REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1232.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: tissue engineering; 3D bioprinting; natural-derived hydrogel; hydrogel crosslinking
Online: 17 May 2023 (10:36:59 CEST)
3D bioprinting is the process of manipulating cell-laden bioinks to fabricate living structures. 3D bioprinting techniques have brought considerable innovation in biomedicine, especially in the field of tissue engineering, allowing the production of 3D organ and tissue models for in vivo transplantation purposes or for in-depth and precise in vitro analyses. Natural-derived hydrogels, especially those obtained from the decellularization of biological tissues, are promising bioinks for 3D printing purposes, as they present the best biocompatibility characteristics. Despite this, many natural hydrogels do not possess the necessary mechanical properties to allow a simple and immediate application in the 3D printing process. In this review, we focus on the bioactive and mechanical characteristics that natural hydrogels may possess to allow efficient production of organs and tissues for biomedical applications, emphasizing the reinforcement techniques to improve their biomechanical properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0081.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: chemical composition; Megathyrsus maximus; morphogenesis; organic hydrogel; planting gel; polymers; synthetic hydrogel.
Online: 2 October 2023 (16:48:28 CEST)
Hydrogels are water-absorbing polymers that can hydrate forage plants in the soil. The objec-tive was to evaluate the replacement of synthetic hydrogels derived from petroleum by biode-gradable hydrogels in Mombaça grass pastures (Megathyrsus maximum). The experimental treat-ments consisted of: No hydrogel (NH); Synthetic commercial hydrogel (CH), made from a syn-thetic polyacrylamide product; and Biodegradable test hydrogel (TH), obtained from cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale). The experimental design was randomized blocks with five replica-tions and three treatments. Morphogenesis, production, chemical and mineral composition of the Mombaça grass pasture were assessed. The data was subjected to analysis of variance and mean comparison by the Snott-Knott test at 5% probability. Leaf elongation rate was 42.3 mm day-1 in the TH treatment, which was higher (P<0.05) than NH (35.0 mm day-1). Green leaf mass yield was higher in TH in comparison to NH and CH. On the other hand, there was no effect of hydration on chemical composition. The mineral composition of Mombaça grass showed more Zn when TH was used. It can be concluded that biodegradable hydrogels can replace synthetic commercial hydrogels in pastures.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0291.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: silver; chitosan; hydrogel; antibacterial; grape
Online: 17 December 2021 (14:46:05 CET)
Hydrogel antibacterial agent is an ideal antibacterial material because of it could diffuses antibacterial molecules into the decayed area by providing a suitable microenvironment and the hydrogel acts as a protective barrier on the decay interface. The biocompatibility and biodegradation make the removal process easily which were widely used in medical fields. However, there have been few reports on its application for controlling postharvest diseases in fruit. In this study, the Chitosan-Ag (CS-Ag) complex hydrogels were prepared using the physical crosslinking method, which used for controlling postharvest diseases in grape. The prepared hydrogels were stable for a long period at room temperature. The structure and surface morphology of CS-Ag composite hydrogels were characterized by UV-Vis, FTIR, SEM, and XRD. The inhibitory effects of CS-Ag hydrogel on disease in grape caused by P. expansum, A. niger and B. cinerea were investigated both in vivo and in vitro. The remarkable antibacterial activity of CS-Ag hydrogels was mainly due to the synergistic antibacterial and antioxidant effects of CS and Ag. Preservation test showed that the CS-Ag hydrogel had positive fresh-keeping effect. This revealed CS-Ag hydrogels plays a critical role in controlling fungal disease in grape.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0044.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Hydrogel; Keratin; Chicken feather waste
Online: 4 October 2021 (10:49:24 CEST)
The aim of this research study was to develop hydrogels samples for using in potential biomedical applications. Hydrogels consisting of different volumes of keratin, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and starch. The keratin is derived from the chicken was the primary material on the hydrogels due to attractively for the potential wound healing application. The hydrogel samples were made by using the freeze‑thawing method, and they were examined using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), porosity amusement, swelling ratio and keratin release kinetic models that analyzed using (zero-order, first-order Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Peppas models). These results were indicated that feather keratin could use with formulated hydrogels suitably for controlled keratin release studies .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0528.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Chitosan; thermosensitive hydrogel; iron deficiency; pig
Online: 8 November 2023 (16:12:08 CET)
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a world health problem for humans and other mammals; affecting critical stages of development. Pigs have been used as an experimental model for the study and prevention of anemia because of physiological and metabolic similarities with humans. Iron dextran particles (IDP) are used for intramuscular (IM) IDA treatments in pigs, but are insufficient for prevention of anemia due to quick metabolization. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop chitosan thermosensitive hydrogels (CTH) formulations and to study their potential as a mammalian parenteral iron dextran supplementation strategy. CTH were loaded with IDP at increasing iron concentrations (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 g of theorical iron/g of chitosan) and characterized as an IM iron supplement. All the CTH-IDP formulations were thermosensitive and can be injected IM at ~4 °C, with a significant rise in viscosity between 25-37 °C. IDP content was physically trapped in the chitosan hydrophobic gel at 37 °C, without evidence of chemical bonding. We conclude that CTHs are a promising strategy for IM delivery strategy of IDP, and these results may be useful for future iron supplementation studies in pigs, humans and other mammals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0176.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: inorganic fluorescent hydrogel; fluorescent nanocrystal; biosensor
Online: 4 May 2023 (03:48:53 CEST)
Fluorescent hydrogels are promising candidate materials for portable biosensors to be used in point-of-care diagnosis because (1) they have a greater capacity for binding organic molecules than immunochromatographic test systems, determined by the immobilization of affinity labels within the three-dimensional hydrogel structure; (2) fluorescent detection is more sensitive than the colorimetric detection of gold nanoparticles or stained latex microparticles; (3) the properties of the gel matrix can be finely tuned for better compatibility and detection of different analytes; and (4) hydrogel biosensors can be made reusable and suitable for studying dynamic processes in real time. Water-soluble fluorescent nanocrystals are widely used for in vitro and in vivo biological imaging due to their unique optical properties, and hydrogels based on them allow preserving these properties in bulk composite macrostructures. Here we review the techniques for obtaining analyte-sensitive fluorescent hydrogels based on nanocrystals, the main methods used for detecting the fluorescent signal changes, and the approaches to the formation of inorganic fluorescent hydrogels via sol–gel phase transition using surface ligands of the nanocrystals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0414.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: cellulose; hydrogel; nanocrystals; 3-D printing
Online: 22 November 2022 (09:31:07 CET)
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are a kind of nano-inclusions that have experienced tremendous expansion in the material industry due to their outstanding mechanical qualities, sizable surface area, and capacity for functional tuning. Due to their vast potential, however, present practises fall short of fully using them. For example, employing CNCs in various matrices with various surface chemistries can be challenging; this problem tends to get worse if the focus is furthered on bio-based applications. This paper reviews the use of CNCs as fillers in natural and man-made polymers; we have explored in depth the production, characterisation, and of CNCs from various sources and their inclusion into various matrices. Surface alterations and the introduction of CNCs in biodegradable polymer can have a significant impact on several industrial behemoths such as tissue engineering and biomedical applications; therefore, pursue of current manuscript is extremely warranted. Throughout the manuscript various assembly techniques that involves alteration and adjustment of polymer network in building up a hydrogel with higher fracture energy and mechanical properties are also included. From rheological perspective the hydrogel processing is also discussed with some models routinely used in the literature to describe these hydrogels. Finally, bio-based hydrogels mechanically reinforced with CNCs such as Xanthan Gum, Alginate, protein, and polysaccharides were discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0138.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: chitosan; oxidized sucrose; polysaccharide hydrogel; antimicrobial activities
Online: 4 September 2023 (07:37:31 CEST)
Oxidized sucrose (OS) reacts with amino group-containing polysaccharides, including chitosan, without catalyst, resulting in hydrogels entirely composed of carbohydrates. The presence of imine bonds with low structural stabilities and unreacted aldehydes in the structures of these hydrogels hinder their application as biomaterials. Therefore, herein, the chitosan hydrogels (CTSGs) obtained after the crosslinking of chitosan with OS were reduced using sodium borohydride to convert imine bonds to secondary amines and aldehydes to alcohols. Structures of CTSGs were comprehensively characterized by Fourier transform infrared and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies, and results implied that the degree of crosslinking (CR) depended on the OS feed amount used during CTSG preparation. Properties of CTSGs were significantly dependent on CR; with an increase in CR, thermal stabilities and dynamic moduli of CTSGs increased, whereas their swelling properties decreased. CTSGs exhibited antimicrobial properties against the gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli, and their performances were also dependent on CR. Results indicated the potentials of CTSGs completely based on carbohydrates as antimicrobial hydrogels for various medical and pharmaceutical applications. We believe that this study will contribute to the development of hydrogels for application in the food, medical, and pharmaceutical fields.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0308.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Wound healing; Antibacterial; Hydrogel; Meshfill; Silver nanocomposite
Online: 5 June 2023 (10:34:40 CEST)
Introduction: Among the many factors that may limit effective wound healing in patients with chronic ulcers, bacterial infection and poor cell recruitment are primary causes that contribute to prolonged healing. Thus, a novel strategy that aims to prevent bacterial infection within the wound, while at the same time providing structural scaffolding that promotes endogenous tissue repair, would be of great interest. Here, we developed a thermo-sensitive silver nanoparticle hydrogel composite as an antibacterial nutritional scaffold for the wound that contains all nutrients required for cell growth while preventing bacterial infection with the ability to fill up all the cavities and void areas in wounds regardless of their geometry. Methods: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized by chemical reduction. After characterization, silver hydrogel nanocomposite was developed by reconstitution of collagen-based hydrogel powder in a nanoparticle suspension of varying AgNPs concentrations (200, 400, and 600 ppm). The antibacterial activity of the formulations was examined in vitro and in vivo in subcutaneous implant infected model. The wound healing efficacy of the hydrogel nanocomposite was also evaluated using a splinted wound model in rats through comparison of clinical wound measurements and histological assessments. Cytocompatibility assay and biochemical analysis of blood at the end of in vivo wound healing study were performed to evaluate the safety of formulations. Results: The synthesized nanoparticles were spherical and stable. While hydrogel alone did not show any bacterial reduction in vitro, the inhibition of bacterial growth was significant in all silver hydrogel nanocomposites compared to controls (p <0.05) and was dose-dependent, with maximum reduction observed in the 600 ppm group (4.56±0.26 LOG CFU/mL, P<0.001). All concentrations of AgNPs hydrogel composites showed significant antibacterial activity in vivo as well (P<0.0001). Treatment of splinted wounds with AgNPs hydrogel composite resulted in faster wound closure and accelerated wound re-epithelialization. The formulations were non-cytotoxic and did not differ significantly in hematological and biochemical factors from the control group in in vivo study. Conclusions: By presenting promising antibacterial and wound healing activity, silver hydrogel nanocomposite offers a safe therapeutic option that can be used as a functional scaffold for an acceleration of wound healing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0133.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: in vitro corneal model; collagen hydrogel; permeability
Online: 7 May 2021 (09:40:50 CEST)
There is a growing need for novel in vitro corneal models to replace animal-based ex vivo test in drug permeability studies. In this study we demonstrate a corneal mimetic that models the stromal and epithelial compartments of human cornea. Human corneal epithelial cells (HCE-T) were grown on top of a self-supporting porcine collagen-based hydrogel. Cross sections of the multilayers were characterized by histological staining and immunocytochemistry of zonula occludens-1 protein (ZO-1) and occludin. Furthermore, water content and elastic properties of the synthetized collagen type I-based hydrogels were measured. The apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) values of a representative set of ophthalmic drugs were measured and correlated to rabbit cornea Papp values found in the literature. Multilayered structure of HCE-T cells and expression of ZO-1 and occludin in full thickness of multilayer were observed. The hydrogel-based corneal model exhibited excellent correlation to rabbit corneal permeability (r=0.96), whereas insert-grown HCE-T multilayer was more permeable and the correlation to the rabbit corneal permeability was lower (r=0.89). The hydrogel-based human corneal model predicts the rabbit corneal permeability more reliably in comparison to HCE-T cells grown in inserts. This in vitro human corneal model can be successfully employed for drug permeability tests whilst avoiding ethical issues and reducing costs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0510.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Hydrogel; pH-responsive; colon; targeted delivery; methotrexate
Online: 22 September 2020 (08:17:48 CEST)
The purpose of current research work was to formulate and typify gelatin and poly(vinyl) alcohol (Gel/PVA) hydrogel which would be highly pH-responsive and can able to accomplish targeted delivery of methotrexate in order to treat the colo-rectal pathologies. The primed gel/pva hydrogel discs were subjected to various physicochemical techniques i.e. swelling, diffusion co-efficient, sol-gel analysis and porosity using three altered sorts of pH (1.2, 6.8 & 7.4) phosphate buffer solutions for assessment/evaluation, and their characterization was done through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Shape alteration and controlled methotrexate of release of Gel/PVA hydrogel have been done using three type of pH (1.2, 6.8 & 7.4) phosphate buffer mediums. Methotrexate was loaded through in-situ drug loading method due to hydrophobicity. Different kinetic models (first order & zero order kinetic), Higuchi model and Krosmere peppas model/Power law were applied to manipulate the drug release data. Physicochemical evaluation tests and drug release profile results were found insignificant (p< 0.05) in various pH mediums and dependent upon polymers concentration pH of medium and cross-linker amount. Kinetic model disclosed that release of methotrexate from Gel/PVA hydrogel follow non-Fickian diffusion method. It became concluded from this research work that release of methotrexate Gel/PVA hydrogel in targeted colon area can be achieved for treating colo-rectal disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0138.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: hydrogel; hydrophobicity; self-assembly; degree of swelling
Online: 11 April 2019 (08:58:09 CEST)
Hydrogels incorporated with hydrophobic motifs have received considerable attention to recapitulate the cellular microenvironments, specifically for the bio-mineralization of a 3D matrix. Introduction of hydrophobic motifs into a hydrogel often results in irregular arrangement of the motifs, and further phase separation of hydrophobic domains, but limited efforts have been made to resolve this challenge in the hydrophobically-modified hydrogel. Therefore, this study presents an advanced integrative strategy to incorporate hydrophobic domains regularly in a hydrogel by self-assembling of polymer cross-linkers, building blocks of a hydrogel. Self-assemblies between polymer cross-linkers were examined as micro-domains to incorporate hydrophobic motifs in a hydrogel. The self-assembled structures in a pre-gelled solution were confirmed with the fluorescence analysis and the hydrophobicity of a hydrogel could be tuned by incorporating the motifs in a controlled manner. Overall, the results of this study would greatly serve to tuning performance of a wide array of hydrophobically-modified hydrogels in drug delivery, cell therapies and tissue engineering.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0072.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Freeform, hydrogel, gelatin, microfluidics, FRESH, bioprinting, vascularization
Online: 2 November 2018 (16:54:05 CET)
We report a modification of the freeform reversible embedding of suspended hydrogels (FRESH) 3D printing method for the fabrication of freeform perfusable microfluidics inside a hydrogel matrix. Xanthan gum is deposited into a CaCl2 infused gelatin slurry to form filaments, which are consequently rinsed to produce hollow channels. This provides a simple method for rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices based on biopolymers and potentially a new approach to the construction of vascular grafts for tissue engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0093.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Peptide; self-assembly; nanomaterial; hydrogel; aspergillosis; candidiasis.
Online: 4 May 2018 (12:58:24 CEST)
The threat of antimicrobial resistance to society is compounded by a relative lack of new clinically effective licensed therapies reaching patients over the past three decades. This has been particularly problematic within antifungal drug development leading to a rise in fungal infection rates and associated mortality. This paper highlights the potential of an ultrashort peptide, (naphthalene-2-ly)-acetyl-diphenylalanine-dilysine-OH (NapFFKK-OH), encompassing hydrogel-forming and antifungal properties within a single peptide motif, thus overcoming formulation (e.g. solubility, drug loading) issues associated with many current employed highly hydrophobic antifungals. A range of fungal susceptibility (colony counts) and cell cytotoxicity (MTS cell viability, LIVE/DEAD staining® with fluorescent microscopy, haemolysis) assays were employed. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the nanofibrous architecture of our self-assembling peptide, existing as a hydrogel at concentrations of 1% w/v and above. Broad-spectrum activity was demonstrated against a range of fungi clinically relevant to infection (Aspergillus niger, Candida glabrata, Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida dubliniensis) with greater than 4 log10 CFU/mL reduction at concentrations of 0.5% w/v and above. We hypothesise antifungal activity is due to targeting of anionic components present within fungal cell membranes resulting in membrane disruption and cell lysis. NapFFKK-OH demonstrated reduced toxicity against mammalian cells (NCTC 929, ARPE-19) suggesting increased selectivity for fungal cells. However, further studies relating to safety for systemic administration is required, given the challenges toxicity has presented in the wider context of antimicrobial peptide drug development. Overall this study highlights the promise of NapFFKK-OH hydrogels, particularly as a topical formulation for the treatment of fungal infections relating to the skin and eyes, or as a hydrogel coating for the prevention of biomaterial related infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0028.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: poly(acrylic acid); metronidazole; hydrogel; crosslinking; radiation
Online: 5 January 2018 (04:49:18 CET)
Poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) hydrogels possess good bioadhesive properties and allow enhanced penetration of drugs. In addition, it is possible to localize the absorption site of the drug in the hydrogel and increase the drug residence time. As opposed to other cross-linking processes radiation-induced polymer cross-linking can be easily and rapidly carried out without the use of cross-linking agents and other chemical additives. In this study, we fabricated metronidazole (MD) containing PAAc hydrogel (MD/PAAc) with different MD contents (0.1, 0.25, 0.5 wt%) using varying radiation doses (25, 50, 75 kGy) by gamma-irradiation. The physical and thermal properties were determined by gel content analysis, swelling ratio measurements, compressive strength measurements, differential scanning calorimetery, and thermogravimetric analysis. The properties of the hydrogel degraded due to the crystalline nature of MD. The properties of the hydrogel degraded due to the crystalline nature of MD. Cumulative release observed after 50 min in the case of 0.5MD/PAAc and 0.1MD/PAAc was 50% and 10%, respectively. Our findings suggest that MD/PAAc could be a suitable drug delivery carrier for use with radiation-based techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0162.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: hydrogel; thermal conductivity; 3ω method; molecular dynamics
Online: 25 October 2017 (03:54:39 CEST)
As the interface between human and machine becomes blurred, hydrogel incorporated electronics and devices have emerged to be a new class of flexible/stretchable electronic and ionic devices due to their extraordinary properties, such as soft, mechanically robust and biocompatible. However, heat dissipation in these devices could be a critical issue and remains unexplored. Here, we report the experimental measurements and equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of thermal conduction in polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels. The thermal conductivity of PAAm hydrogels can be modulated by both the crosslinking density and water content in hydrogels. The crosslinking density dependent thermal conductivity in hydrogels varies from 0.33 to 0.51 Wm-1K-1, giving a 54% enhancement. We attribute the crosslinking effect to the competition between the increased conduction pathways and the enhanced phonon scattering effect. Moreover，water content can act as filler in polymers which lead to nearly 40% enhancement in thermal conductivity in PAAm hydrogels with water content vary from 23 to 88 wt%. Furthermore，we find the thermal conductivity of PAAm hydrogel is insensitive to temperature in the range of 25 oC – 40 oC. Our study offers fundamental understanding of thermal transport in soft materials and provides design guidance for hydrogel-based devices.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0434.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: natural polysaccharide; composite hydrogel; wound healing; therapeutic agent
Online: 7 November 2023 (11:14:38 CET)
Numerous innovative advancements in dressing technology for wound healing have emerged. Among the various types of wound dressings available, hydrogel dressings, structured with a three-dimensional network and composed of predominantly hydrophilic components, are widely used for wound care due to their remarkable capacity to absorb abundant wound exudate, maintain a moisture environment, provide soothing and cooling effects, and mimic the extracellular matrix. Composite hydrogel dressings, one of the evolved dressings, address the limitations of traditional hydrogel dressings by incorporating additional components, including particles, fibers, fabrics, or foams, within the hydrogels, effectively promoting wound treatment and healing. The added elements enhance the features or add specific functionalities of the dressings, such as sensitivity to external factors, adhesiveness, mechanical strength, control over the release of therapeutic agents, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, and tissue regeneration behavior. They can be categorized as natural or synthetic based on the origin of the main components of the hydrogel network. This review focuses on recent research on developing natural polysaccharide-based composite hydrogel wound dressings. Their preparation and composition, the reinforcement materials integrated into hydrogels, and therapeutic agents are also explored. Furthermore, their features and the specific types of wounds where applied are discussed as well.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1126.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: hydrogel; gelatin; mechanical property; crosslinking; scaffold; tissue engineering
Online: 18 October 2023 (17:13:00 CEST)
In the last two decades, gelatin-based hydrogels have been widely used as tissue engineering scaffolds due to their excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability, easy processability, transparency, non-toxicity, and reasonable structural similarity to the natural extracellular matrix (ECM). However, intrinsic low mechanical properties of gelatin are not structurally and mechanically suitable to support cell growth and proliferation. That’s why various crosslinking strategies including physical, chemical, enzymatic and combination of them as well as networking patterns including double network, interpenetrating network and nano reinforcing mechanism have been utilized to enhance the structural stability and mechanical integrity of gelatin. In this review, the advances in modulating the mechanical properties of gelatin-based hydrogels for the design and development of structurally stable scaffolds for tissue engineering are discussed. The optimized crosslinking parameters with the adequate mechanical properties of gelatin-based hydrogels are reviewed. Gelatin-based scaffolds for a wide range of tissue engineering applications, such as bone, cartilage, cardiac, skin, and nerve tissue engineering are also outlined. Lastly, current challenges and future perspectives in this research field are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1254.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Aptamer; Blood Clot; Three dimensional; Scaffold; Hydrogel; Osteogenesis.
Online: 17 August 2023 (13:14:36 CEST)
Background: Scaffold (SCA) functionalization with aptamers (APT) provides adsorption of specific bioactive molecules on biomaterials surface. The aim of this study was to observe if SCA enriched with anti-fibronectin APT can favor coagulum (PhC) and osteoblasts (OSB) differentiation. Methods: 20 ug of APT was functionalized on SCA by simple adsorption. For PhC formation, SCAs were inserted into rat calvaria defects for 17 hours. Following proper transportation (Buffer solution-PB), OSB (UMR-106 lineage) were seeded over PhC + SCAs with and without APT. Cells and PhC morphology, PhC cell population, protein labelling and gene expression were observed in different time points. Results: The APT induced higher ALP and BSP immunolabeling in OSB. CD90, CD45 and CD44 expression was more detected in APT group than when scaffolds were not functionalized. Additionally, an enriched and dense fibrin network and different cell types were observed, with more OSB and white blood cells in PhC formed on SCA with APT. The gene expression showed higher TGF-β1 detection in SCA with APT. Conclusions: The SCA functionalization with fibronectin aptamers provides a selective expression of proteins related to coagulation pattern and osteo differentiation. Additionally, aptamers increase TGF-β1 gene expression, which is highly associated with improvements in regenerative therapies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0628.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: 3D bioprinting; hydrogel; bioink; tissue engineering; bionic scaffold
Online: 20 April 2023 (08:00:19 CEST)
Regeneration of biological tissues in medicine is challenging, and 3D bioprinting offers an innovative way to create functional multicellular tissues. One common way in bioprinting is bioink which is one type of the cell-loaded hydrogel. For clinical application, however, the bioprinting still suffers from satisfactory performance, e.g. in vascularization, effective antibacterial, immunomodulation and regulation of collagen deposition. Many studies have incorporated different bioactive materials into the 3D printed scaffolds to optimize the bioprinting. Here, we review a variety of additives added to the 3D bioprinting hydrogel. The underlying mechanisms and methodology for biological regeneration are important and will provide useful basis for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0151.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: ε-Caprolactone; block-graft copolymer; click chemistry; hydrogel
Online: 14 March 2019 (08:50:40 CET)
The cross-linkable PCL-PEG analogues block-graft copolymer was designed and synthesized, which with the copolymer of the MEO2MA and OEGMA as graft chains to improve the mPEG-b-PCL-b-mPEG copolymer the aqueous solution properties. And successfully prepared two hydrogels via a copper-catalyzed 1, 3-dipolar azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction of alkyne-terminated poly[glycidyl methacrylate-co-2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethyl methacrylate-co-oligo (ethylene glycol) methacrylate] [P(GMA-co-MEO2MA-co-OEGMA)] with azide end-functionalized PCL-PEG analogues block-graft copolymer, and tetrakis (2-propynyloxymethyl) -methane (TPOM) and with azide end-functionalized PCL-PEG analogues block-graft copolymer. The copolymer's chemical structure was characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The molecular weights of the copolymers were decided with gel permeation chromatography. The water solubility and temperature sensitivity of the copolymers were studied by taking digital photos and transmittance change measured by UV spectrophotometer at different temperatures. Fluorescence probes, surface tension, dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy were used to analyze the micelles that copolymers self-assembly in aqueous solution. The sol-gel behavior of copolymer solutions at high concentrations was explored by vial inversion experiments. Finally, the network structure of the gels was observed by scanning electron microscopy. These conclusions indicate that these hydrogels are expected to be used as a new material in the field of biomedicine.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0024.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: contact lens; drug delivery; bioavailability; composite; gas-permeable; hydrogel
Online: 1 October 2023 (11:18:39 CEST)
The number of people affected by eye conditions is growing every year, due to the popularity of electronic devices and an aging population. In the world of medicine, accomplishing eye medication administration has always been a difficult task. Despite the fact that there are many eye drops on the market, most of them have important limitations due to quick clearance mechanisms and ocular barriers. One solution with tremendous potential is the contact lens used as medication delivery vehicle to bypass this constraint. Therapeutic contact lenses for ocular medication delivery have attracted a lot of attention because they have the potential to improve ocular bioavailability, patient compliance, and reduce side effects. However, it is essential not to compromise essential features such as water content, optical transparency, and modulus in order to target successful in vitro and in vivo sustained drug delivery profile from impregnated contact lenses. Aside from difficulties like drug stability and burst release, the changing of lens physical and chemical properties caused by therapeutic or non-therapeutic components can limit the commercialization potential of pharmaceutical-loaded lenses. Research has progressed towards bioinspired techniques and smart materials to improve the efficacy of drug-eluting contact lenses. The bioinspired method uses bioinspired polymeric materials to improve biocompatibility, a specialized molecule recognition technique called molecular imprinting, or a stimuli-responsive system to improve biocompatibility and support drug delivery efficacy of drug-eluting contact lenses. This review encompasses strategies of material design, lens manufacturing and drug impregnation under the current auspices in ophthalmic therapies and projects an outlook onto future opportunities in the field of eye conditions management by means of active principles-eluting contact lens.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0901.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: hydrogel; natural polymer; drug delivery; tissue engineering; wound healing
Online: 14 September 2023 (04:39:02 CEST)
Hydrogels prepared from natural polymer have attracted extensive attentions in biomedical fields such as drug delivery, wound healing, and regenerative medicine due to their good biocompatibility, degradability and flexibility. This review outlines the commonly used natural polymer in hydrogel preparation, including cellulose, chitosan, collagen/gelatin, alginate, hyaluronic acid and starch. The polymeric structure and process/synthesis of natural polymers are illustrated, and natural polymer-based hydrogels including the hydrogel formation and properties are elaborated. Subsequently, the biomedical application of hydrogels based on natural polymer in drug delivery, tissue regeneration, wound healing and other biomedical field is summarized. Finally, the future perspectives of natural polymers and hydrogels based on them are discussed. For natural polymer, novel technologies such as enzymatic and biological methods are developed to improve the structural properties and the development of new natural based polymers or natural polymer derivatives with high performance is still very important and challenging. For natural polymer-based hydrogels, novel hydrogel materials, like double-network hydrogel, multifunctional composite hydrogels and hydrogel microrobots are designed to meet the advanced requirements in biomedical application, and new strategies such as dual-crosslinking, microfluidic chip, micropatterning and 3D/4D bioprinting, have been explored to fabricate advanced hydrogel materials with designed properties for biomedical application. Overall, natural polymeric hydrogels have attracted increasing interests in biomedical application, and the development of novel natural polymer-based materials and new strategies/methods for hydrogel fabrication is badly desirable and still challenging.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0228.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Polyethylene glycol; Cellulose; Drug delivery; Vaccine delivery; Hydrogel; Immunogenicity.
Online: 3 August 2023 (02:46:08 CEST)
Due to their distinct physical, chemical, and biological characteristics, biopolymers, in particular Poly Ethylene Glycol (PEG) and Cellulose, are frequently used in biomedical medicine as drug or vaccine delivery systems. In this study, we have done a systematic review and a meta-analysis to compare current developments in many PEG and cellulose-based hydrogels, including double network hydrogels, injectable hydrogels, sliding hydrogels, conductive hydrogels, responsive hydrogels, and nanocomposite hydrogels. The pharmacokinetic properties, including physicochemical properties, biocompatibility, biodegradability, temperature, and pH, have been studied as these critical factors are to be considered for deciding the suitability of the drug for delivery. Moreover, the study has evaluated the controlled-release parameters such as half-life, circulation time, maximum release percentage of loaded drug released, burst release, maximum release, and drug-release kinetics. Finally, the efficacy and immune response of hydrogel was studied for future choice, including the cellulose hydrogel system in COVID-related long-term vaccine delivery. The finding revealed that cellulose-based hydrogel is effective for vaccine delivery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0853.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: hydrogel; polyvinyl alcohol; hydrogen bonding; mechanics; stress; reusability; recycling
Online: 12 June 2023 (15:45:45 CEST)
Natural cellulose hydrogels have been widely used to enhance mechanical properties. However, existing natural fiber composite hydrogels are not reusable, limiting their potential applications. To address this issue, we designed and prepared a polyvinyl alcohol/glycerol /bamboo microfibril double network tough hydrogel using a simple method. The bamboo microfibril and polyvinyl alcohol form a tight and rigid network through hydrogen bonding, improving mechanical properties. The prepared polyvinyl alcohol/glycerol/bamboo microfibril double network tough hydrogel has the advantages of reusability and fatigue resistance. Furthermore, both the elastic modulus and toughness of the hydrogel increase with increasing bamboo microfibril content. We also demonstrated that the hydrogel can be recast after cyclic compression, maintaining its recyclability, stability, and certain stiffness and toughness. Our study highlights the potential of hydrogels for controllable mechanical properties, fatigue resistance and shows that polyvinyl alcohol/glycerol/bamboo microfibril hydrogel has broad value for plasticity and reuse.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0503.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Curcumin; MOF; Sodium Alginate Hydrogel; Drug Release; Antibacterial Activity
Online: 12 June 2023 (05:29:21 CEST)
Management of chronic inflammation and wounds has always been a key issue in the pharmaceutical and healthcare sector. Curcumin (CCM) is an active ingredient extracted from turmeric rhizomes that has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial activities, thus showing significant effectiveness toward wound healing. However, its shortcomings such as poor water solubility, poor chemical stability and fast metabolic rate limit its bioavailability and long-term use. In this context, hydrogels appear to be a versatile matrix for carrying and stabilizing drugs due to the biomimetic structure, soft porous microarchitecture, and pleasant biomechanical properties. The drug loading/releasing efficiencies can also be controlled by use of highly crystalline and porous metal organic frameworks (MOFs). Here, a flexible hydrogel composed of sodium alginate (SA) matrix and CCM-loaded MOFs was constructed for long-term drug release and antibacterial activity. The morphology and physicochemical properties of composite hydrogels were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Raman spectroscopy and mechanical property tests. The results showed that the composite hydrogel was highly twistable and bendable to mechanically comply with human skin. The as-prepared hydrogel could capture efficient CCM for slow drug release as well as effective killing of bacteria. Therefore, such composite hydrogel is expected to provide a new management system for chronic wound dressings.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0187.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Flexible biosensors; Electroactive hydrogel; Biocompatible polymer; Electrochemistry; Mechanical behavior
Online: 2 June 2023 (10:45:37 CEST)
Hydrogel-based wearable electrochemical biosensors (HWEBs) are emerging biomedical devices that have recently received immense interest. The exceptional properties of HWEBs include excellent biocompatibility with hydrophilic nature, high porosity, tailorable permeability, the capability of reliable and accurate detection of disease biomarkers, suitable device-human interface, facile adjustability, and stimuli-responsive to the nanofiller materials. Although the biomimetic three-dimensional hydrogels can immobilize bioreceptors, such as enzymes and aptamers, without any loss in their activities. However, most HWEBs suffer from low mechanical strength and electrical conductivity. Many studies have been performed on emerging electroactive nanofillers, including biomacromolecules, carbon-based materials, and inorganic and organic nanomaterials, to tackle these issues. Non-conductive hydrogels and even conductive hydrogels may be modified by nanofillers as well as redox species. All these modifications have led to the design and development of efficient nanocomposites as electrochemical biosensors. In this review, both conductive-based and non-conductive-based hydrogels derived from natural and synthetic polymers are systematically reviewed. The main synthesis methods and characterization techniques are addressed. The mechanical properties and electrochemical behavior of HWEBs are discussed in detail. Finally, the prospects and potential applications of HWEBs in biosensing, healthcare monitoring, and clinical diagnostics are highlighted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0200.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: THz spectra; Contact lens; poled PVDF; water concentration; hydrogel
Online: 4 May 2023 (05:42:32 CEST)
As the most commonly used hydrogel material in contact lenses, the amount of water in a lens affects its optical properties and comfort for the wearer. Therefore, an important challenge is to determine the safety and efficacy of contact lenses by accurately and non-destructively measuring the water content in real time. In this study, we demonstrate the accurate detection of water content in hydrogel contact lenses using a high-precision ATR format in a portable terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system. The technique can resolve small variations in the dielectric constant in solution, which is difficult to achieve with traditional transmission and reflection measurement modes. Information is obtained from the interaction between the sample and the swift waves propagating along the prism surface. The swift waves can excite longitudinal modes that are not directly accessible by conventional techniques. It is worth noting that the reference wave can be measured by removing the sample without disturbing the optical path. We also enhance the plasma effect at the interface with the hydrogel by using PVDF dielectric films of different polarities. We observed that the water content and refractive index changes in the ATR mode show different response patterns for nonpoled PVDF and poled PVDF membranes. This suggests that reflection and relative phase can be accurately evaluated in the THz-ATR technique, resulting in an accurate method for determining complex dielectric constants in the reflection geometry. This will allow accurate measurement of both surface and in vivo water content in hydrogels in the future and is a potential technical route for application in bioaqueous tissue measurements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0546.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Hydrogel Microneedle; Transdermal; Drug Delivery; Diffusion time; Numerical Simulation
Online: 31 March 2023 (09:31:25 CEST)
Hydrogel microneedles are a promising technology for the delivery of different types of medicines locally and painlessly, as well as ISF extraction. As the hydrogel microneedles are inserted into the tissue, they swell and release drugs. To improve the effectiveness of this technology in delivering medicine at controlled and desirable doses and intervals, a deep understanding of the mechanism of drug delivery inside the microneedles is required. In this work, drug diffusion inside a tapered microneedle is investigated using numerical simulation. The microneedle is divided into many small elements, and the mass transfer equation of meloxicam is solved in each element over time. The skin is simulated as the sink in the microneedle surface for drug absorption. Simulations are performed for different sizes of microneedles. For a microneedle with a height of 500 µm and a base diameter of 250 µm, the drug completely penetrates the skin within 3.2 seconds. The rate of drug diffusion from the tip of the microneedle is higher than diffusion from the side area near the microneedle base. The obtained data demonstrate that in addition to the height and the base diameter, the microneedle’s aspect ratio, h/d, also affects the time of drug diffusion. We present a nonlinear equation to predict the time of complete drug diffusion as a function of the microneedle geometrical parameter, including the height and base diameter. The proposed equation calculates the total drug diffusion time with an error of less than 7% for all studied cases. Predicting drug diffusion patterns inside microneedles can be helpful in the biomedical field, especially in the drug-controlled release system for the optimization of drug delivery.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0459.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: silk, biocompatibility, reduced immune response, silk hydrogel, biodegradation, biomaterial
Online: 25 January 2023 (14:19:07 CET)
Silk is a globally renowned abundant biopolymer obtained from various sources of the Lepidoptera family, among which the most commonly used and researched are spider silk and silk worm silk. All varieties of silk have beneficial characteristics such as high tensile strength, biocompatibility, producing a reduced immune response in a biological system, biodegradability, and the ability to withstand environmental stresses as well. These features make silk suitable for a number of applications as a biomaterial. The vast potential of silk and its proteins in cosmetics, oncology, tissue engineering, TOC screenings, for preserving food, cosmetic product as a silk gel and bioremediation makes it a well-sought biopolymer among researchers. Experiments over the years have revealed that biomaterials constituting silk are very potent but are yet to be scaled up for commercial uses, but the various advantageous properties of silk biomaterial far overshadows the impeding problems of production.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0433.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: hydrogel; active motifs modification; regenerative medicine; Self-assembling peptide
Online: 23 November 2022 (05:11:24 CET)
Ion-complementary self-assembling peptides have been studied in many fields for their distinct advantages mainly due to their self-assembly properties. However, their shortcomings, such as insufficient specific activity and poor mechanical properties, also limited their application. For better and wider application of this kind of promising biomaterials, ion-complementary self-assembling peptides can be modified with their self-assembly properties not being destroyed to the greatest extent. The modification strategies were reviewed by taking RADA16-Ⅰ as an example. For the insufficient specific activity, RADA16-Ⅰ can be structurally modified with active motifs derived from the active domain of the extracellular matrix or other related active factors. For weak mechanical properties, materials with strong mechanical properties or materials that can undergo chemical crosslinking were used to mix with RADA16-Ⅰto enhance the mechanical properties of RADA16-Ⅰ. To improve the performance of RADA16-Ⅰ as drug carriers, appropriate adjustment of the RADA16-Ⅰ sequence and/ or modification of the RADA16-Ⅰ-related delivery system with polymer materials or specific molecules can be considered to achieve sustained and controlled release of specific drugs or active factors. The modification strategies reviewed in this paper may provide some references for the further basic research and clinical application of ion-complementary self-assembling peptides and their derivatives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0739.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: mesenchymal stromal cells; articular cartilage; osteoarthrosis; collagen; hydrogel; decellularization
Online: 30 June 2021 (13:11:30 CEST)
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have shown a high potential for cartilage repair. Collagen-based scaffolds are used to deliver and retain cells at the site of cartilage damage. The aim of the work was a comparative analysis of the capacity of the MSCs from human adipose tissue to differentiate into chondrocytes in vitro and to stimulate the regeneration of articular cartilage in an experimental model of rabbit knee osteoarthrosis when cultured on microheterogenic collagen-based hydrogel (МCH) and the microparticles of decellularized porcine articular cartilage (DPC). The morphology of samples was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy and histological staining methods. On the surface of the DPC, the cells were distributed more uniformly than on the MCH surface. On day 28, the cells cultured on the DPC produced glycosaminoglycans more intensely compared to the MCH with the synthesis of collagen type II. However, in the experimental model of osteoarthrosis, the stimulation of the cartilage regeneration was more effective when the MSCs were administered to the MCH carrier. The present study demonstrates the way to regulate the action of the MSCs in the area of cartilage regeneration: the MCH is more conducive to stimulating cartilage repair by the MSCs, while the DPC is an inducer for a formation of a cartilage-like tissue by the MSCs in vitro.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0510.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Shape-Memory Hydrogel; Active Polymer; Biopolymer; Mechanical Properties; Degradation
Online: 21 May 2021 (09:40:50 CEST)
Shape-memory hydrogels (SMH) are as multifunctional, actively-moving polymers of interest in biomedicine. In loosely crosslinked polymer networks gelatin chains may form triple helices, which can act as temporary netpoints in SMH, depending on the presence of salts. Here, we show programming and initiation of the shape-memory effect of such networks based on a thermomechanical process compatible with the physiological environment. The SMH were synthesized by reaction of glycidylmethacrylated gelatin with OEG α,ω-dithiols of varying crosslinker length and amount. Triple helicalization of gelatin chains is shown directly by wide-angle X-ray scattering and indirectly via the mechanical behavior at different temperatures. The ability to form triple helices increased with the molar mass of the crosslinker. Hydrogels had storage moduli of 0.27-23 kPa and Young’s moduli of 215-360 kPa at 4 °C. The hydrogels were hydrolytically degradable, with full degradation to water soluble products within one week at 37 °C and pH = 7.4. A thermally-induced shape-memory effect is demonstrated in bending as well as in compression tests, in which shape recovery with excellent shape recovery rates Rr close to 100% were observed. In the future, the material presented here could be applied e.g. as self-anchoring devices mechanically resembling the extracellular matrix.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0194.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: hydrogel; e-beam cross-linking; swelling; ibuprofen; network parameters
Online: 4 November 2020 (12:41:17 CET)
We report on the successful preparation of wet dressings hydrogels based on Chitosan-Poly(N-Vinyl-Pyrrolidone)-Poly(ethylene glycol)-Poly(acrylic acid) and Poly(ethylene oxide) by e-beam cross-linking in weakly acidic media, to be used for rapid healing and pain release of infected skin wounds. The structure and compositions of hydrogels investigated according to sol-gel and swelling studies, network parameters, as well as FTIR and XPS analyses showed the efficient interaction of the hydrogel components upon irradiation, maintaining the bonding environment while the cross-linking degree increasing with the irradiation dose and the formation of a structure with the mesh size in the range 11-67 nm. Hydrogels with gel fraction above 85% and the best-swelling properties in different pH solutions were obtained for hydrogels produced with 15 kGy. The hydrogels are stable in the simulated physiological condition of an infected wound and show appropriate moisture retention capability and the water vapor transmission rate up to 272.67 g m-2 day-1, to ensure fast healing. The hydrogels proved to have a significant loading capacity of ibuprofen (IBU), being able to incorporate a therapeutic dose for the treatment of severe pains. Simultaneously, IBU was released up to 25% in the first 2h, having a release maximum after 8h.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0280.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: conductive hydrogel; tissue engineering; biomaterials; physical and electrical properties
Online: 15 August 2018 (16:12:51 CEST)
In the field of tissue engineering, conductive hydrogels have been the most effective biomaterials to mimic the biological and electrical properties of tissues in the human body. The main advantages of conductive hydrogel include not only its physical properties, but also its adequate electrical properties, thus providing electrical signals to cells efficiently. However, when introducing a conductive material into a non-conductive hydrogel, a conflicting relationship between the electrical and mechanical properties may develop. This review examines the strengths and weaknesses of the generation of conductive hydrogels using various conductive materials and introduces the use of these conductive hydrogels in tissue engineering applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0109.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: nano-Au particles; NIPAAm hydrogel; plasma treatment; UV grafting
Online: 28 September 2016 (09:49:23 CEST)
In this study, a new type of temperature sensor device was developed. The circular electrode of the thermal sensitive sensor was modified with TMT and O2 plasma to enhance the conductivity by forming a thin SnOxCy layer on the electrode surface. The Nano-Au particles were subjected to O2 plasma pretreatment to form peroxide groups on the surface. The thermally sensitive sensor was made by mixing the above-treated Nano-Au particles with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) to form solution and then UV-induced grafting polymerization of the NIPAAm-containing solution onto the electrode substrate. The composite hydrogels on the electrode introduce thermo-sensitive polymeric surface films for temperature sensing. Using ambient environment resistance test to measure the resistance, the LCST (lower critical solution temperature) of Nano-Au (MUA) mixed with NIPAAm hydrogel was found to be 32 °C. At ambient temperatures higher than LCST, the electrode resistance decreases linearly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0300.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: anti-adhesion; dual-network hydrogel; polydopamine; elasticity modulus; tissue adhesion
Online: 6 November 2023 (13:43:16 CET)
Intrauterine adhesions (IUA) has become one of the main causes of female infertility, how to effectively prevent postoperative re-adhesion has been a clinical challenge. In this study, a mussel-inspired dual-network hydrogel was proposed for postoperative anti-adhesion of IUA. First, calcium alginate/polyacrylamide (CA-PAM) hydrogel was prepared by covalent and Ca2+ cross-linking. Benefiting from abundant phenolic hydroxyl groups, polydopamine (PDA) was introduced to further enhance the adhesion ability and biocompatibility. This CA-PAM hydrogel immersed in 10 mg/mL dopamine solution possessed remarkable mechanical strength (elastic modulus > 5 kPa) and super stretchability (with a breaking elongation of 720%). At the same time, it shown excellent adhesion more than 6 kPa. Surprisingly, the coagulation index of the hydrogel was 27.27 ± 4.91, demonstrating attractive coagulation performance in vitro and the potential for rapid hemostasis after surgery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2153.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: Hydrogel gatekeeper; mesoporous silica nanoparticles; stimuli-sensitive delivery; chemotherapy; doxorubicin
Online: 31 August 2023 (12:35:42 CEST)
Hydrogels can offer many opportunities for drug delivery strategies. They can be used on their own or their benefits can be further exploited in combination with other nanocarriers. Intelligent hydrogels that react to changes in the surrounding environment can be utilized as gatekeepers and provide sustained on demand drug release. In this study, a hybrid nanosystem for tempera-ture and pH sensitive delivery was prepared from MCM-41 nanoparticles grafted with newly synthesized thermosensitive hydrogel (MCM-41/AA-g-PnVCL). The initial particles were chemi-cally modified by carboxyl groups attachment. Later, they were grafted with agar (AA) and vi-nylcaprolactam (VCL) by free radical polymerization. Doxorubicin was applied as a model hy-drophilic chemotherapeutic drug. The successful formulation was confirmed by FT-IR and TGA. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis showed small particles with negative zeta potential. Their release behaviour was investigated in vitro in different pH media and at different temperatures. At tumor simulating conditions (40ºC and pH 4.0) doxoru-bicin was almost completely released within 72 hours. The biocompatibility of the proposed na-noparticles was demonstrated by in vitro haemolysis assay. These results suggest the possible parenteral application of the newly prepared hydrogel-functionalized mesoporous silica nanopar-ticles for temperature-sensitive and pH-triggered drug delivery at the tumor site.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1637.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Hydrogel; Extracellular matrix; Stiffness; Cell; Cancer; Internal stresses; Bound water
Online: 23 August 2023 (07:17:32 CEST)
Hydrogels can be considered as mimics of extracellular matrix (ECM).Cytoskeleton through integrins is connected with ECM and cytoskeleton tension depends on ECM stiffness.A number of age-related diseases depend on cellular processes related with cytoskeleton function.Some examples of cancer initiation and progression and heart disease in relationship with ECM stiffness has been analysed.Incorporation of rigid particles in ECM can increase ECM stifness and to promote formation of internal residual stresses. Water migration, changes of water binding energy to biomactomolecules, changes of the state of water from tightly bound water to free and loosely bound water changes stiffness of ECM. Risks related with rigid particles incorporation into ECM have been also iscussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2074.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: holographic recording; volume transmission grating; hydrogel layer; diffraction efficiency; biosensor
Online: 31 July 2023 (11:10:48 CEST)
The role of volume hydrogel holographic gratings as optical transducers in sensor devices for point-of-care applications is increasing due to their ability to be functionalized for achieving enhanced selectivity. The first step in the development of these transducers is the optimization of the holographic recording process. The optimization aims at achieving gratings with reproducible diffraction efficiency, which remains stable after reiterative washings, typically required when working with analytes of biological nature or several step tests. The recording process of volume phase transmission gratings within acrylamide/propargyl acrylate hydrogel layers reported in this work was successfully performed and the obtained diffraction gratings were optically characterized. Unslanted volume transmission gratings were recorded in the hydrogel layers and using the optimized conditions, diffraction efficiencies of up to 80% were achieved. Additionally, the recorded gratings demonstrated to be stable in water after multiple washings. The hydrogels, after functionalization with oligonucleotide probes yields specific hybridization response, recognizing the complementary strand as demonstrated by fluorescence. Analyte-sensitive hydrogel layers with holographic structures are a promising candidate for the next generation of in vitro diagnostic tests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0288.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: сollagen; fibronectin; hydrogel; polylactide; HAP/β-TCP; BMP-2; osteoinduction
Online: 16 November 2021 (11:36:48 CET)
In dentistry, maxillofacial surgery, traumatology, and orthopedics, there is a need to use osteoplastic materials that have not only osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties but are also convenient for use. In the study, compositions based on collagen hydrogel were developed. Polylactide granules (PLA) or a traditional bone graft, a mixture of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate (HAP/β-TCP), were used for gel filling to improve mechanical osteoconductive properties of compositions. The mechanical tests showed that collagen hydrogels filled with 12 wt% highly porous PLA granules (elastic modulus 373 ± 55 kPa) or 35 wt% HAP/β-TCP granules (elastic modulus 451 ± 32 kPa) had optimal manipulative properties. All composite components were cytocompatible. The cell’s viability was above 90%, and the components’ structure facilitated the cell’s surface adhesion. The bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) provided osteoinductive composition properties. It was impregnated directly into the collagen hydrogel with the addition of fibronectin or inside porous PLA granules. The implantation of a collagen hydrogel with BMP-2 and PLA granules into a critical-size calvarial defect in rats led to the formation of the most significant volume of bone tissue: 61 ± 15%. It was almost 2.5 times more than in the groups where a collagen-fibronectin hydrogel with a mixture of HAP/β-TCP (25 ± 7%) or a fibronectin-free composition with porous PLA granules impregnated with BMP-2 (23 ± 8%) were used. Subcutaneous implantation of the compositions also showed their high biocompatibility and osteogenic potential in the absence of a bone environment. Thus, the collagen-fibronectin hydrogel with BMP-2 and PLA granules has optimal biocompatibility, osteogenic, and manipulative properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0157.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Alginate; methylcellulose; hydrogel; bone marrow; bioprinting; breast cancer; stem cells
Online: 7 December 2020 (13:12:27 CET)
Translational medicine requires facile experimental systems to replicate the dynamic biological systems of diseases. Drug approval continues to lag, partly due to incongruencies in the research pipeline that traditionally involve 2D models, which could be improved with 3D models. The bone marrow (BM) poses challenges to harvest as an intact organ making it difficult to study disease processes such as breast cancer (BC) survival in BM, and to effective evaluation of drug response in BM. Furthermore, it is a challenge to develop 3D BM structures due to its weak physical properties, and complex hierarchical structure and cellular landscape. To address this, we leveraged 3D bioprinting to create a BM structure with varied methylcellulose (M):alginate (A) ratios. We selected hydrogels containing 4% (w/v) M and 2% (w/v) A, which recapitulates rheological and ultrastructural features of the BM while maintaining stability in culture. This hydrogel sustained the culture of two key primary BM microenvironmental cells found at the perivascular region, mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial cells. More importantly, the scaffold showed evidence of cell autonomous dedifferentiation of BC cells to cancer stem cell properties. This scaffold could be the platform to create BM models for various disease and also for drug screening.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0346.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: hydrogel mechanical properties; nanocomposites; double-network hydrogels; polymer- nanoparticle interactions
Online: 29 January 2020 (04:23:23 CET)
Extensive experimental and theoretical research over the past several decades has culminated in the understanding of the mechanisms behind nanoparticle-mediated enhancements on the mechanical properties of hydrogels. This information is not only crucial to realizing applications that directly benefit from developing hydrogels with high mechanical strength, but also to guide the development of strategies to further enhance hydrogel properties by combining different approaches. In our study, we investigated the effect of combining two approaches – addition of nanoparticles and crosslinking two different polymers (to create double-network hydrogels) – on the mechanical properties of hydrogels. Our studies revealed that these approaches may be combined to synthesize hydrogel composites with enhanced properties; however, both polymers in the double-network hydrogel must strongly interact with the nanoparticles to fully benefit from the addition of nanoparticles. Moreover, the concentration of hydrogel monomers used for the preparation of the double-network hydrogels had a significant effect on the extent of nanoparticle-mediated enhancements; double-network hydrogel nanocomposites prepared using lower monomer concentrations showed higher enhancements in elastic moduli compared to those prepared using high monomer concentrations. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the hypotheses previously developed to understand the role of nanoparticles on the mechanical properties of hydrogel nanocomposites may be extended to double-network hydrogel systems and guide the development of next generation hydrogels with extraordinary mechanical properties through a combination of orthogonal approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0005.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: multicellular spheroids; 3D culture; gas-permeable plate; hydrogel beads; methylcellulose
Online: 3 May 2019 (14:20:44 CEST)
Culture systems for 3-dimensional tissues, such as multicellular spheroids, are indispensable for high-throughput screening of primary or patient-derived xenograft (PDX)-expanded cancer tissues. Oxygen supply to the center of such spheroids is particularly critical for maintaining cellular functions as well as avoiding the development of a necrotic core. In this study, we evaluated 2 methods to enhance oxygen supply: (1) using culture plate with gas-permeable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane at its bottom and (2) embedding hydrogel beads in the spheroids. Culturing spheroids on PDMS increased cell growth and affected glucose/lactate metabolism and CYP3A4 mRNA expression and subsequent enzyme activity. The spheroids comprised 5000 Hep G2 cells and 5000 20 µm-diameter hydrogel beads did not develop a necrotic core for 9 days when cultured on a gas-permeable sheet. In contrast, central necrosis in spheroids lacking hydrogel beads was observed after day 3 of culture, even when using PDMS. These results indicate that the combination of gas-permeable culture equipment and embedded hydrogel beads improves culture 3D spheroids produced from primary or PDX-expanded tumor cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0521.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Transplantation Keywords: islets; gelatin hydrogel nonwoven fabrics; subcutaneous transplantation; extracellular matrix; neovascularization; rats
Online: 7 December 2023 (11:41:33 CET)
Although subcutaneous islet transplantation has many advantages, transplant efficiency is still low in animal models, except in mice. We previously reported the efficacy of pretreatment using gelatin hydrogel nonwoven fabric (GHNF) in a mouse model. We investigated whether the preimplantation of GHNF could improve the subcutaneous islet transplantation outcomes in a rat model. GHNF sheets sandwiching a silicone spacer (GHNF group) and silicone spacers without GHNF sheets (control group) were implanted into the subcutaneous space of recipients three weeks before islet transplantation, and diabetes was induced seven days before islet transplantation. Syngeneic islets were transplanted into the space where the silicone spacer was removed. Blood glucose levels, glucose tolerance, immunohistochemistry, and neovascularization were evaluated. The GHNF group showed significantly better blood glucose changes than the control group (p<0.01). The cure rate was significantly higher in the GHNF group (p<0.05). The number of vWF-positive vessels was significantly higher in the GHNF group (p<0.01), and lectin angiography showed the same tendency (p<0.05). The expression of laminin and collagen III around the transplanted islets were also higher in the GHNF group (p<0.01). GHNF pretreatment was effective in a rat model, and the main mechanisms might be neovascularization and compensation of the extracellular matrices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1471.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Co-printing; murine myoblasts (C2C12); bioprinting; fibrinogen-based hydrogel; polycaprolac-tone
Online: 21 June 2023 (03:33:30 CEST)
Cells are influenced by several biomechanical aspects of their microenvironment, such as substrate geometry. According to the literature, substrate geometry influences the behavior of muscle cells; in particular, the curvature feature improves cell proliferation. However, the effect of the substrate geometry on the myogenic differentiation process is not clear and needs to be further investigated. Here, we show that the 3D co-printing technique allows the realization of substrates. To test the influence of the co-printing technique on cellular behavior we realized linear polycaprolactone substrates with channels in which a fibrinogen-based hydrogel loaded with C2C12 cells was deposited. Cell viability and differentiation were investigated up to 21 days in culture. The results suggest that this technology significantly improves the differentiation at 14 days. Therefore, we investigate the substrate geometry influence by comparing three different co-printed geometries – linear, circular, and hybrid structures (linear and circular features combined). Based on our results, all structures exhibit optimal cell viability (> 94%) but the linear pattern allows to increase the in-vitro cell differentiation, in particular after 14 days of culture. This study proposes an endorsed approach for creating artificial muscles for future skeletal muscle tissue engineering applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0798.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: Zn ion battery; aqueous; hydrogel gel electrolyte; sodium alginate; N-isopropylacrylamide
Online: 12 June 2023 (08:31:24 CEST)
Rechargeable aqueous Zn-ion batteries (ZIBs) have attracted considerable attention owing to their high theoretical capacity of 820 mA h g‒1, low cost and intrinsic safety. However, the electrolyte leakage and the instability issues of Zn negative electrodes originating from side reactions between the aqueous electrolyte and Zn negative electrode, not only restricts the battery stability but also results in short-circuit of aqueous ZIBs. Herein we report a flexible and stable N-isopropylacrylamide/sodium alginate (N-SA) gel electrolyte, which possesses high mechanical strength and high ionic conductivity of 2.96×10‒2 S cm‒1, and enables the Zn metal negative electrode and MnO2 positive electrode to reversibly and stably cycle. Compared to the liquid electrolyte, the N-SA hydrogel electrolyte can effectively form a uniform Zn deposition and suppress the generation of irreversible by-products. The assemble symmetric Zn/Zn cells at a current density of 1 mA cm‒2 shows a stable voltage profile, which maintains a low level of about 100 mV over 2600 h without an obvious short circuit or any overpotential increasing. Specially, the assembled Zn/N-SA/MnO2 batteries can deliver a high specific capacity of 182 mAh g‒1 and maintain 98% capacity retention after 650 cycles at 0.5 A g‒1. This work provides a facile method to fabricate high-performance SA-based hydrogel electrolytes that illustrates their potential for flexible batteries for wearable electronics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0091.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Collagen; hydrogel; interpenetrating network; beta pancreatic cells; vascular endothelial factor; biomaterial
Online: 1 June 2023 (12:48:03 CEST)
Three-dimensional matrices are a new strategy used to tackle type I diabetes; a chronic metabolic disease characterized by the destruction of beta pancreatic cells. Type I collagen is an abundant extracellular matrix (ECM), component that has been used to support cell growth. However, pure collagen possesses some difficulties including low stiffness and strength, and high susceptibility to cell-mediated contraction. Therefore, we developed a collagen hydrogel with a poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) interpenetrating network (IPN), functionalized with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to mimic the pancreatic environment for the sustenance of beta-pancreatic cells. We analyzed the physicochemical characteristic of the hydrogels and found that they were successfully synthesized. The mechanical behavior of the hydrogels improved with the addition of VEGF, and the swelling degree and the degradation were stable over time. In addition, it was found that 5 ng/mL VEGF-functionalized collagen/PEGDA IPN hydrogels sustained and enhanced viability, proliferation, respiratory capacity and functionality of beta pancreatic cells. Hence, this is a potential candidate for future preclinical evaluation, which may be favorable for diabetes treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0300.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Chitosan; Hydrogel; biomedical application; stimuli-responsive hydrogels; synthesis methods; characterization methods
Online: 5 May 2023 (04:50:52 CEST)
The prospective applications of chitosan-based hydrogels (CBHs), a category of biocompatible and biodegradable materials, in biomedical disciplines such as tissue engineering, wound healing, drug delivery, and biosensing have garnered great interest. The synthesis and characterization processes used to create CBHs play a significant role in determining their characteristics and effectiveness. The processing procedure could be tailored to obtain specific features like porosity, swelling, mechanical strength, degradation rate, and bioactivity, affecting the properties of CBHs to a great extent. Additionally, characterization methods aid in gaining access to the microstructures and properties of CBHs. Especially, this review provides a comprehensive assessment of the state-of-the-art with a focus on the affiliation between particular properties and application domains. The main obstacles and prospects for the future of CBH development for biomedical applications are also covered in the review.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0026.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: elastomers; hydrogels; elastomer-hydrogel systems; injectable biomaterials; adhesive surfaces; tissue engineering
Online: 20 April 2022 (11:39:28 CEST)
Novel advanced biomaterials have recently gained great attention, especially in surgical minimally invasive techniques. Applying sophisticated design and engineering methods, various elastomer-hydrogel systems (EHS) with outstanding performance have been developed in last decades. Those systems composed of elastomers and hydrogels are very attractive due to their high biocompatibility, injectability, controlled porosity and often antimicrobial properties. Moreover, elastomeric properties and bioadhesiveness are making them suitable for soft tissue engineering. Herein, we present the advances in current state-of-the-art design principles and strategies for strong interface formation inspired by nature (bio-inspiration), diverse properties and applications of elastomer-hydrogel systems in different medical fields, in particular, in tissue engineering. Functionalities of those systems, including adhesive properties, injectability, antimicrobial properties and degradability applicable to tissue engineering will be discussed in a context of future efforts towards development of advanced biomaterials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0149.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Alginate; polyvinyl alcohol; bentonite clay; nanocomposites hydrogel; cationic dyes; water remediation.
Online: 8 November 2021 (14:30:34 CET)
Hazardous chemicals like toxic organic dyes are very harmful to the environment and their removal is quite challenging. Therefore there is a necessity to develop techniques, which are environment friendly, cost-effective and easily available in nature for water purification and re-mediation. The present research work is focused on the development` and characterization of the ecofriendly polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and alginate (Alg) hydrogel beads incorporating natural bentonite (Bent) clay as beneficial adsorbents for removal of toxic methylene blue (MB) from industrial water. PVA−Alg/Bent nanocomposite hydrogel beads with different Bent content (0, 10, 20, and 30 wt%) were synthesized via external ionic gelation method. The designed porous and steady structure beads were characterized by the use of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The performance of the beads as MB adsorbents was investigated by treating batch aqueous solutions. The experimental results indicated that the incorporation of Bent (30 w%) in the nanocomposite formulation sustained porous structure, preserved water uptake, and increased MB removal effi-ciency by 230 % compared to empty beads. Designed beads possessed higher aﬃnity to MB at high pH 8, 30 °C, and ﬁtted well to pseudo-second-order kinetic model a high correlation coeﬃcient. Moreover, designed beads had a good stability and reusability as they exhibited excellent removal eﬃciency (90%) after six consecutive adsorption-desorption cycles. Adsorption process was found be combination of both monolayer adsorption on homogeneous surface and multilayer adsorption on heterogeneous surface. The maximum adsorption capacity of the designed beads system as calculated by Langmuir isotherm was found to be 51.34 mg/g, which is in good agreement with the reported clay-related adsorbents. The designed PVA−Alg/Bent nanocomposite hydrogel beads demonstrated good adsorbent properties and could be potentially used for MB removal from polluted water.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0033.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: tissue engineering; lumen; stem cells, interstitial cells of Cajal; hydrogel scaffolds
Online: 5 January 2018 (09:36:18 CET)
Gastroparesis (GP) is associated with depletion of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and enteric neurons, which leads to pyloric dysfunction followed by severe nausea, vomiting and delayed gastric-emptying. Regenerating these fundamental structures with stem cell therapy, would be helpful to restore gastric function in GP. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been successfully used in animal models of other gastrointestinal (GI) diseases including colitis. However, no study has been performed with these cells on GP animals. In this study, we explored if mouse MSC can be delivered from a hydrogel-scaffold to the luminal surfaces of GP mice stomach. Mouse MSC was seeded atop alginate-gelatin, coated with poly-L-lysine. These cell-gel constructs were placed atop stomach explants facing the luminal side. MSC grew uniformly all across the gel surface within 48 hr. When placed atop the lumen of the stomach, MSC migrated from the gels to the tissues as confirmed by positive staining with Vimentin and N-cadherin. The feasibility of transplanting a cell-gel construct to deliver stem cells in the stomach wall was successfully shown in a mice GP model, thereby making a significant advance towards envisioning the transplantation of an entire tissue-engineered ‘gastric patch’ or ‘microgels’ with stem cells, and growth factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1573.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: scaffold design; PLA; gelatin-chitosan hydrogel; tissue engineering; bone regeneration; 3D printing
Online: 26 November 2023 (05:44:24 CET)
Scaffolds for tissue engineering are expected to respond to a challenging combination of physical and mechanical requirements, guiding the research towards the development of novel hybrid materials. This study introduces innovative three-dimensional bioresorbable scaffolds, in which a stiff poly(lactic acid) lattice structure is meant to ensure temporary mechanical support, while a bioactive gelatin-chitosan hydrogel is incorporated to provide a better environment for cell adhesion and proliferation. The scaffolds present a core-shell structure, in which the lattice core is realized by additive manufacturing, while the shell is nested throughout the core by grafting and crosslinking a hydrogel forming solution. After subsequent freeze-drying, the hydrogel network forms a highly interconnected porous structure that completely envelops the poly(lactic acid) core. Thanks to this strategy, it is easy to tailor the scaffold properties for a specific target application, by properly designing the lattice geometry and the core/shell ratio, which are found to significantly affect the scaffold mechanical performance and its bioresorption. Compression stiffness and strength provided by poly(lactic acid) lattices are overall within the range of values displayed by human bone tissue and remain stable after prolonged immersion in water at body temperature for several weeks. On the other hand, the hydrogel undergoes gradual and homogeneous degradation over time, but the core-shell integrity and structural stability are nevertheless maintained during at least 7-week hydrolytic degradation tests. In vitro experiments with human mesenchymal stromal cells reveal that the core-shell scaffolds are biocompatible and their physical-mechanical properties and architecture are suitable to support cell growth and osteogenic differentiation, as demonstrated by hydroxyapatite formation. These results suggest that the bioresorbable core-shell scaffolds can be considered, and further studied, in view of clinically relevant endpoints in bone regenerative medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1379.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: chitosan‐based hydrogel; cellulose nanocrystals; injectable hydrogels; osteogenic differentiation; osteogenesis; bone regeneration
Online: 20 July 2023 (05:19:02 CEST)
Bone fractures are very common in the geriatric population and poses a great economic burden worldwide. While traditional methods for repairing bone defects have primarily been autografts, there are several drawbacks limiting its use. Bone graft substitutes have been used as alternative strategies to improve bone healing. However, there remains several impediments to achieving the desired healing outcomes. Injectable hydrogels have become attractive scaffold materials for bone regeneration given their high performance in filling irregularly sized bone defects, ability to encapsulate cells and bioactive molecules, and mimic the native ECM of bone. We investigated the use of an injectable chitosan-based hydrogel scaffold to promote differentiation of preosteoblasts in vitro. The hydrogels were characterized by evaluating cell homogeneity, cell viability, rheological and mechanical properties, and differentiation ability of preosteoblasts in hydrogel scaffolds. Cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds exhibited shear thinning behavior and the ability to maintain shape fidelity after injection. The CNC-CS hydrogels exhibited higher mechanical strength and significantly upregulated the osteogenic activity and differentiation of preosteoblasts as shown by ALP activity assays and histological analysis of hydrogel scaffolds. These results suggest that this injectable hydrogel is suitable for cell survival, can promote osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblasts, and structurally support new bone growth.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0220.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: hydrogel-forming microneedles; transdermal drug delivery; controlled release; permeation pathway; environmental response
Online: 2 June 2023 (15:57:01 CEST)
Transdermal drug delivery (TDD) is one of the key approaches for treating diseases, avoiding first-pass effects, reducing systemic adverse drug reactions and improving patient compliance. Microneedling, iontophoresis, electroporation, laser ablation and ultrasound facilitation are often used to improve the efficiency of TDD. Among them, microneedling is a relatively simple and efficient means of drug delivery. Microneedles usually consist of micron-sized needles (50-900 μm in length) in arrays that can successfully penetrate the stratum corneum and deliver drugs in a minimally invasive manner below the stratum corneum without touching the blood vessels and nerves in the dermis, improving patient compliance. Hydrogel-forming microneedles (HFMNs) are safe, non-toxic, no residual matrix material, high drug loading capacity, controlled drug release and are suitable for long-term, multiple drug delivery. This work reviewed the characteristics of skin structure and transdermal drug delivery; introduced TDD strategies based on hydrogel microneedles; summarised the characteristics of HFMNs TDD systems and the evaluation methods of HFMNs; and the application of HFMNs drug delivery systems in disease treatment. The HFMNs drug delivery system has a wide scope for development, but the translation to clinical application still has more challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0040.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Fucoidan-Chitosan; Injectable Hydrogel; osteogenic potential; periodontal intrabony defects; human experimental trial
Online: 1 June 2023 (05:48:04 CEST)
Periodontal diseases significantly impact about half of the global population, and their treatment often encompasses relieving symptoms as well as regenerating the destroyed tissues. Revolu-tionary research in the management of periodontal disease includes biomaterials, a boon to re-generative dentistry owing to their excellent biological properties, non-toxic, an-ti-inflammatory, biocompatible, biodegradable, and adhesion. This study aimed to fabricate an injectable fucoidan containing chitosan hydrogel and prove its effectiveness in periodontal bone regeneration. The injectable hydrogel was prepared using the sol-gel method and loaded into 2ml syringes. 40 periodontitis patients with bony defects were recruited and randomized into two groups, to re-ceive fucoidan-chitosan hydrogel and concentrated growth factor, respectively. Customized acrylic stents were used to guide the hydrogel placement into the defect site. Post-surgical changes in clinical parameters were assessed at 3, 6 and 9 months to appreciate the soft & hard tissue changes using repeated measures analysis of variance and Bonferroni’s posthoc test. Significance was kept at 5%. The fucoidan-chitosan hydrogel exhibited significantly lower probing depth values and a higher mean reduction in clinical attachment level as compared to the CGF group at the end of 3 and 6 months (p<0.05). The mean defect fills in the fucoidan-chitosan group was 1.20 at the end of 9 months (p<0.001). The presence of fucoidan in the hydrogel significantly contributed to bone re-generation in humans, thus strengthening its potential in tissue engi-neering. Fucoidan- Chitosan will be a promising biomaterial for bone tissue regeneration.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0108.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Dendrimer; biomaterial; cell scaffold; hydrogel; wound repair; adhesion; differentiation; osseointegration.; hydroxyapatite; scaffold
Online: 7 December 2022 (01:57:27 CET)
The capability of radially polymerized bio-dendrimers and hyperbranched polymers for medical applications is well established. Among them, perhaps the most important are those that involve interactions with the regenerative mechanisms of cells. Dendritic polymers due to their distinctive architecture may play a multitude of roles such as protein biomimicry (collagen, elastin, hydroxy apatite production), gene and drug delivery (cell differentiation, antimicrobial protection), surface chemistry and charge modulation (adhesion to cells and tissues), polymer cross-linking (eye, skin and internal organ wound healing). The review highlights all the different categories of hard and soft tissues that may be remediated with their contribution. The reader will be also exposed to the incorporation methods to established biomaterials such as scaffolds, the functionalization strategies, and the synthetic paths for the assembly from biocompatible building blocks and natural metabolites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0242.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: hydrogel; 3D-culture; Imaging; Cell-matrix; proteases; matrix metalloproteinases; actin polymerization; contractility
Online: 12 August 2022 (12:55:21 CEST)
Cancer invasion through basement membranes represents the initial step of tumor dissemination and metastasis. However, little is known about how human cancer cells breach basement membranes. Here, we used a 3-dimensional in vitro invasion model consisting of cancer spheroids encapsulated by a basement membrane and embedded in 3D collagen gels to visualize the early events of cancer invasion by confocal microscopy and live-cell imaging. Human breast cancer cells generated large numbers of basement membrane perforations, or holes, of varying sizes that expanded over time during cell invasion. We used a wide variety of small molecule inhibitors to probe the mechanisms of basement membrane perforation and hole expansion. Protease inhibitor treatment (BB94), led to a 63% decrease in perforation size. After myosin II inhibition (blebbistatin), basement membrane perforation area decreased by only 15%. These treatments produced correspondingly decreased cellular breaching events. Interestingly, inhibition of actin polymerization dramatically decreased basement membrane perforation by 80% and blocked invasion. Our findings suggest that human cancer cells can primarily use proteolysis and actin polymerization to perforate the BM and to expand perforations for basement membrane breaching, with a relatively small contribution from myosin II contractility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0178.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: hydrogel dressing; full-thickness skin regeneration; 3D cell culture; VE-cadherin; FGF
Online: 10 December 2021 (13:10:47 CET)
The process of full-thickness skin regeneration is complex and has many parameters involved, which makes it difficult to use a single dressing to meet the various requirements of the complete regeneration at the same time. Therefore, developing hydrogel dressings with multifunction, including tunable rheological properties and aperture, hemostatic, antibacterial and super cytocompatibility, is a desirable candidate in wound healing. In this study, a series of complex hydrogels were developed via the hydrogen bond and covalent bond between chitosan (CS) and alginate (SA). These hydrogels exhibited suitable pore size and tunable rheological properties for cell adhesion. Chitosan endowed hemostatic, antibacterial properties and great cytocompatibility and thus solved two primary problems in the early stage of the wound healing process. Moreover, the sustained cytocompatibility of the hydrogels was further investigated after adding FGF and VE-cadherin via the co-culture of L929 and EC for 12 days. The confocal 3D fluorescent images showed that the cells were spherical and tended to form multicellular spheroids, which distributed in about 40-60μm thick hydrogels. Furthermore, the hydrogel dressings significantly accelerate defected skin turn to normal skin with proper epithelial thickness and new blood vessels and hair follicles through the histological analysis of in vivo wound healing. The findings mentioned above demonstrated that the CS/SA hydrogels with growth factors have tremendous potential as multifunctional hydrogel dressings for full-thickness skin regeneration incorporated with hemostatic, antibacterial, sustained cytocompatibility for 3D cell culture and normal skin repairing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0323.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: Hydrogel; Blended paper; Slow-release fertilizer; Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose; polyvinyl alcohol
Online: 22 October 2021 (09:48:48 CEST)
In this study, a slow-release urea fertilizer hydrogel was synthesized from hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose, polyvinyl alcohol and glycerol blends with paper (blended paper) as second layer. The fertilizer hydrogel was characterized by SEM, XRD and FTIR. Its retention in sandy soil, swelling behavior in distilled and tap water as well as slow-release behavior to urea were investigated. The results indicated that the fertilizer had good slow-release properties and ability to retain water in soil. However, the addition of blended paper as a second layer matrix was found to help improve the release properties of the fertilizer. The swelling kinetic of the hydrogel followed the Schott’s Second order model. The release kinetics of urea in water was best described by the Zero order model signifying that the release behavior was independent of fertilizer concentration
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0134.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Methylcellulose; cellulose nanocrystal; hydrogel; birefringence; wet-spinning; optical fiber; thermoresponsive; LCST; nanocomposite
Online: 5 August 2021 (10:15:49 CEST)
Chemical modification of cellulose offers routes for structurally and functionally diverse biopolymer derivatives for numerous industrial applications. Among cellulose derivatives, cellulose ethers have found extensive use, such as emulsifiers, in food industries and biotechnology. Methylcellulose, one of the simplest cellulose derivatives, has been utilized for biomedical, construction materials and cell culture applications. Its improved water solubility, thermoresponsive gelation, and the ability to act as a matrix for various dopants also offer routes for cellulose-based functional materials. There has been a renewed interest in understanding the structural, mechanical, and optical properties of methylcellulose and its composites. This review focuses on the recent development in optically and mechanically tunable hydrogels derived from methylcellulose and methylcellulose-cellulose nanocrystal composites. We further discuss the application of the gels for preparing highly ductile and strong fibers. Finally, the emerging application of methylcellulose-based fibers as optical fibers and their application potentials are discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0652.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Enzymatic reaction; crosslinking; Hydrogel; Biomedical application; Tissue engineering; Wound healing; Drug delivery
Online: 26 April 2021 (10:52:24 CEST)
Self-assembled structures mostly arises through enzyme-regulated phenomena in nature under persistent conditions. Enzymatic reactions are one of main biological processes in fabrication and construction of supramolecular hydrogel networks required for biomedical applications. The enzymatic processes provide a unique opportunity to integrate hydrogel formation. In most of cases, structure and substrates of hydrogels are adjusted by enzyme catalysis due to the chemo-, regio- and stereo-selectivity of enzymes. Hydrogels processed by using various enzyme schemes showed remarkable characteristics as dynamic frames for cells, bioactive molecules and drugs in biomedical applications. A novel class of enzyme-mediated crosslinking hydrogels mimics the extracellular matrices by displaying unique physicochemical properties and functionalities like water-retention capacity, drug loading ability, biodegradability, biocompatibility, biostability, bioactivity, optoelectronic properties, self-healing ability, shape memory ability. In recent years, many enzymatic systems investigated hydrogel cross-linking. Results of biocompatible hydrogel products show that these mechanisms of crosslinking can fulfill requirements for variety of biomedical applications including tissue engineering, wound healing and drug delivery.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0449.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: multifunctional; hydrogel nanocomposties; tissue engineering; drug delivery; wound healing; bioprinting; biowearable devices
Online: 22 February 2021 (08:48:20 CET)
Hydrogels are used for various biomedical applications due to their biocompatibility, capacity to mimic the extracellular matrix, and ability to encapsulate and deliver cells and therapeutics. However, traditional hydrogels have a few shortcomings, especially regarding their physical properties, thereby limiting their broad applicability. Recently, researchers have investigated the incorporation of nanoparticles (NPs) into hydrogels to improve and add to the physical and biochemical properties of hydrogels. This brief review focuses on papers that describe the use of nanoparticles to improve more than one property of hydrogels. Such multifunctional hydrogel nanocomposites have enhanced potential for various applications, including tissue engineering, drug delivery, wound healing, bioprinting and biowearable devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0262.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: protein self-assembling; protein hydrogel; lysozyme; ultrasonic sound propagation; transient grating spectroscopy
Online: 21 December 2018 (15:02:30 CET)
In this work, we have studied the propagation of ultrasonic waves of lysozyme solutions characterized by different degrees of aggregation and networking. The experimental investigation has been performed by means of the Transient Grating (TG) spectroscopy as a function of temperature; this technique enables to measure the ultrasonic acoustic proprieties over a wide time window, ranging from nanoseconds to milliseconds. The fitting of the measured TG signal allows the extraction of several dynamic properties, here we focused on the speed and the damping rate of sound. The temperature variation induces in the lysozyme solutions a series of processes: protein folding-unfolding, aggregation and sol-gel transition. Our TG investigation shows how these self-assembling phenomena modulate the sound propagation, affecting both the velocity and the damping rate of the ultrasonic waves. In particular, the damping of ultrasonic acoustic waves proves to be a dynamic property very sensitive to the protein conformational rearrangements and aggregation processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1086.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: 3D printing; alginate-gelatin hydrogel; pH; CaCl2; BaCl2; U2OS; NIH/3T3; fluid-phase
Online: 15 September 2023 (12:59:12 CEST)
Alginate-gelatin hydrogels are extensively used in bioengineering. However, despite different formulations being utilized for growing different cell types in vitro, their pH and its effect, together with the crosslinking ions, of those formulations are still infrequently assessed. In this work we studied how these elements can affect hydrogel stability and printability and influence U2OS and NIH/3T3 cell viability and metabolism on the resulting 3D prints. In this context, 6% alginate + 2% gelatin hydrogels were prepared with 0.1 M MES buffer with pH 5.5, 6.5, 7.0 or 8.0, printed by extrusion-based 3D printing, and crosslinked immediately after printing with either CaCl2 or BaCl2. Our results showed that both the buffer pH and the crosslinking ion (Ca2+ or Ba2+) influence the swelling and degradation rates of the prints. Moreover, the buffer pH influenced the printability of the hydrogel in air, but when printed directly in a fluid-phase CaCl2 or BaCl2 crosslinking bath. In addition, both U2OS and NIH/3T3 cells showed greater cell metabolic activity on one-layer prints crosslinked with Ca2+. Besides, Ba2+ increased cell death of NIH/3T3 cells while had no effect on the U2OS cell viability. The pH of the buffer also caused an important impact on the cell behaviour. U2OS cells showed a 2.25-fold cell metabolism increase on one-layer prints prepared at pH 8.0 in comparison to those prepared at pH 5.5. Whereas, NIH/3T3 cells showed greater metabolism on one-layer prints with pH 7.0. Finally, we observed a difference on cell arrangement of the U2OS cells growing on prints prepared from hydrogels with acidic buffer in comparison to cells growing on those prepared using neutral or basic buffer. These results show that both pH and crosslinking ion influence hydrogel strength and cell behaviour.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2266.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: Acrylamide; Sodium alginate; Double network hydrogel; Large amplitude oscillatory shear; Fourier transform rheology
Online: 31 May 2023 (14:35:55 CEST)
Hydrogels, soft materials with 3D polymer networks in aqueous solution, have been developed for engineering and bio-related fields. However, these conventional hydrogels are weak and brittle due to lack of energy dissipation mechanisms. Recently, dual-network hydrogels have been proposed, combining rigid and flexible networks and exhibiting high strength, stretchability, and toughness. This paper explores the rheological properties of dual-network hydrogels based on acrylamide and sodium alginate under large deformations. This dual network is a combination of a covalently crosslinked polyacrylamide network and a supramolecular crosslinked sodium alginate network at the presence of divalent calcium cations. Small and large amplitude oscillatory shear methods with Fourier transform rheology, stress decomposition method, and Chebyshev polynomial analysis of large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) data were employed to evaluate non-linearity limit, toughness, and network rigidity. The concentration of calcium ions affects (concentrations 0-80 mg/ml) the nonlinear transition and limit points, and all gel samples exhibit strain hardening, shear thickening, and shear densification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0037.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Antimicrobial nanomaterials; Carbon Nanotubes; Graphene; Magnetic Nanoparticles; hydrogel; Photodynamic Therapy; Photothermal Therapy; Nanocarrier
Online: 5 January 2022 (12:02:34 CET)
Microbial diseases have been declared one of the main threats to humanity, which is why, in recent years, great interest has been generated in the development of nanocomposites with antimicrobial capacity. In the present work, two magnetic nanocomposites, based on Graphene Oxide (GO) and Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) were studied. The synthesis of these magnetic nanocomposites consisted of three phases: first, the synthesis of Iron Magnetic Nanoparticles (MNPs) was carried out in the presence of MWCNTs and GO using the Co-precipitation method. The second phase consisted of the adsorption of photosensitizer menthol-Zinc phthalocyanine (ZnMintPc) into MWCNTs and GO, and the third phase was the encapsulation in poly (N-vinylcaprolactam-co-poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate)) poly (VCL-co-PEGDA) polymer VCL/PEGDA a biocompatible hydrogel, in order to obtain the magnetic nanocomposites: VCL/PEGDA-MNPs-MWCNTs-ZnMintPc and VCL/PEGDA-MNPs-GO-ZnMintPc. In vitro studies were carried out using Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria and the Candida albicans yeast based on the PTT/PDT effect. This research describes the optical, morphological, magnetic and photophysical characterizations of nanocomposites and their application as antimicrobial agents. It was evaluated the antimicrobial effect of magnetics nanocomposites based on the Photodynamic/Photothermal (PDT/PTT) effect; for this purpose, doses of 65 mW cm-2 at 630 nm of light were used. The VCL/PEGDA-MNPs-GO-ZnMintPc nanocomposite was able to eliminate colonies of E. coli and S. aureus, while VCL/PEGDA-MNPs-MWCNTs-ZnMintPc nanocomposite was able to eliminate the three types of microorganisms; consequently, the latter is considered a broad-spectrum of antimicrobial agent in PDT and PTT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0180.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: ferromagnetic fibre network; human albumin; fibrin hydrogel; human foetal osteoblasts; human endothelial cells
Online: 17 September 2019 (04:48:21 CEST)
Porous coatings on prosthetic implants encourage implant fixation. Enhanced fixation may be achieved using a magneto-active porous coating that can deform elastically in vivo on application of an external magnetic field, straining in-growing bone. Such coating, made of 444 ferritic stainless steel fibres, was previously characterised in terms of its mechanical and cellular responses. In this work, co-cultures of human osteoblasts and endothelial cells were seeded into a novel fibrin-based hydrogel embedded in a 444 ferritic stainless steel fibre network. Albumin was successfully incorporated into fibrin hydrogels improving the specific permeability and the diffusion of fluorescently-tagged dextrans without affecting their Young’s modulus. The beneficial effect of albumin was demonstrated by upregulation of osteogenic and angiogenic gene expression. Furthermore, mineralisation, extracellular matrix production and formation of vessel-like structures were enhanced in albumin-enriched fibrin hydrogels compared to fibrin hydrogels. Collectively, the results indicate that the albumin-enriched fibrin hydrogel is a promising bio-matrix for bone tissue engineering and orthopaedic applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0142.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: chitosan; thermoresponsive hydrogel; nitric oxide; s-nitrosothiols; biocompatibility; antimicrobial; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; pluronic F127
Online: 19 March 2018 (07:25:27 CET)
Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in physiological processes, including vasodilatation, wound healing and antibacterial activities. As NO is a free radical, designing drugs to generate therapeutic amounts of NO in controlled spatial and time manners is still a challenge. In this study, the NO donor S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) was incorporated into the thermoresponsive Pluronic F-127 (PL) - chitosan (CS) hydrogel, with an easy and economically feasible methodology. CS is a polysaccharide with known antimicrobial properties. Scanning electron microscopy, rheology and differential scanning calorimetry techniques were used for hydrogel characterization. The results demonstrated that the hydrogel has a smooth surface, thermoresponsive behavior and good mechanical stability. The kinetics of NO release and GSNO diffusion from GSNO-containing PL/CS hydrogel demonstrated a sustained NO/GSNO release, in concentrations suitable for biomedical applications. The GSNO-PL/CS hydrogel demonstrated a concentration-dependent toxicity to Vero cells, and antimicrobial activity to Pseudomonas aeruginosa (minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values of 0.5 µg·mL-1 of hydrogel, which corresponds to 1 mmol·L-1 of GSNO). Interestingly, the concentration range in which the NO-releasing hydrogel demonstrated an antibacterial effect was not found to be toxic to the Vero mammalian cell. Thus, the GSNO-PL/CS hydrogel is a suitable biomaterial for topical NO delivery applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1671.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: hydrogel; gelatin; chitosan; conductive carbon black; nanocomposite; cyclic compression; dissipation energy; anisotropy; tissue engineering
Online: 23 August 2023 (11:53:29 CEST)
Conductive nanocomposites play a significant role in tissue engineering by providing a platform to support cell growth, tissue regeneration, and electrical stimulation. In this present study, a set of electroconductive nanocomposite hydrogels based on gelatin (G), chitosan (CH) and conductive carbon black (CB) was synthesized with the aim to develop novel biomaterials for tissue regeneration application. Incorporation of conductive carbon black (10, 15 and 20 wt %) significantly improved electrical conductivity and enhanced mechanical properties with the increased CB content. We employed an oversimplified unidirectional freezing technique to impart anisotropic morphology with interconnected porous architecture. An investigation into whether any anisotropic morphology affects the mechanical properties of hydrogel was conducted by performing compression and cyclic compression tests in each direction parallel and perpendicular to macroporous channels. Interestingly, nanocomposite with 10 % CB produced both anisotropic morphology and mechanical property, whereas anisotropic pore morphology diminished at higher CB concentration (15 and 20 %) imparting denser texture. Collectively, the nanocomposite hydrogels showed great structural stability as well as good mechanical stability and reversibility. Under repeated compressive cyclic at 50 % deformation, the nanocomposite hydrogels showed preconditioning, characteristic hysteresis, nonlinear elasticity, and toughness. Overall, the collective mechanical behavior resembled the mechanics of soft tissues. Electrical impedance associated to the hydrogels was studied in terms of modulus and phase in dry and wet condition. The electrical properties conducted in wet conditions, which is more physiologically relevant, showed low impedance at high frequencies due to capacitive currents. Overall, impedance of the nanocomposite hydrogels decreased with increased CB concentrations. These gelatin-chitosan–carbon black nanocomposite hydrogels show great promise for use as conducting substrates for the growth of electro-responsive cells in tissue engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0395.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: Grafted hydrogel; Ground water; Ammonia and Iron removal efficiency; DFT and MEP; binding Energy
Online: 4 August 2023 (11:32:16 CEST)
Researches are moving to iron and ammonia elimination from ground water. Here, we are using poly acrylic–poly acrylamide hydrogel which grafted with 3-chloroaniline. This copolymer was synthesized by addition polymerization. Effect of agitation time, dosage and adsorbents temperature on the removal process sensitivity has been investigated. The copolymer was described experientially and theoretically. Isothermal, kinetic adsorption models and were discussed. This hydrogel could be regenerated efficiently (98.3%removal of iron and 100% removal of ammonia). Density functional theory DFT method using B3LYP/6-311G(d,p),LANL2DZ level of the theory were managed to investigate stationary states of grafted co-polymer and the complexation energy of the hydrogel with the studied cations. NBO analysis is using DFT to investigate the negative centers on the hydrogel. The complexation energy showed selectively of hydrogel to studied cations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0061.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Supramolecular hydrogels; hydrogel chemistry; self-healing hydrogels; adhesive hydrogels; conductive hydrogels; clays; 3D structures
Online: 6 February 2023 (10:32:53 CET)
Supramolecular structures are of great interest due to their applicability in various scientific and industrial fields. These fields of scientific action include promising applications i biomedical areas, in sensing, and in conductive and electrical phases. The sensible definition of supramolecular molecules is being set by investigators, who, because of the different sensitivities of their methods and observational timescales, may have different views as to what constitute these supramolecular structures. Besides, diverse polymers can be found to offer unique avenues for multifunctional systems with properties in medicine industrial applications. Aspects of this review provide different conceptual strategies to address molecular design, properties, and potential applications of self-assembly materials and the use of metal coordination as a feasible and useful strategy for constructing complex supramolecular structures. In this order of appreciations and ideas order, it is that this review report involves classic topics such as hydrogels that range from their relationship with drug delivery systems, to metallo-supramolecular materials, through applications in ophthalmic systems, in applications that require adhesiveness and electrically conductive hydrogels. This review also addresses systems that are largely based on hydrogel chemistry and the enormous opportunities to design very specific structures for applications that demand enormous specificity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0087.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: fluorescence recovery after photo bleaching (FRAP); diffusion coefficient; electric charge; Poly-DADMAC; 3D hydrogel
Online: 8 November 2019 (04:16:49 CET)
The diffusion coefficients of ions are measured in a microchip filled with a cationic charged 3D hydrogel in order to study the effect of cationic charged 3D hydrogel on the diffusivity of ions. In this study, poly-diallyl-dimethyl-ammoniumchloride (poly-DADMAC) is used to produce a 3D hydrogel. Four different fluorophores are used in the 3D hydrogel rhodamine 6G, rhodamine-BSA, fluorescein isothio-cyanate (FITC) and FITC-BSA. The rhodamine 6G and rhodamine-BSA are positively charged (cations), while fluorescein isothio-cyanate (FITC) and FITC-BSA are negatively charged (anions). Two widely used techniques which are short time diffusivity measurement technique and long time diffusivity measurement techniques are used to measure the diffusion coefficients. For the short time measurement, Fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching (FRAP) is used by a 3D confocal microscope. For the long time measurement, fluorescence images are taken for 11 days to observe a pure diffusivity without any convective movement. As a result, the diffusivity of the cations was found to be lower than that of the anions in the cationic charged hydrogel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0066.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Controlled agrochemical release; urea fertilizer; poly(vinyl alcohol; chitosan; gum Arabic; SAP hydrogel; water-retention
Online: 7 July 2023 (14:27:57 CEST)
Agriculture technical development exclusively relies on the effective delivery of agrochemicals and water to the plants and reduce the harmful effects of the agrochemicals on the useful organisms in the soil. Wherefore, super absorbent hydrogels were prepared by copolymerization of gum Arabic (GA) with chitosan (CS) or poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and cross-linked by N,’N-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) chemically (CH) or using sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) as physical (PH) cross-linker. The prepared hydrogels include PVA/GA-CH, PVA/GA-PH, CS/GA-CH and CS/GA-PH showed different degree of swelling (DS) in the following swelling medium, deionized water (DW), river water(RW) and buffer solution pH9. PVA/GA-CH and CS/GA-CH hydrogels have showed 84g/g and 63g/g maximum DS in RW respectively, while PVA/GA-PH and CS/GA-PH hydrogels have showed 81g/g and 69g/g maximum DS in pH9 respectively. The water- retention capability of some hydrogels were studied using a mixture of 0.5%(w/w) hydrogel in agricultural soil and the composite showed about 20 days extra retain of water with a control sample of soil alone. The hydrogels were loaded using urea the important fertilizer in agriculture field. The hydrogels of higher DS were only loaded, where PVA/GA-CH hydrogel has shown 89%(w/w) maximum loading percentage (Lmax%), and CS/GA-PH hydrogel reached 79.75%(w/w) of urea. The release behavior in different medium and degree of temperatures of loaded hydrogels were studied. Generally, PVA/GA-CH hydrogel have shown better release profile in RW medium at 10oC, while CS/GA-PH hydrogel showed more controlled release in pH9 medium at 30oC. Different analytical methods of SEM, FTIR of loaded hydrogel and after their release were achieved, whereas XRD,1H NMR and (TGA, DSC) of prepared hydrogels have been characterized.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0241.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: biomaterial; bone regeneration; drug release; hydrogel; lignin; multivariate data processing; osteogenesis; scaffolds; stem cells; tissue engineering
Online: 13 July 2018 (15:07:37 CEST)
Renewable resources gain increasing interest as source for environmentally benign biomaterials, such as drug encapsulation/release compounds, and scaffolds for tissue engineering in regenerative medicine. Being the second largest naturally abundant polymer, the interest in lignin valorization for biomedical utilization is rapidly growing. Depending on resource and isolation procedure, lignin shows specific antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Today, efforts in research and industry are directed toward lignin utilization as renewable macromolecular building block for the preparation of polymeric drug encapsulation and scaffold materials. Within the last five years, remarkable progress has been made in isolation, functionalization and modification of lignin and lignin-derived compounds. However, literature so far mainly focuses lignin-derived fuels, lubricants and resins. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current state of the art and to highlight the most important results in the field of lignin-based materials for potential use in biomedicine (reported in 2014–2018). Special focus is drawn on lignin-derived nanomaterials for drug encapsulation and release as well as lignin hybrid materials used as scaffolds for guided bone regeneration in stem cell-based therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1298.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: chitosan; fish gelatin; chondroitin sulfate; hydrogel membranes; wound dressing; in vitro cell colonization; gelatin glycerol; biomedical applications; membranes
Online: 19 October 2023 (20:17:37 CEST)
Biomass and biowaste valorisation is of major interest nowadays because of the spirit of circular economy and of the neutral environmental fingerprint global target. In the current project chondroitin sulphate (ChS) was incorporated with the crustaceous’ and shrimp’s byproduct chitosan (Chi) and the fish industry byproduct gelatine (FG) to obtain dense hydrogel membranes. Glycerol (Gly) was utilized to avoid brittleness. The formation of the hydrogel membranes is attributed to secondary interactions between the natural polymers and the plasticizer. The prepared hydrogel membranes were characterized by Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The surface morphology of the membranes was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and tensile tests were also performed to evaluate the mechanical response of the membranes. The samples were also evaluated for membrane wettability, degradation rate and water vapor transmission rate (WVTR). Finally, in vitro endothelial cell attachment on the membrane were addressed. The overall results of the study indicate that the hydrogel membranes could be appropriate for external application in wound healing applications as dressings.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0590.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Hydrogel; Extracellular matrix hydrogels; Myocardial infarctions; Myocardial infarction therapy; Cardiac stem cell therapy; Tissue engineering; Cell-based therapy.
Online: 22 April 2021 (08:16:51 CEST)
The peril of a 3-dimensional, robust and sustained myocardial restoration by means of Tissue Engineering is that it still remains a largely experimental approach. Prolific protocols have been developed and tested in small and large animals, but as clinical cardiac surgeons, we have not come to the privilege of utilizing any of them in our clinical practice. The question arises: why? The heart is a unique organ, anatomically and functionally. It is not an easy target to replicate with current techniques, or even to support its viability and function. Currently available therapies fail to reverse the loss of functional cardiac tissue, the fundamental pathology remains unaddressed and a heart transplantation is an ultima ratio treatment option. Owing to equivocal results of cell-based therapies, several strategies have been pursued to overcome limitations of the current treatment options. Preclinical data as well as first-in-human studies conducted to date have provided important insights into the understanding of injection-based approaches for myocardial restoration. In the light of the available data, injectable biomaterials suitable for transcatheteter delivery appear to have the highest translational potential,. This article presents a current state-of-the-art in the field of hydrogel-based myocardial restoration therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1996.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Hydrogel Microparticles; Microgels; Bone Tissue Engineering; Bone Regeneration; Cell Delivery; Bioactive Factor Delivery; HMP-based scaffolds; HMP incorporated scaffolds
Online: 30 November 2023 (14:15:08 CET)
The loss or dysfunction of skeletal tissue often necessitates surgical intervention, particularly in cases involving trauma, tumors, or abnormal development leading to critical-sized defects. Despite autografts being considered the gold standard for bone grafts, their limitations and complications prompt the exploration of alternative approaches for bone repair and regeneration. Current advancements in bone tissue engineering have led to innovative strategies aiming to regenerate injured bone structures, providing viable alternatives to traditional autografts or allografts. Among these strategies, Hydrogel Microparticles (HMPs) have emerged as promising scaffolds due to their notable characteristics, including high porosity and mechanical tunability. HMPs play an important role in facilitating vasculature formation, mineral deposition, and overall bone tissue regeneration. HMPs, fabricated through various techniques, exhibit versatility in functions such as drug and cell delivery, structural scaffolding, and bioinks for 3D printing. In addition, these microgels can be injected for minimally invasive delivery and can display modular properties with different designs and configurations. This review exclusively focuses on the advancements in HMPs for bone regeneration, delving into synthesis and functionalization techniques while highlighting their diverse applications documented in the literature. Our aim is to shed light on the unique benefits and potential of HMPs in the intricate field of engineering bone tissue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0911.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: hydrogel sodium alginate; active coating gel; thymol; halloysite nanotubes; hydrogels; gels; barrier properties; antioxidant activity; “tsalafouti” soft cheese preservation process;
Online: 13 September 2023 (14:15:49 CEST)
The necessity to reduce the effect of the greenhouse phenomenon imposed the turn of the food packaging technology to the use of biobased raw materials decreasing the carbon dioxide fingerprint. In this direction alginates derived from brown algae species are of the most promising biobased biopolymers, used for development of edible active coatings, capable to protect food from oxidation/bacterial spoilage. In this study sodium alginate, which was plasticized with glycerol and mixed with a biobased thymol/natural halloysite nanohybrid, was used to develop novel edible active coatings. Active nanocomposite coatings developed by mixing of pure halloysite with sodium alginate/glycerol matrix were produced for comparison purposes. X-Ray and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy indicated higher compatibility of thymol/halloysite nanohybrid with sodium alginate/glycerol matrix compared to the relevant of pure halloysite. This increased compatibility led to higher tensile properties, water/oxygen barrier properties, and total antioxidant activity. All coating samples were applied as edible active coatings for “tsalafouti” spreadable soft cheese, exhibited a reduction of mesophilic microbial population of more than one log10(cfu/g) unit comparing with uncoated cheese. Moreover, the reduction of mesophilic microbial population was increased by increasing halloysite and thymol content which indicates the sodium alginate/glycerol/thymol/halloysite as promising edible active coatings for “tsalafouti”.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1605.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: pH sensitive Polymer; Methacrylate Polymers; Eudragit L100; Polymeric nanoparticles; Apocynin; Rheumatoid arthritis; Carbopol-934 based Hydrogel; Transdermal Drug Delivery System
Online: 23 May 2023 (07:51:12 CEST)
The aim of the current study was to develop and evaluate the therapeutic potential of apocynin (APO) loaded pH-sensitive nanoparticles (NPs) based transdermal hydrogel for management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Slightly modified nanoprecipitation technique was used for preparation of polymeric nanoparticles. Optimization was done through design expert software. Optimized APO-NPs were loaded into carbopol-934 based hydrogel as final dosage form and further studied for physicochemical properties. Optimized APO-NPs formulation had a minimum particle size 63.44 nm, polydisperibility index 0.161, and zeta potential -15mV with a maximum encapsulation efficiency of 89%. In-vitro and ex-vivo studies of APO-NPs based hydrogel was performed at pH 5.5 (pH of normal skin) and 6.8 (pH of inflammed joint) showed a pH-responsive sustained drug release and increased penetration in comparison to free APO based hydrogel. The stability studies of APO-NPs based hydrogel were done to strengthen the potential use of the prepared formulation through transdermal route. Assessment and therapeutic efficacy of the prepared pH-sensitive nanocarriers system was evaluated in chronic inflammatory RA mice model. Parameters associated with chronic inflammation were investigated including behavioral changes and histopathological, and radiological x-rays images of joints of mice paws. In-vivo study depicts improvement in behavioral parameter, decline in synovial hyperplasia and bone structure restoration. In conclusion, APO loaded pH-sensitive NPs based transdermal is a promising carrier system that can effectively manage RA.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0576.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: prostate cancer; radiation therapy; intensity-modulated radiation therapy; image-guided radiation therapy; volumetric modulated arc therapy; stereotactic body radiation therapy; brachytherapy; metastasis direct therapy; hydrogel spacer
Online: 10 July 2023 (09:43:22 CEST)
Abstract: A recent approach to radiotherapy for prostate cancer is the administration of high doses of radiation to the prostate while minimizing the risk of side effects. Thus, image-guided radiotherapy utilizes advanced imaging techniques and is a feasible strategy for increasing the radiation dose. New radioactive particles are another approach to achieving high doses and safe procedures. Prostate brachytherapy is currently considered as a combination therapy. Spacers are useful to protect adjacent organs, specifically the rectum, from excessive radiation exposure.