ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0512.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: social sustainability; seasonal migration; circular migration; industrial agriculture; Huelva; Lleida; Romanian migration; temporary migration programs
Online: 21 December 2020 (11:24:46 CET)
Since the beginning of the 21st century, Romanian migrants have become one of the most significant national groups doing agricultural work in Spain, initially coming via a temporary migration program and later under several different modalities. However, despite their critical importance for the functioning of Europe’s largest agro-industry, the study of this long-term circular mobility is still underdeveloped in migration and agriculture literature. Thanks to extensive fieldwork carried out in the provinces of Huelva and Lleida in Spain and in the counties of Teleorman and Buzău in Romania, this paper has two main objectives: first, to identify some of the most common forms of mobility of these migrants and second, to discuss whether this industrial agriculture, hugely dependent on migrant work, is socially sustainable. The case of Romanian migrants in Spanish agriculture will serve to show how a critical sector for the EU and for the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development of the United Nations, operates on an unsustainable model based on precariousness and exploitation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0058.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: labor migration; migration policy; Russia; Post-Soviet space; governmentality; labor legalization
Online: 18 September 2016 (09:45:52 CEST)
The authors argue that despite significant numbers of foreign workers present in the Russian labor market Russia remains unattractive for highly skilled foreign workers. The economic crisis the country has faced since 2014 has resulted in a further outflow of foreign nationals from OECD countries. So Russia has to look for employees among newcomers from the former Soviet states, the majority of whom come from Central Asia. Russian politics with regard to immigration is characterized by the collision between “geopolitical” and domestic policy rationales. On one hand, seeking to maximize its influence in the post-Soviet space Russia provides preferential conditions of employment for citizens of partner countries in the framework of the Eurasian Economic Union. On the other hand, the Kremlin is afraid to liberalize its approach to immigration and the integration of immigrants through fear of losing popularity among the electorate. The second substantial feature of Russian immigration politics is an extreme level of securitization of migration issues. The government considers these issues primarily through a policing lens. One cannot claim that the Russian state does not take any steps to liberalize “migratory regulation”; however, the effect of these measures is being vastly reduced by new restrictions. In addition, liberally designed laws do not bring the expected results due to the corrupt practices that pervade the whole of migration regulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0322.v1
Online: 21 July 2022 (10:45:48 CEST)
Albanian migration has always reflected a family character, be that before 1945 when Albania was not yet completely isolated, as well as after 1990 when borders were reopened. This feature characterized all types of movement, internal or international, permanent or seasonal migration, return migration or transnational movements, and remigration. The role of the family has been very important in making decisions regarding migration and answering questions from why to how to migrate, from when to where, whom to ask for help or how to invest remittances. Based on the case study of a rural area in Northern Albania, The Administrative Unit of Dajç, this article explores in detail the roles of family and kinship on decisions regarding return migration, the re-adjustment process, remigration or transnational life. By exploring the role of the family context in remigration and vice-versa the article reflects that the family biography – including the lifestyle, plans for the future or expectations - has changed due to previous migration experiences or challenges and difficulties when returning to the home country. It demonstrates how individual decisions to migrate or to ‘return home’ are negotiated and supported within families making transnational life a family project. The article adopts a new approach in the Albanian Migration Studies which may be implied on broader areas for further research in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0081.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Migration; Health; Electronic health records
Online: 5 October 2021 (11:40:07 CEST)
International migrants comprised 14% of the UK population in 2020, but migrant health in the UK has rarely been studied at a population level using primary care electronic health records (EHRs). Given the difficulty of determining migration status using EHRs, this study developed a migration phenotype and assessed its validity. We developed a phenotyping algorithm using codes for country of birth, visa status, non-English main/first language and non-UK origin. It was applied to a Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) GOLD database of 16,071,111 primary care patients between 1997 and 2018. We compared the completeness and representativeness of the identified migrant population to Office for National Statistics (ONS) country of birth and 2011 census data by year, age, sex, geographic region of birth and ethnicity. Between 1997-2018, 403,768 migrants (2.51% of the CPRD GOLD population) were identified using the phenotype. 178,749 (1.11%) of these migrants were identified by codes indicating foreign country of birth or visa status, 216,731 (1.35%) a non-English main/first language, and 8,288 (0.05%) non-UK origin. The cohort was similarly distributed compared to ONS migration statistics in terms of sex and region of birth. Recording of migration improved from identifying approximately one-tenth of the expected proportion of migrants according to the ONS in 2004 to a quarter in 2018. Younger migrants were better represented than those aged 50 and over. The migration phenotype identified a large number of migrants and can be used to undertake large-scale migration health research in CPRD GOLD to inform healthcare policy, practice and action. While the cohort was representative of the UK migrant population in terms of sex and region of birth, migration status was under-recorded in earlier years and older ages, and future studies for these groups should therefore be interpreted with caution.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Climate Change; Policy; Migration; Health; Governance
Online: 12 November 2020 (11:39:36 CET)
Changing mobility patterns combined with changes in the climate present challenges and opportunities for global health, requiring effective, relevant and humane policy responses. This study used data from a systematic literature review that examined the intersection between climate change, migration and health. The aim of the present study was to synthesize policy recommendations in the peer-reviewed literature, regarding this type of environmental migration with respect to health, to strengthen the evidence-base. Systematic searches were conducted in four academic databases (PubMed, Ovid Medline, Global Health and Scopus) and Google Scholar for empirical studies published between 1990 – 2020 that used any study design to investigate migration and health in the context of climate change. Studies underwent a two-stage protocol-based screening process and eligible studies were appraised for quality using a standardized mixed-methods tool. From the initial 2,425 hits, 68 articles were appraised for quality and included in the synthesis. Among the policy recommendations, six themes were discernible: (1) avoid the universal promotion of migration as an adaptive response to climate risk; (2) preserve cultural and social ties of mobile populations; (3) enable the participation of migrants in decision-making in sites of relocation and resettlement; (4) strengthen health systems and reduce barriers for migrant access to health care; (5) support and promote optimization of social determinants of migrant health; (6) integrate health into loss and damage assessments related to climate change. The results call for transformative policies that support the health and wellbeing of people engaging in, or affected by mobility responses, including those whose migration decisions and experiences are influenced by climate change, and to establish and develop inclusive migrant healthcare.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0148.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: mental health; working population; labour; migration; depression
Online: 3 November 2020 (13:52:38 CET)
Background: Mental health is a growing concern worldwide. It is not well understood whether Nepali workers, including international labour migrants from Nepal, are at higher risk of developing mental health problems. The purpose of our study is to determine the prevalence of and examine the risks factors for depression among returnee migrants and non-migrant working male adults in Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of a probability-based sample of 725 participants was conducted in February 2020. The sample was comprised of two groups based on migration status: returning migrants and non-migrants. Logistic regression was applied to investigate factors associated with symptoms depression.Results: The overall prevalence of depression was 10.1%. However, the prevalence of depression was lower (7%) among returnee migrants compared to non-migrants (13.7%). Participants in the lower income group were more at risk of depression (OR=5.38, 95% CI: 1.96-14.78) than those in the higher income group. Similarly, Buddhists and Christians were more likely to be depressed (OR=2.17, 95% CI: 1.02-4.64) than Hindus. Interestingly, participants having more than two children had a higher prevalence of depression (OR=5.14, 95% CI: 1.22-21.63) compared with those having no children. Unmarried participants were more likely to be depressed (OR=4.05, 95%, CI:1.10-14.93) than those who were married. Conclusion: The working Nepali adult male population in Nepal, including returning migrants, is at risk of depression, but this risk is lower in those in the higher income group, returnee migrants, married, Hindus and those with no children. This study highlights the need to monitor and develop national policies to ensure the mental health of Nepali male adult population, including returnee migrants.
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: Parkinson's disease; development; dopamine neurons; substantial migration
Online: 22 December 2019 (13:16:16 CET)
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a slowly progressing neurodegenerative disorder that is coupled to both widespread protein aggregation and to loss of substantia nigra dopamine (DA) neurons, resulting in a wide variety of motor and non-motor signs and symptoms. Recent findings suggest that the PD process is triggered several years before there is sufficient degeneration of DA neurons to cause onset of overt motor symptoms. According to this concept, the number of DA neurons present in the substantia nigra at birth could influence the time from the molecular triggering event until the clinical diagnosis with lower number of neurons at birth increasing the risk to develop the disease. Conversely, the risk for diagnosis would be reduced if the number of DA neurons is high at birth. In this commentary, we discuss the genetic and epigenetic factors that might influence the number of nigral DA neurons that each individual is born with and how these may be linked to PD risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0320.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: water; agriculture; migration; caribbean sids; climate change
Online: 29 September 2019 (02:54:00 CEST)
Caribbean SIDS are among the most vulnerable to climate change which will have a disproportionate impact on local environments and economies. Whilst there is a growing literature on how Caribbean SIDS can adapt to become more resilient a question that has received little attention is with regard to migration as an unplanned response. It is recognised that events such as hurricanes and flooding can lead to internal relocation in the short term but societal responses to droughts through migration have not generally been investigated. This paper seeks to address this by considering the case of the island of Carriacou, part of the state of Grenada. Carriacou with its small population, limited land area and local economy, historically based on agriculture has had a high degree of migration. This is in part a response to limited economic opportunities. Environmental stress manifest through limited water availability, inappropriate land management and social conditions is likely to be exacerbated by climate change and variability. Resultant increases in the frequency and intensity of droughts, in the absence of proactive interventions, are likely to result in non-linear migration, both to Grenada itself and beyond.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0097.v1
Online: 20 June 2017 (11:30:51 CEST)
Hepatocellular Carcinoma is one of the most predominant malignancies with high fatality rate and is rising at an alarming rate because it is quite resistant to radioand chemotherapy. The proliferation, migration and activation of endothelial cells are involved in tumor occurrence and development. Indirubin is the major active anti-tumor ingredient of a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. In this research, Td-ECs were derived from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by treating HUVECs with the conditioned medium of human liver cancer cell line HepG2. The effects of indirubin on cell proliferation, migration, invasion and angiogenesis of Td-ECs were assessed. Indirubin significantly inhibited Td-EC cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Indirubin also inhibited Td-EC migration and angiogenesis. However, indirubin’s effects on HUVECs were weaker than on Td-ECs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0363.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: migration; mentoring; unaccompanied minors; refugee; asylum seeker; integration
Online: 19 August 2022 (10:39:38 CEST)
In 2015, an increased migration movement into Europe generated a European Refugee Crisis. Adolescents often migrate unaccompanied by a caregiver and face particular risk during the different phases of migration. Recently, Portugal hosted the fourth highest number of Middle East and North Africa unaccompanied minors (UM) among EU countries. Thus, it is relevant to explore peer reviewed interventions among EU state members to inform the development of future Portuguese-based programs aiming to support the integration of these citizens. This review aimed to analyse mentoring as a relevant integration tool for UM refugees arriving to Portugal. Mentoring was identified as low-cost strategy with low to moderate positive results for youth at risk of developing psychological, social, and behavioural problems. Mentoring is starting to gain momentum within the EU countries receiving more refugee citizens integrated into the EU relocation program. This review can inform social education technicians and the staff involved in the Portuguese refugee relocation program and encourage the discussion on the creation of Portuguese-based mentoring programs for the studied population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0087.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Cranial neural crest cells; embryogenesis; development; cell migration
Online: 2 March 2021 (12:28:49 CET)
A recent study from our lab revealed that inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 exclusively reduces the level of PGE2 amongst the prostanoids and hamper the normal development of several structures, strikingly the cranial vault, in chick embryos. In order to unearth the mechanism behind the deviant development of cranial features, the expression pattern of various factors that are known to influence the cranial neural crest cell (CNCC) migration were checked in chick embryo after inhibiting the COX-2 activity using etoricoxib. The compromised level of cell adhesion molecules and their upstream regulators, namely CDH1, CDH2, MSX1, and TGF-β, observed in the etoricoxib treated embryos indicate that COX-2, through its downstream effector PGE2, regulates the expression of these factors perhaps to aid the migration of CNCC. The histological features and levels of FoxD3 as well as PCNA further consolidates the role of COX-2 in migration and survival of CNCC in developing embryo. The results of the current study indicate that the COX-2 plays a pivotal role in orchestrating the proliferation and migration of CNCC during embryonic development of chick.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: ER stress; GPCR; EMT; cancer progression; migration; cancer
Online: 8 October 2020 (13:06:04 CEST)
The majority of cellular responses to external stimuli are mediated by receptors such as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and systems including endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress). Since GPCR signalling is pivotal in numerous malignancies, they are widely targeted by a number of clinical drugs. Cancer cells often negatively modulate GPCRs in order to survive, proliferate and to disseminate. Similarly, numerous branches of the unfolded protein response (UPR) act as pro-survival mediators and are involved in promoting cancer progression via mechanisms such as epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, there are a few proteins among these groups which impede deleterious effects by orchestrating the pro-apoptotic phenomenon and paving a therapeutic pathway. The present review exposes and discusses such critical mechanisms and some of the key processes involved in carcinogenesis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0353.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: conservation; monarch butterfly; migration; population ecology; population genetics
Online: 16 September 2020 (07:13:35 CEST)
Monarch butterflies are a species of conservation priority due to declining overwintering populations in both eastern and western North America. Declines in western overwintering monarchs—more than 99% since monitoring began—are especially acute. However, the degree to which the western monarch is a distinct biological entity is uncertain. In this review, we focus on phenotypic and genetic differentiation between eastern and western monarchs, with the goal of informing researchers and policy-makers who are interested in monarch conservation. Eastern and western monarchs occupy distinct environments and show some evidence for phenotypic differentiation—particularly for migration-associated traits—though population genetic and genomic studies suggest that they are genetically indistinguishable from one another. We suggest future studies that could improve our understanding of differences between eastern and western monarchs. We also discuss the concept of adaptive capacity in eastern and western monarchs as well as non-migratory populations outside of the monarch’s primary North American range.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0137.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: Archaeology; Archaeogenetic Model; Neolithic; Chalcolithic; Bronze Age; Migration
Online: 19 December 2017 (15:49:22 CET)
Migrations are much more important than currently recognised, for explaining important patterns observed in the European archaeology record – according to this archaeology led model. At a high level, they explain the introduction of different farming, monument building, the spread of metalworking and patterns of trade and exchange. This paper presents an archaeogenetic model based on a strategic review of the Neolithic and Chalcolithic archaeology of Europe, alongside a review of recently published ancient DNA data. The model is archaeology led. It takes archaeology themes and proposes migratory events to explain them. Ancient DNA data and further archaeology evidence is then used to test these proposed migrations- to reject or refine them. The model introduces a new and more strategic way of looking at archaeological cultures - that updates early 20th century approaches to studying archaeology cultures, and integrates with the detailed ‘post processual’ studies of the late 20th Century. The model consists of seven maps – each showing multiple migration events – with key evidence to support each migration map. It proposes a new category of a ‘Black Sea’ related population that makes a major genetic contribution to the Middle Neolithic of Europe. The proposed migrations provide an explanation for the observed patterns of archaeology, for example: • multiple Neolithic migrations that introduced, farming and metalworking into Europe; • a major ‘Black Sea’ related ‘Middle Neolithic’ migration that carried advanced knowledge of astronomy that can be recognised in a variety of types of monument from the Neolithic through to Bronze Age Europe; and, • migrations of related cultures (‘supercultures’) that explain patterns of trade and exchange in Bronze Age western Europe. The model also provides ancient DNA and archaeology based support for the key aspects of Childe’s ‘dawn of civilisation’ in Europe and Egypt and Gimbutas’ ‘Old Europe’ and “three waves of migration from the Steppe”.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0119.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: health policy; unorganised sector; brick-kiln workers; migrant; migration
Online: 8 June 2022 (08:54:52 CEST)
Urbanization is a global phenomenon and as the economies are shifting from rural based subsistence to services based, the net flow of migration is inevitable. Unfortunately, In India, migration is very poorly understood. India is next to China in production of bricks, accounting for nearly 13% of global annual bricks’ production. The condition of brick-kiln workers is pitiable, especially due to poor care available. They are exposed to health hazards such as various communicable diseases, sexually transmitted diseases and occupational health hazards. The diseases such as respiratory problems, allergies, gastrointestinal ailments and malnutrition are frequent in these populations. This paper reflects upon various policies that exist for the welfare of unorganised sector but do these workers qualify for these benefits? This paper provides empirical basis for paradigm shift for policy formulation to provide safety nets for migrant population and have better urban planning for future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0218.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Migration; Shared Socioeconomic Pathways; Inequality; Labor; Demographics; Human capital
Online: 15 March 2022 (14:29:19 CET)
International migration is closely tied to demographic, socioeconomic, and environmental factors and their interaction with migration policies. Using a combination of a gravity econometric model and an overlapping generations model, we estimate the probability of bilateral migration among 160 countries in the period of 1960 to 2000 and use these findings to project international migration flows and their implication for income inequality within and between countries in the 21st century under five shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). Our results show that international migration not only increases the welfare in developing countries, but also closes the inequality gap within and between low-skilled and high-skilled labor in these countries. In most developed countries on the contrary, international migration increases the inequality gap and slightly reduces output. These changes are not uniform and vary significantly across countries depending on their population growth and human capital development trajectories. Overall, while migration is strongly affected by inequality between developed and developing countries, it has an ambiguous impact on inequality within and between countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0353.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: interstitial flow; glioma; chemotaxis; autologous; computational; gradient; CXCL12; migration
Online: 19 November 2021 (13:01:48 CET)
Fluid flow and chemokine gradients play a large part in not only regulating homeostatic processes in the brain, but also in pathologic conditions by directing cell migration. Tumor cells in particular are superior at invading into the brain resulting in tumor recurrence. One mechanism that governs cellular invasion is autologous chemotaxis, whereby pericellular chemokine gradients form due to interstitial fluid flow (IFF) leading cells to migrate up the gradient. Glioma cells have been shown to specifically use CXCL12 to increase their invasion under heightened interstitial flow. Computational modeling of this gradient offers better insight into the extent of its development around single cells, yet very few conditions have been modelled. In this paper, a computational model is developed to investigate how a CXCL12 gradient may form around a tumor cell and what conditions are necessary to affect its formation. Through finite element analysis using COMSOL and coupled convection-diffusion/mass transport equations, we show that velocity (IFF magnitude) has the largest parametric effect on gradient formation, multidirectional fluid flow causes gradient formation in the direction of the resultant which is governed by IFF magnitude, common treatments and flow patterns have a spatiotemporal effect on pericellular gradients, exogenous background concentrations can abrogate the autologous effect depending on how close the cell is to the source, that there is a minimal distance away from the tumor border required for a single cell to establish an autologous gradient, and finally that the development of a gradient formation is highly dependent on specific cell morphology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0612.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Migration; Northern Triangle of Central America; climate change; drought
Online: 25 June 2021 (09:23:22 CEST)
The worldwide number of migrants has had a rapid increase during the last fifteen years. Despite the extensive research studies that elucidate the increase in migrants' recipient countries, we know little about the relationship between the climate factors and human mobility in the countries of origin. Hence, this study focuses on the effects of weather and the propensity of individuals to leave a territory by measuring the importance of rain precipitation or the lack of it in one of the critical food corridors of Central America, formed by El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala. To study the mobility process, we develop a stochastic frontier model; the main result shows a greater propensity to migrate when there is a significant drought event in the place of origin. Some other factors that motivate people to leave their homeland are the effect of other climate events measured through the control system (ENSO), homicide levels, economic performance, and exchange rate. The findings allow differentiating between drought and excess precipitation on a population and mobility to other territories. In addition, these results permit us to derive observable implications of the different effects of flooding and drought and create public policies of prevention, mitigation, and resilience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0130.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Geniposide; NF-ĸB; IEC-6; Signaling pathway; Cell migration
Online: 8 January 2021 (08:35:25 CET)
The nuclear factor-ĸB (NF-ĸB) transcriptional system is a major effector pathway involved in inflammatory responses. Previous studies found that a Gardenia decoction (GD) inhibited the expression of NF-κB in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse intestinal injury model. Herein, we hypothesized that geniposide (GE), a component of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, also exerts anti-inflammatory effects and inhibits NF-ĸB activity in LPS-induced intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6). IEC-6 cells were stimulated with LPS, following which the effects of GE on NF-ĸB signaling in the IEC-6 cells were examined by western blotting to detect IĸB phosphorylation/degradation. The expression of NF-κB was determined by immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the inhibitory effect of GE on the release of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) activated by LPS in IEC-6 cells. In addition, the migration ability of IEC-6 cells was observed by the scratch method. These results showed that GE dose-dependently downregulated levels of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β that had been upregulated by LPS and suppressed the phosphorylation of IĸB and NF-ĸB induced by LPS. Our findings indicated that GE could reduce LPS-induced NF-ĸB signaling and proinﬂammatory expression in IEC-6 cells and significantly enhance the migration of IEC-6 cells. Moreover, GE inhibited the expression of NF-κB, nuclear transfer, and transcriptional activity in IEC-6 cells. GE could block the synthesis of inflammatory factors of IEC-6 cells by inhibiting activation of the IĸB/NF-κB signaling pathway induced by LPS.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0500.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Alzheimer; blood brain barrier; CD4+ T cells; migration; medication
Online: 24 August 2020 (03:08:41 CEST)
The effect of Alzheimer's disease (AD) medications on CD4+ T cells homing has not been thoroughly investigated. Alzheimer's disturbs the life of at least five million persons in the USA. CD4+ T cells could both exacerbate and reduce AD symptoms. Regulating CD4+ T cells homing to the leaky blood-brain barrier (BBB) constitutes a new hope for enhancing AD prognosis. Alzheimer's drugs such as Donepezil (Aricept), Rivastigmine (Exelon), Galantamine (Razadyne) and memantine are known to play an important part in regulating the neurotransmitters mechanisms. However, little is known about the effect of these drugs on CD4+ T cells homing. In this review, we focus on current and new drugs that could modulate CD4+ T cells interactions with the BBB in AD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0441.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Furin; ppFurin; Breast cancer; Calcium; SOCE; TRPC6; Viability; Migration.
Online: 20 August 2020 (07:41:14 CEST)
The intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) modulation plays a key role in the regulation of cellular growth and survival in normal cells and failure of [Ca2+]i homeostasis is involved in tumor initiation and progression. Here we show that inhibition of Furin by its naturally occurring inhibitor the prodomain ppFurin in the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells resulted in enhanced SOCE through TRPC6 activation that associated reduced cells malignant phenotype. Expression of ppFurin in a stable manner in MDA-MB-231 and the melanoma MDA-MB-435 cell lines inhibits Furin activity as assessed by in vitro digestion assays. Accordingly, cell transfection experiments, revealed that the ppFurin-expressing cells are unable to process adequately the PC substrates proVEGF-C and proIGF-1R. Compared to MDA-MB-435 cells, expression of ppFurin in MDA-MB-231 significantly induces Ca2+ entry which is impaired by silencing of TRPC6 expression. Analysis of TRPC6 activation revealed its up-regulated tyrosine phosphorylation in ppFurin-expressing MDA-MB-231 cells. The expression of ppFurin in MDA-MB-231 cells reduced their viability and ability to migrate and enhanced their sensitization to the apoptosis inducer hydrogen peroxide. These findings suggest that Furin inhibition by ppFurin may be a useful strategy to interfere with Ca2+ mobilization leading to breast cancer cells malignant phenotype repression and reduction of their resistance to treatments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0312.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: chalocomoracin; proliferative vitreoretinopathy; vitreous; Akt; p53; migration; proliferation; contraction
Online: 19 April 2020 (02:18:01 CEST)
Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are the major cell type in the epi- or sub-retinal membranes in the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), which is a blinding fibrotic eye disease and still short of effective medicine. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate if Chalocomoracin (CMR), a novel purified compound from fungus-infected mulberry leaves, is able to inhibit vitreous-induced signaling events and cellular responses intrinsic to PVR. Our studies have revealed that the CMR IC50 for ARPE-19 cells is 35.5 μM at 72 hours, and that 5 μM CMR inhibits vitreous-induced Akt activation and p53 suppression; in addition we have discovered that this chemical effectively blocks vitreous-stimulated proliferation, migration and contraction of ARPE-19 cells, suggesting that CMR is a promising PVR prophylactic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0189.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: miR-139-5p; SLC7A11; proliferation; migration; pancreatic cancer (PANC)
Online: 17 September 2019 (12:42:14 CEST)
Objective: Pancreatic carcinoma (PANC) is one of the important aggressive cancers, with deficiency in effective therapeutics. Studies have unveiled that miR-139-5p expression is significantly downregulated in other types of cancers. However, the functions and mechanisms of miR-139-5p in PANC remain unclear. Methods: Bioinformatic analysis was performed to analyze the differentially expressed genes in the TCGA database. PANC cell line with overexpressed miR-139-5p and Solute Carrier Family 7, Member 11 (SLC7A11) was established, and has been used to detect cell proliferation, migration, invasion and colony formation in PANC. Subsequently, bioinformatic analysis and luciferase assay were performed to confirm that SLC7A11 was a target gene of miR-139-5p. Xenograft mouse model was used to investigate the role of miR-139-5p in PANC tumorigenicity. Results: Through bioinformatic analysis, miR-139-5p was predicted to regulate phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway by targeting SLC7A11. MiR-139-5p was found to be lowly expressed in PANC tissues, while SLC7A11 was highly expressed. Low expression of miR-139-5p and high expression of SLC7A11 were positively associated with poor clinical outcomes. PANC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion could be inhibited by miR-139-5p overexpression and could be promoted by SLC7A11 overexpression. MiR-139-5p could regulate the protein expression level of PI3K and Akt associated with phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway could be by inhibiting the expression of SLC7A11. MiR-139-5p overexpression could suppress PANC tumor growth and the expression of SLC7A11, p-PI3K, p-Akt in tumor tissues. Therefore, the inhibiting effect of miR-139-5p to PANC cell proliferation, invasion and migration, at least, was partly due to its inhibiting effect on SLC7A11 expression. Conclusion: These results demonstrated a novel role of miR-139-5p/SLC7A11 in PANC and provided potential prognostic predictors for PANC patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0170.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: migration; female genital mutilation; sexual health; reproductive health; communication
Online: 18 August 2016 (05:30:20 CEST)
Objectives: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a significant public health problem. It is estimated around 14,700 women affected by FGM live in Switzerland, primarily among women with a history of migration. Our qualitative research investigated the sexual health of immigrant women living with FGM in Switzerland, describing their own perception of health, reproductive life and sexuality. Methods: We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with a group of eight immigrant women of African origin living in Switzerland with Type III FGM (infibulation). Results: Seven of the women were from Somalia and one from Ivory Coast. All of the Somali women were mothers and married (two separated), and the Ivorian woman was a single mother. The women in our study reported a low level of sexual satisfaction and reproductive health. They affirmed their desire to improve, or at least change, their condition. Although they rarely talk with their husbands about sexual subject matter, they would like to include them more and improve dialogue. Conclusions: Specific socio-sexual management is recommended when caring for immigrant women living with FGM in order to respond to their specific health care needs. Multidisciplinary approaches may be able to offer more comprehensive health care, including facilitated communication to improve dialogue between women and health care professionals, and eventually between women and their husbands in discussing sexual matter.
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Urban household, migration, connectivity, food remittances, food security, Nairobi, Kenya
Online: 28 June 2021 (11:55:04 CEST)
This paper draws on data from a representative city-wide household food security survey of Nairobi conducted in 2017 to examine the importance of food remitting to households in contemporary Nairobi. The next section of the paper provides an overview of urbanization and the rapid growth of Nairobi which has led to growing socio-economic inequality, precarious livelihoods for the majority, and growing food insecurity, as context for the more detailed empirical analysis of food security and food remittances that follows. It is followed by a description of the survey methodology and sections analyzing the differences between migrant and non-migrant households in Nairobi. Attention then turns to the phenomenon of food remitting, showing that over 50% of surveyed households in the city had received food remittances in the previous year. The paper then uses multivariate logistic regression to identify the relationship between Nairobi household characteristics and the probability of receiving food remittances from rural areas. The findings suggest that there are exceptions to the standard migration and poverty-driven explanatory model of the drivers of rural-urban food remitting and that greater attention should be paid to other motivations for maintaining rural-urban connectivity in Africa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0531.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Microglia; Extracellular vesicles; migration; P2X4 receptor; MFG-E8; lipid rafts
Online: 22 June 2021 (08:26:41 CEST)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) effectively suppress neuroinflammation and induce neuroprotective effects in different disease models. However, the mechanisms by which EVs regulate neuroinflammatory response of microglia remain largely unexplored. Here, we addressed this issue by testing the action of EVs derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth stem cells (SHEDs) on immortalized human microglial cells. We found that EVs induced a rapid increase in intracellular Ca2+ and promoted a significant ATP release in microglial after 20 min of treatment. Boyden chamber assays revealed that EVs promoted microglial migration by 20 %. Pharmacological inhibition of different subtypes of purinergic receptors demonstrated that EVs activated microglial migration preferentially through the P2X4R pathway. Proximity ligation and co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed that EVs promote association between milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor VIII (MFG-E8) and P2X4 receptor proteins. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of αVβ3/αVβ5 integrin suppressed EV -induced cell migration and formation of lipid rafts in microglia. These results demonstrate that EVs promote microglial motility through P2X4 R/ MFG-E8 – dependent mechanisms. Our findings provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms through which EVs target human microglia that may be exploited for the development of new therapeutic strategies targeting disease associated neuroinflammation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0176.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Bactrian camel; Last Glacial Maximum; Million Years Ago; Human migration
Online: 8 February 2021 (10:30:58 CET)
The Evolutionary history and domestication of Camels are largely unexplored because of the lack of well dated early archaeological records. However, limited records suggest that domestication of Camels likely happened in the late second millennium BCE. Over the time, camels have helped human for their basic needs like meat, milk, wool, dung to long routes transportation. This multifaceted animal has helped the mankind to connect through continents and in trade majorly through the Silk route. In India, both dromedary and Bactrian camels are found and their habitat is entirely different from each other, dromedaries inhabit in hot deserts and Bactrians are found mostly in cold places (Nubra Valley, Ladakh). Fewer studies on Indian dromedaries have been conducted but no such studies are done on Bactrian camels. It is needed to study the genetics of Bactrian camels to find out their genetic affinity and evolutionary history with other Bactrians found in different parts of the world. Furthermore, parallel studies on humans and Bactrian camel are required to understand the co-evolution and migration pattern of humans during their dispersal in different time periods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0121.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: carbon sequestration; caprock integrity; noble gas migration; seal by-pass
Online: 3 February 2021 (15:07:39 CET)
The assessment of caprock integrity for underground storage of CO2 and/or enhanced oil recovery (EOR) systems is a multiscale endeavor. Caprock sealing behavior depends on coupled processes that operate over a broad range of length and time scales including nanoscale heterogeneity in capillary and wettability properties to depositional heterogeneity that is basin wide. Larger-scale sedimentary architecture, fractures, and faults can govern properties of potential “seal-bypass” systems that may be difficult to assess. We present a multiscale investigation of geologic sealing integrity of the caprock system that overlies the Morrow B sandstone reservoir, Farnsworth Unit, Texas, USA. The Morrow B sandstone is the target geologic unit for an on-going combined CO2 storage–EOR project by the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP). Methods and/or data encompass small-to-large scales, including: petrography using electron and optical microscopy; mercury porosimetry; core examinations of sedimentary architecture and fractures; well logs; a suite of geomechanical testing; and a noble gas profile through sealing lithologies into the reservoir, as preserved from fresh core. The combined data set allows a comprehensive examination of sealing quality by scale, by primary features that control sealing behavior, and an assessment of sealing behavior over geologic time.
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: fibronectin; corneal fibroblasts; fibrin; 3-D matrices; collective cell migration
Online: 6 August 2020 (00:20:04 CEST)
We previously reported that corneal fibroblasts within 3D fibrin matrices secrete, bind, and organize fibronectin into tracks that facilitate cell spreading and migration. Other cells use these fibronectin tracks as conduits, which leads to the development of an interconnected cell/fibronectin network. In this study, we investigate how cell induced reorganization of fibrin correlates with fibronectin track formation in response to two growth factors present during wound healing: PDGF BB, which stimulates cell spreading and migration; and TGFβ1, which stimulates cellular contraction and myofibroblast transformation. Both PDGF BB and TGF stimulated global fibrin matrix contraction (P < 0.005), however cell and matrix patterning were different. We found that during PDGF BB induced cell spreading, fibronectin was organized simultaneously with the generation of tractional forces at the leading edge of pseudopodia. Over time this led to the formation of an interconnected network consisting of cells, fibronectin and compacted fibrin tracks. Following culture in TGFβ1, cells were less motile, produced significant local fibrin reorganization, and formed fewer cellular connections as compared to PDGF BB (P < 0.005). Although bands of compacted fibrin tracks developed in between neighboring cells, fibronectin labeling was not generally present along these tracks, and the correlation between fibrin and fibronectin labeling was significantly less than that observed in PDGF BB (P < 0.001). Taken together, our results show that cell-induced ECM reorganization can occur independently from fibronectin patterning. Nonetheless, both events seem to be coordinated, as corneal fibroblasts in PDGF BB secrete and organize fibronectin as they preferentially spread along compacted fibrin tracks between cells, producing an interconnected network in which cells, fibronectin and compacted fibrin tracks are highly correlated. This mechanism of patterning could contribute to the formation of organized cellular networks that have been observed following corneal injury and refractive surgery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0212.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Annona squamosa; phytomedicine; proliferation; apoptosis; migration; estrogen receptor; tumor size
Online: 12 May 2020 (12:37:43 CEST)
: Annona squamosa L. is an important medicinal plant used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Different parts of A. squamosa L. have various therapeutic effects; however, the anticancer activity of the leaves has not yet been identified. In vitro, MTT, nuclear staining, and LDH assays were used to evaluate cell survival and proliferation in cells exposed to the extracts. The effect of the extracts on cell migration was investigated using a monolayer wound repair assay, and the apoptotic effects were evaluated using flow cytometry. A breast cancer model was used to study the effect of the extract on the tumor size, and the expression of different proliferative and apoptotic markers was evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis. At a concentration of 100 µg/mL, A. squamosa leaf extracts exerted strong antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects against various cell lines. The extracts reduced wound closure and strongly induced apoptosis. In vivo study, rats were sacrificed 24 h after the last injection, and tumor size, as well as the expression of proliferative and apoptotic markers, were observed to be greatly affected by treatment with the extracts. Therefore, A. squamosa leaf extract may be developed as a potential novel drug to treat breast cancer in the future
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: demographic growth; displacement; remote sensing; forced migration; urban sprawl; mobility
Online: 27 March 2020 (04:08:12 CET)
Anthropogenic change is associated with population growth, land use change, and changing economies. However, internal migration patterns and armed conflicts are also key drivers behind anthropogenic and demographic processes. To better understand this sort of change, we explore the spatial relationship between forced migration due to armed conflict and changing demographic factors in Colombia, a country which has a recent history of 7 million internal migrants. In addition, we use remote sensing, Google Earth Engine, as well as spatial statistical analyses of demographic data in order to measure anthropogenic change between 1984 and 2008; and we look into spatiotemporal relationships between both demographic and anthropogenic changes, which are caused by forced migration. We find, thus, that the latter is significantly and positively related to an increasing rural-urban kind of migration which originates in armed conflict, and results show that it is also negatively associated with interregional expulsion. Indeed, anthropogenic prints (term hereafter used to denote changes in nighttime satellite imagery) pertaining to different regions have had different sensitivities towards forced migration, and across different time periods. Finally we discuss how social and political phenomena such as Colombia’s armed conflict can have significant effects on the dynamics and motions of humans and territories in countries of the Global South.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0333.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: gap junction; connexin; angiogenesis; cell mechanics; cell migration; cellular stiffness
Online: 28 December 2018 (05:19:52 CET)
Angiogenesis, the sprout and growth of new blood vessels from existing vasculature, is an important process of tumor development for the supply of oxygen and nutrition to cancer cells. Endothelial cell is a critical player in angiogenic process by modulating cell proliferation, cell motility, and cell morphology in the response to pro-angiogenic factors and environments provided by tumor and cancer cells. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies have revealed that gap junction of endothelial cells also participates in the promotion of angiogenesis. Pro-angiogenic factors modulate gap junction function and connexins expression in endothelial cells, whereas endothelial connexins involve in angiogenic tube formation and cell migration of endothelial cells via both gap junction channel function dependent or independent mechanisms. In particular, connexin might have the potential to regulate cell mechanics such as cell morphology, cell migration, and cellular stiffness that are dynamically changed during angiogenic processes. Here, we review the implication for endothelial gap junction and cellular mechanics in vascular angiogenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0037.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Emdogain; amelogenin; dental pulp cells; cell differentiation; cell migration; mineralization
Online: 7 January 2018 (11:00:15 CET)
Enamel matrix derivative (EMD) is used for periodontal tissue regeneration therapy, and can induce mineralization in dental pulp cells (DPCs). We designed a synthetic peptide (SP) derived from the response of cells to EMD, and investigated the effect of the SP on potentiating osteogenesis in DPCs, which have a critical role of dental pulp homeostasis. DPCs were treated with 0, 10, 100, or 1000 ng/mL SP to determine its effect on cell proliferation, cell migration, cell differentiation, and mineralization. We then examined the molecular effects of the SP, focusing on changes in the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathway in these cells. The SP significantly promoted DPC proliferation and migration. Cultures treated with the SP also showed an enhanced expression of markers of osteogenic differentiation and mineralization. The SP also induced the activation of MAPK signaling pathway components. These results suggest that our SP could promote the dental pulp tissue repair by hard tissue formation and the mineralization through activating MAPK signaling pathway. This study provides the first evidence that SP might be a new material for dental pulp tissue treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0051.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: angiogenesis; cell invasion; cell migration; Flavone derivative (TTF1); hepatoma; STAT3
Online: 9 November 2016 (10:21:43 CET)
TTF1-NP(5,2′,4′-trihydroxy-6,7,5′-trimethoxyflavone nanoparticles), derived from the traditional Changbai Mountain medicinal plant Sorbaria sorbifolia (SS), has been showedits anti-cancer effect in various liver cancer cell types and tissues. The present study was designed to evaluate the antitumor mechanism of the TTF1-NP against HepG2 hepatoma cells and HepG2 cells-induced hepatocarcinoma (HCC) in nude mouse model. Here we demonstrated that TTF1-NP inhibits tube formation of HUVECs and HepG2 cell migration and invasion, and inhibits tumor growth in nude mice implanted with HepG2 cells through the downregulation of STAT3 protein and activation, along with VEGF, KDR, bFGF, MMP2 and MMP9 levels. We further revealed that TTF1-NP decreased the DNA-binding capacity of STAT3. Together our results provide a mechanism by which TTF1-NP suppresses cancer cell migration, invasion and angiogenesis through the action of STAT3 and suggests TTF1-NP as a potential therapy for hepatocellular cancer treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0374.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Mesenchymal Stem Cells 1; Cell Migration 2; Xenogeneic Wound Repair 3.
Online: 14 June 2021 (15:06:48 CEST)
Bone marrow derived adult human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) possess therapeutic qualities that enable them to enhance wound repair. However, the mechanisms by which this occurs remains poorly understood. Basic mechanisms may include the directed migration of delivered cells to target sites and/or the production and release of soluble factors that act at a distance. Allogeneic and even xenogeneic cells may effectively participate in wound repair. Labeled hMSCs were delivered to full-thickness skin wounds that were created in immunologically competent mice. The delivery occurred on day 3 post-wounding using two different carriers; one which released cells and one which retained cells. The fates of the delivered cells were tracked for up to 25 days. During this period, released cells migrated as a tight cohort deep into the wound to reach the subdermal vascular plexus. Simultaneously, enhanced formation of granulation tissue was evident. This migration of hMSCs was not essential in that enhanced granulation tissue formation and wound contraction occurred when cells were retained in the carrier matrix. This provided further evidence for the release of therapeutic factors by hMSCs to sites of injury.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0344.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: entomology; foraging; movement; migration; behaviour; morphology; mating; reproduction; fecundity; range expansion
Online: 29 January 2020 (04:09:55 CET)
Dispersal represents a key life-history trait with several implications for the fitness of organisms, population dynamics and resilience, local adaptation, meta-population dynamics, range shifting and biological invasions. Plastic and evolutionary changes of dispersal traits have been intensively studied over the past decades in entomology, in particular in wing-dimorphic insects for which literature reviews are available. Importantly, dispersal polymorphism also exists in wing-monomorphic and wingless insects, and except for butterflies, fewer syntheses are available. In this perspective, by integrating the very last research in the fast moving field of insect dispersal ecology, this review article provides an overview of our current knowledge of dispersal polymorphism in insects. After having provided a definition of the main terms characterising insects’ movements, some of the most often used experimental methodologies for the separation of dispersers and residents in wing-monomorphic and wingless insects are presented. The existing knowledge on the morphological and life-history trait differences between resident and disperser phenotypes is then synthetized. The fourth part examines the effects of range expansion on dispersal traits and performance, in particular for insects from range edges and invasion fronts. Finally, some research perspectives are proposed in the last part of the review.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0177.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: macrophage migration inhibitory factor; HNSCC cell lines; proliferation; cell cycle; apoptosis
Online: 15 November 2019 (08:48:50 CET)
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a multifunctional cytokine that contributes to the progression of several cancers. MIF overexpression has been reported in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients. However, the exact role of MIF in HNSCC is not fully understood. Our aim was to evaluate the amount of secreted MIF and the role of MIF in the proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis in HNSCC cell lines. The MIF levels in conditioned media from human primary (HN18 and HN30) and metastatic (HN17 and HN31) HNSCC cell lines were evaluated using ELISA. The HNSCC cell lines were treated with recombinant MIF and its effect on proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptotic status was determined by MTT and flow cytometry, respectively. The HNSCC-secreted MIF concentration ranged from 49.33‒860 pg/ml. Exogenous MIF (25 ng/ml) significantly increased HN18, HN30, and HN31 cell proliferation. Moreover, MIF induced cell cycle progression and inhibited apoptosis in these cells. However, MIF did not affect growth or apoptosis in HN17 cell. In conclusion, the HNSCC cell lines were evaluated secrete MIF. Exogenous MIF promotes various effects on proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis in HNSCC cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0118.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Gentrification; Residential Migration; Black Middle Class; Washington, DC; PG County, MD
Online: 5 November 2018 (14:06:31 CET)
The implications of urban revitalization, gentrification, and residential migration have attracted widespread interest and ongoing debate among scholars across a range of disciplines. While a significant body of literature explores race and class interactions within urban gentrifying neighborhoods, few have examined the environments that await those displaced by this process. This study explores the social and political impact of urban gentrification and class stratification within the black community by examining responses of black middle class residents in Prince George’s County, MD to the growing in-migration of low-income and minority residents from Washington, DC. Drawing on data from the U.S. Census Bureau, a multi-neighborhood sample of ninety-five black middle class residents of Prince George’s County, and informal interviews with subject-area experts, this study explores how race and class shape residential decisions and their impact on residential mobility initiatives. Residents responded to a 26-item survey that covered demographic information, political and community engagement, and their attitudes and beliefs about the poor, changes in their community, and racial unity and responsibility. Findings from cross tabulations and binary logistic regression indicate that lower middle class residents are the most likely to resist in-migration by exiting their communities and/or voting against proposals to create affordable housing options. Core and upper middle class residents were the most likely to stay in their neighborhoods despite increases in low-income migration, to vote in support of policies to create affordable housing options and to believe their responsibility to poor blacks could include sharing residential space.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0133.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: cell migration; hepatic stellate cell; TGF-β1; Rap1; RhoA; NF-κB
Online: 7 September 2018 (12:19:49 CEST)
Although the migration of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is important for hepatic fibrosis, the regulation of HSC migration is poorly understood. Interestingly, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 induces monocyte migration to sites of injury or inflammation in the early phase but inhibits cell migration in the late phase. In this study, we investigated the role of RhoA signaling in TGF-β1-induced HSC migration. We found that TGF-β1 increased the protein and mRNA levels of α-SMA and collagen type I in HSC-T6 cells. The level of RhoA-GTP in TGF-β1-stimulated cells was significantly higher than that in control cells. Moreover, cofilin phosphorylation and F-actin formation was more strongly detected in TGF-β1-stimulated cells than in control cells. Additionally, TGF-β1 induced the activation of NF-κB and the expression of extracellular matrix proteins and several cytokines in HSC-T6 cells. The active form of Rap1 (Rap1 V12) suppressed RhoA-GTP levels, whereas the dominant negative form of Rap1 (Rap1 N17) augmented RhoA-GTP levels. Therefore, we confirmed that Rap1 regulates RhoA activation in TGF-β1-stimulated HSC-T6 cells. These findings suggest that TGF-β1 regulates Rap1, resulting in RhoA suppression, NF-κB activation and F-actin formation during the migration of HSCs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0120.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: sinulariolide; human bladder cancer; migration; invasion; PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway
Online: 27 June 2017 (06:23:44 CEST)
Sinulariolide, a natural product extracted from cultured-type soft coral Sinularia flexibilis, possesses bioactivity against the movement of several types of cancer cell. However, the molecular pathway of its effects on human bladder cancer remain poorly understood. Using a human bladder cancer cell line as an in vitro model, this study investigated the underlying mechanism of sinulariolide against cell migration/invasion in TSGH-8301 cells. We found that sinulariolide inhibited TSGH-8301 cell migration/invasion, and the effect was concentration-dependent. Furthermore, the protein expressions of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) MMP-2 and MMP-9, as well as urokinase, were significantly decreased after 24-h sinulariolide treatment. Meanwhile, the increased expressions of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were in parallel with an increased concentration of sinulariolide. Finally, the expressions of several key phosphorylated proteins in the mTOR signaling pathway were also downregulated by sinulariolide treatment. Our results demonstrated that sinulariolide has significant effects against TSGH-8301 cell migration/invasion, and its effects were associated with decreased levels of MMP-2/-9 and urokinase expression, as well as increased TIMP-1/TIMP-2 expression. The inhibitory effects were mediated by reducing phosphorylation proteins of the PI3K, AKT and mTOR signaling pathway. The findings suggested that sinulariolide is a good candidate for advanced investigation with the aim of developing a new drug for the treatment of human bladder cancer.
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: switching intention; proximity mobile payment; migration theory; push-pull-mooring framework; dissatisfaction
Online: 17 May 2021 (09:50:51 CEST)
Individual users' payment behaviors have changed. The diffusion of mobile devices makes people suitable for proximity mobile payment (PMP) services without the need for traditional payment. Existing mobile payment literature mainly focuses on users' adoption and continuous usage behavior, nevertheless, switching behavior on payment received little attention, especially focusing on why users switch from traditional payment to PMP. Thus, the objective of the current research is to investigate factors influencing users’ traditional payment - PMP switching to comprehend how these factors shape users’ switching intentions. We developed a traditional payment - PMP transition model based on the push-pull-mooring framework derived from migration theory. This research adopted a structural equation modeling analysis on 311 valid data. The findings indicate that a push factor drives users away from traditional payment in terms of dissatisfaction. The pull factors, including perceived substitutability and perceived usefulness, attract users to PMP. Furthermore, in terms of perceived technical compatibility, a positive mooring factor facilitates users' switching to PMP. The negative mooring factor, in terms of perceived risk, hinder users' switching intention. However, another pull factor - perceived ease of use, failed to influence switching intention significantly. This study found some distinctions between mobile payment switching and mobile payment adoption. These findings provide pivotal insights for mobile payment service providers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0398.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: self-assembling peptide; biomineralization; pulp-dentin complex; tooth repair; cell migration; biocompatibility
Online: 20 January 2021 (12:55:47 CET)
Self-assembling peptide P11-4 is amphiphilic and pH-triggered with demonstrated effectivity repairing early carious lesions in enamel. However, P11-4 effects on dentin biomineralization and repair remain unexplored. Thus, cytocompatibility and effectiveness of P11-4 inducing mineralization and migration of odontoblast-like cells (MDPC-23) were investigated. MDPC-23 were seeded in contact with P11-4(0.5µg/ml and 1µg/ml), Dentin Matrix Protein 1 (DMP1 0.5µg/ml and 1 µg/ml) or Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2 100µg/ml) solutions. Cytotoxicity was verified using MTT (n=6/group). Mineralization was tested using Alizarin Red (n=4/group). Cell migration was assessed by light microscopy (n=2/group). MTT and Alizarin Red data were compared using Krus-kal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney (α=0.05). P11-4 (0.5µg/ml and 1µg/ml) and DMP1 (0.5µg/ml and 1µg/ml) presented the highest cytocompatibility; Ca(OH)2 presented the lowest. DMP1 1µg/ml exhibited the highest mineralization ability, with no difference to P11-4 1µg/ml. Ca(OH)2 presented lower values than DMP1 1µg/ml (p<0.05), but similar to P11-4 1µg/ml. P11-4 and DMP1 at 0.5 µg/ml showed induced less mineralization than P11-4 and DMP1 at 1µg/ml (p<0.05), with no difference to Ca(OH)2. All materials stimulated cell migration, however, lower concentrations of DMP1 and P11-4 provided better results. P11-4 is cytocompatible, induces mineralization and MDPC-23 migration like DMP1. P11-4 could be an alternative for dentin mineralization and tooth repair.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0445.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: oral cancer; cancer-associated fibroblasts; metastasis; cell migration; cell invasion; Akt; EGFR
Online: 27 May 2020 (08:25:20 CEST)
Oral cancer cells (TYS) and the signalling pathways involved in metastasis, in response to cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs, COM) and normal oral mucosal fibroblasts (MM1) was studied. Metastatic cell behaviour was observed by cell-scatter, 3D-collagen gel migration and 3D-spheroid invasion assays. Akt, MAPK, EGFR, TGFβRii and CXCR4 inhibitors were used to identify the signalling pathways involved. Signalling pathway protein expression and activation were assessed by SDS-PAGE and Western Blotting. COM-CM (conditioned medium) and MM1-CM stimulated cancer cell scattering, which was blocked only by the Akt inhibitor. COM-CM induced scattered cancer cells showed higher levels of Akt phosphorylation than the negative control and MM1-CM. Migration and invasion of TYS cells into the collagen gels from the spheroids was stimulated by CM from both sources, compared to the negative control. COM cells stimulated TYS, cancer cell invasion into the collagen more than MM1 and the control. Akt and EGFR inhibitors effectively blocked CM and COM cell-induced invasion. Akt-silenced cancer cells were not stimulated to migrate and invade by fibroblast-CM and did not survive addition of the EGFR inhibitor. This suggests that CAFs stimulate oral cancer cell migration and invasion in an Akt- dependent manner. EGFR and Akt are potential therapy targets in metastatic oral cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0213.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Computational Mathematics Keywords: cell migration; optimal control; geometric partial differential equations; mechanical membrane forces; cell polarisation
Online: 15 June 2022 (05:54:15 CEST)
Cell migration is essential for physiological, pathological and biomedical processes such as, in embryogenesis, wound healing, immune response, cancer metastasis, tumour invasion and inflammation. In light of this, quantifying mechanical properties during the process of cell migration is of great interest in experimental sciences, yet few theoretical approaches in this direction have been studied. In this work, we propose a theoretical and computational approach based on the optimal control of geometric partial differential equations to estimate cell membrane forces associated with cell polarisation during migration. Specifically, cell membrane forces are inferred or estimated by fitting a mathematical model to a sequence of images, allowing us to capture dynamics of the cell migration. Our approach offers a robust and potentially accurate framework to compute geometric mechanical membrane forces associated with cell polarisation during migration and also yields geometric information of independent interest, we illustrate one such example that involves quantifying cell proliferation levels which are associated with cell division, cell fusion or cell death.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0067.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Intermarriage; migration; local markets; Poisson model; Probit model; spatial autocorrelation; spatial heterogeneity; Spain
Online: 4 March 2022 (08:43:08 CET)
We utilized all Spanish marriage records available at the municipality level from 2005-2007 to model spatial variations in intermarriage. We constructed a spatial regime zero inflated Poisson model and grouped-data probit model, with spatially lagged regressors, to predict the absolute and relative presence of intermarriage between Spaniards and migrants based on structural characteristics of the local marriage markets and their neighboring areas (i.e., relative group size, homogeneity of national origins, and sex ratio indicators). Our models do not assume collapsibility of the marriage market. Instead, they incorporate the local dimension of the marriage market and examine the association between intermarriage and structural variables at the spatial local level. The model also investigates intermarriage variation by size of place. The local characteristics of the marriage markets are robust indicators of both the absolute and relative importance of intermarriage, but their impact varies by size of municipality. The relative size of the migrant community positively impacts intermarriage. The homogeneity of the origins of migrants is negatively related to it. The impact of sex ratios in the migrant and native communities on intermarriage is not uniform across all municipalities and is not always related to more intermarriage.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0284.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: hypoxia; HIF-1α; partial EMT; collective migration; inflammatory breast cancer; E-cadherin; metastasis
Online: 17 May 2020 (08:19:42 CEST)
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a cellular biological process involved in migration of primary cancer cells to secondary sites facilitating metastasis. Besides, EMT also confers properties such as stemness, drug resistance and immune evasion which can aid a successful colonization at the distant site. EMT is not a binary process; recent evidence suggests that cells in partial EMT or hybrid E/M phenotype(s) can have enhanced stemness and drug resistance as compared to those undergoing a complete EMT. Moreover, partial EMT enables collective migration of cells as clusters of circulating tumor cells or emboli, further endorsing that cells in hybrid E/M phenotypes may be the ‘fittest’ for metastasis. Here, we review mechanisms and implications of hybrid E/M phenotypes, including their reported association with hypoxia. Hypoxia-driven activation of HIF-1α can drive EMT. In addition, cyclic hypoxia, as compared to acute or chronic hypoxia, shows the highest levels of active HIF-1α and can augment cancer aggressiveness to a greater extent, including enriching for a partial EMT phenotype. We also discuss how metastasis is influenced by hypoxia, partial EMT and collective cell migration, and call for a better understanding of interconnections among these mechanisms. We discuss the known regulators of hypoxia, hybrid EMT and collective cell migration and highlight the gaps which needs to be filled for connecting these three axes which will increase our understanding of dynamics of metastasis and help control it more effectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0374.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Qinghai Tibet Plateau; permafrost; active layer thickness; ground penetrating radar; reverse time migration
Online: 21 August 2018 (09:13:59 CEST)
The active layer thickness (ALT) is affected by local soil material and surface vegetation coverage in Tibetan plateau permafrost region. The human activities and engineering construction along the Qinghai-Tibet Highway (QTH) destroyed the surface vegetation coverage, which have seriously influenced the ALT and heat exchange balance. Meanwhile, the changes of the detailed internal structure in the active layer will affect the stability of engineering infrastructure. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) was used to detect the ALT in the permafrost region. However, researches on the detailed structure of the active layer and spatial variation information of ALT are rare, the main reason given for this is that the lack of advanced imaging techniques to enhance the GPR images. In this paper, the researchers focus on solving this problem by applying the reverse time migration (RTM) method to GPR field data acquired in the Beiluhe region. Analyses of the results led to conclusions as follows: a) The RTM algorithm is proved to be accurate for imaging the characteristics of the active layer through the dielectric constant model obtained by common midpoint and GPR data velocity analysis. b) The result of RTM profiles show the loose structure and graben-like fine internal structure. Combining with drill data and soil materials information, the researchers deduce the graben-like structure might be coarse gravel layer, which may be related to subgrade settlements in some local area. c) The 2D contour maps not only show the spatial variation feature of ALT at two sides of the highway, but also can compensate the defect of the research for single 2D survey line. The ALT is about 0.6~0.8 m in most areas, and about 0.8~0.9 m near the highway at west side of the QTH on the 2D contour maps. From the RTM interpretation profile, the closer to the plash, the deeper thawed active layer. The detailed internal structure of the active layer and 2D contour maps of ALT have great significance for the study of fine internal structure and the characteristic of ALT spatial variation in the Tibetan plateau under the background of climatic change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0306.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: road,; energy-saving constructions; temperature regime; deformation of the roadbed; water migration; compaction coefficient
Online: 20 January 2022 (13:36:57 CET)
Currently, the design and construction of embankments of roads, railroads and hydraulic structures are based on regulatory documents developed 25-30 years ago. For the construction of granite massifs it is necessary to use sandy soils, the distribution of which in the Arctic zone of Siberia in the areas of construction is not more than 1.5%. In this case, the range of transport of sand in the alluvial area is 35 kilometers, in the rest of the area - an average of 60 kilometers. Large volumes of soil massifs require large amounts of transportation units, fuel consumption and are accompanied by large emissions of hydrocarbons into the atmosphere. Over the past 15 years, the authors have developed designs and technologies that significantly reduce the energy consumption during the construction of soil embankments. Combined structures are cages made of geosynthetic materials filled with unsuitable melted and frozen overmoistened clay and peaty soils. This allowed the use of soils within the construction sites and thereby reduce the range of transportation from 0.2 to 2.0 kilometers. As an example, when reducing the range of transportation from 25 km to 1 km, the energy consumption is reduced by a factor of 21. The use of geosynthetics made it possible to set the initial parameters of the water-heat regime control process, which increased the life cycle of the embankment from 2 to 5 times in comparison with traditional soil massifs and reduced the consumption of energy for repair and maintenance of linear transport structures. This article gives a theoretical substantiation of water-heat regime management, based on which new designs and technologies have been proposed and tested in Siberia in 2008-2013. The results of the tests confirm the theoretical research. Thus, the use of combined constructions of geosynthetics and inapplicable soils not only reduces the distance of transportation, but also reduces the volume of earthworks. It reduces the consumption of energy by 1.5-2 times.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0308.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: transnational social fields; social network analysis; migration; sampling; binational link-tracing; statistical network models
Online: 26 June 2020 (12:11:01 CEST)
We advance binational link-tracing sampling design, an innovative data collection methodology for sampling from transnational social fields, i.e., transnational networks embedding migrants and non-migrants. This paper shows the practical challenges of such a design, the representativeness of the samples and the qualities of the resulted networks. We performed 303 face-to-face structured interviews on sociodemographic variables, migration trajectories and personal networks of people living in a Romanian migration sending community (Dâmbovița) and in a migration receiving Spanish town (Castellón), simultaneously in both sites. Inter-connecting the personal networks, we built a multi-layered complex network structure embedding 4,855 nominated people, 5,477 directed ties (nominations) and 2,540 edges. Results indicate that the participants’ unique identification is a particularly difficult challenge, the representativeness of the data is not optimal (homophily on observed attributes was detected in the nomination patterns), and the relational and attribute data allow to explore the social organization of the Romanian migrant enclave in Castellón, as well as its connectivity to other places. Furthermore, we provide methodological suggestions for improving link-tracing sampling from transnational networks of migration. Our research contributes to the emerging efforts of applying social network analysis to the study of international migration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0324.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: CO2 geological storage, fractured carbonates, CO2 migration plume, updated geological model, Discrete Fracture Network
Online: 23 May 2018 (16:43:00 CEST)
Investigation into geological storage of CO2 is underway at the Technology Development Plant (TDP) at Hontomín (Burgos, Spain), the only current onshore injection site in the European Union. The storage reservoir is a deep saline aquifer located within Low Jurassic Formations (Lias and Dogger), formed by fractured carbonates with low matrix permeability. Understanding the processes involved in CO2 migration within this kind of low-primary permeability carbonates influenced by fractures and faults is key to ensure safe operation and reliable plume prediction. During the hydraulic characterization tests, 2300 tons of liquid CO2 and 14000 m3 of synthetic brine were co-injected on site in various sequences to characterize the pressure response of the seal-storage pair [de Dios et al, 2017] The injection tests were analyzed with a compositional dual media model which accounts for both temperature effects (as the CO2 is liquid at the bottom of the wellbore) and multiphase flow hysteresis (to effectively simulate the alternating brine and CO2 injection tests that were performed). The pressure and temperature responses of the storage formation were history-matched mainly through the petrophysical characteristics of the fracture network [Le Gallo et al, 2017]. The dynamic characterization of the fracture network dominates the CO2 migration while the matrix does not appear to significantly contribute to the storage capacity. This initial modeling approach was improved using the characterization workflow developed within the European FP7 CO2ReMove project for sandstone fractured reservoirs [Ringrose et al., 2011; Deflandre et al., 2011]. Fractured reservoirs are challenging to handle because of their high level of heterogeneity that conditions the reservoir behaviour during the injection. In particular, natural fractures have a significant impact on well performance [Ray et al, 2012]. Furthermore, the understanding of the processes involved in CO2 migration within relatively low-permeability storage influenced by fractures and faults is essential for enabling safe storage operation [Iding and Ringrose, 2010]. As part of the European H2020 ENOS project, the site geological model is updated by integration of the recently acquired data such as the image log interpretations from injection and observation wells. The geological model is generated through the analysis and integration of data including borehole images and well test data. Following a methodology developed for naturally fractured hydrocarbon reservoirs [Ray et al., 2012], the image log analysis identified two sets of diffuse fractures. A Discrete Fracture Network [Bourbiaux et al., 2005] was built around both wells which encompass the caprock, storage and underburden formations. The fracture characteristics of the two sets of diffuse fractures, such as orientations, densities and conductivities, are calibrated upon the interpretation of the injection tests [Le Gallo et al, 2017]. For each facies, the DFN characteristics were then upscaled and propagated to the full-field reservoir simulation model as 3D fracture properties (fracture porosity, fracture permeability and equivalent block size).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0309.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: lab-on-a-chip; cell migration; microfluidics; PDMS; hydrogels; femtosecond laser microfabrication; two-photon polymerization
Online: 22 June 2022 (08:21:44 CEST)
Understanding cell migration is a key step to unravel many physiological phenomena and predict several pathologies, like cancer metastasis. In particular, mechanical confinement has been proved to be a key factor in the cellular migration strategy choice. As our insight in the field improves, new tools are needed in order to empower biologists’ analysis capabilities. In this framework, microfluidic devices have been used to engineer the mechanical stimuli and to investigate cellular migration response in a more controlled way. In this work, we will review the existing technologies employed in the realization of microfluidic cellular migration assays, namely soft lithography of PDMS and hydrogels and femtosecond laser micromachining. We will give an overview of the state of the art of these devices, focusing on the different geometrical configurations that have been exploited to study specific aspects of cellular migration. Our scope is to highlight the advantages and possibilities given by each approach and to envisage the future developments in in-vitro migration studies under mechanical confinement in microfluidic devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0011.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Grouting migration height; Herschel-Bulkley model; Post-grouted drilled shafts; Layered soils; Iterative calculation method
Online: 1 September 2021 (12:08:12 CEST)
The traditional bored pile technology has some arduous problems, such as the sediment at the pile tip, the mud skin along the pile shaft, and the stress release due to borehole construction. The post-grouted technology at the pile tip of bored pile has emerged because of demand. The grouting migration height (GMH) is of great significance to the strengthen and reinforcement of the pile foundation. This paper derives the calculation formula of the GMH based on the theory of the column hole expansion and Herschel-Bulkley model. The influence of relevant parameters on the GMH is discussed. Aiming at the problem of the grouting migration along the pile shaft in layered soils, the iterative calculation method of the GMH is proposed. The correctness of the GMH is verified by an engineering case, which can guide the engineering practice. The result shows that the GMH increases with the increase of the grouting pressure, the pile diameter and the thickness of the mud skin, and the grouting pressure is positively correlated with the GMH. The GMH decreases with the increase of the buried depth, the consistency coefficient and the rheological index. On this basis, the correctness of the GMH is verified by an engineering case.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0090.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: migrant health; length of stay; Médecins du Monde; self-perceived health; migration; Human Development Index
Online: 11 June 2019 (09:04:20 CEST)
Health of migrant is a widely studied topic. It has been argued that migrant health may deteriorate over time. Though migrants are ‘a hard to reach’ population in survey data, this paper builds on a unique dataset provided by Médecins du Monde from five countries. We study self perceived health (SPH) in connection with socio-economic and demographic factors and length of stay. Results show different results for men and women. Asylum seekers compared to other documented migrants have a worse health. Migrants with better living conditions tend to be in better health. Employment and stable accommodation has a positive effect on SPH. Women from poorer countries have a better physical SPH after 3 months of residing in the host country. This paper contributes widely to knowledge of health of migrants. Contrarily to other evidence, health of migrants tends to improve for some migrants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0256.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Solar photovoltaics in Poland; scattered generation; video-analytics; 4G migration; CCTV monitoring; Ka-band; lag time
Online: 10 February 2021 (12:42:30 CET)
This paper contains a concise overview of the deployment of scattered solar power plants in Poland, mainly from the perspective of their communication networks, and how the recent development of the Polish 4G networks has a very positive impact for the performance of the whole monitoring system (production control and video-surveillance), with a special emphasis on video-analytics, due to its higher bandwidth demand. All the information will be shown from the point of view of the solar photovoltaics developer I+D Energías, and therefore it constitutes a real user’s experience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0524.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: object detection; tomato organ; K-means clustering; Soft-NMS; migration learning; convolutional neural network; deep learning
Online: 23 October 2018 (07:57:44 CEST)
In the current natural environment, due to the complexity of the background and the high similarity of the color between immature green tomato and plant, the occlusion of the key organs (flower and fruit) by the leaves and stems will lead to low recognition rate and poor generalization of the detection model. Therefore, an improved tomato organ detection method based on convolutional neural network has been proposed in this paper. Based on the original Faster R-CNN algorithm, Resnet-50 with residual blocks was used to replace the traditional vgg16 feature extraction network, and K-means clustering method was used to adjust more appropriate anchor size than manual setting to improve detection accuracy. A variety of data augmentation techniques were used to train the network. The test results showed that compared with the traditional Faster R-CNN model, the mean average precision (mAP) of the optimal model was improved from 85.2% to 90.7%, the memory requirement decreased from 546.9MB to 115.9 MB, and the average detection time was shortened to 0.073S/sheet. As the performance greatly improved, the training model can be transplanted to the embedded system, which lays a theoretical foundation for the development of precise targeting pesticide application system and automatic picking device.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0007.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: pigment dispersion syndrome; pigmentary glaucoma; trabecular meshwork; phagocytosis; migration; contraction; cytoskeleton; gene microarray; Rho signaling pathway
Online: 2 April 2018 (07:00:45 CEST)
Purpose: To investigate the effect of pigment dispersion on trabecular meshwork (TM) cells. Methods: Porcine TM cells from ab interno trabeculectomy specimens were exposed to pigment dispersion, then analyzed for changes in morphology, immunostaining, and ultrastructure. Their abilities to phagocytose, migrate, and contract were quantified. An expression microarray, using 23,937 probes, and a pathway analysis were performed. Results: TM cells readily phagocytosed pigment granules. Pigment induced stress fiber formation (pigment (P): 60.1 ± 0.3%, n = 10, control (C): 38.4 ± 2.5%, n = 11, P < 0.001) and contraction at 24 hours onward (P < 0.01). Phagocytosis declined (P: 68.7 ± 1.3%, C: 37.0 ± 1.1%, n = 3, P < 0.001) and migration was reduced after 6 hours (P: 28.0.1 ± 2.3, n = 12, C: 40.6 ± 3.3, n = 13, P < 0.01). Microarray analysis revealed that Rho, IGF-1, and TGFβ signaling cascades were central to these responses. Conclusions: TM cell exposure to pigment dispersion resulted in reduced phagocytosis and migration, as well as increased stress fiber formation and cell contraction. The Rho signaling pathway played a central and early role, suggesting that its inhibitors could be used as a specific intervention in treatment of pigmentary glaucoma.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0015.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: Hydrospheric events; tectonic-geodynamic zonation; paleogeographic reconstructions; ancient man migration; Levantine Corridor; paleomagnetic correlation; deep geodynamic factors
Online: 1 December 2021 (13:06:47 CET)
The origin of the man at the Earth is directly associated with the determination of directions of the flow distribution of the ancient man migration to adjacent territories. In such studies traditionally mainly landscape and climatological changes are considered. We suggest that along with the above factors, regional tectonic-geodynamic factors played a dominant role in the character of migration. The considered African-Levantine-Caucasian region is one of the most complex regions of the world, where collisional and spreading processes of geodynamics converge. First is determined an essential influence of the Akchagylian hydrospheric maximum (about 200 m above the mean sea level) limiting the ancient men migration from Africa to Eurasia. We propose that the Levantine Corridor emerged after the end of the Akchagylian transgression and landscape forming in the Eastern Mediterranean. This corridor location was formed by the movements between the Dead Sea Transform and the boundary of the carbonate platform of the Mesozoic Terrane Belt. Further landscape evolution was largely determined by the geodynamic behavior of the deep mantle rotating structure occurring below the central part of the region under study. All the mentioned events around and in the Levantine Corridor have been studied in detail on the basis of the combined geodynamic, paleogeographic, and paleomagnetic analyzes performed in northern Israel (Carmel uplift and Galilee plateau). Careful studies of the Evron quarry geological section indicate that it is a unique one for the dating of the marine and continental archaeological sequences and sheds light on the movement of the ancient man along the Levantine Corridor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0112.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: AKT/PI3K signaling pathway; apoptosis; human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells; migration activity; proliferation; oxidative stress; ROS level; uvaol
Online: 5 August 2020 (05:58:26 CEST)
Natural products have a significant role in the development of new drugs, being relevant the pentacyclic triterpenes extracted from Olea europaea. Anticancer effect of uvaol, a natural triterpene, has been scarcely studied. The aim of this study was to understand the anticancer mechanism of uvaol in HepG2 cell line. Cytotoxicity results showed a selectivity effect of uvaol with higher influence in HepG2 than WRL68 cells used as control. Uvaol presented anti-migratory capacity in HepG2, supported by the morphological changes and higher HSP-60 expression. This compound also induced arrest in G0/G1 phase and an increase in apoptosis rate. These results are supported by decreased Bcl-2 expression and down-regulation of AKT/PI3K signaling pathway. A reduction in reactive oxygen species levels in HepG2 cells was observed. Altogether, results showed anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effect of uvaol on hepatocellular carcinoma, constituting an interesting challenge in the development of new treatments against this type of cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0453.v1
Subject: Keywords: Hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal phenotypes; Collective cell migration; epithelial-mesenchymal heterogeneity; mathematical modeling; cell-state transition; live-cell imaging
Online: 23 August 2021 (14:32:04 CEST)
The Epithelial- Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) is a biological phenomenon associated with explicit phenotypic and molecular changes in cellular traits. Unlike the earlier-held popular belief of it being a binary process, EMT is now thought of as a landscape including diverse hybrid E/M phenotypes manifested by varying degrees of the transition. These hybrid cells can co-express both epithelial and mesenchymal markers and/or functional traits, and can possess the property of collective cell migration, enhanced tumor-initiating ability, and immune/targeted therapy-evasive features, all of which are often associated with worse patient outcomes. These characteristics of the hybrid E/M cells have led to a surge in studies that map their biophysical and biochemical hallmarks that can be helpful in exploiting their therapeutic vulnerabilities. This review discusses recent advances made in investigating hybrid E/M phenotype(s) from diverse biophysical and biochemical aspects by integrating live cell-imaging, cellular morphology quantification and mathematical modeling, and highlights a set of questions that remain unanswered about the dynamics of hybrid E/M states.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0227.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Eastern Europe; Balkans; Healthcare; Sustainability; History; Financing; Population Ageing; Migration; Belt and Road Initiative; Sustainable Millennium Development Goals
Online: 10 August 2021 (10:08:57 CEST)
Historical legacy of Eastern European and Balkans’ health systems was mutually interdependent and shaped by local socioeconomic circumstances. Three distinctive systems of risk sharing and health financing to develop since the late XIX century were the Bismarck, Beveridge, and Semashko systems. Modern day healthcare systems in these countries are challenged by population ageing, accelerated innovation in medical technology, growing purchasing power and rising demand for healthcare services. Supply side changes contribute to demand side efficiency bottlenecks in financing, driving the costs of the already expensive medical care up. All of the nations have a large share of citizens experiencing difficulty with affordability and access to medical care, particularly in rural and remote areas. Network of Health technology assessment agencies have mushroomed over the past three decades. Principles of health economics theory and cost-effective resource allocation are slowly gaining ground in governing authorities’ mindset and decision-making process. For many years to come, pharmaceuticals and medical services will remain dependent on out-of-pocket spending. Currently accelerating and spreading 4.0 Industrial Revolution, together with the Belt and Road Initiative, are likely to substantially impact the further economic development of this vast region. Post-Pandemic ‘Green’ Recovery strategies adopted by many of the Eastern European governments shall also make this transition towards sustainable development more difficult and challenging given the large dependency of all these economies upon traditional carbon fuels.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0244.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: CAMs; Classical Cadherins; Nectins; Neocortical Development; Radial Glia Cells; Neurons; Neuronal Migration; Axon Targeting; Synaptogenesis; Autism/Neurodevelopmental disorders
Online: 10 December 2020 (10:23:42 CET)
The neocortex is an exquisitely organized structure achieved through complex cellular processes from the generation of neural cells to their integration into cortical circuits after complex migration processes. During this long journey, neural cells need to stablish and release adhesive interactions through cell surface receptors known as cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). Several types of CAMs have been described regulating different aspects of neurodevelopment. Whereas some of them mediate interactions with the extracellular matrix, others allow contacts with additional cells. In this review, we will focus on the role of two important families of cell-cell adhesion molecules (C-CAMs), classical cadherins and nectins, as well as in their effectors, in the control of fundamental processes related with corticogenesis, with especial attention in the cooperative actions among the two families of C-CAMs.
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Climate change; rural-urban migration; innovation; Bangladesh; adaptation strategies; politicization of technology; Dhaka; urban climate solutions; informal settlements
Online: 29 October 2020 (09:14:33 CET)
Climate change-induced events amplify existing social, political, economic, infrastructural and environmental concerns in many Global South cities, and perhaps no city is more vulnerable than Bangladesh’s capital of Dhaka. Climate-induced rural-urban migration is a profound concern, and Dhaka’s political leaders have embraced technology-based innovation as a solution pathway. This article explores the societal impact of Dhaka’s innovation environment strategies for climate change adaptation and mitigation. Employing a case study qualitative methodology, our three findings expand knowledge about innovation-urban climate mitigation as understood by Dhaka-based entrepreneurs: First, the most effective innovations were not the most technologically advanced, but those with the highest degree of participant ownership. Second, gaps between recipient, corporate and governmental understandings of effective mitigation and adaptation harmed projects, and were driven by different definitions of risk and competing understandings of vulnerability. Third, even the most technical climate adaptation measures were inherently political in their application. We discuss how to better position urban climate innovation infrastructures in Bangladesh and beyond, including developing a better recognition of innovation lifecycles for urban climate adaptation and widening our definitions of ‘innovation’ to better incorporate more effective and inclusive climate adaptation solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0316.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: nanoparticles; FA-DABA-SMA; drug delivery systems; folic acid receptor alpha; intracellular disruptions; invasion and migration; breast cancer
Online: 14 August 2020 (09:49:17 CEST)
The development of a highly specific drug delivery system (DDS) for anti-cancer therapeutics is an area of intense research focus. Chemical engineering of a “smart” DDS to specifically target tumor cells has gained interest, designed for safer, more efficient, and effective use of chemotherapeutics for the treatment of cancer. However, the selective targeting and choosing the critical cancer surface biomarker are essential for targeted treatments to work. The folic acid receptor alpha (FRalpha) has gained popularity as a potential target in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). We have previously reported on a functionalized folic acid (FA)-conjugated amphiphilic alternating copolymer poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) (FA-DABA-SMA) via a biodegradable linker 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DABA) that has the essential features for efficient “smart” DDS. This biocompatible DDS self-assembles in a pH-dependent manner, providing stimuli-responsive, active targeting, extended-release of hydrophobic chemotherapeutic agents, and can effectively penetrate the inner core of 3-dimensional cancer spheroid models. The empty FA-DABA-SMA decreased spheroid volume, revealing a previously unknown mechanism of action. Upon further investigation, a size- and shape-dependent interaction FA-DABA-SMA with FR reduced the expression of p53, the product of the highly mutated TP53 gene, and additional oncogenic c-Myc and STAT3 proteins. Here, we investigated how this copolymer influences FR behavior and disrupting the receptor’s functions. Results indicate that FA-DABA-SMA increases FR expression levels in breast MDA MB-231 cancer cells and disrupting FR signaling by the reduction in HES1 and NOTCH1 protein expression levels. Also, FA-DABA-SMA induces apoptosis and further causes a change in the morphology of the MDA MB-231 cells, as well as significantly reduces their ability to migrate in a Scratch wound assay. Collectively, these findings provide a novel insight into the functionalized FA-DABA-SMA copolymer. The 350 kDa and 20 kDa copolymers actively target FRα to initialize internationalization. However, only the large size and sheet-shaped 350 kDa copolymers disrupt FRα signaling. The significance of these novel findings reveals the intracellular activity of the copolymer that is critically dependent on the size and structural shape. This report offers novel therapeutic insight into a dual mechanism of FA-DABA-SMA copolymer for its therapeutic potential for the treatment of cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0476.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: Religion; migration; Political Economy; demographic economic policies; sanctuary movement; persecution; civil disobedience; The United States of America (USA/US).
Online: 28 September 2021 (21:27:59 CEST)
This is a study of Political Economy on religion and migration management in the United States of America (USA). This paper offers a review of migrants-citizens relations in the USA, with attention to the pendulum effect, moving from integration policies (open doors and melting pot agenda) to official persecution (raids and deportations), with a high social opportunity cost. There has been a split between the State and civil society, causing civil disobedience and sanctuary network across the country. Also, it is paid attention to the American post-modern paradox, as a result of culture wars and identity politics that imply a violation of American constitutional principles (i.e. religious liberty, freedom of movement, to pursuit the happiness). Special attention is paid to the development of the Sanctuary Movement, as an ongoing example of the sociocultural upheaval bringing grassroots society into confrontation with powerful elites by promoting resistance and offering help to the needy, even if this results in sanctions. This movement was revitalized after the values crisis of 2008, but it has also been polarized between those who follow the traditional approach to socio-religious action in the form of peaceful civil disobedience, and those who follow the ideological anti-system and communitarian approach, which causes greater tension for the immigrants themselves
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0044.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Integrins; Tumor Microenvironment; Drug Resistance; Migration; Metastasis; Solid Tumors; The Cancer Genome Atlas; Gene Expression; Computational Biology; Therapeutic Targeting
Online: 1 December 2020 (18:26:11 CET)
Many cellular functions important for tumor initiation and progression are mediated by members of the integrin family, a diverse family of cell adhesion receptors. With recent studies emphasising on the role of the tumor microenvironment (TME) in tumor initiation and progression, it is not surprising that a lot of attention is being given to integrins. Several integrins are under trial with many demonstrating appealing activity in patients with different cancers. A deeper knowledge of the functions of integrins within the tumor microenvironment is still required, and might lead to better inhibitors being discovered. Integrin expression is commonly dysregulated in many tumors with integrins playing key roles in signaling as well as promotion of tumor cell invasion and migration. This review report new data on the differential expression of integrins within solid tumors using two publicly available resources: The Cancer Genomic Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA). In this analysis, I investigated the expression of integrin alpha 2 (ITGα2), ITGα3, ITGβ4 and ITGβ6 in tumor tissues versus adjacent normal tissues. This analysis showed that integrins were differentially expressed in cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CESC), head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSC), esophageal carcinoma (ESCA) and lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). This analysis showed that ITGα2 and ITGβ6 expression are upregulated in CESC and ESCA, ITGα3 is upregulated in HNSC and ESCA whilst ITGβ4 is highly expressed in CESC, HNSC, ESCA and LUAD tumor tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues. Integrins also play a major role in adhesion of circulating tumor cells to new sites and the resulting formation of secondary tumors. Furthermore, integrins have demonstrated the ability to promoting stem cell-like properties in tumor cells as well as drug resistance. Anti-integrin therapies rely heavily on the doses or concentrations used as these determine whether the drugs act as antagonists or as integrin agonists. This review offers the latest synthesis in terms of current knowledge of integrins functions within the tumor microenvironment and potential targets for different cancers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0527.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: local-saturated zone of subgrade; fine particles migration; two-phase seepage characteristics; deformation characteristics; volume fraction of fine particles
Online: 23 September 2020 (03:34:20 CEST)
The fluid seepage in local-saturated zone of subgrade promotes the migration of fine particles in the filler, resulting in the change of pore structure and morphology of the filler and the deformation of solid skeleton, which affects the fluid seepage characteristics. Repeatedly, the muddy interlayer, mud pumping and other diseases are finally formed. Based on the theory of two-phase seepage, the theory of porous media seepage, and the principle of effective stress in porous media, a two-phase fluid-solid coupling mathematical model in local-saturated zone of subgrade considering the effect of fine particles migration is established. The mathematical model is numerically calculated with the software COMSOL Multiphysics○R, the two-phase seepage characteristics and the deformation characteristics of the solid skeleton in local-saturated zone of the subgrade are studied. The research results show that due to the continuous erosion and migration of fine particles in local-saturated zone of the subgrade, the volume fraction of fine particles first increases then decreases and finally becomes stable with the increase of time. And the volume fraction of fine particles for the upper part of the subgrade is larger than that for the lower part of the subgrade. The porosity, the velocity of fluid, the velocity of fine particles, and the permeability show a trend of increasing first and then stabilizing with time; the pore water pressure has no significant changes with time. The vertical displacement increase first and then decrease slightly with the increase of time, and finally tend to be stable. For a filler with a larger initial volume fraction of fine particles, the maximum value of the volume fraction of fine particles caused by fluid seepage is larger, and the time required to reach the maximum value is shorter. It can be concluded that in actual engineering, the volume fraction of fine particles in the subgrade filler should be minimized on the premise that the filler gradation meets the requirements of the specification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0346.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Media Studies Keywords: digital art; Andy Warhol; Yves Klein; Pop art; blockchain; NFT; digital preservation; variable media; authenticity; net-worked storage; migration; cryptocurrency; Amiga
Online: 28 February 2022 (03:29:03 CET)
For its enthusiasts, the blockchain is an archivist's dream come true: an immutable historical record that is publicly accessible and immune from censorship. Proposals like Juried Protocol Galleries could enable bots to compute the provenance of digital artworks and their appearance in exhibitions and publications. Distributed file systems like IPFS claim to store creative works in a redundant, networked fashion outside the control of any single cloud provider. Projects designed to work with blockchains like Filecoin and Arweave propose a dedicated cryptocurrency as financial incentive to support the cost of governing and sustaining this "permaweb." As dreamy as this picture sounds, many of these promises depend on technologies that have yet to be sufficiently developed or adopted. Rather than forecast the future, we can separate the hype from the reality in the present day by examining a real-life example, namely the 2021 auction of Andy Warhol's digital art with NFTs. This essay will focus less on blockchain's general promise as a preservation medium and more on the particular case of the digital Warhols, which both in form and spirit would seem a perfect application of NFTs to preserve historically important works of digital art. Which promises of the crypto-dream of permanent access to digital heritage ring true for this case study, and which are overblown?
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0530.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: poor blood circulation; Ecklonia cava; phlorotannins; pyrogallol-phloroglucinol-6,6-bieckol; functional ingredients; endothelial cell death; vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration; inflammation
Online: 23 October 2018 (09:39:50 CEST)
Ecklonia cava (E.cava) can alleviate vascular dysfunction in diseases associated with poor circulation. E. cava contains various polyphenols with different functions, but few studies have compared the effects of these polyphenols. Here, we comparatively investigated four major compounds present in an ethanoic extract of E. cava. These four major compounds were isolated and their effects were examined on monocyte-associated vascular inflammation and dysfunctions. Pyrogallol-phloroglucinol-6,6-bieckol (PPB) significantly inhibited monocyte migration in vitro by reducing levels of inflammatory macrophage differentiation and of its related molecular factors. In addition, PPB protected against monocyte-associated endothelial cell death by increasing the phosphorylations of PI3K-AKT and AMPK, decreasing caspase levels, and reducing monocyte-associated vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration by decreasing the phosphorylations of ERK and AKT. The results of this study show that four compounds were effective for reduction of monocyte-associated vascular inflammation and dysfunctions, but PPB might be more useful for the treatment of vascular dysfunction in diseases associated with poor circulation.