Pelegrino, M.T.; de Araujo Lima, B.; do Nascimento, M.H.M.; Lombello, C.B.; Brocchi, M.; Seabra, A.B. Biocompatible and Antibacterial Nitric Oxide-Releasing Pluronic F-127/Chitosan Hydrogel for Topical Applications. Polymers2018, 10, 452.
Pelegrino, M.T.; de Araujo Lima, B.; do Nascimento, M.H.M.; Lombello, C.B.; Brocchi, M.; Seabra, A.B. Biocompatible and Antibacterial Nitric Oxide-Releasing Pluronic F-127/Chitosan Hydrogel for Topical Applications. Polymers 2018, 10, 452.
Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in physiological processes, including vasodilatation, wound healing and antibacterial activities. As NO is a free radical, designing drugs to generate therapeutic amounts of NO in controlled spatial and time manners is still a challenge. In this study, the NO donor S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) was incorporated into the thermoresponsive Pluronic F-127 (PL) - chitosan (CS) hydrogel, with an easy and economically feasible methodology. CS is a polysaccharide with known antimicrobial properties. Scanning electron microscopy, rheology and differential scanning calorimetry techniques were used for hydrogel characterization. The results demonstrated that the hydrogel has a smooth surface, thermoresponsive behavior and good mechanical stability. The kinetics of NO release and GSNO diffusion from GSNO-containing PL/CS hydrogel demonstrated a sustained NO/GSNO release, in concentrations suitable for biomedical applications. The GSNO-PL/CS hydrogel demonstrated a concentration-dependent toxicity to Vero cells, and antimicrobial activity to Pseudomonas aeruginosa (minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values of 0.5 µg·mL-1 of hydrogel, which corresponds to 1 mmol·L-1 of GSNO). Interestingly, the concentration range in which the NO-releasing hydrogel demonstrated an antibacterial effect was not found to be toxic to the Vero mammalian cell. Thus, the GSNO-PL/CS hydrogel is a suitable biomaterial for topical NO delivery applications.
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