REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0272.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: silver nanoparticles; synthesis routes of silver nanoparticles; synthesis-derived applications; toxicity
Online: 23 March 2020 (15:24:08 CET)
This paper aims to review the challenges, toxicity, and routes of synthesis and usage of silver nanoparticles in different applications but also highlighting their sustainability from both medical and environmental issues. Regarding their toxicity, it is known that silver nanoparticles can destroy over 650 microorganisms comparing with antibiotics. Supplementary, will be presented in a comparative manner some conventional synthesis routes (physical and chemical methods) and green synthesis routes using plant extracts. The approach using plant extracts have various advantages comparing with physical, chemical and microbial synthesis methods because there is no need to use chemicals, wasteful purifications and high energy requirements. The paper presents an overview on “green nanotechnology” focused on using either biological micro-organisms or plant extracts as an alternative to the classical chemical and physical methods. An important issue discussed in the paper is an overview of the synthesis routes of silver nanoparticles, some expected applications of silver based active agents and their toxicity and challenges that must be overcome. Also, it needs to focus our attention on the dismissal of silver nanoparticles into the environment and especially in water systems, fact which suggests that this issue must be fully understood and applied the law.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0594.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: GRE; graduate applications; Graduate Record Exam; waiver; grad applications
Online: 25 September 2020 (04:50:08 CEST)
In the wake of COVID-19, there is an urgent need for a diverse public health work force to address problems presented or exacerbated by the global pandemic. Educational programs that create our work force both train and shape the makeup of access through graduate applications. The Graduate Record Exam has a number of standing issues, with additional barriers created by the pandemic. We trace the GRE waiver movement over several years, focusing on the gradual adoption in CEPH accredited programs and the rapid expansion of temporary waivers as a response to testing access. Going forward, we need to consider gaps in waivers during the pandemic and how this data can be used to shape our future use of the GRE.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1232.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: ML:Ensemble methods; ML: applications
Online: 19 October 2023 (07:00:51 CEST)
Soybean yield prediction is a challenging problem in plant breeding that is often affected by many different factors simultaneously. Hyperspectral reflectance data from plants and soil data provide breeders with useful information about soybean plant health and using these different types of data to predict yield is an active area of research. Furthermore, breeding programs encounter challenges such as data imbalance and external factors like genotype variability across different environments, which present significant hurdles in the development of yield prediction models for large-scale breeding programs. In this work, we perform a comprehensive study of predicting yield using both hyperspectral reflectance and soil data to understand what scenario's offer the best chances of predicting yield with high accuracy. We demonstrate a cluster based ensemble approach for yield prediction using hyperspectral reflectance data that can perform well for large scale breeding programs by efficiently harnessing useful information from data through an unsupervised approach.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0120.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Medicine; Applications
Online: 28 October 2022 (09:56:54 CEST)
The medical & the dental field is a never ending field of innovations & developments and each time the reasearchers come up with something new. One such new dimension in the fields of medicine being the incorporation of Artificial intelligence assisted technologies improving diagnosis, treatmemt plan and treatment stategies. This review focusses on the application of different technologies of AI in different fields of medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0170.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: geopolymers; kaolins; diatomite; applications
Online: 18 June 2019 (08:27:14 CEST)
Sustainability, particularly in construction materials, has been a subject of growing interest. Civil construction is one of the industries where more materials are consumed, which leads to high energy consumption and CO2 emissions. The production of cement, especially clinker is largely responsible for these problems. As a solution, new materials emerge, which do not require much energy for their production, which are the alkaline cements, specifically the geopolymers. Geopolymers are inorganic polymers obtained by the alkaline activation of aluminosilicate precursors. In the present study geopolymers were developed with low grade kaolin (as a precursor) from a Portuguese company. The development of these geopolymers will be, due to their properties, a good solution for rehabilitation of earth buildings, especially in adobe. The development of these geopolymers is also a contribution to the sustainability of kaolin exploitations as it opens new markets for the low grade kaolins, presently not easily commercialized. As mechanical strength of adobe materials ranges in literature from 0.6 to 8.3 MPa, the values obtained for the developed geopolymers (between ~2 to 10 MPa) can be considered as totally adequate.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0271.v1
Online: 18 July 2022 (11:07:08 CEST)
UHPC is a type of cement-based composite used in new construction and/or rehabilitation of existing buildings to extend service life. It is a novel composite material that can serve as an alternative to concrete construction in hostile climates. Following decades of study and production, a diverse variety of commercial UHPC compositions are now available globally to meet the rising number of applicants and demand for high-quality building materials. Although UHPC offers major benefits over normal concrete, its utilization is restricted due to restrictive design rules and exorbitant costs. As a result, a thorough examination of the durability properties of UHPC is required to give important information for material testing requirements and processes, as well as to broaden its practical uses. This report is aimed at increasing basic understanding of UHPC and supporting more UHPC research and applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0346.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: Activated carbon; Adsorbance; Pyrolysis; Applications
Online: 17 February 2021 (09:15:00 CET)
Actuated carbon (AC) is utilized in various conditions of uses after its disclosure as a solid and dependable adsorbent. A review on AC is introduced along with returning to the wellsprings of AC age; strategies used to produce AC including pyrolysis enactment; actual actuation; synthetic initiation and steam pyrolysis. The significant variables influencing the AC creation, the potential uses of AC and their future possibilities are likewise examined. AC is applied in water, wastewater and leachate medicines in numerous nations, particularly to clean the shading, eliminate the smell and some substantial metals. Taking into account this, an exhaustive rundown of research on compound, physical and organic change strategies of initiated carbon relating to prevent of foreign substance expulsion from watery arrangements was aggregated and investigated. Additionally, the examination of the actual blending strategy and the impregnation technique in enactment with antacid metals shows that the actuated carbon got through actual blending had a higher porosity than the initiated carbon created by the impregnation technique. The uses of initiated carbon items were quickly surveyed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0090.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: intestinal organoids; dog; practical applications
Online: 9 August 2016 (11:38:04 CEST)
Recent technical advances in the stem cell field have enabled the in vitro generation of complex structures resembling whole organs termed organoids. Most of these approaches employ culture systems that allow stem cell-derived or tissue progenitor cells to self-organize into three-dimensional (3D)-structures. Since organoids can be grown from various species, organs and from patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells, they create significant prospects for modelling development and diseases, for toxicology and drug discovery studies, and in the field of regenerative medicine. Here, we report on intestinal stem cells, organoid culture, organoid disease modeling, transplantation, current and future uses of this exciting new insight model to veterinary medicine field.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1589.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Pectin; Tissue Engineering; Composites; Biomedical Applications
Online: 25 October 2023 (08:11:48 CEST)
Due to its distinctive chemical and biological properties, pectin has recently drawn much attention in biomedical and tissue engineering applications. Polymers like pectin with cell-instructive properties are attractive natural biomaterials for tissue repair and regeneration. Besides, bioactive pectin and pectin-based composites exhibit improved characteristics to deliver active molecules. Pectin and pectin-based composites serve as interactive matrices or scaffolds by stimulating cell adhesion and cell proliferation and enhancing tissue remodeling by forming an extracellular matrix in vivo. Several bioactive properties, such as immunoregulatory, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and antioxidant activities, contribute to the pectin's and pectin-based composite's enhanced applications in tissue engineering and drug delivery systems.This paper reviews the promising characteristics of pectin or pectic polysaccharides and highlights its potential applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering. Tissue engineering scaffolds containing pectin and pectin-based conjugates or composites demonstrate essential features such as non-toxicity, tunable mechanical properties, biodegradability, and suitable surface properties. The design and fabrication of pectic composites are versatile for tissue engineering and drug delivery applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0330.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: applications; biogenic; environment; remediation; silver; soil
Online: 18 January 2023 (09:17:08 CET)
The invention of nanoscience not only brings a revolutionary change in the field of science but also changed the direction of research. Today the whole world is under the trigger of nano and nanoparticles have multidimensional applications in every aspect of life including environmental point of view. Till today a plethora of nanoparticles have been synthesized and have also been applied for multiple purposes and hence grabbed the attention of researchers all over the world. Among the bunch of NPs discovered to date, we have a particular interest in silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) because of their cost-effectiveness and huge abundance in the earth’s crust. With respect to every passing day, due to various kinds of anthropological activities, the quality of the environment such as air, water and soil is depleting which ultimately hampers the human civilization. To encompass the growing environmental issues, many techniques have been adopted. Among the many strategies, tackling the current issues regarding environment through nanoscience is highly worthy as because of its cost-effectiveness, less time consuming and easy handling process. This article reviews the potential of nanoparticles, particularly silver nanoparticles, for a wide range of environmental applications, such as soil, air, and water remediation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1916.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Antimicrobial Peptides, Bio-films, Biomedical Applications, Sepsis
Online: 28 September 2023 (03:12:59 CEST)
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have emerged as a promising class of bioactive molecules with the potential to combat infections associated with medical implants and biomaterials. This review article aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of the role of antimicrobial peptides in medical implants and biomaterials, along with their diverse clinical applications. The incorporation of AMPs into various medical implants and biomaterials has shown immense potential in mitigating biofilm formation and preventing implant-related infections. We review the latest advancements in biomedical sciences and discuss the AMPs that were immobilized successfully to enhance their efficacy and stability within the implant environment. We also highlight successful examples of AMP coatings for the treatment of surgical site infections (SSIs), Contact lenses, Dental Applications, AMP-Incorporated Bone Grafts, Urinary tract infections (UTIs), Medical Implants, etc. Additionally, we discuss the potential challenges and prospects of AMPs in medical implants, such as effectiveness, instability and implant-related complications. We also discuss strategies that can be employed to overcome the limitations of AMP-coated biomaterials for prolonged longevity in clinical settings.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1900.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: Hydrogels; Frontal polymerization; Structure-property relationships; Applications
Online: 29 August 2023 (08:53:12 CEST)
Polymer hydrogels are 3D networks consisting of hydrophilic crosslinked macromolecular chains, able to swell and retain water. Since their invention in the 1960s, they have become an outstanding pillar in the design, development, and application of engineered polymer systems suitable for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications (such as drug or cell delivery, regeneration of hard and soft tissues, wound healing, and bleeding prevention, among others). Despite several well-established synthetic routes of polymer hydrogels based on batch polymerization techniques, about fifteen years ago academia started to look for alternative methods involving simpler reaction paths, shorter reaction times, and lower energy consumption. In this context, frontal polymerization (FP) undoubtedly has become an alternative and efficient reaction model that allows for converting monomers into polymers via a localized and propagating reaction, by exploiting the formation and propagation of a “hot” polymerization front, able to self-sustain and propagate throughout the monomeric mixture. Therefore, the present work aims to summarize the main research outcomes, achieved during the last years, concerning the design, preparation, and application of FP-derived polymeric hydrogels, demonstrating the feasibility of this technique for the obtainment of functional 3D networks, and providing the reader with some perspectives for the forthcoming years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0193.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: set covering; greedy; heuristic; real-time applications
Online: 2 June 2023 (11:45:25 CEST)
In this paper we exploit concepts from Information Theory to improve the classical Chvatal’s greedy algorithm for the Set Covering Problem. In particular, we develop a new greedy procedure, called Surprisal-Based Greedy Heuristic (SBH), incorporating the computation of a “surprisal” measure when selecting the solution columns. Computational experiments, performed on instances from the OR-Library, show that SBH yields a 2.5% improvement in terms of the objective function value over the Chvatal’s algorithm while retaining similar execution times, making it suitable for real-time applications. The new heuristic was also compared with Kordalewski’s greedy algorithm, obtaining similar solutions with much lower times on large instances, and Grossmann and Wool’s algorithm for unicost instances, where SBH obtained better solutions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2164.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: machine vision; pose measurement algorithms; accuracy; applications
Online: 31 May 2023 (03:33:34 CEST)
This review paper provides a comprehensive overview of machine vision pose measurement algorithms. The paper focuses on the state-of-the-art algorithms and their applications. The paper is structured as follows: The introduction in Section 1 provides a brief overview of the field of machine vision pose measurement. Section 2 describes the commonly used algorithms for machine vision pose measurement. Section 3 discusses the factors that affect the accuracy and reliability of machine vision pose measurement algorithms. Section 4 presents the applications of machine vision pose measurement in various fields. The paper provides specific examples of how machine vision pose measurement is used in each of these fields. Finally, Section 5 summarizes the paper and provides future research directions. The paper highlights the need for more robust and accurate algorithms that can handle varying lighting conditions and occlusion. It also suggests that the integration of machine learning techniques may improve the performance of machine vision pose measurement algorithms. Overall, this review paper provides a comprehensive overview of machine vision pose measurement algorithms, their applications, and the factors that affect their accuracy and reliability. It provides a valuable resource for researchers and practitioners working in the field of computer vision.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0438.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: ChatGPT; Review; Technical Novelties; Taxon-omy; Applications
Online: 27 March 2023 (03:36:47 CEST)
ChatGPT, a groundbreaking natural language processing technology released just three months ago, has attracted significant attention due to its remarkable capabilities. This AI milestone has urged researchers, industry, decision-makers, and governments to examine this technology, including its implications, threats, and benefits. Despite the short period since its release, several researchers have examined ChatGPT from different perspectives. This paper presents a comprehensive review of ChatGPT, highlighting its technical novelties compared to previous models and analyzing existing research from various perspectives. We followed a rigorous methodology to conduct a critical review of existing research on ChatGPT and developed a taxonomy for the different areas of study. Additionally, we identify future challenges and research trends associated with ChatGPT. Our paper is the first critical review of ChatGPT literature, providing valuable insights for practitioners and policymakers. This paper serves as a reference for researchers seeking to advance research on ChatGPT, including its applications and development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0259.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Blockchain; Blockchain Technology; Cryptocurrency; Applications; Challenges; Opportunities
Online: 18 July 2022 (10:10:46 CEST)
Blockchain innovation stands out enough to be noticed and adopted in various countries and organizations around the world. Many businesses, including finance, medical services, inventory networks, security, libraries, and the internet of things, are currently under attack. For the benefit of the blockchain, many businesses incorporate blockchain technology into their frameworks. Despite its solidarity, blockchain faces a few challenges in security, protection, adaptability, and other areas. This paper examines the forward leap in blockchain innovation, as well as its applications and challenges. While many blockchain papers focus on digital currencies, IoT, and security, this paper focuses on the overall best in a class of blockchain innovation, its new twists and turns, and choices, particularly in areas other than cryptographic forms of money. The investigators' goal is to provide a thorough audit of the cryptography underlying blockchain to better understand the innovation. The examiners also conduct general research on people and venture blockchains, as well as future exploration opportunities and their implications for blockchain innovation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0138.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: API; clickstream; cloud applications; process mining; scripting
Online: 15 April 2022 (07:37:06 CEST)
Background: Process mining (PM) exploits event logs to obtain meaningful information about the processes that produced them. As the number of applications developed on cloud infrastructures is increasing, it becomes important to study and discover their underlying processes. However, many current PM technologies face challenges in dealing with complex and large event logs from cloud applications, especially when they have little structure (e.g., clickstreams). Methods: Using Design Science Research, this paper introduces a new method, called Cloud Pattern API – Process Mining (CPA-PM), that enables discovering and analyzing cloud-based application processes using PM in a way that addresses many of these challenges. CPA-PM exploits a new application programming interface (API), with an R implementation, for creating repeatable scripts that preprocess event logs collected from such applications. Results: Applying CPA-PM to a case with real and evolving event logs related to the trial process of a Software-as-a-Service cloud application led to useful analyses and insights, with reusable scripts. Conclusion: CPA-PM helps producing executable scripts for filtering event logs from clickstream and cloud-based applications, where the scripts can be used in pipelines while minimizing the need for error-prone and time-consuming manual filtering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0253.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: Lab on PCB; Electrophoresis; Biomedical applications; Agarose
Online: 11 August 2021 (11:02:00 CEST)
In this paper, a prototype of an automatic lab on PCB for agarose preparation and electrophoresis is developed. The dimensions of the device are 38×34 mm2 and includes a conductivity sensor for detecting the TAE buffer (Tris-Acetate-EDTA buffer), a microheater for mixing, a NTC thermistor for controlling the temperature, a LDR sensor for measuring the transparency of the mixture, and two electrodes for performing the electrophoresis. The agarose preparation functions are governed by a microcontroller. The device requires a PMMA structure to define the wells of the agarose gel, and to release the electrodes from the agarose. The maximum voltage and current that the system requires are 40 V to perform the electrophoresis, and 1 A for activating the microheater. The chosen temperature for mixing is 80ºC, with a mixing time of 10 min. In addition, the curing time is about 30 min. This device is intended to be integrated as a part of a larger lab on PCB system for DNA amplification and detection. However, it can be used to migrate DNA amplified in conventional thermocyclers. Moreover, the device can be modified for preparing larger agarose gels and performing electrophoresis in an automatic manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0767.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Images; matrices; angles; subspace; linear algebra applications
Online: 31 March 2021 (12:42:31 CEST)
An image consisting of (m, n) pixels can be seen as a matrix of m × n size. Based on the formula of angles between two subspaces, a pair of angles can be defined between two matrices, by utilizing column spaces and row spaces of the two matrices. The singular values of each matrix can be used to calculate distances. Thus, a distance representation is obtained, and a pair of angles between 2 matrices of the same size.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0032.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: model based diagnosis; applications; diagnosis; physiotherapy; education
Online: 4 January 2020 (06:34:25 CET)
Many physiotherapy treatments begin with a diagnosis process. The patient describes symptoms, upon which the physiotherapist decides which tests to perform until a final diagnosis is reached. The relationships between the anatomical components are too complex to keep in mind and the possible actions are abundant. A trainee physiotherapist with little experience naively applies multiple tests to reach the root cause of the symptoms, which is a highly inefficient process. This work proposes to assist students in this challenge by presenting three main contributions: (1) A compilation of the neuromuscular system as components of a system in a Model-Based Diagnosis problem; (2) The PhysIt is an AI-based tool that enables an interactive visualization and diagnosis to assist trainee physiotherapists; and (3) An empirical evaluation that comprehends performance analysis and a user study. The performance analysis is based on evaluation of simulated cases and common scenarios taken from anatomy exams. The user study evaluates the efficacy of the system to assist students in the beginning of the clinical studies. The results show that our system significantly decreases the number of candidate diagnoses, without discarding the correct diagnosis, and that students in their clinical studies find PhysIt helpful in the diagnosis process.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0044.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Biosurfactants; Biotechnological applications; MEOR; synthetic surfactants; sustainability
Online: 4 September 2019 (13:32:06 CEST)
ABSTRACT Surfactants are a broad category of tensio-active biomolecules with multifunctional properties applications in diverse industrial sectors and processes. Surfactants are produced synthetically and biologically. The biologically derived surfactants (biosurfactants) are produced from microorganisms with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis Candida albicans and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus as dominant species. Rhamnolipids, sophorolipids, mannosylerithritol lipids, surfactin, and emulsan are well known in terms of their biotechnological applications. Biosurfactants can compete with the synthetic surfactants in terms of performance with established advantages over the synthetic ones including eco-friendliness, biodegradability, low toxicity, and stability over a wide variability of environmental factors. However, at present, the synthetic surfactants are a preferred option in different industrial applications, because of their availability in commercial quantities, unlike the biosurfactants. Usage of synthetic surfactants introduce new species of recalcitrant pollutants to the environment and lead to undesired results where a wrong selection of surfactants is made. Substituting synthetic surfactants with biosurfactants resolves these drawbacks, thus, interest has been intensified in biosurfactant applications in a wide range of industries hitherto considered as experimental fields. This review, therefore, intends to offer an overview of diverse applications where biosurfactants have found useful, with emphases in petroleum biotechnology, environmental remediation and in the agriculture sector. Application of biosurfactant in these settings would lead to industrial growth and environmental sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0688.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: smart city; mobility; IOT Applications; safety critical
Online: 29 October 2018 (13:57:36 CET)
The new IoT/IoE (internet of things/everythings) paradigm and architecture permits to rethink about the way the Smart City infrastructures are designed and managed, on the other hand a number of problems have to be solved. In terms of mobility the cities that embrace the sensoring era can take advantage of this disruptive technology to improve the quality of life of their citizen, also thanks the rationalization in the use of their resources. In Sii-Mobility, a national smart city project on mobility and transportation, a flexible platform has been designed and here, in this paper, is presented. It permits to setup heterogeneous and complex scenarios that integrate sensors/actuators as IoT/IoE in an overall scenario of Big Data, Machine Learning and Data Analytics. A detailed and complex case-study has been presented to validate the solution in the context of a system that dynamically reverse the traveling direction of a road segment, with all the safety conditions in place. This case study composes several building blocks of the IoT platform, which demonstrate that a flexible and dynamic set-up is possible, supporting off-grid, security, safety, cloud and mixed solutions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1414.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Microrobot; Preparation methods; Stimulus-Response mechanisms; Applications; Swarm
Online: 22 November 2023 (11:27:36 CET)
Micro/Nano Robot is an intelligent and efficient microrobot that can perform specific tasks under the influence of external stimuli. Depending on the application scenarios, the microrobot can adaptively transform into appropriate functional forms under different external stimuli, thus perfectly matching the needs. To date, microbots have been widely used in targeted therapy, drug delivery, tissue engineering, environmental remediation, and other fields. Although the applications of microrobots are promising, there are only a few reviews that can focus on the preparation methods and driving mechanisms. Therefore, it is necessary to outline the current status of the development of these microrobots in order to provide some new insights for the further development of the field. Therefore, this paper reviews the research progress of microrobots in terms of preparation methods, stimulus response mechanisms and applications, and highlights the applicability of different preparation methods and stimulus types. Finally, the current challenges faced by microrobots are highlighted and possible solutions are proposed to facilitate the practical application of microrobots.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1229.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Smart Livestock Farms; Applications; Opportunities; Challenges; Solutions; Benefits
Online: 19 October 2023 (06:54:43 CEST)
Smart livestock farming leverages technology to boost production and meet food demand sustainably. This study delves into smart technologies in animal production, covering opportunities, challenges, and solutions. Smart agriculture employs modern technology to enhance efficiency, sustainability, and animal welfare in livestock farming. It includes remote monitoring, GPS-based animal care, robotic milking, smart health collars, predictive disease control, and other innovations to achieve these goals. While smart animal production holds great promise, it does face challenges related to cost, data management, and connectivity. To address these challenges, potential solutions include remote sensing, technology integration, and farmer education. Smart agriculture offers opportunities for increased efficiency, improved animal welfare, and enhanced environmental conservation. A well-planned approach is crucial to maximize the benefits of smart livestock production while ensuring its long-term sustainability. This study confirms the growing adoption of smart agriculture in livestock production, with the potential to support sustainable development goals and deliver benefits such as increased productivity and resource efficiency. To fully realize these benefits and ensure the sustainability of livestock farming, it is essential to address cost and education challenges. Therefore, this study recommends promoting a positive outlook among livestock stakeholders and embracing smart agriculture to enhance farm performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1903.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Sintering; Ti6Al4V alloy; compression; computed microtomography; biomedical applications
Online: 29 August 2023 (09:27:46 CEST)
This study presents a methodology to fabricate Ti6Al4V cylindrical compacts with a highly porous core and dense shell with the purpose to mimic the bone microstructure. Compacts with different core diameters were obtained by conventionally press and sintering. Large pores were created with the aid of pore formers. Sintering kinetics was determined by dilatometry, whereas characterization was performed by X-ray computed tomography. Also, permeability was evaluated on the 3D microstructure and the mechanical strength was evaluated by compression tests. Results indicated that sintering is constraint by the different densification rates of the porous and dense layers. Nonetheless, defectless compacts were obtained due to neck bonding between Ti6Al4V particles. Large pores were located in the designed core with similar pore size distribution. Permeability increased following a power law as a function of the pore volume fraction. Stiffness of bilayer components was driven by the porous core, meanwhile, the strength resulted from the combination of both layers. Bilayer materials obtained showed a permeability and mechanical properties, as well as admissible strain (σy /E) similar to those of human bones.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1969.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Shrimps; Disease management; Epigenetics; Epigenetic modulation; Future applications
Online: 28 July 2023 (10:21:05 CEST)
Aquaculture assumes a pivotal role in meeting the escalating global food demand, and shrimp farming, in particular, holds indispensable significance for the global economy and food security, providing a rich source of nutrients for human consumption. Nonetheless, the industry faces formidable challenges, primarily attributed to disease outbreaks, and the diminishing efficacy of conventional disease management approaches, such as antibiotic usage. Consequently, there is an urgent imperative to explore alternative strategies to ensure the sustainability of the industry. In this context, the burgeoning field of epigenetics emerges as a promising avenue for combating infectious diseases in shrimp aquaculture. Epigenetic modulations entail chemical alterations in DNA and proteins, orchestrating gene expression patterns without modifying the underlying DNA sequence by utilizing DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNA molecules. Exploiting epigenetic mechanisms presents an opportunity to enhance immune gene expression and bolster disease resistance in shrimp, thus revolutionizing disease management strategies and optimizing shrimp health and productivity. Additionally, the concept of epigenetic inheritability in marine animals holds immense potential for the future of the shrimp farming industry. To this end, this comprehensive review thoroughly explores the dynamics of epigenetic modulations in shrimp aquaculture, with a particular emphasis on its pivotal role in disease management. It accentuates the significance of harnessing advantageous epigenetic changes to ensure the long-term viability of shrimp farming while deliberating on the potential consequences of these interventions. Overall, this appraisal highlights the promising trajectory of epigenetic applications, propelling the field toward strengthening sustainability in shrimp aquaculture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0160.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: fault injection; functional safety; automotive applications; fault tolerance
Online: 8 August 2022 (13:41:10 CEST)
A common requirement of embedded software in charge of safety tasks is to guarantee the identification of those Random Hardware Failures (RHFs) that can affect digital components. RHFs are unavoidable. For this reason, functional safety standards, like the ISO 26262 devoted to automotive applications, require embedded software designs able to detect and eventually mitigate them. For this purpose, various software-based error detection techniques have been proposed over the years, focusing mainly on detecting Control Flow Errors. Many Control Flow Checking (CFC) algorithms have been proposed to accomplish this task. However, applying these approaches can be difficult because their respective literature gives little guidance on the their practical implementation in high-level programming languages, and they have to be implemented in low-level code, e.g., assembly. Moreover, the current trend in the automotive industry is to adopt the so-called Model-Based Software Design approach, where an executable algorithm model is automatically translated into C or C++ source code. This paper presents two novelties: firstly, the compliance of the experimental data on the capabilities of Control Flow Checking (CFC) algorithms with the ISO 26262 automotive functional safety standard; Secondly, by the implementation of the CFC algorithm in the application behavioral model is automatically translated. There is no need to modify the code generator. The assessment was performed using a novel fault injection environment targeting a RISC-V (RV32I) microcontroller.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0642.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: COVID-19; IoT; Blockchain; Contact Tracing; Mobile Applications
Online: 8 July 2022 (08:04:39 CEST)
The COVID-19 is an exponentially growing disease that has intentioned nations to use technologies to detect the coronavirus infection. Several nations are working greatly to fight against COVID-19. Many nations have been using a range of devices to combat the pandemic, seeking information about growth, monitoring as well as the leaking the confidential information of the residents. This research aims to assist infected people online using the Internet of Things (IoT) and Blockchain technologies through smart devices. IoT-based healthcare devices gather useful information, provide additional insight through symptoms and behaviors, allow remote monitoring, and simply give people better self - determination and healthcare. Blockchain allows the secure transfer of patient health information, regulates the medical distribution network. A four-layer architecture is proposed using IoT and Blockchain to detect and prevent individuals to be COVID 19. This research provides a framework for patients with COVID-19 infectious disease and recognizes health issues and diagnoses online. Smart devices such as smartphones can install any mobile apps such as Aarogya Setu, Tawakkalna, and so on. These applications can track COVID-19 patients properly. The installation of mobile apps on smart devices focuses to reduce the time and cost and increase the performance of the infectious patient's condition. A four-layer architecture is proposed using IoT and Blockchain technologies. Many research works focus on investigating, analyzing, and highlighting the affected individuals through guiding the COVID-19 infection. Eventually, various mobile apps are recognized and addressed in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0074.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: D2D communication; mmWave; machine-learning applications; 5G; B5G
Online: 5 January 2021 (10:42:40 CET)
Device-to-device (D2D) communication is a promising paradigm for the fifth generation 2 (5G) and beyond 5G (B5G) networks. Although D2D communication provides several benefits, 3 including limited interference, energy efficiency, reduced delay, and network overhead, it faces a lot 4 of technical challenges such as network architecture, and neighbor discovery, etc. The complexity 5 of configuring D2D links and managing their interference, especially when using millimeter-wave 6 (mmWave), inspire researchers to leverage different machine-learning (ML) techniques to address 7 these problems towards boosting the performance of D2D networks. In this paper, a comprehensive 8 survey about recent research activities on D2D networks will be explored with putting more 9 emphasis on utilizing mmWave and ML methods. After exploring existing D2D research directions 10 accompanied with their existing conventional solutions, we will show how different ML techniques 11 can be applied to enhance the D2D networks performance over using conventional ways. Then, still 12 open research directions in ML applications on D2D networks will be investigated including their 13 essential needs. A case study of applying multi-armed bandit (MAB) as an efficient online ML tool 14 to enhance the performance of neighbor discovery and selection (NDS) in mmWave D2D networks 15 will be presented. This case study will put emphasis on the high potency of using ML solutions 16 over using the conventional non-ML based methods for highly improving the average throughput 17 performance of mmWave NDS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0020.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: Cloud Resource Management; Container Scheduling; Deep Learning Applications
Online: 2 November 2020 (10:38:31 CET)
The explosion of data has transformed the world since much more information is available for collection and analysis than ever before. To extract valuable information from the data in different dimensions, various deep learning models have been developed in the past years. Although these models have demonstrated their strong capability on improving products and services in various applications, training them is still a time-consuming and resource-intensive process. Presently, cloud, one of the most powerful computing infrastructures, has been used for the training. However, how to manage cloud computing resources and to perform the training efficiently is still challenging current techniques. For example, general resource scheduling approaches, such as spread priority and balanced resource schedulers, actually do not work well with deep learning workloads. Besides, the resource allocation problem on a cluster can be divide into two subproblems: (1) local resource optimization: improve resource configuration for a single machine; (2) global resource optimization: improve the cluster-wide resource allocation. In this thesis, we propose two novel container schedulers, FlowCon and SpeCon, that are designed to address these two subproblems respectively and specifically to optimize performance of short-lived deep learning applications in the cloud. FlowCon focuses on resource configuration of single-node in a cluster, as show that it efficiently improves deep learning tasks completion time and resource utilization, and reduces the completion time of a specific job by up to 42.06\% without sacrificing the overall system time. SpeCon targets on cluster-wide resource configuration that speculatively migrate slow-growing models to release resources for fast-growing ones. Based on our experiments, SpeCon improves makespan for up to 24.7\%, compared to current approaches.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: non-ionizing radiation; millimeter waves; novel biomedical applications; yeast; non-invasive devices
Online: 17 September 2020 (07:08:47 CEST)
Nonionizing millimeter-waves (MMW) are reported to interact with cells in a variety of ways. Possible mechanisms of the inhibited cell division effect were investigated using 85-105 GHz MMW irradiation within the ICNIRP (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection) non-thermal 20 mW/cm2 safety standards. ~1.0 mW/cm2 exposure over 5-6 hours treatment on 50 cells/μl samples of Saccharomyces cerevisiae model organism, resulted in 62% growth rate reduction compared to control (sham). The effect was specific for 85-105 GHz range and energy dose and cell density dependent. Irradiation of wild type and Δrad52 (DNA damage repair gene) deletion cells presented no differences of colony growth profiles indicating non-thermal MMW treatment does not cause genetic alterations. Dose versus response relations studied using a standard horn antenna (~1.0 mW/cm2) and compared to that of a compact waveguide (17.17 mW/cm2) for increased power delivery resulted in complete termination of cell division via non-thermal processes supported by temperature rise measurements. Combinations of MMW mediated Structure Resonant Energy Transfer (SRET), membrane modulations eliciting signaling effects, and energetic resonance with biomolecules were indicated to be responsible for the observations reported. Our results provide novel mechanistic insights enabling innovative applications of nonionizing radiation procedures for eliciting targeted biomedical outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0028.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: genetic algorithm; search techniques; random tests; evolution; applications
Online: 4 June 2020 (07:44:03 CEST)
Nowadays genetic algorithm (GA) is greatly used in engineering pedagogy as an adaptive technique to learn and solve complex problems and issues. It is a meta-heuristic approach that is used to solve hybrid computation challenges. GA utilizes selection, crossover, and mutation operators to effectively manage the searching system strategy. This algorithm is derived from natural selection and genetics concepts. GA is an intelligent use of random search supported with historical data to contribute the search in an area of the improved outcome within a coverage framework. Such algorithms are widely used for maintaining high-quality reactions to optimize issues and problems investigation. These techniques are recognized to be somewhat of a statistical investigation process to search for a suitable solution or prevent an accurate strategy for challenges in optimization or searches. These techniques have been produced from natural selection or genetics principles. For random testing, historical information is provided with intelligent enslavement to continue moving the search out from the area of improved features for processing of the outcomes. It is a category of heuristics of evolutionary history using behavioral science-influenced methods like an annuity, gene, preference, or combination (sometimes refers to as hybridization). This method seemed to be a valuable tool to find solutions for problems optimization. In this paper, the author has explored the GAs, its role in engineering pedagogies, and the emerging areas where it is using, and its implementation.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Other Keywords: chiroptical systems; theoretical simulations, chiral design; sensing applications
Online: 30 January 2020 (12:28:25 CET)
Chiroptical responses have been an essential tool over the last decades for chemical structural elucidation due to their exceptional sensitivity to geometry and intermolecular interactions. In recent times, there has been an increasing interest for the search of more efficient sensing by the rational design of tailored chiroptical systems. In this Review article, advances on chiroptical systems towards their implementation in sensing applications are summarized. Strategies to generate chiroptical responses are illustrated. Theoretical approaches to assist in the design of these systems are discussed. Development of efficient chiroptical reporters in different states of matter, essential for the implementation in sensing devises, is reviewed. In the last part, remarkable examples of chiroptical sensing applications are highlighted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0546.v4
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), Deep learning, Architecture, Applications
Online: 14 February 2019 (10:01:31 CET)
With the increase of the Artificial Neural Network (ANN), machine learning has taken a forceful twist in recent times. One of the most spectacular kinds of ANN design is the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). The Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) is a technology that mixes artificial neural networks and up to date deep learning strategies. In deep learning, Convolutional Neural Network is at the center of spectacular advances. This artificial neural network has been applied to several image recognition tasks for decades and attracted the eye of the researchers of the many countries in recent years as the CNN has shown promising performances in several computer vision and machine learning tasks. This paper describes the underlying architecture and various applications of Convolutional Neural Network.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0018.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Other Keywords: SSPCM, Vacuum Drying, Microwave Acid Treatment, Solar Applications
Online: 3 September 2018 (09:57:39 CEST)
Today with enhancement in technology, sciences, there is also an increase in global heating rate. There is an urgent need of any alternate efficient source to reduce the wastage of energy and to utilize it efficiently. The advanced preparation of Expanded graphite ,lauric acid, stearic acid as shape stabilized phase change material deals with different energy harvesting applications. The main reason behind the need for synthesis of this matrix is to prepare a material that can be used in low temperature energy storage applications. Mixture of lauric acid , stearic acid impregnated in expanded graphite through vacuum impregnation followed by Vacuum Drying and Microwave acid treatment serves as novel shape stabilized phase change material of its type. The microwave acid treatment was done in order to increase the removal of moisture from the sample thus initiating proper bonding of its constituents. The mixture was produced in 1:1:1 ratio where all expanded graphite, lauric acid , stearic acid has one proportions of each other. The product obtained after microwave acid treatment was subjected to SEM, DSC analysis
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0104.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: bimetallic nanoparticles; optical properties; magnetic properties; biological applications
Online: 9 April 2018 (10:20:00 CEST)
Metal nanoparticles are extensively studied due to their unique chemical and physical properties, which differ from the properties of their respective bulk materials. Likewise, the properties of heterogeneous bimetallic structures are far more attractive than those of single-component nanoparticles. The incorporation of a second metal into the nanoparticle structure alters the surface plasmon resonance and magnetic properties of the bimetallic composite. This review focuses on the enhanced optical and magnetic properties offered by bimetallic nanoparticles and their corresponding impact on biological applications. We summarize the predominant structures of bimetallic nanoparticles, outline their synthesis methods, and highlight their use in biological applications, both diagnostic and therapeutic, which are dictated by their various optical and magnetic properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0275.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: synthetic aperture radar; P-band radar; thematic applications
Online: 30 March 2018 (15:51:54 CEST)
Possibilities of utilization of two frequencies synthetic aperture radar (SAR) operating simultaneously in P-band and S or L-band are considered. Advantages of such system are shown. They are caused by improvement of data interpretation and by decrease of ionosphere influence. Tasks of surface and subsurface sensing by the complex SAR were under investigation for vegetation, soil covers are given. As an example, the investigation results of coniferous forest areas backscattering by the spaceborne P-band SAR together with L-band SAR in the September-February period are presented. Studies have shown that the joint use of the results in L and P bands offer unique opportunities to explore the effects of changes in the backscattering properties of forest surfaces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0100.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: quantum formalism applications; minimum distance classification; rescaling parameter
Online: 16 October 2017 (05:59:18 CEST)
We propose a quantum version of the well known minimum distance classification model called "Nearest Mean Classifier" (NMC). In this regard, we presented our first results in two previous works. In  a quantum counterpart of the NMC for two-dimensional problems was introduced, named "Quantum Nearest Mean Classifier" (QNMC), together with a possible generalization to arbitrary dimensions. In  we studied the n-dimensional problem into detail and we showed a new encoding for arbitrary n-feature vectors into density operators. In the present paper, another promising encoding of n-dimensional patterns into density operators is considered, suggested by recent debates on quantum machine learning. Further, we observe a significant property concerning the non-invariance by feature rescaling of our quantum classifier. This fact, which represents a meaningful difference between the NMC and the respective quantum version, allows to introduce a free parameter whose variation provides, in some cases, better classification results for the QNMC. The experimental section is devoted to: i) compare the NMC and QNMC performance on different datasets; ii) study the effects of the non-invariance under uniform rescaling for the QNMC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1277.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: anesthesia; peri-operative medicine; mobile applications; digital health; mHealth
Online: 19 October 2023 (13:23:57 CEST)
Modern anesthesia continues to be impacted in new and unforeseen ways by digital technology. Combining portability and versatility, mobile applications or “apps” provide a multitude of ways to enhance anesthetic and peri-operative care. Research suggests that uptake of apps into anesthetic practice is becoming increasingly routine, especially amongst younger anesthetists brought up in the digital age. Despite this enthusiasm, there remains no consensus in how apps are safely and efficiently integrated into anesthetic practice. This review summarizes the most popular forms of app usage in anesthesia currently and explores the challenges and opportunities inherent in implementing app use in anesthesia, with an emphasis on a practical approach for the modern anesthetist.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2130.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Magnetic nanoparticles; chitosan; XRD; FESEM; FTIR; DLS; VSM; Applications
Online: 31 August 2023 (09:45:41 CEST)
The suspension cross-linking technique has been utilized to create the magnetic chitosan nanoparticles, which were then applied to the magnetic carrier method at 80°C. First the FeCl2 and FeCl3 solution co-precipitated and synthesized Fe3O4 for utilization in the formation of magnetic chitosan nanoparticles, it has been characterized by utilizing DLS (Dynamic light scattering), XRD (X-ray diffraction spectrometer), FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), which identified structure, size, FE-SEM (Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope) and HR-TEM (High-resolution transmission electron microscopy) which identified structure and particle size whereas magnetic behavior of chitosan nanoparticles was determined by VSM (Vibrating sample magnetometer). According to the results collected, the magnetic chitosan nanoparticles have been spherical in form and size ranging from around 250 to 400 nm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1527.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Project Management, Web Applications, Agile methodology, Housing Information System
Online: 25 July 2023 (13:14:13 CEST)
This paper presents the development of a housing information system application using the Agile development method. The rapid development of information technology has necessitated the use of systems in various fields for efficient administration and data processing. However, traditional soft- ware development approaches are time-consuming and may not meet user requirements. The Agile methodology, with its flexible and iterative approach, addresses these challenges by focusing on delivering a functional system quickly. In this study, credit scoring and background related to housing information systems are examined, along with an overview of related work in Agile software development methodologies. The methods used in developing the housing information system application are explained, including the Agile development process and the stages involved. The results show that the Agile development method effectively produces user-friendly and functional housing information system applications. The system provides a simple and intuitive interface that facilitates easy navigation and access to information. Overall, the Agile development method is a valuable approach for software development to meet evolving user needs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1309.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Ceramics And Composites Keywords: Sustainability; thermoset composites; bio-based; sustainable reinforcements; biocomposites applications
Online: 18 May 2023 (09:20:31 CEST)
The current concerns of both society and materials industries about the environmental impact of thermoset composites, as well as new legislation, have led the scientific sector to search for more sustainable alternatives to reduce the environmental impact of thermoset composites. Until now, to a large extent, sustainable reinforcements have been used to manufacture more sustainable composites and thus contribute to the reduction of pollutants. However, in recent years, new alternatives have been developed such as thermosetting resins with bio-based content and/or systems such as recyclable amines and vitrimers that enable recycling/reuse. Throughout this review, some new bio-based thermoset systems as well as new recyclable systems and sustainable reinforcements are described and a brief overview of the biocomposites market and its impact is shown.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0985.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: gold nanoparticles; phospholipids; biomedical applications; membrane fluidity; infrared spectroscopy
Online: 15 May 2023 (07:09:52 CEST)
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are promising candidates in various biomedical applications such as sensors, imaging, and cancer therapy. Understanding the influence of AuNPs on lipid membranes is important to assure their safety in the biological environment and to improve their scope in nanomedicine. In this regard, the present study aims to analyze the effects of different concentrations (0.5, 1, and 2 w %) of dodecanethiol functionalized hydrophobic AuNPs on the structure and fluidity of zwitterionic 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (SOPC) lipid bilayer membranes using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and fluorescent spectroscopy. The size of AuNPs was found to be 2.2 ± 1.1 nm using transmission electron microscopy. FTIR results have shown that the AuNPs induced a slight shift in methylene stretching bands, while the band positions of carbonyl and phosphate group stretching were unaffected. Temperature-dependent fluorescent anisotropy measurements have shown that the incorporation of AuNPs up to 2 w % did not affect the lipid order in membranes. Overall, these results indicate that the hydrophobic AuNPs in the studied concentration did not cause any significant alterations in the structure and membrane fluidity, which suggests the suitability of these particles to form liposome-AuNP hybrids for diverse biomedical applications including drug delivery and therapy.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Zinc nanoparticles; Plant extract; Green Synthesis; Characterization; Mechanism; Applications
Online: 28 May 2021 (09:58:44 CEST)
Background:Boom in nanotechnology in current era has sketched unforeseen transformations in number of fields, such as medicine, health care, food, space, agriculture, etc. The synthesis of nanoparticles with different chemical compositions, sizes, shapes and controlled disparities is an important area of research in this field. Over the last decade, the biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles has received considerable attention due to their unusual and fascinating properties, with various applications, over their bulk counterparts.Hypothesis: The nanoparticle can have huge application in the field of food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries and thus become a major area of research. Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using plant extracts offers an eco-friendly and promising substitute to the conventional methods of chemical synthesis. Conclusion: In the arena of nanoparticle phytosynthesis, novel materials have been produced that are eco-friendly, cost-effective and stable. In the current situation, nanotechnology inspires progress in all spheres of life, and therefore the phytosynthetic path of nanoparticle synthesis has emerged as a safe and best alternative to conventional methods. This review summarizes the recent work in the field of zinc nanoparticle phytosynthesis and critically discusses the mechanism proposed behind it.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0512.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: Materials; Magnesium; Magnesium Alloys; Engineering Materials; Biomaterials; Properties; Applications
Online: 21 May 2021 (09:42:52 CEST)
Magnesium is a promising material. It has a remarkable mix of mechanical and biomedical properties that made it suitable for a vast range of applications. With alloying, many of these inherent properties can be further improved. Today, it is primarily used in the automotive, aerospace, and medical industry. However, magnesium has its own set of drawbacks which the industry and research community are actively addressing. Magnesium’s rapid corrosion is its most significant drawback, and it dramatically impeded magnesium’s growth and expansion into other applications. This article will review both the engineering and biomedical aspects and applications for magnesium and its alloys. It will also elaborate on the challenges the material faces, how they can be overcome, and its outlook.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0026.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: weather radar; quantitative precipitation estimation; remote sensing; hydrological applications
Online: 4 June 2019 (07:41:17 CEST)
Among other applications, radar-rainfall (RR) and QPE (Quantitative Precipitation Estimation) based on radar reflectivity, dual polarization variables, and multi-sensor information, provide important information for land surface hydrology, such as flood forecasting. Therefore, we developed a flood alert system using rainfall-runoff model forced with RR and QPE, and tipping-bucket observations to forecast river water levels (using rating-curves). In this study, we used an hourly dataset from an S-Band dual-polarimetric radar with two tropical R(Z) relations based distrometer data, a polarimetric R(Z,ZDR) algorithm from the literature and a multi-sensor approach using radar, satellite and rain gauge. Two hydrological models were used and calibrated using observed discharge time-series. Although our previous studies indicated accurate RR-based simulations, in some cases floods were not detected when using catchment-lumped rainfall derived from multi-sensor QPE. In this study, we advance further in this subject using improved R(Z,ZDR) relations and QPE for the period of 2016-2017 and flood event-based rainfall-runoff calibration. Thus, we focused on the development (and timing) of floods in the Marrecas River can be complex and strongly related to storms spatiotemporal distribution. To explore this aspect, we also perform a first analysis in using RR in rainfall-runoff model with a nested catchment discretization.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1728.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Enzymes; Biomass; Waste Management; Waste Treatment; Microorganisms; Applications of Enzymes
Online: 28 November 2023 (09:23:07 CET)
Enzymes are biological molecules produced by living entities for carrying out biological processes. The application of enzymes for waste treatment has been gaining pace commercially to solve concerns related to agricultural residues, wastewater, replacement of synthetic processes with natural ones, etc. The application of enzymes for waste management has been an environmentally reliable and sustainable process. Treatment of waste with enzymes such as xylanase, proteases, hydrolases, cellulose, peroxidases, chitinases, laccases, etc. has been studied to be effective. These enzymes act upon the waste products and transform them into biodegradable forms that can be recycled, reused and converted to value-added products. They have wide applications and utility as it has been an effective approach, economically cheaper and sustainable techniques. Application of such enzymes for waste management would be beneficial for reducing the quantity of waste, diminishing the negative effects of waste and pollution on the environment, and would be beneficial in bio-converting the waste products into alternate sources of energy. The current chapter focuses on different types of enzymes, their applications for waste management, and their limitations. This chapter also emphasizes the usage of some prominent microorganisms, their secreted enzymes and their proposed mechanisms of action involved with the degradation of the waste products.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1280.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: information security; smart city; technical collaborations networks; applications; bibliometric analysis
Online: 20 October 2023 (06:30:51 CEST)
This paper aims to analyze the intellectual structure and research fronts in application information security in smart cities to identify research boundaries, trends, and new opportunities in the area. It applies bibliometric analyses to identify the main authors and their influences on the information security and smart city area. Moreover, this analysis focuses on journals indexed in Scopus databases. The results indicate that there is an opportunity for further advances in the adoption of information security policies in government institutions. Moreover, the production indicators presented herein are useful for the planning and implementation of information security policies, and the knowledge of the scientific community about smart cities. The bibliometric analysis provides support for the visualization of the leading research technical collaboration networks among authors, co-authors, countries, and research areas. The methodology offers a broader view of the application information security in smarty city areas and makes it possible to assist new research that may contribute to further advances. The smart city topic has been receiving much attention in recent years, but to the best of our knowledge, there is no research on reporting new possibilities for advances. Therefore, this article may contribute to an emerging body of literature that explores the nature of application information security and smart city research productivity to assist researchers in better understanding the current emerging of the area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1655.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Full-Heusler alloys; Glass-coated microwires; magnetic behavior; Sensing Applications
Online: 26 September 2023 (03:16:45 CEST)
We studied Ni2FeSi, Co2FeSi and Co2MnSi -based full Heusler alloy glass-coated microwires with the same geometric aspect ratio ρ ≈ 0.50 ± 0.01 prepared using Taylor-Ulitovsky method. The fabrication of X2YZ; (X = Co & Ni, Y = Fe & Mn and Z = Si) based glass coated microwires with fixed aspect ratio is a quite challenging due to the different samples preparation conditions. The XRD analysis shows nanocrystalline microstructure for all the samples. Space group Fm3¯m (FCC) with disordered B2 and A2-types for Ni2FeSi and Co2FeSi and ordered L21-type for Co2MnSi are observed. The change in the positions of Ni, Co and Mn, Fe in X2YSi resulted in a variation in the lattice cell parameters and the average grain size of the sample. Room temperature magnetic behavior shows a dramatic change depending on the chemical composition, where Ni2FeSi-MWs shows the highest coercivity (Hc) compared to Co2FeSi-MWS and Co2MnSi-MWs. The Hc –value of Ni2FeSi-MWs is 16 times higher than that of Co2MnSi-MWs and 3 times higher than that of Co2FeSi-MWS. Meanwhile, the highest reduced remanence is reported for Co2FeSi-MWS (Mr =0.92), , being about 0.33 and 0.22 for Ni2FeSi-MWs and Co2MnSi-MWs, respectively. From the analysis of the temperature dependence of the magnetic properties (Hc and Mr) of X2YZ-MWs we deduced that Hc shows a stable tendency for Co2MnSi-MWs and Co2FeSi-MWs, meanwhile two flipped points are observed for Ni2FeSi-MWs where the behavior of Hc changes with temperature. For Mr monotonic increase by decreasing the temperature is observed for Co2FeSi-MWs and Ni2FeSi-MWs and roughly stable for Co2MnSi-MWs. The thermomagnetic curves at low magnetic field show irreversible magnetic behavior for Co2MnSi-MWs and Co2FeSi-MWs and regular ferromagnetic behavior for Ni2FeSi-MWs. The current result illustrates the ability to tailor the structure and magnetic behavior of X2YZ-MWs at a fixed internal stresses, i.e., with fixed aspect ratio. Additionally, a different behavior was revealed in X2YZ-MWs depending on the degree of ordering and elements distribution. The tunability of magnetic properties of X2YZ-MWs makes them suitable for sensing applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0816.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: wearables; smart textiles; textile strain sensor; motion monitoring; medical applications
Online: 10 August 2023 (05:46:24 CEST)
Recently, there has been remarkable progress in the development of smart textiles, especially knitted strain sensors, to achieve reliable sensor signals. Stable and reliable electro-mechanical properties of sensors are essential for using textile-based sensors in medical applications. How-ever, challenges associated with significant hysteresis and low gauge factor (GF) values remain for using strain sensors for motion capture. To evaluate these issues, a comprehensive investiga-tion of the cyclic electro-mechanical properties of weft-knitted strain sensors was conducted in the present study to develop a drift-free elastic strain sensor with a robust sensor signal for mo-tion capture for medical devices. Several variables were considered in the study, including the variation of the basic knit pattern, the incorporation of the electrically conductive yarn, and the size of the strain sensor. The effectiveness and feasibility of the developed knitted strain sensors are demonstrated through experimental evaluation, by determining the gauge factor, its non-linearity, hysteresis and drift. The developed knitted piezoresistive strain sensors have a GF of 2.4, a calculated drift of 50 %, 12,5 % hysteresis, and 0.3 % nonlinearity in parts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1571.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids And Plasmas Physics Keywords: Laser-Plasma Ion Sources; High Power Laser Applications; Ion Diagnostics
Online: 24 July 2023 (08:53:29 CEST)
An experimental platform for laser-driven ion (sub-MeV) acceleration and potential applications was recently commissioned at the HiLASE laser facility. The auxiliary beam of the Bivoj laser system operating at GW peak power (~10 J in 5-10 ns) and 1-10 Hz repetition rate enabled a sta-ble production of high-current ion beams of multiple species (Al, Ti, Fe, Si, Cu, Sn). The pro-duced laser-plasma ion sources were fully characterized against the laser intensity on target (1013-1015 W/cm2) by varying the laser energy, focal spot size, and pulse duration. This al-lowed to provide accurate scaling laws of the maximum ion energy for the different target ma-terials investigated. Such experimental scaling laws are presented for the first time in the inves-tigated laser intensity range and for ns-class laser pulses, and allow to provide a qualitative in-terpretation of the laser-plasma interaction underpinning physics, thus to tune the main features of the accelerated ion beams (energy, temperature, and current). Such a detailed study was facil-itated by the large amount of data acquired at high repetition rate (1-10 Hz) provided by the Bivoj laser system. The versatility and tuneability of such high-repetition-rate laser-plasma ion sources are of po-tential interest for multidisciplinary user applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1473.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: gemini surfactants; 12-6-12; synthesis; properties; antimicrobial activity; applications
Online: 21 July 2023 (07:55:45 CEST)
Surfactants are amphiphilic molecules and one of the most versatile products of the chemical industry. They can be absorbed at the air-water interface and can align themselves so that the hydrophobic part is in the air while the hydrophilic part is in water. This alignment lowers the surface or interfacial tension. Gemini surfactants are a modern variety of surfactants with unique properties and a very wide range of potential applications. Hexamethylene-1,6-bis(N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethylammonium bromide) is one such representative compound that is a better alternative to a single analogue. It shows excellent surface, antimicrobial, and anticorrosion properties. With a highly efficient synthetic method and a good ecological profile, it is a potential candidate for numerous applications, including biomedical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0177.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Digital Health; Mobile; mobile-based applications; medical apps; Saudi Arabia
Online: 11 April 2023 (02:58:44 CEST)
This study aimed at assessing the extent to which the Saudi general population has embraced digital health medical applications to meet their health-related needs so that the Saudi Ministry of Health and government can appropriately be guided on scaling up of digital health across the country. As such, this study was guided by the question of to what extent do the Saudi people use digital health mobile-based applications?. This was a cross-sectional study utilizing snowballing sampling approach. Frequencies, Chi-square, and Spearman rank correlation statistics were used to offer descriptive and inferential analysis of the variables. The majority of the participants were economically able to afford smart devices that have medical apps, had at least an app on such devices, and highly regarded the benefits of the apps. Unfortunately, their understanding of how to use such apps was limited and this posed a barrier to embracing digital health alongside difficulty downloading apps, and medical ethical concerns. Although there is a willingness, extra effort is needed from the Saudi Ministry of Health and government to promote the uptake of digital health in Saudi Arabia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0247.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: elemental two-dimensional materials; allotropic structures; surface modifications; properties; applications
Online: 19 December 2022 (02:51:52 CET)
The advent of graphene opens up the research into two-dimensional (2D) material, which is considered as a revolutionary material in the future. Due to its unique geometric structure, graphene exhibits a series of exotic physical and chemical properties. Besides, single-element-based 2D materials (Xenes) have garnered tremendous interest. At present, 16 kinds of Xenes (silicene, borophene, germanene, phosphorene, tellurene, etc.) have been explored, mainly distributed in the third, fourth, fifth and sixth main groups. The current methods to prepare monolayer or few-layer 2D materials include epitaxy growth, mechanical exfoliation, and liquid phase exfoliation. Although two Xenes (aluminene and indiene) have not been synthesized due to the limitations of synthetic methods or stability of Xenes, other Xenes have been successfully realized by elaborately artificial design and synthesis. Focusing on elemental 2D materials, this review mainly summarizes the recently reported work about tuning the electronic, optical, mechanical, or chemical properties of Xenes via surface modifications achieved by controllable approaches (doping, adsorption, strain, intercalation, phase transition, etc.) to broaden the applications in various fields, including spintronics, electronics, optoelectronics, superconducting, photovoltaics, sensors, catalysis, and biomedicines. These advances in surface modification of Xenes have laid a theoretical and experimental foundation for the development of 2D materials and their practical applications in diverse fields.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0056.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Green synthesis; Plant extract; Reduced graphene oxide; Applications; Graphene oxide
Online: 2 November 2021 (22:50:53 CET)
Graphene is a remarkable material with numerous applications. Due to its thin and lightweight design, it is ideal for a variety of applications. The synthesis of high-quality graphene in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner continues to be a significant challenge. Chemical reduction is considered to be the most advantageous method for preparing reduced graphene oxide (rGO). However, this process necessitates the use of toxic and harmful substances, which can have a detrimental effect on the environment and human health. Thus, to accomplish the objective, the green synthesis principle has prompted researchers worldwide to develop a simple method for green reduction of graphene oxide (GO), which is readily accessible, sustainable, economical, renewable, and environmentally friendly in nature. For example, the use of natural materials such as plants is generally considered safe. Furthermore, plants contain reducing and capping agents. The current review will focus on the discovery and application of rGO synthesis using extracts from a variety of different parts of the plant. The review aims to aid current and future researchers in their search for a novel plant extract that acts as a reductant in the green synthesis of rGO. The review aims to assist current and future researchers in their research for a novel plant extract that acts as a reductant in the green synthesis of rGO as well as their potential applications in a variety of industries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0342.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Data Science; HealthCare Applications; Machine Learning; Patient Attitudes
Online: 20 September 2021 (15:51:54 CEST)
Today, across the most critical problems faced by hospitals and health centers are those caused by the existence of patients who do not attend their appointments. Among others, this practice generates waste of resources and increases the patients’ waiting list. To handle these problems, hospitals are actively trying to implement methods to reduce the idle time caused by patient no-shows. Many scheduling systems developed require predicting whether a patient will show up for an appointment or not. Although, a challenging problem resides in obtaining these estimates precisely. The goal of this work is to analyze how objective factors influence a patient not to attending their appointment, to identify the main causes that contribute to a patient’s decision, and to be able to predict whether or not the patient will attend the scheduled appointment. As a result, the obtained model is tested on a real dataset collected in a health center linked to the University of Vale do Itajaí (UNIVALI), which includes 25 features and about 5000 samples. The algorithm that produced the best results for the available dataset is the Random Forest classifier. It reveals the best recall rate (0.91), since it measures the ability of a classifier to find all the positive instances and achieves a receiver operating characteristic curve rate of 0.969.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0008.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Multiscale modeling; Multiscale Systems; Megacities; Smart Cities; Multiscale Modeling Applications;
Online: 1 June 2021 (09:39:59 CEST)
Megacities are complex systems facing the challenges of overpopulation, poor urban design and planning, poor mobility and public transport, poor governance, climate change issues, poor sewerage and water infrastructure, waste and health issues, and unemployment. Smart cities have emerged to address these challenges by making the best use of space and resources for the benefit of citizens. A smart city model views the city as a complex adaptive system consisting of services, resources, and citizens that learn through interaction and change in both the spatial and temporal domains. The characteristics of dynamic development and complexity are key issues for city planners that require a new systematic and modeling approach. Multiscale modeling (MM) is an approach that can be used to better understand complex adaptive systems. The MM aims to solve complex problems at different scales, i.e., micro, meso, and macro, to improve system efficiency and mitigate computational complexity and cost. In this paper, we present an overview of MM in smart cities. First, this study discusses megacities, their current challenges, and their emergence to smart cities. Then, we discuss the need of MM in smart cities and its emerging applications. Finally, the study highlights current challenges and future directions related to MM in smart cities, which provide a roadmap for the optimized operation of smart city systems.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0529.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: daylight; luminance; measurement system; sky luminance; lighting applications; optical metrology
Online: 22 March 2021 (12:12:01 CET)
The purpose of this work is to determine the possibility of using an automated SkyWatcher Virtuoso system to analyze distribution of sky luminance. The article presents the procedure for measuring the sky luminance distribution defined according to CIE using a manual luminance meter cooperating with the SkyWatcher system. The use of matrix luminance meter was also analyzed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0016.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: artificial intelligence; machine learning; systematic literature review; applications; industry 4.0
Online: 3 December 2019 (05:34:17 CET)
The history of Artificial Intelligence (AI) development dates to the 40s. The researchers showed strong expectations until the 70s, when they began to encounter serious difficulties and investments were greatly, reduced. With the introduction of the Industry 4.0, one of the techniques adopted for AI implementation is Machine Learning (ML) that focuses on the machines ability to receive data series and learn on their own. Given the considerable importance of the subject, researchers have completed many studies on ML to ensure that machines are able to replace or relieve human tasks. This research aims to analyze, systematically, the literature on several aspects, including publication year, authors, scientific sector, country, institution, keywords. Analyzing existing literature on AI is a necessary stage to recommend policy on the matter. The analysis has been done using Web of Science and SCOPUS database. Furthermore, UCINET and NVivo 12 software have been used to complete them. Literature review on ML and AI empirical studies published in the last century was carried out to highlight the evolution of the topic before and after Industry 4.0 introduction, from 1999 to now. Eighty-two articles were reviewed and classified. A first interesting result is the greater number of works published by USA and the increasing interest after the birth of Industry 4.0.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0003.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Aging model; Lithium ion batteries; Second life applications, Area regulation
Online: 3 October 2016 (16:33:54 CEST)
Batteries are called to be part of the electricity grid by providing ancillary services. Area regulation services seem to provide substantial revenues and profit. But Li-ion batteries are still too expensive to enter widely into this market. On the other hand, electric vehicle batteries are considered inappropriate for traction purposes when they reached a state of health of 80%. The reuse of these batteries offers affordable batteries for second life stationary applications. This study analyzes how batteries may provide services to a gas turbine cogeneration power plant and how long these batteries may last under different loads.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0309.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: African grape roots; Lannea macrocarpa; proximate analysis; mineral analysis; medicinal applications
Online: 6 October 2023 (05:13:12 CEST)
The roots of African grapes (Lannea microcarpa) have long been utilised in traditional medicine for their perceived therapeutic properties. However, their comprehensive proximate and mineral analysis remains largely unexplored. Proximate composition and mineral content of the roots were conducted. The sample was obtained from Katsayal, Katsina State, and analysed using standard procedures. The macro and micro metals were determined using Flame Photometer and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, respectively. The results revealed a moisture content of 28.0 ±2.0%, an ash content of 21.3±1.2%, and significant levels of crude fibre (29.0±0.50%), crude lipid (9.60±0.20%), crude protein (6.91±0.01%), and available carbohydrates (33.3±0.10%). The calorific value of the root was determined to be 245 ± 0.01 kcal/g. The micro-mineral analysis revealed the detection of copper (8.60 ± 0.002 mg/kg), magnesium (9.24 ± 0.004 mg/kg), manganese (41.9 ± 0.001 mg/kg), iron (405 ± 0.042 mg/kg), and zinc (9.46 ± 0.001 mg/kg). The macro-minerals, namely calcium (28400 mg/kg), potassium (1530 mg/kg), and sodium (45030 mg/kg), were found to be present in the sample. It is advisable to conduct additional research to examine the identified minerals' bioavailability, clarify the phytochemical profile, and investigate potential bioactive compounds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0038.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: Cultural Heritage Preservation; Augmented Reality Applications; Methodological Framework; Historic Site Digitization
Online: 1 September 2023 (09:45:55 CEST)
Amidst the rapid urbanization of cities worldwide, there is a pressing need for practical tools to manage and preserve the invaluable architectural heritage contained within them. This research introduces a systematic methodology for digitalizing and interpreting architectural heritage through augmented Reality (AR). The primary goal is to enhance the documentation, preservation, and accessibility of cultural assets, addressing both educational and touristic needs. Focusing on the historic district of Pelourinho in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, the study showcases how 3D digitalization combined with AR can provide users with an interactive experience with historical structures, bridging the temporal divide. By integrating the digital replicas of historic buildings into a real-time environment, users gain enriched insights into these structures’ history, architecture, and cultural significance. Though the preliminary results underscore the potential of this approach, comprehensive user testing remains an area for future exploration. This paper thus highlights the potential of AR in historical and cultural preservation, suggesting its broader implications for education, tourism, and heritage management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1231.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: DC/AC converter; Three-phase inverter; High frequency applications; Performance comparison
Online: 17 August 2023 (09:24:17 CEST)
This study investigates the nonlinearities in three-phase inverters for SiC-based systems and compares their performance to IGBT-based systems. An analytical model of inverter voltage distortion is developed, which accounts not only for dead time (td), switching delay time, switching frequency (fs), and voltage drops of power devices, but also for output parasitic capacitance (Cout). Experimental tests validate the model, which provides a more accurate estimate of the inverter’s output phase voltage distortion. The power device characteristics are obtained from datasheets, while Cout is determined through experimentation. Three-phase inverters with varying switching frequencies, fundamental frequencies, and dead-time values are used in simulations and experiments to determine the influence of nonlinearity on phase voltage deviation and current distortion. The results show that, due to SiC devices’ faster switching time, the phase voltage deviation and phase current distortion are lower in SiC-based inverters than in IGBT-based ones for high-frequency applications, as the dead time can be reduced.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1738.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Sericin; Bone graft applications; Biocompatibility; Immune responses; Tissue engineering; Bone healing
Online: 26 July 2023 (09:10:58 CEST)
The potential of sericin, a protein derived from silkworms, is explored in bone graft applications. Sericin's biocompatibility, hydrophilic nature, and cost-effectiveness make it a promising candidate for enhancing traditional graft materials. Its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and UV-resistant properties contribute to a healthier bone-healing environment, and its incorporation into 3D-printed grafts could lead to personalized medical solutions. However, despite these promising attributes, there are still gaps in our understanding. The precise mechanism through which sericin influences bone cell growth and healing is not fully understood, and more comprehensive clinical trials are needed to confirm its long-term biocompatibility in humans. Furthermore, the best methods for incorporating sericin into existing graft materials are still under investigation, and potential allergic reactions or immune responses to sericin need further study.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0739.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Marine macroalgae; Bioactive compounds; Phenolic compounds; Pigments; Cosmeceutical applications; Skin benefits
Online: 12 July 2023 (08:10:35 CEST)
Marine macroalgae have garnered significant attention in the field of cosmeceutical research due to their rich abundance of bioactive compounds. These compounds offer remarkable skin benefits without inducing any adverse effects on human health, such as cytotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, mutagenicity, or carcinogenicity. Among the various bioactive compounds found in brown algae, phenolic compounds exhibit diverse chemical structures and are present in high concentrations. In addition to phenolic compounds, brown algae also contain terpenoids, bro-mophenols, mycosporine amino acids (MAAs), and flavonoids, with the well-studied poly-phenol compound, phlorotannin, being particularly prominent. Marine macroalgae further possess an array of pigments derived from their natural pigmentation, including chlorophylls, carotenoids (such as fucoxanthin and β-carotene), phycobiliproteins (such as phycoerythrin and phycocyanin), and melanin. These pigments have been extensively investigated for their potential cos-meceutical applications. The phenolic compounds and pigments derived from marine macroalgae have been thoroughly studied for their beneficial effects on the skin, including skin whitening, moisturizing, photoprotection, anti-aging, anti-wrinkle, anti-melanogenic, and anti-oxidant properties. This comprehensive review aims to explore the extraction, characterization, and skin cosmetic effects of phenolic compounds and pigments derived from marine macroalgae, as documented in the existing literature, thereby enhancing our understanding of their therapeutic potential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0514.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: unified approach to design; design consideration; resonant inverters; induction heating applications
Online: 18 April 2023 (10:26:06 CEST)
The manuscript presents a unified methodology for the engineering design of resonant inverters used for power sources to power various technologies based on induction heating. The methodology is compiled using the generalized consideration of electromagnetic processes in a series RLC circuit and the quasi-boundary method for the analysis of resonant inverters with and without reverse diodes operating in soft and hard commutation modes. On this basis, the transmission functions of the inverters are derived, and the matching between the parameters of the inverter and the load through complicated output circuits is also considered. The basic ratios for determining the circuit elements and their current and voltage loading are presented. The methodologies are verified using several computational examples, simulations and measurements from induction heating devices. The simplified design approach presented is useful for its application in power electronics training and also in the design of various devices using the principle of induction heating. Another important result is the achievement of formalization and algorithmization of the design process, which is a consequence of the application of a unified approach both in the analysis and in the design of a whole class of power electronic devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0071.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electronic, Optical And Magnetic Materials Keywords: Heusler alloys; Glass-coated microwires; Multi-step magnetic behavior; Sensing Applications
Online: 6 April 2023 (04:55:31 CEST)
In current study we have obtained Co2FeSi-glass coated microwires with different geometrical aspect ratio, ρ = d/Dtot (diameter of metallic nucleus, d and total diameter, Dtot). The structure and magnetic properties are investigated at a wide range of temperature. XRD analysis illustrates a notable changing in the microstructure by increasing the aspect ratio of Co2FeSi glass coated microwires. Amorphous structure is detected for the sample with the lowest aspect ratio (ρ = 0.23), whereas a growth of crystalline structure is observed in the other samples (aspect ratio ρ = 0.30 and 0.43). This change at the microstructure properties correlates with dramatic changing in magnetic properties. For the sample with the lowest ρ -ratio, non-perfect square loops are obtained with low normalized remanent magnetization. A notable enhancement in the squareness and coercivity are obtained by increasing ρ -ratio. Changing the internal stresses strongly affects the microstructure, resulting in a complex magnetic reversal process. The thermomagnetic curves show large irreversibility for the Co2FeSi with low ρ -ratio. Meanwhile, if we increase the ρ -ratio, the sample shows perfect ferromagnetic behavior without irreversibility. The current result illustrates the ability to control the microstructure and magnetic properties of Co2FeSi-glass-coated microwires by changing only their geometric properties without performing any addition heat treatment. The modification of geometric parameters of Co2FeSi glass-coated microwires allows to obtain microwires which exhibit an unusual magnetization behavior that offers opportunities to understand the phenomena of various types of magnetic domain structures, which is essentially helpful for designing sensing devices based on thermal magnetization switching.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0245.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: online dating, social networks, agent-based modeling, mobile dating applications, MRQAP
Online: 17 January 2022 (16:18:07 CET)
We report an agent-based model to compare the effectiveness of simple and complex mobile dating application interfaces in generating matches for virtual users. We define the relative complexity of dating applications as the number of available features and dub this variable, the multiplicity. We replicate some of the most popular mobile dating applications through the generation of a synthetic population endowed with attributes, preferences, and behaviors drawn from literature. We treat our data as a network dataset and use a robust statistical procedure (MRQAP) to issue a valid and reliable comparison between simulated applications. We show how the quadratic assignment procedure can be used to compare network simulations rigorously. As a result, we observe a direct relationship between multiplicity and agent-level experiences and expectations in match generation. We also observe the emergence of divergent matching systems with minor rule changes as well as several expected properties of online dating systems. This work serves as a proof-of-concept in the integration of classical social network analysis methods with agent-based modeling to compare virtual designs and to enhance the policy-generation process of online social networks.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0216.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Failure Diagnosis; Aircraft Applications; Composite Materials; Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) Techniques
Online: 5 November 2020 (14:53:08 CET)
Diagnosis and prognosis of failures for aircrafts’ integrity are some of the most important regular functionalities in complex and safety-critical aircraft structures. Further, development of failure diagnostic tools such as Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) techniques, in particular, for aircraft composite materials, has been seen as a subject of intensive research over the last decades. The need for diagnostic and prognostic tools for composite materials in aircraft applications rises and draws increasing attention. Yet, there is still an ongoing need for developing new failure diagnostic tools to respond to the rapid industrial development and complex machine design. Such tools will ease the early detection and isolation of developing defects and the prediction of damages propagation; thus allowing for early implementation of preventive maintenance and serve as a countermeasure to the potential of catastrophic failure. In this paper, following a short introductory summary and definitions, this paper provides a brief literature review of recent research on failure diagnosis of composite materials with an emphasis on the use of NDT techniques in aerospace industry. In addition to this, within a some of significant NDT application extents, prognosis of composites is also briefly discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0437.v2
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Fatigue; Delamination; Acoustic Emission; Failure Mechanisms; Composite Materials; Nanofibers, Marine Applications.
Online: 14 December 2018 (10:12:52 CET)
The use of high strength to weight ratio laminated composites is emerging in marine industry and applications as a very efficient solution for improving productivity. Nevertheless, delamination between the layers is a limiting factor for the wider application of laminated composites, as it reduces the stiffness and strengths of the structure. Interleaving nanofibrous mats between layers of composite laminates has been proved to be an effective method for improving composites delamination resistance. This paper aims to characterize the effect of interleaved nanofiber on mode I interlaminar properties and failure mechanisms when subjected to static and fatigue loadings. For this purpose, virgin and nanomodified woven laminates were subjected to Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) specimens. Static and fatigue tests were performed and the tests were monitored by acoustic emission technique. The mechanical results showed a 130% increase of delamination toughness for nanomodified specimens in the static loadings and more crack growth resistance in the fatigue loading. The AE results revealed that different type of failure mechanisms was the cause of these improvements for the modified specimens compared with the virgin ones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0334.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Fiber optics sensors; Fiber Bragg gratings; Clinical applications; Medical optics instrumentation
Online: 24 May 2018 (05:57:50 CEST)
Placing the needle inside the epidural space for locoregional anesthesia is a challenging procedure, which even today is left to the expertise of the operator. Recently, we have demonstrated that the use of optically sensorized needles significantly improve the effectiveness of such procedure. Here we propose an optimized configuration, where the optical fiber strain sensor is directly integrated inside the epidural catheter. The new design allows to solve the biocompatibility issues and increases the versatility of the former configuration. Through an in vivo study carried out on a porcine model we confirm the reliability of our approach, which also opens the way to catheter monitoring during its insertion inside biological spaces.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0681.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Bio-based aerogel; multi-functional properties; thermal insulation; flame retardant; textile applications
Online: 10 November 2023 (07:29:56 CET)
Given its exceptional attributes, aerogel is viewed as a material with immense potential. Being a natural polymer, cellulose offers the advantage of being both replenishable and capable of breaking down naturally. Cellulose-derived aerogels encompass the replenish ability, biocompatible nature, and ability to degrade naturally inherent in cellulose, along with additional benefits like minimal weight, extensive porousness, and expansive specific surface area. Even with increasing appreciation and acceptance, the undiscovered possibilities of aerogels within the textile sphere continue to be predominantly uninvestigated. In this context, we outline the latest advancements in the study of cellulose aerogel formulation and their diverse impacts on textile formations. Drawing from the latest studies, we reviewed the materials used for the creation of various kinds of cellulose-focused aerogels and their properties, analytical techniques, and multiple functionalities in relation to textiles. This comprehensive analysis extensively covers the diverse strategies employed to enhance the multi-functionality of cellulose-based aerogels in the textile industry. Additionally, we focused on the global market size of bio-derivative aerogels, companies in the industry producing goods, and prospects moving forward.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0293.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: social media; artificial intelligence; machine learning; chatbots; cybersecurity; emerging applications; coding techniques
Online: 6 November 2023 (09:28:33 CET)
Chatbots are increasingly used as tools for disseminating knowledge and information across various sectors of business, without the need for human intervention. With the continuous advancement of technology and the internet, the field of cybersecurity is also expanding, leading to the development of newer and more sophisticated systems to counter emerging threats. However, a fundamental question arises: how can one determine what to look for, where to acquire the necessary knowledge, and how to initiate this process? Recognizing the need for more effective tools in the market to educate individuals about online threats and self-protection, this paper aims to bridge the gap in the existing literature. The Artificial Intelligence-based Cybersecurity Chatbot (AICyberSec) has been developed to provide a versatile cybersecurity knowledge resource. This initiative is in response to the absence of a comprehensive solution in the market that effectively informs individuals about online threats and offers guidance on how to safeguard themselves. Furthermore, this chatbot serves as a valuable application for identifying potential hazards in cyberspace and can also function as an educational tool to facilitate the learning process.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1359.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Information and communication technologies; eHealth applications; Capacity building programs; BETTEReHEALTH; Digital Health
Online: 20 July 2023 (03:05:38 CEST)
eHealth applications are an essential component in achieving Universal Health Coverage. (1) Background: The lack of skilled healthcare personnel has hindered successful integration and use, especially in developing and low and middle-income countries. (2) Methods: A descriptive study was conducted using an online survey to collect quantitative data from 37 organizations to address this issue. (3) Results: The findings showed that there are limited training opportunities available for policymakers and eHealth specialists. Additionally, obstacles such as insufficient funds, inadequate infrastructure, poor leadership, and governance were identified and found to be context specific. To mitigate these challenges, the study proposed continuous in-service training, the implementation of computer-based systems, and the integration of academic modules. The importance of strong eHealth policies and committed leaders was also emphasized. (4) Conclusions: The results of this study support previous research and emphasize the importance of implementing practical and uncomplicated solutions to overcome eHealth barriers to capacity building in low- and middle-income countries. It is essential to recognize that the data collected for this study only pertains to BETTEReHEALTH.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0743.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing applications; 3D printing platform for additive manufacturing; FDM; robot arm
Online: 12 June 2023 (03:18:03 CEST)
The paper presents the conceptualization and realization of a novel platform for additive manu-facturing, an industrial robot arm-based system for additive manufacturing applications. Tradi-tional 3D printers, especially those employing fused deposition modelling (FDM) processes, are restricted to depositing material in a single toolpath plane (e.g. x-y plane). The focus of this study was to explore the feasibility of integrating commercial off the shelf (COTS) additive manufac-turing technologies with a six degree of freedom industrial robot arm to yield a 3D additive manufacturing system with the capability to perform free-form six degree of freedom fused deposition modelling. The present paper presents the development of a platform from stage 0, i.e. materials to its use, and finally a printed product with the developed extruder.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0434.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: COVID-19; 3D Printing; Additive Manufacturing; Medical Applications; Open-source files; Innovation
Online: 25 August 2022 (10:24:14 CEST)
The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) rapidly spread to over 180 countries and abruptly disrupted the production rates and supply chains worldwide. Since then, 3D printing also recognized as additive manufacturing (AM) and known to be a novel technique that uses layer-by-layer deposition of material to produce the intricate 3D geometry, has been engaged in reducing the distress caused by the outbreak. During the early stages of this pandemic, shortages of Personal Protection Equipment (PPE), including facemasks, shields, respirators, and other medical gears, were significantly answered by remotely 3D printing them. Amidst the growing testing requirements, the 3D printing emerged as a potential and fast solution manufacturing process to meet the production needs due to its flexibility, reliability, and rapid response capabilities. In the recent past, some of the other medical applications that have gained prominence in the scientific community include 3D printed ventilator splitters, device components, and patient-specific products. Regarding the non-medical applications, researchers have successfully developed contact-free devices to address the sanitary crisis in public places. This work aims to systematically review the applications of 3D printing or AM techniques that have been involved in producing various critical products essential to limit this deadly pandemic's progression.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0383.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Bacterial carotenoids; Cell disruption; HPLC separation; MS analysis; Food and textile applications
Online: 18 August 2021 (14:09:35 CEST)
Natural carotenoids are secondary metabolites that exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. These types of compounds are in high demand by pharmaceutical, cosmetic, textile and food industries, leading to the search for new natural sources of carotenoids. In recent years, the production of carotenoids from bacteria has become of great interest for industrial applications. In addition to carotenoids with C40-skeletons, some bacteria have the ability to synthesize characteristic carotenoids with C30-skeletons. In this regard, a great variety of methodologies for the extraction and identification of bacterial carotenoids has been reported and this is the first review that condenses much of this information. To understand the diversity of these carotenoids, we present their biosynthetic origin in order to focus on the methodologies employed in their extraction and characterization. Special emphasis has been made on high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) for the analysis and identification of bacterial carotenoids. We end up this review showing their potential commercial use of bacterial carotenoids. This review is proposed as a guide for the identification of these metabolites, which are frequently reported in new bacteria strains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0032.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Non-ionizing Radiation; Millimeter waves; Novel biomedical applications; Yeast; Non-invasive devices
Online: 16 April 2021 (14:52:04 CEST)
Nonionizing millimeter-waves (MMW) interact with cells in a variety of ways. Here the inhibited cell division effect was investigated using 85-105 GHz MMW irradiation within the ICNIRP (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection) non-thermal 20 mW/cm2 safety standards. Irradiation using a power density of about 1.0 mW/cm2 , SAR over 5-6 hours on 50 cells/μl samples of Saccharomyces cerevisiae model organism resulted in 62% growth rate reduction compared to the control (sham). The effect was specific for 85-105 GHz range, and was energy and cell density dependent. Irradiation of wild type and Δrad52 (DNA damage repair gene) deleted cells presented no differences of colony growth profiles indicating non-thermal MMW treatment does not cause permanent genetic alterations. Dose versus response relations studied using a standard horn antenna (~1.0 mW/cm2) and compared to that of a compact waveguide (17.17 mW/cm2) for increased power delivery resulted in complete termination of cell division via non-thermal processes supported by temperature rise measurements. We have shown that non-thermal MMW radiation has potential for future use in treatment of yeast related diseases and other targeted biomedical outcomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0249.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: whitlockite; calcium magnesium phosphates; struvite; newberrite; bone reconstruction; resorba-bility; bioactivity; orthopedic applications
Online: 11 August 2021 (10:41:43 CEST)
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0499.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Mach's Universe; Planck scale; Cosmic Angular velocity; Galactic applications; shortened radius; shortened age;
Online: 25 January 2021 (13:46:20 CET)
Unification point of view, quantum cosmology must be given a priority and one should make a note that, Spin is a basic property of quantum physics and rotation is a very common experience. In this context, we have developed a quantum model of cosmology associated with Machian universe having Planck scale origin, total dark matter, light speed rotation and equality of gravitational self energy density and thermal energy density. We would like to appeal that, observed cosmic radius and age seem to be shortened by 146.3 times their actual magnitudes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0463.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: saponite-containing waters; diamond processing plants; cryogenic treatment; electrochemical separation; saponite product applications
Online: 22 October 2018 (04:34:23 CEST)
The analysis of methods of cleaning and processing of saponite-bearing technogenic waters of diamond mining enterprises of the Arkhangelsk region is carried out. The perspective of the electrochemical separation method for extracting saponite from man-caused waters, providing a targeted change in its structural-texture, physico-chemical and mechanical properties, is shown. The possible directions of realization of saponite and products of its modification in various branches of industry are considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0216.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: embedded intelligence; body area networks; healthcare applications; remote elderly monitoring; smart ambulance system
Online: 10 October 2018 (11:04:43 CEST)
Technology advancements are evident in the healthcare field; numerous new opportunities and applications have emerged during the last years based on embedded intelligence and related to real-time diagnosis of medical issues, tele-care and telemedicine, remote monitoring of patients, computer-assisted “smart” transportation in case of emergencies, as well as new types of remotely controlled surgical operations. This paper aims to provide an overview of the application of embedded intelligence in the field of healthcare; it gathers the main critical requirements, related technologies and research advancements up to date, and it presents the most important challenges that are yet to be faced. The main focus is given in the development and optimization of Body Area Networks (BANs) based on advanced embedded sensing devices, the optimization of smart gateways in such networks, and the provision of holistic scalable and secure solutions in the healthcare domain. In addition, the paper presents two principal use cases that stem from the combination of novel information and communication technologies with classic healthcare practices, explaining the functional and non-functional requirements, as well as the mixed criticality characteristics of the associated systems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0061.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids And Plasmas Physics Keywords: Plasma Generation Techniques, Applications of Plasma; Fusion technology; Plasma ion implantation and Deposition.
Online: 3 October 2018 (15:54:34 CEST)
Plasma being the fourth and most abundant form of matter extensively exists in the universe in the inter-galactic regions. It provides an electrically neutral medium of unbound negative and positive charged particles, which has been produced by subjecting air and various other gaseous mixtures to strengthen the electromagnetic field and by heating compressed air or inert gasses for creating negative and positive charged particles known as ions. Nowadays, many researchers are paying attention to the formation of artificial Plasma and its potential benefits for mankind. The literature is sparsely populated with the applications of Plasma. This paper presents specific methods of generation and applications of Plasma, which benefits humankind in various fields, such as in electrical, mechanical, chemical and medical fields. These applications include hydrogen production from alcohol, copper bonding, semiconductor processing, surface treatment, Plasma polymerization, coating, Plasma display panels, antenna beam forming, nanotechnology, Plasma Torch, Plasma pencils, low-current non-thermal Plasmatron, treatment of prostate cancer, Plasma source ion implantation, cutting by Plasma, Plasma etching, pollution control, neutralization of liquid radioactive waste, etc. Resultantly, worth of Plasma technology in the medical industry is increasing exponentially that is closing the gap between its benefits and cost of equipment used for generating and controlling it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0803.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: Performance models; Top-Down model; HPC applications; MareNostrum 4; A64FX; Power 9; Zen 2
Online: 10 August 2023 (09:24:01 CEST)
Top-down models are defined by hardware architects to provide information on the utilization of the different hardware components. The target is to isolate the users from the complexity of the hardware architecture while giving them insight into how efficiently the code is using the resources. In this paper, we explore the applicability of 4 top-down models defined for different hardware architectures powering state-of-the-art HPC clusters (Intel Skylake, Fujitsu A64FX, IBM Power9, and Huawei Kunpeng 920) and propose a model for AMD Zen 2. We study a parallel CFD code used for scientific production to compare these 5 Top-Down models. We evaluate the level of insight achieved, the clarity of the information, the ease of use, and the conclusions that each one allows us to reach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2259.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Marine Vessels; Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems; Waterfront Applications, Seaports, Hydrogen Production, Energy Efficiency.
Online: 31 May 2023 (14:02:36 CEST)
The global trade and transportation sectors heavily rely on the maritime industry. Still, its dependence on fossil energy sources poses significant environmental challenges and leads to unstable fuel prices that affect the cost of goods transported by sea. This paper aims to evaluate the viability of seaports as energy-intensive entities and explore the feasibility of implementing a Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy System (NRHES). The study presents a case study of the Tanjung Priok Port in Indonesia, focusing on estimating energy consumption, emissions, and the potential impact of carbon taxation on seaport operations. By quantifying these factors, the research provides insights into the energy requirements, environmental effects, and potential costs associated with seaport carbon taxation. A comprehensive analysis of the technical and economic feasibility of implementing an NRHES in the seaport case study is conducted, determining the optimal sizing and composition of components, considering the proportion of nuclear and renewable energy sources. Additionally, the economic analysis considers energy costs, net present cost, cash flow, return on investment, and internal rate of return. The findings aim to inform decision-makers about the benefits and challenges of adopting an NRHES, contributing to a cleaner and more sustainable future for the maritime industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0020.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: conceptual framework; Information Modelling; Building Information Modelling (BIM); Facility Management; Smart Buildings; Smart Applications
Online: 1 July 2022 (16:48:35 CEST)
The paper is based on the scientific outcome of a PhD Thesis. It introduces the generic, model-based, reusable, and extensible conceptual framework to incorporate Facility Management data based within the three-dimensional model-based design and construction of an asset to enable smart applications, which are introduced. The conceptual framework is composed of empirical data from expert interviews, questionnaires, and factual analysis from 13 projects of varied sizes of public and private clients. It shows which phases need which data, who needs them, and which added value can be generated if intelligent data structuring is used at the beginning of the construction project and bridges the gap between requirement and practice. The term “smart application” is introduced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0259.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: VAR alloy obtaining; Biomedical applications; Apatite films; Corrosion, X-ray method, Electron microscopy; Hardness
Online: 9 April 2021 (13:24:09 CEST)
In this paper, a novel biocompatible alloy defined as FeMoTaTiZr was obtained and functionalized by hydroxyapatite-based coatings (HAP) in order to increase their biocompatibility, bioactivity, and resistance to corrosion for to be used as bone implants. To obtain the surface with antibacterial properties, the HAP coatings were doped with small amount of Zn. The alloy was prepared using the VAR (Vacuum Arc Remelting) equipment, while the coatings by RF magnetron sputtering method. The EDS analysis confirmed the presence of Ca and P in the case of all developed coatings, having Ca/P or Ca/(P+Zn) ratio of about 1.70 and 1.66, respectively. The XRD and ATR-FTIR investigations confirmed the presence of calcium phosphate phases. The roughness of uncoated substrates increased after coating with HAP, and it was considerably increased by the Zn addition. The electrochemical tests showed that the un-doped HAP exhibited good corrosion behavior, while Zn doped HAP coatings have a high dissolution rate in fetal bovine serum, being more proper as a biodegradable material.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0065.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: augmented reality; mixed reality; learning applications; SLR; AR evaluation; research methods; AR in education
Online: 5 December 2019 (08:54:35 CET)
With the advancement in AR technology, more education-based applications are being developed using Augmented Reality, which has revolutionized the learning experience. However, in order to determine the application’s impact on student’s motivation, performance and their communication with the lecturer, various studies are conducted. These studies use one of the three research methodologies for data analysis and evaluation. In this systematic review, we have analyzed various research methodologies for system evaluation of the AR learning applications and recorded the student response toward the system. Also, we checked which methodology is preferred by researchers and why. A total number of 25 studies were analyzed which were published during the year of 2015 and 2019. The results indicate that most popular research technique is mixed methodology as it combines both qualitative and quantitative techniques. The purpose of this review is to offer new insights to researchers and provide them with advice about evaluation of AR applications and which tool or technique is more effective.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0337.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: advanced high-strength forging steel; hot-forging; microstructure; retained austenite characteristics; mechanical properties; applications
Online: 29 October 2019 (10:59:30 CET)
This paper presents the microstructural and mechanical properties of low and medium carbon advanced high-strength forging steels developed based on the third generation advanced high-strength sheet steels, in conjunction with those of conventional high-strength forging steels. Hot-forging followed by an isothermal transformation process considerably improved the mechanical properties of the forging steels. The improvement mechanisms of the mechanical properties were summarized by relating to the matrix structure, the strain-induced transformation of metastable retained austenite and/or a mixture of martensite and austenite.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0251.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: video microscopy, imaging, automated data acquisition, nanoparticle tracking, measurement embedded applications, open-source software
Online: 25 June 2019 (12:53:50 CEST)
We introduce PyNTA, a modular instrumentation software for live particle tracking. By using the multiprocessing library of Python and the distributed messaging library pyZMQ, PyNTA allows users to acquire images from a camera at close to maximum readout bandwidth while simultaneously performing computations on each image on a separate processing unit. This publisher/subscriber pattern generates a small overhead and leverages the multi-core capabilities of modern computers. We demonstrate capabilities of the PyNTA package on the featured application of nanoparticle tracking analysis. Real-time particle tracking on megapixel images at a rate of 50 Hz is presented. Reliable live tracking reduces the required storage capacity for particle tracking measurements by a factor of approximately 103, as compared with raw data storage, allowing for a virtually unlimited duration of measurements
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0113.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: automotive applications; concentrated windings; eddy current losses; fractional-slot windings; interior permanent-magnet motors
Online: 16 March 2017 (09:02:53 CET)
This paper analyzes and compares models for predicting average magnet losses in interior permanent-magnet motors with fractional-slot concentrated windings due to harmonics in the armature reaction (assuming sinusoidal phase currents). Particularly, loss models adopting different formulations and solutions to the Helmholtz equation to solve for the eddy currents are compared to a simpler model relying on an assumed eddy-current distribution. Boundaries in terms of magnet dimensions and angular frequency are identified (numerically and using an identified approximate analytical expression) to aid the machine designer whether the more simple loss model is applicable or not. The assumption of a uniform flux-density variation (used in the loss models) is also investigated for the case of V-shaped and straight interior permanent magnets. Finally, predicted volumetric loss densities are exemplified for combinations of slot and pole numbers common in automotive applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1643.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: microwaves; radiofrequency; medical applications; medical equipment; solid-state; tissue ablation; cancer; temperature control; ex-vivo
Online: 25 October 2023 (11:29:20 CEST)
In this paper we report on the use of an in-house developed solid-state hybrid microwave and radiofrequency generator operating at frequencies of 2.45 GHz and/or 480 kHz for cancer ablation in various tissues. The generator has demonstrated increased accuracy due to its custom-designed hardware, which incorporates the latest technologies and algorithms to control the emitted power versus temperature profile of the treated sample. In particular, the hybrid generator incorporates control systems based on impedance or reflected power measurements that allow controlled ablation without causing unwanted carbonisation and without including areas where tissue damage is not desired. Tests performed ex-vivo on chicken breast and bovine liver show that radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is very effective for performing controlled ablations with minimally invasive probes, such as cardiac pathologies, small lesions, tissues with particular composition, while microwave ablation (MWA) is optimal for performing large ablations in highly vascularised tissues, such as liver cancer, where it is necessary to achieve higher temperatures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1153.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Technology Acceptance Model, Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, Golf Croquet, Mobile Applications, Companion Robot, AIoT, Senior
Online: 16 August 2023 (20:28:42 CEST)
In 2020 the world experienced the threat of the COVID-19 epidemic, as seniors and chronic disease patients typically try to reduce their exercise and social activities to avoid increasing the risk of infection, which could lead to increased loneliness and even many diseases. This research combining golf croquet games with AIoT companion robots constructs a home-based intelligent exercise system thus uses the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), deduces users’ intention to use this system based on perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, and adds the needs of love and belonging, esteem, cognitive, aesthetic, and self-actualization in Maslow’s needs theory to conduct system needs analysis. The analysis results show that participants have a high level of acceptance of this system, believing that it is easy to learn and operate, can increase interaction with others, also found that this system can improve self-confirmation, satisfying the third for knowledge, feeling happy, and self-actualization needs are easier to fulfill. In the future, we shall collect and record the seniors in the process of use, so as to find out their health problems as soon as possible, expand their daily life through this exercise, and achieve the goal of happy living and health care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1190.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mining And Mineral Processing Keywords: Closed circuit ball mill; circulating load; classification efficiency; relative capacity of ball mills; industrial applications
Online: 16 August 2023 (09:55:30 CEST)
Abstract: The traditional model of closed circuit ball milling systems has been used for several decades, however, if the classifier of the closed circuit ball mill system performs the duties of both pre-classification and check-classification, the characterization error of the traditional model is large. To address this problem, a new model is obtained by modifying and supplementing the traditional one. The most important feature of the new model compared to the traditional model is that the circulating load is considered to be the fresh feed for the entire system rather than the ball mill. The error between the slurry level height calculated using the traditional model and the actual is 52.31%, which is 13.77 times higher than that of the new model. When the relative capacity varies greatly, that of the ball mill calculated by the traditional model fluctuates between 0.95 and 1.15, while the new model is 0.6 to 1.4. The new model has a higher accuracy than the traditional model in characterizing the production status of the grinding system, which is of some significance for industrial production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1865.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Bio-composite, Resin, palm kernel shells, whelk shells, clams, bamboo fiber, Engineering Applications, Taguchi Techniques
Online: 27 July 2023 (09:28:18 CEST)
This study focused on the optimization of the flexural strength of bio-composite samples of palm kernel, whelks, clams, periwinkles shells and bamboo fiber, reinforced with resin for engineering applications. The aim of the study was to: formulate different samples of bio-composite reinforce with resin for engineering applications and to evaluate the flexural strength, of the fabricated composite. The hand lay-up technique was used for the composites produced by incorporating different percentage compositions of the shells/fiber (10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30%) into varied proportions of epoxy resin and catalyst. The cured samples after 24hours were subjected to tensile, impact, flexural and water absorption test. The experiments were conducted using Taguchi optimization method L25 (5x5) with five design parameters and five level combinations in Minitab 18 statistical software. The results showed that the average values of flexural was 114.87MPa when compared to the unreinforced of 72.33MPa bio-composite. The study recommended that agricultural waste like palm kernel shells, whelk shells, clams, periwinkle shells and bamboo fiber, should be converted into important engineering applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0847.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: quorum sensing; microbial communication; biofilm formation; biogeochemical cycling; biotechnological applications; marine environment; deep‐sea environment
Online: 13 July 2023 (05:26:58 CEST)
Quorum sensing (QS), a well-established phenomenon in microorganisms, involves the communication between cells through chemical signals, which is dependent on cell density. Extensive research has been conducted on this microbial ability, encompassing the early stages of understanding QS to the latest advancements in the identification and characterization of its mechanisms. This minireview comprehensively examines the role of QS in various aspects, including biofilm formation, virulence in pathogenic bacteria such as Helicobacter pylori and Pseudomonas sp., as well as its influence on biogeochemical cycling in deep-sea environments. Furthermore, future progress in the field will be achieved by combining state-of-the-art methods for observing QS in the deep sea with a deeper understanding of the underlying processes, which will facilitate the engineering of microorganisms for improved degradation of persistent environmental pollutants and other biotechnological applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1449.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: chronic non-communicable diseases; disease management; digital health technologies; technology-based applications; mHealth; mobile apps
Online: 20 June 2023 (14:25:24 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Elders’ needs are rarely examined beforehand, and thus, although technology-based tools can enhance self-management, acceptability rates are still low. This study aimed to examine and compare self-reported needs, priorities, and preferences of elders with heart failure (HF), diabetes mellitus (DM), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) toward technology use to enhance self-management. Materials and Methods: A convenience sample of 473 participants over 60s (60.5% females), diagnosed with HF (N=156), DM (N=164), or COPD (N=153) was recruited. They were administered a questionnaire about the usefulness of technology in general and in specific areas of disease management. Results: Most participants (84.7%) admitted that technology is needed for better disease management. This was equally recognized across the three groups both for the overall and specific areas of disease management (in order of priority: ‘Information’, ‘Communication with Physicians & Caregivers’, and ‘Quality of Life & Wellbeing’). Sociodemographic differences were found. Cell phones and PCs were the devices of preference. The four common features prioritized by all three groups were related to ‘information about disease management’ (i.e., monitoring symptoms, reminders for medication intake, management and prevention of complications), whereas the fifth one was related to ‘communication with physicians and caregivers (i.e., in case of abnormal or critical signs). The top disease-specific feature was also monitoring systems (of respiratory rate or blood sugar or blood pressure, oxygen), whereas other disease-specific features followed (i.e., maintaining normal weight for HF patients, adjusting insulin dose for DM patients, and training on breathing exercises for COPD patients). Conclusions: Elders in these three samples seem receptive to technology in disease management. mHealth tools, incorporating both common and disease-specific features and addressing different chronic patients, and being personalized at the same time, could be cost-saving and useful adjuncts in routine clinical care to improve self-management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0578.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: mobile robots; power supply; battery systems; materials of batteries; power artificial intelligence; medical applications; UGV
Online: 19 April 2023 (08:54:37 CEST)
Mobile robots can perform tasks on the move, including exploring terrain, discovering landmark features or moving a load from one place to another. This group of robots is characterized by a certain level of intelligence allowing making decisions and responding to stimuli received from the environment. As part of Industry 5.0, such mobile robots and humans are expected to co-exist and work together in a shared environment to make human work less tiring, quicker, and safer. This can only be realized when clean, dense, and economical energy sources are available. The aim of the study is to analyze the state of the art and to identify the most important directions for future developments in robotic power systems based mainly on batteries. The efficiency and performance of the battery depends on the design using different materials. Work environments and performance requirements are considered in this systematic review to classify solutions that help developers choose the best suited power system for specific application. Indirectly, the aim of the work is to generate discussion within the scientific and engineering community. A narrative review of publications from six major bibliographic databases according to preset inclusion criteria was combined with a critical analysis of current and future technologies. The main findings of the review allow answering question what is the role of modern power source technologies, artificial intelligence and ground-breaking research work in global policies related to energy saving, green policies, and sustainable development. The main opportunities and threats are discussed, and a brief feasibility analysis is carried out. Novelty of the article relates not only to the analysis of technologies, but also to approaches and their use under conditions of limited resource availability, when resource usage must be minimized. The article provides an overview of batteries, their specifications, classifications, and their advantages and disadvantages. In addition, we propose: (1) an algorithm for selecting main energy source for robot application, and (2) an algorithm for selecting electrical system power supply. Current mobile robot batteries are, in most cases, their biggest limitation. Progress in batteries development is too slow to catch up with the demand for robot autonomy and range requirements, limiting the development of mobile robots. Further intensive research and implementation work is needed to avoid years of delay in this area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0468.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: C-V2X; Eco-routing; ITS; CAV; VANET; Smart cities; environmental applications; vehicular networks; V2V; V2I
Online: 26 January 2023 (04:11:31 CET)
Cellular Vehicle-to-Everything (C-V2X) is a communication technology that supports various safety, mobility, and environmental applications given its higher reliability properties compared to other communication technologies. The performance of these C-V2X-enabled Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) applications is affected by the performance of the C-V2X communication technology (mainly packet loss). Similarly, the performance of the C-V2X communication is dependent on the vehicular traffic density which is affected by the traffic mobility patterns, and vehicle routing strategies. Consequently, it is critical to develop a tool that can simulate, analyze, and evaluate the mutual interactions of the transportation and communication systems at the application level and to the evaluate the benefits of the C-V2X enabled ITS applications. In this paper, we demonstrate the benefits gained when using C-V2X Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) communication technology in an energy-efficient dynamic routing application. Specifically, we develop a Connected Energy-Efficient Dynamic Routing (C-EEDR) application using C-V2X as a communication medium in an integrated vehicular traffic and communication simulator (INTEGRATION). The results demonstrate that the C-EEDR application achieves fuel savings of up to 16.6% and 14.7% in the IDEAL and C-V2X communication cases, respectively for a peak hour demand on the downtown Los Angeles network considering a 50% level of market penetration of connected vehicles. The results demonstrate that the fuel savings increase with increasing levels of market penetration at lower traffic demand levels (25% and 50% the peak demand). At higher traffic demand levels (75% and 100%) the fuel savings increase with increasing levels of market penetration with maximum benefits at a 50% market penetration rate. Although the communication system is affected by the high density of vehicles at the high traffic demand levels (75% and 100% the peak demand), the C-EEDR application manages to perform reliably producing system-wide fuel consumption savings.The C-EEDR application achieves fuel savings of 15.2% and 11.7% for the IDEAL communication and 14% and 9% for the C-V2X communication at the 75% and 100% market penetration rates, respectively. Finally, the paper demonstrates that the C-V2X communication constraints only affect the performance of the C-EEDR application at the full demand level when the market penetration of connected vehicles exceeds 25%. This degradation, however is minimal (less than a 2.5% reduction in fuel savings).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0135.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Machine Learning Applications; Quality Assurance Methodology; Process Model; Automotive Industry and Academia; Best Practices; Guidelines
Online: 3 March 2021 (14:11:09 CET)
Machine learning is an established and frequently used technique in industry and academia but a standard process model to improve success and efficiency of machine learning applications is still missing. Project organizations and machine learning practitioners have a need for guidance throughout the life cycle of a machine learning application to meet business expectations. We therefore propose a process model for the development of machine learning applications, that covers six phases from defining the scope to maintaining the deployed machine learning application. The first phase combines business and data understanding as data availability oftentimes affects the feasibility of the project. The sixth phase covers state-of-the-art approaches for monitoring and maintenance of a machine learning applications, as the risk of model degradation in a changing environment is eminent. With each task of the process, we propose quality assurance methodology that is suitable to address challenges in machine learning development that we identify in form of risks. The methodology is drawn from practical experience and scientific literature and has proven to be general and stable. The process model expands on CRISP-DM, a data mining process model that enjoys strong industry support but lacks to address machine learning specific tasks. Our work proposes an industry and application neutral process model tailored for machine learning applications with focus on technical tasks for quality assurance.