarios and future analyses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0266.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: rainfall; lidar; disdrometer; evaporation; meteorology; climate change; latent heat; precipitation
Online: 21 May 2018 (11:09:01 CEST)
In this paper we illustrate a new, simple and complementary ground-based methodology to retrieve the vertically resolved atmospheric precipitation intensity through a synergy between measurements from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Micropulse Lidar network (MPLNET), an analytical model solution and ground-based disdrometer measurements. The presented results are obtained at two mid-latitude MPLNET permanent observational sites, located respectively at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, USA, and at the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain. The methodology is suitable to be applied to existing and/or future lidar/ceilometer networks with the main objective of either providing near-real time (3h latency) rainfall intensity measurements and/or to validate satellite missions, especially for critical light precipitation (<3 mm hr−1).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0131.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: terrestrial LiDAR; TLS; LAI; LAD; element size; bias; consistency; efficiency
Online: 26 September 2017 (15:42:47 CEST)
Terrestrial LiDAR becomes more and more popular to estimate leaf and plant area density. Voxel-based approaches account for this vegetation heterogeneity and significant work has been done in this recent research field, but no general theoretical analysis is available. Although estimators have been proposed and several causes of biases have been identified, their consistency and efficiency have not been evaluated. Also, confidence intervals are almost never provided. In the present paper, we solve the transmittance equation and use the Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE), to derive unbiased estimators and confidence intervals for the attenuation coefficient, which is proportional to leaf area density. The new estimators and confidence intervals are defined at voxel scale, and account for the number of beams crossing the voxel, the inequality of path lengths in voxel, the size of vegetation elements, as well as for the variability of element positions between vegetation samples. They are completed by numerous numerical simulations for the evaluation of estimator consistency and efficiency, as well as the assessment of the coverage probabilities of confidence intervals. • Although commonly used when the beam number is low, the usual estimators are strongly biased and the 95% confidence intervals can be ≈±100% of the estimate. • Our unbiased estimators are consistent in a wider range of validity than the usual ones, especially for the unbiased MLE, which is consistent when the beam number is as low as 5. The unbiased MLE is efficient, meaning it reaches the lowest residual errors that can be expected (for an unbiased estimator). Also the unbiased MLE does not require any bias correction when path lengths are unequal. • When elements are small (or voxel is large), 103 beams entering the voxel leads to some confidence intervals ≈±10%, but when elements are larger (or voxel smaller), it can remain wider than ±50%, even for a large beam number. This is explained by the variability of element positions between vegetation samples. Such a result shows that a significant part of residual error can be explained by random effects. • Confidence intervals are much smaller (±5 to 10%) when LAD estimates are averaged over several small voxels, typically within a horizontal layer or in the crown of individual plants. In this context, our unbiased estimators show a reduction of 50% of the radius of confidence intervals, in comparison to usual estimators. Our study provides some new ready-to-use estimators and confidence intervals for attenuation coefficients, which are consistent and efficient within a fairly large range of parameter values. The consistency is achieved for a low beam number, which is promising for application to airborne LiDAR data. They entail to raise the level of understanding and confidence on LAD estimation. Among other applications, their usage should help determine the most suitable voxel size, for given vegetation types and scanning density, whereas existing guidelines are highly variable among studies, probably because of differences in vegetation, scanning design and estimators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1028.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: GEDI; laser altimetry, lidar, uncertainty quantification; mixture density network; terrain elevation
Online: 17 October 2023 (12:00:19 CEST)
Early spaceborne laser altimetry mission development starts in pre-phase A design, where diverse ideas are evaluated against mission science requirements. A key challenge is predicting realistic instrument performance through forward modeling at arbitrary spatial scale. Analytical evaluations compromise accuracy for speed, while radiative transfer modeling is not applicable at global scale due to computational expense. Instead of predicting arbitrary properties of a lidar measurement, we develop a baseline theory to predict only the distribution of uncertainty specifically for the terrain elevation retrieval based on terrain slope and fractional canopy cover features through a deep neural network gaussian mixture model, also known as a mixture density network (MDN). Training data was created from differencing geocorrected GEDI L2B elevation measurements with 32 independent reference lidar datasets in the contiguous U.S. from the National Ecological Observatory Network. We trained the MDN and selected hyperparameters based on regional distribution predictive capability. On average, the relative error of equivalent standard deviation of predicted regional distributions was 15.9%, with some anomalies in accuracy due to generalization and insufficient feature diversity and correlation. As an application, we predict the percent of elevation residuals of a GEDI-like lidar within a given mission threshold from 60°S to 78.25°N, which correlate to qualitative understanding of prediction accuracy and instrument performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1694.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: optical remote sensing; LiDAR; Stacking-InSAR; SBAS-InSAR; slope deformation; stability
Online: 26 September 2023 (02:38:33 CEST)
The current deformation and stable state of slopes with historical shatter signs is a concern for engineering construction. Suspected landslide scarps were discovered at the rear edge of the slope of the Genie in the Sichuan-Tibet transportation corridor during a field investigation. In order to qualitatively determine the current status of the surface deformation of this slope, this paper uses high-resolution optical remote sensing, airborne LiDAR and InSAR technologies for comprehensive analysis. The interpretation of high-resolution optical and airborne LiDAR data revealed that the rear edge of the slope exhibits three levels of scarps. However, no deformation was detected with the D-InSAR analysis of ALOS-1 radar images from 2007 to 2008 or with the Stacking-InSAR and SBAS-InSAR processing of Sentinel-1A radar images from 2017 to 2020. A geological model of the slope was established in combination with field investigation stipulating that the slope is composed of steep anti-dip layered dolomite limestone and that the scarps at the rear edge of the slope were caused by historical shallow toppling. Further research is recommended to determine the extent of toppling deformation and evaluate the slope stability under the disturbance of tunnel excavation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2191.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: rice canopy height and density; Lidar; rice canopy LAI; regression analysis
Online: 31 August 2023 (13:19:37 CEST)
Rice canopy height and density are directly usable crop phenotypic traits for the direct estimation of crop biomass. Therefore, it is crucial to rapidly and accurately estimate rice canopy phenotypic parameters. To achieve non-destructive detection and estimation of essential phenotypic parameters in rice, a platform based on LiDAR point cloud data for rice phenotypic parameter detection was established. Data collection of rice canopy layers was performed across multiple plots. The LiDAR-detected canopy top point clouds were selected using a method based on the highest percentile, and the rice canopy surface model was calculated. Canopy height estimation was the difference between ground elevation and percentile value. To determine the optimal percentile defining the rice canopy top, testing was conducted incrementally from 0.8 to 1 with an increment of 0.005. The optimal percentile value was found to be 0.975. The root mean square error (RMSE) between LiDAR-detected canopy height and manually measured canopy height was calculated. The prediction model based on canopy height (R2=0.941, RMSE=0.019) exhibited a strong correlation with actual canopy height. Linear regression analysis was conducted between gap fraction of different plots and manually detected average Leaf Area Index (LAI) of rice canopy. Prediction models for canopy LAI based on ground return counts (R2=0.24, RMSE=0.1) and ground return intensity (R2=0.28, RMSE=0.09) showed strong correlations but had lower correlation with rice canopy LAI. Regression analysis was performed between LiDAR-detected canopy height and manually measured rice canopy LAI. The results indicated that the prediction model based on canopy height (R2=0.77, RMSE=0.03) was more accurate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0708.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Autonomous Driving; Deep learning Methods; LiDAR Sensing Technology; 3D Object Detection
Online: 10 May 2023 (08:21:46 CEST)
The rapid development of Deep Learning brought novel methodologies for 3D Object Detection using LiDAR sensing technology. These improvements in precision and inference speed performances lead to notable high performance and real-time inference, which is especially important for self-driving purposes. However, the developments carried by these approaches overwhelm the research process in this area since new methods, new technologies, and software versions lead to different project necessities, specifications and requirements. Moreover, the improvements brought by the new methods may be due to improvements in newer versions of deep learning frameworks and not just the novelty and innovation of the model architecture. Thus, it became crucial to create a framework with the same software versions, specifications and requirements that accommodate all these methodologies and allow the easy introduction of new methods and models. A framework is proposed that abstracts the implementation, reusing and building of novel methods and models. The main idea is to facilitate the representation of state-of-the-art (SoA) approaches and simultaneously encourage the implementation of new approaches by reusing, improving and innovating modules in the proposed framework, which has the same software specifications to allow a fair comparison. This makes it possible to determine if the key innovation approach outperforms the current SoA by comparing models in a framework with the same software specifications and requirements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0464.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: light pollution; public lighting; photometry; LiDAR; Digital Elevation Models; VIIRS DNB
Online: 18 April 2023 (03:13:33 CEST)
We provide quantitative results from GIS-based modelling of urban emission functions for a range of representative low- and mid-rise locations, ranging from individual streets to residential communities within cities as well as entire towns and city regions with the aim of whether lantern photometry or built environment has the dominant effect on light pollution. We demonstrate the scalability of our work by providing results for the largest urban area modelled to date, comprising the central 117 km2 area of Dublin City and containing nearly 42,000 public lights. Our results show a general similarity in the shape of the azimuthally-averaged emission function for all areas examined, with differences in total light output distribution depending primarily on the nature of the lighting and, to a smaller extent, on the obscuring environment including seasonal foliage effects. A comparison with global satellite observations shows that they are consistent with the deduced angular emission function for other low-rise areas worldwide. We further validate our approach by comparing results for a range of urban locations by the close agreement observed in a detailed comparison of with calibrated imagery from the International Space Station. To our knowledge, this is the first such detailed quantitative verification of light loss calculations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0239.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: plasmonics; plasmonics photodetector; focused ion beam; silicon photodiode; near-infrared; LiDar.)
Online: 13 December 2022 (11:01:47 CET)
Recently, the interest in silicon-based detectors capable of detecting single photons in the near-infrared is growing mainly due to LiDAR applications, autonomous driving in particular. Silicon single-photon avalanche diodes are one of the most interesting single-photon NIR technology available on the market, nevertheless, their efficiency is hindered by the low absorption coefficient of Si in the NIR. The idea is the integration of CMOS-compatible nanostructures, specifically, silver grating array supporting Surface Plasmons Polaritons (SPPs), to confine superficially the incoming NIR photons and therefore increase photons probability to generate an electron-hole pair. The plasmonic silver array is geometrically fine-tuned using time domain simulation software to achieve maximum detector performance at 950 nm. Then, the plasmonic silver array is integrated by means of the focused ion beam technique on the detector. Finally, the integrated detector is electro-optically characterized, demonstrating a quantum efficiency of 13 at 950 nm, 2,2 times more than the reference detector. This result suggests the production of a device capable of detecting single NIR photons, at a very low cost and compatible with CMOS, thus integrable on existing technology platforms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0190.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Above-ground biomass; mangroves; pneumatophores; terrestrial LiDAR; machine learning; random forest
Online: 13 October 2022 (08:14:07 CEST)
Accurately quantifying the above-ground volume (AGV) and thus above-ground biomass (AGB) of forest stands is an important aspect in the conservation of mangrove ecosystem owing to their ecological and economic benefits. However, the number of studies focusing on quantifying mangrove forests’ biomass has been relatively low due to their marshy terrain, making exploratory studies challenging. In recent times, the use of LiDAR technologies in forest inventory studies has become increasingly popular, due to the reliability of LiDAR as a highly accurate means of 3D spatial data acquisition. In this study, we propose an end-to-end methodology for estimating AGV of mangrove forest stands from terrestrial LiDAR data. Many of the recent studies on this topic effectively employ machine learning algorithms such as multi layer perceptron, random forests, etc. for filtering foliage in the point cloud data of single trees. This study further extends that approach by incorporating the impact of class imbalance of forest point cloud data in a weighted random forest classifier. For the task of segmentation of wood/foliage points in a single tree point cloud, this approach yielded an average increase of 2.737% in the balanced accuracy score, 0.007 in the Cohen’s kappa score, 2.745% in the ROC AUC score and 0.857% in the F1 score. For the task of AGV estimation of a single tree, this approach resulted in an average coefficient of determination of 0.93 with respect to the ground truth volumes. For the task of counting pneumatophores in a plot-level point cloud, the proposed breadth-first searching method yielded an average coefficient of determination of 0.9391. Also, the machine learning classifier and geometric features used in this study were invariant to tree species and hence could be generalised for the classification of point clouds of other tree species as well. Finally, a breadth-first graph-search segmentation based approach is also proposed as part of this pipeline to estimate the contribution of pneumatophores to the AGB of mangrove forest stands. Since pneumatophores are a special adaptation of mangrove forests for gaseous exchange in marshy environments, this study aims to incorporate the detection and AGB estimation of pneumatophores in the inventory of mangrove forest stands. Studying the contribution of pneumatophores to the AGB of mangrove forest plots could also aid future mangrove forest inventory studies in modeling the underlying root network and estimating the below-ground biomass of mangrove trees.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0351.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: forest structure; macrosystems biology; portable canopy LiDAR; rugosity; transect spatial autocorrelation
Online: 22 June 2018 (06:38:03 CEST)
Forest canopy structure (CS) controls many ecosystem functions and is highly variable across landscapes, but the magnitude and scale of this variation is not well understood. We used a portable canopy lidar system to characterize variation in five categories of CS along N = 3 transects (140–800 m long) at each of six forested landscapes within the eastern USA. The cumulative coefficient of variation was calculated for subsegments of each transect to determine the point of stability for individual CS metrics. We then quantified the scale at which CS is autocorrelated using Moran’s I in an Incremental Autocorrelation analysis. All CS metrics reached stable values within 300 m but varied substantially within and among forested landscapes. A stable point of 300 m for CS metrics corresponds with the spatial extent that many ecosystem functions are measured and modeled. Additionally, CS metrics were spatially autocorrelated at 40 to 88 m, suggesting that patch scale disturbance or environmental factors drive these patterns. Our study shows CS is heterogeneous across temperate forest landscapes at the scale of 10’s of meters, requiring a resolution of this size for upscaling CS with remote sensing to large spatial scales.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0283.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Light detection and ranging (LiDAR)； Automation, Circle tunnel； Tunnel deformation monitoring
Online: 18 June 2018 (16:54:47 CEST)
The application of 3D LiDAR technology has become increasingly extensive in tunnel monitoring due to the large density and high accuracy of the acquired spatial data. The proposed processing method aims at circle tunnels and provides a clear workflow to automatically process raw point data and easily interpretable results to analyze tunnel health state. The proposed automatic processing method employs a series of algorithms to extract point cloud of a single tunnel segment without obvious noise from entire raw tunnel point cloud mainly by three steps: axis acquisition, segments extraction and denoising. Tunnel axis is extracted by fitting boundaries of the tunnel point cloud rejection in plane with RANSAC algorithm. With guidance of axis, the entire preprocessed tunnel point cloud is segmented by equal division to get a section of tunnel point cloud which corresponds to a single tunnel segment. Then the noise in every single point cloud segment is removed by clustering algorithm twice, based on distance and intensity. Finally, clean point clouds of tunnel segments are processed by effective deformation extraction processor to get ovality and three-dimensional deformation nephogram.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0098.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: airborne LiDAR; composite estimators; forest inventory; SPOT-5 HRG; TanDEM-X
Online: 16 October 2017 (04:30:26 CEST)
Today, non-expensive remote sensing (RS) data from different sensors and platforms can be obtained at short intervals and be used for assessing several kinds of forest characteristics at the level of plots, stands and landscapes. Methods such as composite estimation and data assimilation can be used for combining the different sources of information to obtain up-to-date and precise estimates of the characteristics of interest. In composite estimation a standard procedure is to assign weights to the different individual estimates inversely proportional to their variance. However, in case the estimates are correlated, the correlations must be considered in assigning weights or otherwise a composite estimator may be inefficient and its variance be underestimated. In this study we assessed the correlation of plot level estimates of forest characteristics from different RS datasets, between assessments using the same type of sensor as well as across different sensors. The RS data evaluated were SPOT-5 multispectral data, 3D airborne laser scanning data, and TanDEM-X interferometric radar data. Studies were made for plot level mean diameter, mean height, and growing stock volume. All data were acquired from a test site dominated by coniferous forest in southern Sweden. We found that the correlation between plot level estimates based on the same type of RS data were positive and strong, whereas the correlations between estimates using different sources of RS data were not as strong, and weaker for mean height than for mean diameter and volume. The implications of such correlations in composite estimation are demonstrated and it is discussed how correlations may affect results from data assimilation procedures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1768.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: LiDAR Sensor, Signalized Intersections, Green Time Allocation, Delay Time, Microsimulation, AIMSUN Software
Online: 30 October 2023 (06:39:08 CET)
As urban populations continue to grow, efficient traffic management becomes paramount in reducing congestion, enhancing air quality, and improving overall quality of life. This study addresses the critical issue of intersection efficiency through the implementation of smart green time allocation strategies at a signalized intersection equipped with two LiDAR sensors. This research aims to investigate optimal green time allocations provided by two LiDAR sensors and analyze the LiDAR results by microsimulation in AIMSUN. The research first introduces the concept of LiDAR-equipped signalized intersections and their potential to enhance traffic control precision. Two LiDAR sensors are strategically placed at the intersection of Marlboro Pike and Brooks Dr. in Coral Hills, MD, USA to capture real-time data on vehicle and pedestrian movements. The data are then processed to generate accurate and dynamic traffic profiles, ensuring the responsiveness of the green time allocation system to varying traffic conditions.The heart of this study lies in the integration of AIMSUN microsimulation with LiDAR data. Through meticulous modeling and simulation, the research explores the optimal green allocation at morning, mid-day, and afternoon peak hours’ scenarios to comprehensively assess the impact of LiDAR-enabled dynamic signal control. The findings demonstrate that smart green time allocation, informed by real-time LiDAR data and implemented through AIMSUN microsimulation, significantly enhances intersection efficiency. By adapting signal timings to real-time traffic demands, congestion, travel times, and emissions are reduced. Furthermore, this research highlighted that the optimal green time allocation in morning, mid-day, and afternoon peak hour intervals can improve the delay time by 55.3%, 59.7%, and 55.6%, respectively.In conclusion, this paper sheds light on the potential of LiDAR technology to transform intersection management. Through a case study involving two LiDAR sensors and AIMSUN microsimulation, it reveals the tangible benefits of dynamic signal control in enhancing intersection efficiency and creating more sustainable urban environments. These findings are pivotal in advancing the discourse on modern urban traffic management and promoting data-driven solutions for the challenges of today's cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1408.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: LiDAR sensor technology; signalized intersections; green time allocation; delay time; vehicle volume
Online: 23 October 2023 (10:21:44 CEST)
Traffic signal control plays a key role in managing urban traffic flow, enhancing safety, and minimizing congestion and conflicts. Effective green time allocation is a critical element of this control process. This research explores the utilization of LiDAR sensor technology in the optimization of green time allocation for one phase of a traffic signal at a signalized intersection. LiDAR sensors provide precise and real-time data on vehicle presence and traffic patterns, enabling a data-driven approach to traffic signal control. The study begins with an analysis of the limitations of traditional traffic signal control strategies, which often rely on fixed-time plans or rudimentary vehicle detection systems. These approaches can lead to suboptimal green time allocation, resulting in inefficient traffic management and increased vehicle delays.The integration of LiDAR sensors provides detailed information on vehicle queues, arrival rates, and vehicle types. The research presents a practical framework for green time allocation optimization, considering factors such as intersection geometry, traffic volumes, and signal coordination. An intelligent control algorithm was developed that uses LiDAR data to determine the optimal green time for a specific phase, thereby reducing unnecessary waiting times and enhancing intersection efficiency. The effectiveness of the proposed LiDAR-based green time allocation strategy is demonstrated through extensive field tests. The results indicate significant improvements in intersection throughput, reduced delays, and enhanced traffic safety. In conclusion, this research highlights the transformative potential of LiDAR sensor technology in traffic signal control, specifically in the context of optimizing green time allocation. The findings support the notion that adaptive and data-driven strategies, when integrated with LiDAR sensors, can contribute to more efficient, sustainable, and safe urban traffic management. This research aims to provide valuable insights for transportation engineers, policymakers, and researchers seeking innovative solutions for modern urban traffic control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1621.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: geological exploration; UAV; LiDAR; radiometry; geophysics; remote sensing; Landsat 9; GIS; lithium
Online: 22 June 2023 (12:22:05 CEST)
Due to the energetic transition at course, new geological exploration technologies are needed to discover mineral deposits containing critical materials such as lithium (Li). The vast majority of European Li deposits are related to Li–Cs–Ta (LCT) pegmatites. Literature review indicates that conventional exploration campaigns are dominated by geochemical surveys and related exploration tools. However, other exploration techniques must be evaluated namely remote sensing (RS) and geophysics. This work presents the results of the INOVMINERAL4.0 project obtained through alternative approaches to traditional geochemistry that were gathered and integrated into a webGIS application. The specific objectives were to: (i) assess the potential of high-resolution elevation data; (ii) evaluate geophysical methods, particularly radiometry; (iii) establish a methodology for spectral data acquisition and build a spectral library; (iv) compare obtained spectra with Landsat 9 data for pegmatite identification; and (v) implement a user-friendly webGIS for data integration and visualization. Radiometric data acquisition using geophysical techniques effectively discriminated pegmatites from host rocks. The developed spectral library provided valuable insights for space-based exploration. Landsat 9 data accurately identified known LCT pegmatite targets, compared to Landsat 8. The user-friendly webGIS facilitated data integration, visualization, and sharing, supporting potential users in similar exploration approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1062.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: LiDAR; Tree Segmentation; Tree Species Identification; Tree Species Identification; DBN; Forest Parameter
Online: 27 April 2023 (09:35:20 CEST)
The rapid development of LiDAR technology has promoted great changes in forest resource surveys. The airborne LiDAR point cloud can provide precise tree height and detailed vertical structure of the tree stands. Coordinating some representative ground sample plots, LiDAR can be used to estimate key forest resource indicators such as forest stock volume, diameter at breast height, and forest biomass at a large scale. By establishing relationship models between the forest parameters of sample plots and the calculated parameters of LiDAR, these developments may eventually expand the models to large-scale forest resource surveys of entire areas. In this study, eight sample plots in northeast China are used to verify and update the information using point cloud obtained by the LiDAR scanner riegl-vq-1560i. Firstly, the tree crowns are segmented using the profile-rotating algorithm, and dominant trees height are used to check and rectify the tree locations. Secondly, considering the correlation between forestry parameters and tree species, we establish models to distinguish between species using geometric characteristics of tree crowns. Thirdly, when the tree species is known, parameters such as height, crown width, diameter at breast height, biomass and stock volume can be extracted from trees. The prediction models of forestry parameters can also be verified, which can be extended to accurate large-scale forestry surveys based on LiDAR data. Finally, experiment results demonstrate that the F-score of the eight plots in the tree segmentation exceed 0.95, the accuracy of tree species correction exceeds 90%, and the R2 of tree height, east-west canopy width, north-south canopy width, diameter at breast height, above-ground biomass and stock volume are 0.893, 0.757, 0.694, 0.840, 0.896 and 0.891, respectively. The above results indicate that the LiDAR-based estimation of forestry parameters is practical and that these forestry parameter prediction models can be widely applied in forest resource monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0074.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: archaeological topography; tumulus; burial mound; geomorphometry; high-resolution; DEM; LiDAR; Random Forest
Online: 6 February 2020 (02:43:29 CET)
Archaeological topography identification from high-resolution DEMs is a current method that is used with high success in archaeological prospecting of wide areas. I present a methodology trough which burial mounds (tumuli) from LiDAR DEMS can be identified. This methodology uses geomorphometric and statistical methods to identify with high accuracy burial mound candidates. Peaks, defined as local elevation maxima are found as a first step. In the second step, local convexity watershed segments and their seeds are compared with positions of local peaks and the peaks that correspond or have in vicinity local convexity segments seeds are selected. The local convexity segments that correspond to these selected peaks are further feed to a Random Forest algorithm together with shape descriptors and descriptive statistics of geomorphometric variables in order to build a model for the classification. Multiple approaches to tune and selected the proper training dataset, settings and variables were tested. The validation of the model was performed on the full dataset where the training was performed and on an external dataset in order to test the usability of the method for other areas in a similar geomorphological and archaeological setting. The validation was performed against manually mapped and field checked burial mounds from two neighbor study areas of 100 km2 each. The results show that by training the Random Forest on a dataset composed of between 75% to 100% of the segments corresponding to burial mounds and ten times more non-burial mounds segments selected using latin hypercube sampling, 93% of the burial mound segments from the external dataset are identified. There are 42 false positive cases that need to be checked, and there are two burial mound segments missed. The method shows great promise to be used for burial mound detection on wider areas by delineating a certain number of tumuli mounds for model training.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0016.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: mobile mapping system; LiDAR point cloud; 2D-3D registration; panoramic sensor model
Online: 2 December 2016 (10:58:19 CET)
For multi-sensor integrated systems, such as a mobile mapping system (MMS), data fusion at sensor-level, i.e., the 2D-3D registration between optical camera and LiDAR, is a prerequisite for higher level fusion and further applications. This paper proposes a line-based registration method for panoramic images and LiDAR point cloud collected by a MMS. We first introduce the system configuration and specification, including the coordinate systems of the MMS, the 3D LiDAR scanners, and the two panoramic camera models. We then establish the line-based transformation model for panoramic camera. Finally, the proposed registration method is evaluated for two types of camera models by visual inspection and quantitative comparison. The results demonstrate that the line-based registration method can significantly improve the alignment of the panoramic image and LiDAR datasets under either the ideal spherical or the rigorous panoramic camera model, though the latter is more reliable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1401.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: LiDAR sensor technology; signalized intersections; historical crash data; traffic safety; vulnerable road users
Online: 23 October 2023 (10:28:27 CEST)
This study investigates the application of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) sensor technology for data collection at signalized intersections characterized by a high rate of traffic crashes. The research aims to provide valuable insights into the potential of LiDAR-based data analysis to enhance road safety and traffic management at signalized intersections. The research methodology involved the deployment of LiDAR sensors at Marlboro Pike & Brooks Dr. signalized intersection in Coral Hills, Maryland. Two LiDAR sensors installed in this intersection to collect high-resolution, three-dimensional data of the intersection area from June, 1st to July, 7th 2023. The data included information on vehicle trajectories, speeds, and behaviors, as well as pedestrian and cyclist movement patterns. Concurrently, historical traffic crashes recorded and traffic flow data were obtained for the same intersection.The analysis of LiDAR data involved several key aspects including LiDAR data allowed for a precise evaluation of traffic flow patterns, including congestion points, traffic volume fluctuations, and peak-hour behavior. This information provided insights into potential factors contributing to crashes. By analyzing LiDAR data, the study identified near-miss incidents, which are often precursors to actual crashes. This proactive approach could assist in identifying crash-prone areas within the intersection. The LiDAR data analysis also focused on pedestrian and cyclist movements, including jaywalking and bike lane usage. The aim was to identify areas where infrastructure improvements could enhance safety for vulnerable road users. LiDAR data was compared with historical crash data to identify specific locations within the intersection that exhibited a high frequency of crashes. This information can guide targeted safety interventions. Last but not least, the study explored opportunities to optimize traffic signal timings based on real-time traffic data from LiDAR. Adaptive signal control could help mitigate congestion and reduce the risk of crashes.The results of this study demonstrated the potential of LiDAR sensor technology in collecting detailed data for traffic analysis in signalized intersections. By combining LiDAR data with historical crash records and traffic flow data, traffic engineers and urban planners can develop evidence-based strategies to reduce the frequency and severity of crashes in high-risk areas. Ultimately, this research contributes to a comprehensive understanding of how LiDAR technology can be employed to enhance road safety and traffic management, providing valuable insights for traffic engineers, urban planners, and policymakers seeking to improve the safety and efficiency of signalized intersections with a history of high traffic crashes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1431.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: LiDAR sensor technology; signalized intersections; traffic signal failure; traffic safety; congestion; environmental pollution
Online: 23 October 2023 (10:20:28 CEST)
Traffic congestion is a persistent and challenging problem in urban areas, leading to increased travel times, fuel consumption, and environmental pollution. Signalized intersections play a pivotal role in regulating traffic flow, and their efficiency has a direct impact on the overall traffic performance of a city. This study investigates the effect of traffic signal in managing traffic volume and reducing congestion and delays at signalized intersections through a comprehensive analysis of existing research, data collection, and simulations.The research begins by analyzing the traffic characteristics by an installed LiDAR sensor at E Cold Spring Ln – Hillen Rd intersection in Baltimore City, MD. When the signal at this intersection stopped working for some hours during a working day in September 2023, the LiDAR recorded vehicle and pedestrian counts, vehicle-vehicle and vehicle-pedestrian conflicts, and jaywalking events conflicts. The research aims to assess the impact of traffic signal failures on traffic flow, congestion, safety (V2V and V2P conflicts), and the frequency of jaywalking events before, during, and after improper performance of the traffic signal. Furthermore, this study explores the factors influencing traffic signal performance, including traffic demand, geometric layout, pedestrian interactions, and the integration of emerging technologies. The analysis results highlighted the importance of signal control systems existence at this intersection that can adjust signal timing in response to changing the real-time traffic conditions.Reduced congestion, minimized delays, and enhanced traffic flow are observed outcomes, contributing to a more sustainable and efficient urban transportation system. However, it is crucial to consider the trade-offs and challenges associated with traffic signal optimization, such as the potential for increased travel times for certain modes of transportation and the need for ongoing maintenance and updates. In conclusion, this study underscores the pivotal role of traffic signals in managing traffic volume and reducing congestion and delays at signalized intersections. Through evidence-based analysis and innovative signal control strategies, urban planners and transportation authorities can work towards creating more efficient, sustainable, and less congested transportation networks. The insights derived from this research can inform policy decisions and guide the development of future traffic management solutions, ultimately leading to improved quality of life in urban areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0927.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Wind-LIDAR; multiple-level winds; diurnal cycle; atmospheric boundary layer; maximum wind speed
Online: 13 July 2023 (11:15:12 CEST)
The wind observations for multiple levels (40–200 m) have been conducted for a long time (2016–2020) on Jeju Island of South Korea. This study aims at understanding the vertical and temporal characteristics of lower atmosphere. Jeju Island is a region located at mid-latitude and is affected by seasonal monsoon wind. The maximum wind speed appears in the lower layer during day time and is delayed in the upper layer during latter time in diurnal cycle. In summer season, the surface layer increases up to 160 m during day time via dominant solar radiation effect, which is higher than those for other seasons. However, the maximum wind speed in winter season appears irregularly among altitudes, and the surface layer is ~100 m, which is lower than that in summer season. It can be attributed to the increase in the mean wind speed in diurnal cycle caused by the strong northwestern wind for winter season. These results imply that the relationship between near-surface and higher altitudes is primarily affected by solar radiation and seasonal monsoon winds. These results are expected to contribute to site selection criteria for wind farms and to the assessment concerning planetary boundary layer modeling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0085.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: object segmentation; LiDAR-camera fusion; autonomous driving; artificial intelligence; semi-supervised learning; iseAuto
Online: 4 March 2022 (21:43:06 CET)
Object segmentation is still considered a challenging problem in autonomous driving, particularly in consideration of real world conditions. Following this line of research, this paper approaches the problem of object segmentation using LiDAR-camera fusion and semi-supervised learning implemented in a fully-convolutional neural network. Our method is tested on real-world data acquired using our custom vehicle iseAuto shuttle. The data include all-weather scenarios, featuring night and rainy weather. In this work, it is shown that LiDAR-camera fusion with only a few annotated scenarios and semi-supervised learning, it is possible to achieve robust performance on real-world data in a multi-class object segmentation problem. The performance of our algorithm is measured in terms of intersection over union, precision, recall and area-under-the-curve average precision. Our network achieves 82% IoU in vehicle detection in day fair scenarios and 64% IoU in vehicle segmentation in night rain scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0424.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Internet of things; Raspberry Pi; LiDAR; GNSS; High-throughput plant phenotyping; Precision agriculture
Online: 23 November 2021 (14:15:26 CET)
Phenotypic characterization of crop genotypes is an essential yet challenging aspect of crop management and agriculture research. Digital sensing technologies are rapidly advancing plant phenotyping and speeding-up crop breeding outcomes. However, off-the-shelf sensors might not be fully applicable and suitable for agriculture research due to diversity in crop species and specific needs during plant breeding selections. Customized sensing systems with specialized sensor hardware and software architecture provide a powerful and low-cost solution. This study designed and developed a fully integrated Raspberry Pi-based LiDAR sensor named CropBioMass (CBM), enabled by internet of things to provide a complete end-to-end pipeline. The CBM is a low-cost sensor, provides high-throughput seamless data collection in field, small data footprint, injection of data onto the remote server, and automated data processing. Phenotypic traits of crop fresh biomass, dry biomass, and plant height estimated by CBM data had high correlation with ground truth manual measurements in wheat field trial. The CBM is readily applicable for high-throughput plant phenotyping, crop monitoring, and management for precision agricultural applications.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: 3D Doppler Wind Lidar; planetary boundary layer; vertical wind; wind speed; wind direction
Online: 29 April 2021 (10:33:39 CEST)
The accuracy of wind field simulation and prediction is one of the most significant parameters in the field of atmospheric science and wind energy. Limited by the observation data, there are few researches on wind energy development. A 3D Doppler wind lidar (DWL) providing the high-vertical-resolution wind data over the urban complex underlying surface in February 2018 was employed to evaluated the accuracy of vertical wind field simulation systematically for the first time. 11 PBL schemes of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) were employed in simulation. The model results were evaluated in groups separated by weather (sunny days, haze days and windy days), observation height layers, and various observation wind speeds. The test results presented that the vertical layer altitude of the observation point position was the most important factor. The simulation is fairly well at a height of 1000-2000m, as most of the relative mean bias of wind speed and wind direction are less than 20% and 6% respectively. Below 1000 m, the wind speed and direction biases are about 30%-150% m.s-1 and 6%-30% respectively. Moreover, when the observed wind speed was lower than 5 m.s-1, the bias were usually large, and the wind speed relative mean bias is up to 50-300%. In addition, the accuracy of simulated wind profile is better in 10-15m.s-1 than other speed ranges, and is better up 1000m than below 1000m in the boundary layer. We see that the WRF boundary layer schemes have different applicability to different weather conditions. The WRF boundary layer schemes have significant differences in wind field simulation with larger error under the complex topography. A PBL scheme is not likely to maintain its advantages in the long term under different conditions including altitude and weather conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0579.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Airglow; All-Sky Imagery; Atmospheric Gravity Waves; Cancelation Factor; Lidar; Mesosphere-Lower-Thermosphere
Online: 28 October 2020 (10:06:49 CET)
The cancelation factor (CF) is a model for the ratio between gravity wave perturbations in the airglow intensity to that in the ambient temperature. The CF model allows to estimate the momentum and energy flux of gravity waves seen in nightglow images as well as the divergence of these fluxes due to waves propagating through the mesosphere and lower thermosphere region, where the nightglow and the Na layers are located. This study uses a set of T/W Na Lidar data and zenith nightglow image observations of the OH and O(1S) emissions to test and validate the CF model from the experimental perspective. The dataset analyzed was obtained during campaigns carried out at the Andes Lidar Observatory (ALO), Chile in 2015, 2016, and 2017. The CF modeled function was compared with observed points from an empirical method for vertically propagating waves that calculates directly the ratio of the gravity wave amplitude seen in nightglow images to the wave amplitude seen in lidar temperatures. We show that the CF analytical relationship underestimates the observed results generally. However, the O(1S) emission line has better agreement respect to the theoretical value due to simpler nightglow photochemistry. In contrast, the observed CF ratio from the OH emission deviates by a factor of two from the modeled asymptotic value.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0273.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: all-sky imager; sodium lidar; gravity waves; mesosphere nightglow; growth rate; wave dissipation
Online: 24 October 2019 (05:46:07 CEST)
Amplitude growth rates of monochromatic gravity waves were estimated and compared from multiple instrument measurements carried out in Brazil. Wave dynamic parameters were obtained from sodium density profiles from lidar observations carried out in Sao Jose dos Campos (23°S, 46°W), while all-sky images of multiple airglow layers provided amplitudes and parameters of waves over Cachoeira Paulista (23°S, 45°W). Growth rates of gravity wave amplitudes from lidar and airglow imager data were consistent with dissipative wave behavior. Only a small amount of the observed wave events presented freely propagating behavior. Part of the observed waves presented saturated amplitude. The general saturated/damped behavior is consistent with diffusive filtering processes imposing limits to amplitude growth rates of the observed gravity waves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0358.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: depression filling; digital elevation models; hydrological analysis; level-set method; LiDAR; surface depressions
Online: 20 August 2018 (14:13:34 CEST)
In terrain analysis and hydrological modeling, surface depressions (or sinks) in a digital elevation model (DEM) are commonly treated as artifacts and thus filled and removed to create a depressionless DEM. Various algorithms have been developed to identify and fill depressions in DEMs during the past decades. However, few studies have attempted to delineate and quantify the nested hierarchy of actual depressions, which can provide crucial information for characterizing surface hydrologic connectivity and simulating the fill-merge-spill hydrological process. In this paper, we present an innovative and efficient algorithm for delineating and quantifying nested depressions in DEMs using the level-set method based on graph theory. The proposed level-set method emulates water level decreasing from the spill point along the depression boundary to the lowest point at the bottom of a depression. By tracing the dynamic topological changes (i.e., depression splitting/merging) within a compound depression, the level-set method can construct topological graphs and derive geometric properties of the nested depressions. The experimental results of two fine-resolution LiDAR-derived DEMs show that the raster-based level-set algorithm is much more efficient (~150 times faster) than the vector-based contour tree method. The proposed level-set algorithm has great potential for being applied to large-scale ecohydrological analysis and watershed modeling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0168.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: lidar; forest inventory; k-NN; dbh distribution; diameter distribution; performance criteria; index; indices
Online: 30 September 2017 (05:45:21 CEST)
While lidar-based forest inventory methods have been widely demonstrated, prediction of tree diameters with lidar is not well understood. The performance metrics typically used in studies for prediction of diameters can be difficult to interpret and may not support comparative inferences between sampling designs or study areas. We evaluate a variety of lidar and k nearest neighbor (k-NN) strategies for prediction of tree diameter distributions using two indices which are easier to interpret and compare. The indices are based on the coefficient of determination (R2), and root mean square deviation (RMSD). These indices facilitate comparisons with alternative (non-lidar) inventory strategies, and with other project areas. We evaluate k nearest neighbors (k-NN) dbh density (relative frequency by dbh class) prediction strategies with lidar for 190 training plots distribute across the 800 km2 Savannah River Site in South Carolina, USA. We evaluate the performance of k-NN with respect to distance metrics, number of neighbors, predictor sets, and response sets. Amongst the examined strategies we found Mahalanobis distance with k = 3 neighbors performed best according to a number of criteria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0058.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: GIS; image classification; LiDAR; remote sensing; wetland indicator; global wetland inventory; wetland mapping
Online: 14 September 2017 (17:25:27 CEST)
Wetlands are recognized as one of the world’s most valuable natural resources. With the increasing world population, human demands on wetland resources for agricultural expansion and urban development continue to increase. In addition, global climate change has pronounced impacts on wetland ecosystems through alterations in hydrological regimes. To better manage and conserve wetland resources, we need to know the distribution and extent of wetlands and monitor their dynamic changes. Wetland maps and inventories can provide crucial information for wetland conservation, restoration, and management. Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing technologies have proven to be useful for mapping and monitoring wetland resources. Recent advances in geospatial technologies have greatly increased the availability of remotely sensed imagery with better and finer spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution. This chapter presents an introduction to the uses of GIS and remote sensing technologies for wetland mapping and monitoring. A case study is presented to demonstrate the use of high-resolution light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data and aerial photographs for mapping prairie potholes and surface hydrologic flow pathways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1664.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: LiDAR; 3D imaging; System on chip; Microlens array; Neural network; RGB-guided; Depth completion
Online: 23 June 2023 (11:14:38 CEST)
Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology, a cutting-edge advancement in mobile applications, presents a myriad of compelling use cases, including enhancing low-light photography, capturing and sharing 3D images of fascinating objects, and elevating the overall augmented reality (AR) experience. However, its widespread adoption has been hindered by the prohibitive costs and substantial power consumption associated with its implementation. To surmount these obstacles, this paper proposes a low-power, low-cost, SPAD-based system-on-chip (SoC) which packages the microlens arrays (MLA) and incorporates with a light-weight RGB-guided sparse depth imaging completion neural network for 3D LiDAR imaging. The proposed SoC integrates an 8x8 Single-Photon Avalanche Detectors (SPADs) macro pixel array with time-to-digital converters (TDC) and charge pump, fabricated using a 180nm bipolar-CMOS-DMOS (BCD) process. A random MLA-based homogenizing diffuser efficiently transforms Gaussian beams into flat-topped beams with a 45° field of view (FOV), enabling flash projection at the transmitter. To further enhance resolution and broaden application possibilities, a lightweight neural network employing RGB-guided sparse depth complementation is proposed, enabling a substantial expansion of image resolution from 8x8 to quarter video graphics array level (QVGA; 256x256). Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and stability of the hardware encompassing the SoC and optical system, as well as the lightweight features and accuracy of the algorithmic neural network. This integrated state-of-the-art hardware-software solution offers a promising and inspiring foundation for developing consumer-level 3D imaging applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0078.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: biodiversity; insolation, biogeography; lidar; point-cloud; multi-spectral imagery; spatial prediction model; forest canopy
Online: 3 August 2021 (13:05:43 CEST)
Incident solar radiation (insolation) passing through the forest canopy to the ground surface is either absorbed or scattered. This phenomenon, known as radiation attenuation, is measured using the extinction coefficient (K). The amount of radiation at the ground surface of a given site is effectively controlled by the canopy’s surface and structure, determining its suitability for plant species.Menhinick’s and Simpson biodiversity indexes were selected as spatially explicit response variables for the regression equation using canopy structure metrics as predictors. Independent variables include modeled area solar radiation, LiDAR derived canopy height, effective leaf area index data derived from multi-spectral imagery, and canopy strata metrics derived from LiDAR point-cloud data. The results support the hypothesis that, 1.) canopy surface and strata variability may be associated with understory species diversity due to habitat partitioning and radiation attenuation, and that, 2.) such a model can predict both this relationship and biodiversity clustering.The study data yielded significant correlations between predictor and response variables and was used to produce a multiple-linear model comprising canopy relief, texture of heights, and vegetation density to predict understory plant diversity. When analyzed for spatial autocorrelation, the predicted biodiversity data exhibited non-random spatial continuity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0459.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: autonomous vehicles; self-driving cars; perception; camera; lidar; radar; sensor fusion; calibration; obstacle detection
Online: 22 February 2021 (11:31:02 CET)
The market for autonomous vehicles (AV) is expected to experience significant growth over the coming decades and to revolutionize the future of transportation and mobility. The AV is a vehicle that is capable of perceiving its environment and perform driving tasks safely and efficiently with little or no human intervention and is anticipated to eventually replace conventional vehicles. Self-driving vehicles employ various sensors to sense and perceive their surroundings and, also rely on advances in 5G communication technology to achieve this objective. Sensors are fundamental to the perception of surroundings and the development of sensor technologies associated with AVs has advanced at a significant pace in recent years. Despite remarkable advancements, sensors can still fail to operate as required, due to for example, hardware defects, noise and environment conditions. Hence, it is not desirable to rely on a single sensor for any autonomous driving task. The practical approaches shown in recent research is to incorporate multiple, complementary sensors to overcome the shortcomings of individual sensors operating independently. This article reviews the technical performance and capabilities of sensors applicable to autonomous vehicles, mainly focusing on vision cameras, LiDAR and Radar sensors. The review also considers the compatibility of sensors with various software systems enabling the multi-sensor fusion approach for obstacle detection. This review article concludes by highlighting some of the challenges and possible future research directions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0108.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: LIDAR; time-of-flight; IM/DD OCDMA; free-space optical communication; modulation; spreading code
Online: 5 October 2018 (16:17:44 CEST)
In the coded pulse scanning light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system, the number of laser pulses used at a given measurement point changes depending on the modulation and the method of spreading used in optical code-division multiple access (OCDMA). The number of laser pulses determines the pulse width, output power, and duration of the pulse transmission of a measurement point. These parameters determine the maximum measurement distance of the laser and the number of measurement points that can be employed per second. In this paper, we evaluate the performance and characteristics of combinations of modulation and spreading technology that can be used for OCDMA, and study optimal combinations according to varying operating environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0090.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: flood mapping; urban flood potential; LIDAR; image segmentation; Digital Surface Model; Digital Elevation Model
Online: 8 April 2018 (10:02:20 CEST)
Degradation of environment quality is currently the prime cause of the recent occurrence of natural disasters; it also contributes in the increase of the area that is prone to natural disasters. This research is aimed to map the potential of areas around Pesanggrahan river in DKI Jakarta by segmenting the Digital Elevation Model derived from LIDAR data. The objective of this segmentation is to find the watershed lines of the DEM image. Data processing in this research is using LIDAR data which take the ground surface data, which is overlaid with Jakarta river map and subsequently, the data is then segmented the image. The expected result of the research is the flood potential area information, especially along the Pesanggrahan river in South Jakarta.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0112.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: HEC-RAS model; Red River; LiDAR data; Flood mapping; Manning’s n-coefficient; Contraction Scour Depth
Online: 7 April 2023 (04:54:08 CEST)
This research is focused on two key areas. The first is mapping the 2022 flood in the Red River of the North near Grafton, North Dakota, US, and the second is evaluating the scour potential of the Grafton Bridge. Local scour of bridge piers can cause hydraulic structures such as bridge piers and abutments to fail during floods, making it a crucial area of investigation. To collect bathymetry and discharge data during low and high flow conditions, including a flood event with a 16.5-year return period in 2022, an Autonomous Surface Vehicle (ASV) incorporated with LiDAR DEM (Digital Elevation Model) data obtained from the US Geological Survey (USGS) National Map was used. Flood mapping and evaluation of local scour around the bridge pier were conducted using the HEC-RAS 6.0.0 software, which utilizes the Colorado State University method as a default equation. This research demonstrates the potential of ASVs in collecting critical data and LiDAR DEM data is an efficient method for flood mapping and determining scour potential, as it integrates bathymetry, flow velocity, and flood prediction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0306.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Ethnic And Cultural Studies Keywords: Terrestrial Laser Scanning; LiDAR; Mobile Laser Scanning; SLAM; Forest inventory; Garden documentation; Garden digital surveying
Online: 16 November 2022 (10:33:52 CET)
Gardens play a key role in the definition of the cultural landscape since they reflect the culture, identity and history of a people. They also contribute to the ecological balance of the city. Despite gardens have an historic and social value, they are not protected as much as the rest of the existing heritage, like architecture and archaeological sites. While methods of built-heritage mapping and monitoring are increasing and constantly improving to reduce built-heritage loss and the severe impact of natural disasters, the documentation and survey techniques for gardens are often antiquated, inventories are typically made by non-updated/updatable reports, and rarely they are on digital format and in 3D. This paper presents the preliminary results of a study on latest technology for gardens laser scanning. We compared static Terrestrial Laser Scanning and Mobile Laser Scanning point clouds, to evaluate their quality for documentation and the estimation of the tree attributes. The evaluation is based on visual observation and graphic comparison of the two point clouds acquired in different instances. Both methods produced useful outcomes for the research scope within their limitations. Terrestrial Laser Scanning is still the method that offers more accurate point clouds with a higher point density and less noise level. However, the more recent Mobile Laser Scanning is able to survey in less time, significantly reducing the costs for site activities, data post-production and registration. Both methods have their own restrictions that are amplified by site features, mainly the lack of plans for the geometric alignment of scans and for the Simultaneous Location and Mapping (SLAM) process. We also offer the results of a comparison of the functional range of the two machines, as well as for a comparison of their terrain information extraction capabilities.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0033.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: laser remote sensing; photon-counting lidar; microchip laser; passively Q-switching; compact solid-state lasers
Online: 2 March 2022 (06:53:36 CET)
As a critical transmitter, the compact 532 nm lasers operating on high repetition and narrow pulse widths have been used widely for airborne or space-borne laser active remote sensing. We developed a free space pumped TEM00 mode sub-nanosecond 532 nm laser that occupied a volume of less than 125 mm × 50 mm × 40 mm (0.25 liters). The fundamental 1064 nm laser consists of a passively Q-switched composite crystal microchip laser and an off-axis, two-pass power amplifier. The pump sources were two single-emitter semiconductor laser diodes (LD) of 808 nm with a maximum continuous wave (CW) power of 10 W each. The average power of fundamental 1064 nm laser was 1.26 W with the laser operating at 16 kHz repetition rates, and 857ps pulse widths. Since the beam distortion would be severe in microchip lasers in terms of the increase in heat load, for obtaining a high beam quality of 532 nm, the beam distortion was compensated by adjusting the distribution of pumping beam in our experiment of fundamental amplification. Furthermore, better than 0.6 W average power, 770 ps, beam quality of M2 ＜1.2, and 16 kHz pulse output at 532 nm was obtained by a Type I LiB3O5 (LBO) crystal in the critical phase matching (CPM) regime for second harmonic generation (SHG).
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0081.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Agriculture; Extreme Heat; Climate Change; Grandview; Edge Computing; 5G; IoT; Drone Imagery; LiDAR; Decision framework
Online: 6 December 2021 (15:19:50 CET)
The US pacific northwest recorded its highest temperature in late June 2021. The three-day stretch of scorching heat had a devastating effect on not only the residents of the state, but also on the crops thus impacting the food supply-chain. It is forecasted that streaks of 100-degree temperatures will become common. Farmers will have to adapt to the changing landscape to preserve their crop yield and profitability. A research collaborative consisting of researchers and academicians in Eastern Washington led by a pioneering startup has setup a 16.9-acre Honeycrisp Apple Smart Orchard in Grandview, WA as a laboratory to study the environmental and plant growth factors in real-time using modern computational tools and techniques like IoT (Internet of Things), Edge and Cloud Computing, and Drone and LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) imaging. The computational analysis is used to develop guidelines for precision agriculture for orchard blocks to address plant growth issues scientifically and in a timely fashion. The analysis also helps in creating risk-mitigation strategies for severe weather events while helping prepare farmers to maximize crop yield and profitability per acre. I was fortunate to gain access to the terabytes of farm data related to the weather, soil, water, tree, and canopy health, to analyze and formulate recommendations for the farmers that can be adopted nationwide for different crops and weather conditions. This paper discusses the different streams of farm data that were analyzed (ex. soil moisture, soil water potential, and sap flow) and the development of the framework to use data to convert insights into actionable steps. For example, the use of sensors can inform a farmer that their level of soil water potential is below threshold in a specific patch of the orchard, prompting them to turn on irrigation for the patch instead of the whole orchard. I estimate that using an IoT-sensor-based decision framework discussed in this paper, growers can save up to 55% of their water costs for the season. Using these insights, farmers can better manage their irrigation resources and labor, thus maximizing their crop yield and profits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0312.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: ecopolitana; greenscape; forestry plan; ecological network; green infrastructures; biodiversity; agroecology; conservation agricolture; Sentinel 2; LiDAR.
Online: 17 November 2021 (23:13:51 CET)
A national green planning strategy has recently been introduced in the Italian urban planning sector, aimed at making all local initiatives undertaken nationwide consistent with each other. At a regional level, Friuli Venezia-Giulia has recently implemented a Landscaping Plan, which is of an urban planning and ecological nature at an intermediate level between national and local. This article describes the local green plan of Latisana, which has been entitled Ecopolitana, given that it is represents the experimental phase, at a regional level, of the possibilities offered by landscape planning and design. Specifically, it outlines the multi-disciplinary approach used, demonstrating how landscape planning can be compared to the sustainable development of cities, with specific regard to the agricultural sector. Regarding the agricultural sector, a low-intensity cropping model is also suggested, based on the principles of agroecology and landscape ecology, which has already been implemented in the historical rural landscape of Plasencis (UD) and developed through GIS analysis and remote sensing processes. Its aim is to be the starting point for the achievement of the goals set in the 2030 Agenda, and especially Goals 13 (Climate action) and 15 (Life on land), given the current scarcity of agroecological infrastructures in the area of Latisana (UD) and the high percentage of soil used for intensive cropping.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0293.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: ICESat-2; photon-counting lidar; photon labeling; visualization; ATL03; ATL08; visual interpretation; solar-induced noise
Online: 13 August 2020 (08:08:40 CEST)
NASA’s ICESat-2space-borne photon-counting lidar mission is providing global elevation measurements that will provide significant benefits to a variety of bio-geoscience research applications. Given the novelty of elevation and the derived data products from the ICESat-2 mission, the research community needs software tools that can facilitate photon-level analyses to support product validation and development new analysis methods. Here, we describe PhotonLabeler, a free graphic user interface (GUI) for manual labeling and visualization of ICESat-2 Geolocated Photon data (ATL03). Developed in MATLAB, the GUI facilitates the reading and display of ATL03 Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) files, the manual labeling of individual photons into target classes of choice using a number of point selections tools and enables eventual saving of labeled data in ASCII format. Other capabilities include saving and loading of labeling sessions to manage labeling tasks over time. We expect labeled data generated using the application to serve two main purposes. First, serve as ground truth for validating various products from ICESat-2 mission, especially for study sites around the world that do not have existing reference datasets such as airborne lidar. Second, serve as training and validation data in the development of new algorithms for generating various ICESat-2 data products. We demonstrate the first use case through a validation case study for the land and vegetation product (ATL08), which provides canopy and terrain height estimates, over two sites. For the first site, located in northwestern Zambia, we used ICESat-2 ATL03 data acquired at night and for our second site in Texas, US, we used ATL03 data acquired during the day. The PhotonLabeler application is freely available as a compiled MATLAB binary to enable free access and utilization by interested researchers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0192.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: LiDAR sensors reliability; Internet of Things, self-turning parametrization; k-nearest neighbors, driven-assistance simulator
Online: 28 February 2018 (11:26:12 CET)
Nowadays, the research and development of on-chip LiDAR sensors for vehicle collision avoidance is growing very fast. Therefore, the assessment of the reliability in obstacle detection using the information provided by LiDAR sensors has become a key issue to be explored by the scientific community. This paper presents the design and implementation of a self-tuning method in order to maximize the reliability of an Internet-of-Things sensors network and to minimize the number of sensors to localize with the required accuracy obstacles by a detection threshold. In order to achieve this goal, models that predict accuracy (i.e., prediction error) for object localization using data collected by LIDAR sensors are designed and implemented in Webots Automobile 3D simulation tool. The approach is based on combining different techniques. Firstly, point-cloud clustering technique and an error prediction model library composed by a multilayer perceptron neural network with backpropagation, k-nearest neighbors and linear regression are explored. Secondly the above-mentioned techniques for modeling are also combined with a supervised and reinforcement machine learning technique, Q-learning in order to minimize the detection threshold. In addition, a IoT driving assistance simulated scenario with a LiDAR sensor network is designed in order to validate the prediction model and the optimal configuration of the sensor network to guarantee reliability in obstacle localization. The results demonstrate that the self-tuning method is appropriate to increase the reliability of the sensor network whereas minimizing the detection threshold