Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: CO2 capture; Activated carbon; Carbon nanomaterials; Adsorption; Surface area.
Online: 8 April 2020 (11:37:06 CEST)
Carbon dioxide (CO2), a major greenhouse gas, capture and separation has recently become a crucial technological solution to reduce atmospheric emissions from fossil fuel burning. Thereafter, many efforts have been put forwarded to reduce the burden on climate change by capturing and separating them especially from larger power plants by the utilization of different technologies. Those technologies have often suffered from high operating cost and huge energy consumption. On right side, physical process such as adsorption is very cost effective process which have been widely used to adsorb different contaminants including CO2. Henceforth, this review covers the overall efficacies of CO2 capture by the utilization of carbon based materials through adsorption technology. Subsequently, we also address the associated challenges and future opportunities of carbon based materials (CBMs). For CO2 capture, it was found that CBMs followed the order of carbon nanomaterials (i.e., graphene, graphene oxides, carbon nanotubes and their composites) < mesoporous -microporous or hierarchical porous carbons < biochar and activated biochar < activated carbons.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0346.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: Activated carbon; Adsorbance; Pyrolysis; Applications
Online: 17 February 2021 (09:15:00 CET)
Actuated carbon (AC) is utilized in various conditions of uses after its disclosure as a solid and dependable adsorbent. A review on AC is introduced along with returning to the wellsprings of AC age; strategies used to produce AC including pyrolysis enactment; actual actuation; synthetic initiation and steam pyrolysis. The significant variables influencing the AC creation, the potential uses of AC and their future possibilities are likewise examined. AC is applied in water, wastewater and leachate medicines in numerous nations, particularly to clean the shading, eliminate the smell and some substantial metals. Taking into account this, an exhaustive rundown of research on compound, physical and organic change strategies of initiated carbon relating to prevent of foreign substance expulsion from watery arrangements was aggregated and investigated. Additionally, the examination of the actual blending strategy and the impregnation technique in enactment with antacid metals shows that the actuated carbon got through actual blending had a higher porosity than the initiated carbon created by the impregnation technique. The uses of initiated carbon items were quickly surveyed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0292.v2
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Activated carbon; adsorption; ciprofloxacin; pollutant; pumpkin seed; thermodynamics
Online: 14 July 2021 (14:12:02 CEST)
Antibiotics are among the most critical environmental pollutant drug groups. One of the methods used to remove this pollution is adsorption. In this study, activated carbon was produced from the pumpkin seed shell and then modified with KOH. This adsorbent obtained was used in the re-moval of ciprofloxacin from aqueous systems. Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), elemental, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Zeta analyzes were used for the characterization of the ad-sorbent. In particular, the surface area was found to be a very remarkable value of 2730 m2/g. The conditions of the adsorption experiments were optimized based on interaction time, adsorbent amount, pH and temperature. Over 99% success has been achieved in removal works carried out under the most optimized conditions. In addition, it was determined that the Langmuir isotherm is the most suitable model for the adsorption interaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0372.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: hemp bast fibre; hydrothermal processing; KOH activation; activated carbon
Online: 28 April 2018 (12:29:14 CEST)
Synthesis of activated carbon from waste biomass is of current interest towards sustainability. The properties of biomass derived activated carbon largely depends on the carbonization process. This study reports preparing extremel high surface area mesoporous activated carbon from hemp bast fibre using hydrothermal processing. Processing in hot water (390-500oC), then activation using KOH and NaOH was investigated at different loading ratios. The described approach was found to enhance the mesoporosity (centered at 3.0 to 4.5 nm) of the hemp derived activated carbon (HAC) from activation (confirmed by BJH pore size distribution and TEM imaging). BET results showed that the product has an extremely high surface area (2425 m2/g) while the surface functional groups (-OH, COOH, C=C/C-C) were confirmed and quantified by XPS and FTIR results. Increasing KOH concentration was found to enhance the surface area with an optimum biochar to KOH ratio of 1:3. The crystallite domain size of HAC was determined using Raman spectroscopy of different wavelengths. The procedure described in this study is an environmentally friendly scalable route for the mass production of activated carbon using hemp fiber.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0086.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: activated carbon; barley husk; corn cob; agave leaves; biomass; thermogravimetry
Online: 14 December 2017 (07:46:00 CET)
Biomass is a promising alternative and renewable energy source that can be transformed into other value-added products such as activated carbon. In this research, barley husk, corn cob and Agave salmiana leaves were characterized to determine their chemical composition and morphology to evaluate their potentiality as precursors of activated carbons. Based on the main composition results obtained, the biomass samples have suitable chemical and physical characteristics to be considered as good precursors of activated carbons, such as carbon contents greater than 40%, ash content less than 10%, moisture content less than 30%, high volatile contents with values from 75 to 80% and a porous and fibrous morphology. The results indicate that the main compositions in the biomass were cellulose and lignin. The cellulose content was more than lignin (15–26%) for the residues selected. Specifically, a-cellulose contents with values from 52% to 79%, β-cellulose contents of 13–44%, γ-cellulose contents less than 11%, and holocellulose contents of 82–83% were determined. The thermal decomposition for the biomass samples proceeded with five stages attributed to the evaporation of some volatile compounds (70–150 ºC), to the degradation of hemicellulose (180–230 ºC), to the cellulose volatilization (250–350 ºC), to the lignin decomposition (380–550 ºC), and to the degradation of complex polymers and inorganic salts, respectively. The stage corresponding to the cellulose decomposition showed rapid mass decreased in the three residues. This results show that the cellulose and lignin content is another important parameter to evaluate the pyrolysis characteristics of a good precursor of activated carbon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0226.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: activated carbon; hydrothermal carbonization (HTC); exergy analysis; thermoeconomic analysis; circular economy.
Online: 6 November 2020 (08:07:04 CET)
An activated carbon manufacturing process using winemaking waste is analyzed and designed at industrial scale. Starting from experimental research, the chemical transformations and thermodynamics during pruning wood conversion are studied as a basis for plant design. In this way, mass and energy balances of hydrothermal carbonization and physical activation are fulfilled and a thermoeconomic methodology is applied to develop an energy-integrated plant. To achieve this target, a network of heat exchangers is allocated to minimize heat consumption and supply hot domestic water, while a cogeneration cycle is designed to provide electricity and satisfy the remaining heat demand. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to determine the influence of the production scale and other operation parameters, such as annual workload, service life, and capital and feedstock costs, on the economic viability of the plant. The energy balance of the plant indicates that the energy integration design manages to provide 48.9% of the overall process energy demand by crossing hot and cold streams and recovering heat from residual flue gas. On the other hand, the exergy cost analysis identifies the combustion of pruning wood used to provide heat demands as the main source of exergy destruction, confirming the suitability of integration to improve the thermodynamic performance. Including activated carbon production, electricity, and hot domestic water, the exergy efficiency of the plant stands at 11.5%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0093.v2
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: spent coffee grounds; polyphenols; extraction; subcritical fluid; activated carbon; methylene blue; adsorption.
Online: 20 September 2019 (10:23:51 CEST)
A valorization process of spent coffee grounds (SCG) was studied. Thus, a two-stage process, a stage of extraction of the polyphenols and a stage of obtaining activated carbon (AC) by a carbonization process, was performed. The extraction was carried out with a hydro-alcoholic solution in a pressure reactor, modifying time and temperature. To optimize the extraction of polyphenols, a two-level factorial design with three replications at the central values was used. The best results were obtained by performing the extraction at 80 °C during 30 min, using a mixture of EtOH:H2O 1:1 (v/v) as extraction solution. Caffeine and chlorogenic acid were the most abundant compounds in the analyzed extracts, ranging from 0.09 to 4.8 mg∙g-1 and 0.06 to 9.7 mg∙g-1, respectively. The precursor obtained in the extraction stage were transformed into AC. An experimental design was realized in order to analyze the influence of different variables in the AC obtained process (reaction time and amount of potassium hydroxide used). Actived carbons with BET specific surface (SBET) comprised between 1600 m2∙g-1 and 2330 m2∙g-1 had a microporous surface. Under the optimum conditions, the obtained AC presented a maximum adsorption capacity of methylene blue (qm) between 411 mg∙g-1 and 813 mg∙g-1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0331.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Adsorption; DFT; Cadmium(II) ion; Activated carbon; Kinetics; Thermodynamics
Online: 20 September 2021 (12:22:22 CEST)
Cadmium(II) contamination in the environment is an emerging problem due to its acute toxicity and mobility, so it is very urgent to remove this species from industrial wastewater before it is discharged into the environment. Thus, a starch-based activated carbon (AC) with a specific surface area of 1600 m2g-1 is used as an adsorbent for the capturing of toxic cadmium(II) ions from synthetic solutions. The sorbent is characterized by BET, SEM, TEM, XRD, FT-IR, TGA, and zeta potential. The maximum uptake (284 mg g-1) of Cadmium(II) ion is obtained at pH 6. The thermodynamic parameters like ∆G, ∆H, ΔS are found to be -17.42 kJmol-1, 6.49 kJ mol-1, and 55.66 Jmol-1K-1 respectively, revealing that the adsorption mechanism is endothermic, spontaneous, and feasible. The experimental data follows the D-R and Langmuir models well. The mass transfer is controlled by pseudo 2nd order kinetics. Furthermore, the density functional theory simulations demonstrate that the activated carbon strongly interacted with the Cd(II) ion through its various active sites. The adsorption energy noted for all interactive sites is highly negative (-0.45 eV to -10.03 eV), which shows that the adsorption process is spontaneous and stable which is in agreement with the experimental thermodynamics analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0186.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Adsorption; DFT; Starch-based Activated Carbon; Kinetics; Thermodynamics
Online: 12 October 2021 (14:58:07 CEST)
Cadmium (II) contamination in the environment is an emerging problem due to its acute toxicity and mobility, so it is very urgent to remove this species from industrial wastewater before it is discharged into the environment. Thus, a starch-based activated carbon (AC) with a specific surface area of 1600 m2g-1 is used as an adsorbent for the capturing of toxic Cadmium (II) ions from synthetic solution. The sorbent is characterized by BET, SEM, TEM, XRD, FT-IR, TGA, and zeta potential. The maximum uptake (284 mg g-1) of Cadmium (II) ion is obtained at pH 6. The thermodynamics parameters like ∆G, ∆H, ΔS are found to be -17.42 kJmol-1, 6.49 kJ mol-1, and 55.66 Jmol-1K-1 respectively, revealing that the adsorption mechanism is endothermic, spontaneous, and feasible. The experimental data follows the D-R and Langmuir models well. The mass transfer is controlled by pseudo 2nd order kinetics. Furthermore, the density functional theory simulations demonstrate that the activated carbon strongly interacted with the Cd (II) ion through its various active sites. The adsorption energy noted for all interactive sites is highly negative (-0.45 eV to -10.03 eV), which shows that the adsorption process is spontaneous and stable which is in agreement with the experimental thermodynamics analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0404.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: activated carbon; lithium-ion batteries; LTO/Sn composite; sol-hydrothermal
Online: 29 June 2022 (10:04:27 CEST)
Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) exhibits zero-strain behavior, exceptional cycle stability, low cost, and high safety. However, it is still low in electronic and ionic conductivity. Incorporating Sn into LTO materials can increase electronic conductivity and specific capacity. However, Sn still experiences volumetric expansion during the charging/discharging process. Adding activated carbon (AC) into the LTO/Sn composite can help improve the expansion resistance and electronic conductivity. In this work, the AC was first synthesized from charcoals through the carbon activation process and mixed with LTO precursors through the sol-hydrothermal method followed by mixing with Sn through the mechanochemical process to produce LTO@AC/Sn composites. The Sn content was fixed at 15 wt.%, while the AC contents were varied at 1 wt.%, 3 wt.%, and 5 wt.%. The AC specific surface area is increased by more than 100% compared to the non-activated one. The best effects of AC on grain morphology and distribution were found in the LTO/Sn contained 3 wt.% of AC, leading to transfer resistance, ohmic resistance, specific capacity, and coulombic efficiency were found to be 48.1 Ω, 8.5 Ω, 138 mAhg-1, and near 100%, respectively. The result suggests that the LTO@AC/Sn could be a favorable anode active material in lithium-ion batteries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0291.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: textile fabric; zeolite; coconut shell activated carbon; NOx; SOx; fine dust particle
Online: 14 October 2020 (09:09:06 CEST)
An effective method for coating textile fabrics with porous materials is proposed, and the removal rates of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx), and fine dust particles in the coated textile fabrics are evaluated. The textile fabrics made of polyester are used to effectively reduce fine dust particles through static electricity. Zeolite and coconut shell activated carbon are used as porous material to reduce SOx and NOx, respectively. The effects of the epoxy content and dilution solution types on the SOx removal rate of textile fabrics coated with zeolite are evaluated to determine the optimum coating conditions. In addition, the effects of external environmental conditions, such as washing and freeze thawing, on the SOx and NOx removal rates of the textile fabrics coated with porous materials using the optimum coating conditions are examined. The test results show that the SOx removal rate of textile fabrics coated with zeolite decreases with the increase in the epoxy content. The decrease is 2.9 times larger for textile fabrics coated using deionized water than those coated using isopropyl alcohol. After one wash, the SOx removal rate decreases dramatically. However, the decrease is reduced by 16% when the epoxy content ratio is increased by 0.5%. The effects of washing and freeze thawing on the SOx and NOx removal rates of textile fabrics coated using the deionized water diluted with the epoxy content ratio of 2% are minimal. Consequently, to maintain stable SOx and NOx removal rates under external environmental conditions such as washing and freeze thawing, 98% deionized water dilution and 2% epoxy content ratio are required for the optimum coating of textile fabrics with zeolite and coconut shell activated carbon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0374.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Oxygen reduction reaction; Nanoporous activated carbon; Cobalt-nitrogen-doped carbon; Nonprecious metal catalyst
Online: 26 October 2021 (11:34:57 CEST)
Compared with precious metal catalysts, non-platinum catalysts have the advantages of low cost and high performance. Among them, the activated carbon (AC) with a large specific surface area (SSA) can be used as a carrier or as a carbon source of nonprecious metal/carbon system catalyst at the same time. Therefore, this paper uses cheap pine peel bio-based materials to prepare large surface area activated carbon and then compound with cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) to obtain a high-performance cobalt/nitrogen/carbon catalyst. The merits include AC@CoPc composite catalysts are prepared by precisely controlling the composite proportion of AC and CoPc, the atomically dispersed Co nanoparticles form and synergistically with N promote the exposure of CoNx active sites, and the Eonset of the catalyst treated with a composite proportion of AC and CoPc of 1 to 2 at 800 °C (AC@CoPc-800-1-2) is 1.01 V, which is higher than Pt/C (20 wt%) catalyst. Apart from this, the stability is 87.8% in 0.1 M KOH after 20000 s testing in compared with other AC@CoPc series catalysts and Pt/C (20 wt%) catalyst. Considering from the performance and price of the catalyst in practical application, these composite catalysts combine biomass carbon materials with phthalocyanine series, which will be widely used in the area of nonprecious metal catalysts.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0057.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: porous fibers; activated carbon; ice-templating; ice segregation induced self-assembly; silk fibroin; wet spinning; solution blow spinning
Online: 5 February 2020 (10:38:29 CET)
Fabrics comprised of porous fibers could provide effective passive protection against chemical and biological (CB) threats whilst maintaining high air permeability (breathability). Here, we fabricate hierarchically porous fibers consisting of regenerated silk fibroin (RSF) and activated-carbon (AC) prepared through two fiber spinning techniques in combination with ice-templating – namely cryogenic solution blow spinning (Cryo-SBS) and cryogenic wet-spinning (Cryo-WS). The Cryo-WS RSF fibers had exceptionally small macropores (as low as 0.1 µm) and high specific surface areas (SSAs) of up to 79 m2 g-1. The incorporation of AC could further increase the SSA to 210 m2 g-1 (25 wt. % loading) whilst also increasing adsorption capacity for volatile organic compounds (VOCs).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0213.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: residual fat; activated carbon pellets; chemical activation; thermal catalytic cracking; catalyst bed reactor; liquid hydrocarbons
Online: 24 April 2022 (02:55:25 CEST)
This work aims to investigate the influence of reaction time and catalyst-to-residual fat ratio by catalytic upgrading from pyrolysis vapors of residual fat at 400 °C and 1.0 atmosphere, on the yields of reaction products, physicochemical properties (density, kinematic viscosity, and acid value) and chemical composition of bio-oils, over a catalyst fixed bed reactor of activated carbon pellets impregnated with 10.0 M NaOH, in semi pilot scale. The experiments were carried out at 400 °C and 1.0 atmosphere, using a process schema consisting of a thermal cracking reactor of 2.0 L coupled to a catalyst fixed bed reactor of 53 mL, without catalyst and using 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0% (wt.) activated carbon pellets impregnated with 10.0 M NaOH, in batch mode. Samples of liquid phase products were withdrawn during the course of reaction at 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100 and 120 minutes in order to investigate the process kinetics. The physicochemical properties (density, kinematic viscosity, and acid value) of bio-oils were determined by official methods. The chemical composition of bio-oils determined by GC-MS. The thermal catalytic cracking of residual fat show bio-oils yields from 55.55 to 30.22 (wt.%), aqueous phase yields between 2.83 and 3.19 (wt.%), solid phase yields between 13.56 and 9.75 (wt.%), and gas yields from 27.89 to 55.60 (wt.%). The yields of bio-oil decreases from 74.41 to 30.22% (wt.) with increasing catalyst-to-Tallow kernel oil ratio, while that of gaseous phase increases from 12.87 to 55.60% (wt.). For all the thermal and thermal catalytic cracking experiments, the density, kinematic viscosity, and acid value of bio-oils decreases as the reaction time increases varying from 0.9266 to 0.8220 g/cm³, 8.10 to 2.24 mm²/s, and 144.14 to 2.37 mg KOH/g. The GC-MS of liquid reaction products identified the presence of hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, ring-containing alkanes, ring-containing alkenes, and aromatics) and oxygenates (carboxylic acids, ketones, esters, alcohols, and aldehydes). For all the pyrolysis and catalytic cracking experiments, the hydrocarbon selectivity in bio-oil increases with increasing reaction time, while those of oxygenates decrease, reaching concentrations of hydrocarbons up to 95.35% (area.). The best results for the physicochemical properties density, kinematic viscosity, and acid value were 0.8220 g/cm³, 3.03 mm2/s, and 2.37 mg KOH/g, respectively, with a maximum hydrocarbon concentration of 97.194% (area.) and 2.806% ketones (area.) were obtained at 400 °C and 1.0 atmosphere, 80 minutes, without catalyst. For the catalytic cracking experiments, the maximum hydrocarbon content of 75.763% (area.) and 17.041% (area.) carboxylic acids, 4.702% (area.) ketones (area.), and 2.494% (area.) non-identified oxygenates was obtained at 400 °C and 1.0 atmosphere, 90 minutes, using a catalyst fixed bed reactor, with 10.0% (wt.) activated carbon pellets impregnated with 10.0 M NaOH as catalyst.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0185.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: activated carbon; adsorption; copper; winemaking wastes
Online: 17 September 2019 (11:44:45 CEST)
This article presents the copper ions adsorption process using an activated carbon from winemaking wastes. The pH, temperature, activated carbon amount and initial copper concentration were varied based on a full factorial 2k experimental design. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies were also carried out. The adsorption kinetics was found follow a pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption data fit better to the Langmuir isotherm. The ANOVA demonstrated that both pH of the solution and activated carbon dosage had the greatest influence on copper adsorption. The activation energy was -32 kJ·mol-1 suggesting that the copper adsorption is a physic-sorption process. The best fit to a linear correlation was the moving boundary equation that controls the kinetics for the adsorption copper ions onto the activated carbon. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results reveal the existence of different copper species (Cu2+, Cu+ and or Cu0) on the surface of the carbonaceous adsorbent after the adsorption, which could suggest a simultaneous reduction process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0005.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Biodegradation; fats and oils; activated sludge
Online: 2 October 2017 (08:51:14 CEST)
Fats and oils are the most common contaminants in wastewater and are usually discarded through physical processes. This paper studies its elimination through an environmentally friendly biological treatment, yielding good results on both laboratory scale and in the field. In this study a comparative evaluation of the biodegradation of fats and oils in two scenarios were developed in an activated sludge plant at laboratory scale, and a wastewater treatment plant. The full-scale values for some key parameters are compared, such as the oil concentration in the influent and effluent, mass loading and removal efficiency and biodegradation systems. Activated sludge plant at laboratory scale working on a mass load range from 0.2 to 0.8 (kg COD / day / kg MLSS) initially reaches levels of 75% biodegradation thereafter influent concentration is increased and thereby the mass load is increased in a range of working system under high load and biodegradation rates ranging from 71 to 64% are achieved. The actual system consists of a treatment plant wastewater with an aerobic digester for sludge treatment. Fats and oils are retained in a previous degreaser to biological treatment and subsequently sent to the aerobic sludge digester, constituting of thus on a single substrate, resembling an activated sludge plant with extended aeration mode, and levels of biodegradation in the range of 69 to 92%. From this work, we can say that the choice of biological treatment for fats and oils is feasible and adequate. Furthermore, the biomass presents great adaptability to the oil substrate, favored in this case for being the only source of carbon, therefore fats and oils should be removed using biological treatment, instead of the flotation procedure or at most using it as an intermediate process
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0007.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: SO2; unburned carbon; fly ash; activated carbon; adsorption kinetics; kinetics models; linear regression; non-linear regression; statistical error functions; the sum of normalized error method
Online: 1 December 2021 (10:55:30 CET)
Kinetic parameters of SO2 adsorption on unburned carbons from lignite fly ash and activated carbons based on hard coal dust were determined. The model studies were performed using the linear and non-linear regression method for the following models: pseudo first and second-order, intraparticle diffusion, and chemisorption on a heterogeneous surface. The quality of the fitting of a given model to empirical data was assessed based on: R2, R, Δq, SSE, ARE, χ2, HYBRID, MPSD, EABS, and SNE. It was clearly shown that it is the linear regression that more accurately reflects the behaviour of the adsorption system, which is consistent with the first-order kinetic reaction – for activated carbons (SO2+Ar) or chemisorption on a heterogeneous surface – for unburned carbons (SO2+Ar and SO2+Ar+H2O(g)+O2) and activated carbons (SO2+Ar+H2O(g)+O2). Importantly, usually, each of the approaches (linear/non-linear) indicated a different mechanism of the studied phenomenon. A certain universality of the χ2 and HYBRID functions has been proved, the minimization of which repeatedly led to the lowest SNE values for the indicated models. Fitting data by any of the non-linear equations based on the R or R2 functions only, cannot be treated as evidence/prerequisite of the existence of a given adsorption mechanism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0076.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: dysprosium; activated carbon; spent coffee ground; adsorption
Online: 6 August 2019 (12:23:23 CEST)
This paper describes the physico-chemical study of the adsorption of dysprosium (Dy3+) in aqueous solution onto two types of activated carbons synthesized from spent coffee ground. KOH activated carbon is a microporous material with a specific BET surface area of 2330 m2·g-1 and pores with a diameter of 3.2 nm. Carbon activated with water vapor and N2 is a solid mesoporous, with pores of 5.7 nm in diameter and a specific surface of 982 m2·g-1. A significant dependence of the adsorption capacity on the solution pH was found, while it does not depend significantly neither on the dysprosium concentration nor on the temperature. A maximum adsorption capacity of 31.26 mg·g-1 and 33.52 mg·g-1 for the chemically and physically activated carbons, respectively, were found. In both cases, the results obtained from adsorption isotherms and kinetic study were better fit to a Langmuir model and a pseudo-second-order kinetics. In addition, thermodynamic results indicate that dysprosium adsorption onto both activated carbons is an exothermic, spontaneous and favorable process.
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: perfluorinated compounds; coagulation; ozone; chlorination; activated carbon
Online: 9 May 2019 (13:00:57 CEST)
This study surveyed the variation in Perfluorinated Compounds (PFCs) concentration entering urban wastewater treatment plants and proposed an optimal PFCS treatment method. The PFCS concentration in influent was shown to be affected by the types of industries and operating rate. The concentration of PFCs in the wastewater treatment effluent was slightly lower than that of influent. Thus, PFCs were considered to have barely been removed by the existing biological treatments. The pilot test result showed that about 10% of PFCs were removed by coagulation and precipitation, and the ozone and chlorine test also showed that few PFCs were removed regardless of the amount of injection. The activated carbon adsorption test showed that the removal was significantly increased by the empty bed contact time, with about a 60% removal in five minutes and over a 90% removal in 15 minutes. Therefore it is determined that a more stable and higher PFCs removal would result from the continuous oxidation processes such as ozone and adsorption processes such as activated carbon rather than a single biological treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0336.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Adsorption; Emerging contaminants; Biomass; Biochar; Activated carbon
Online: 18 September 2018 (09:06:00 CEST)
This review analyzes the synthesis and characterization of biomass-derived carbons for adsorption of emerging contaminants from water. The study begins with the definition and different types of emerging contaminants more often founded in water streams and the different technologies available for their removal including adsorption. It also describes the biomass sources that could be used for the synthesis of biochars and activated carbons. The characterization of the adsorbents and the different approaches that could be employed for the study of the adsorption processes are also detailed. Finally, the work reviews in detail some studies of the literature focused on the adsorption of emerging contaminants on biochars and activated carbons synthesized from biomass precursors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0489.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: CO2 adsorption, CH4 adsorption, biomass, activated carbon.
Online: 25 July 2018 (15:29:22 CEST)
The aim of the present study is to provide new insights into the CO2 and CH4 adsorption using a set of biomass-based activated carbons obtained by physical and chemical activation of olive-stones. The adsorption behavior is analyzed by means of pure gas adsorption isotherms up to 3.2 MPa at two temperatures (303.15 and 323.15 K).The influence of the activation method on the adsorption uptake is studied in terms of both textural properties and surface chemistry. For three activated carbons the CO2 adsorption was more important than that of CH4. The chemically activation resulted in higher BET surface area and micropore volume that lead to higher adsorption for both CO2 and CH4. For methane the presence of mesopores seems to facilitate the access of the gas molecules into the micropores while for carbon dioxide, the presence of oxygen groups enhanced the adsorption capacity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0137.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: steel slag; alkali activated; ProKnow-C; review; bibliometric.
Online: 11 October 2022 (04:18:06 CEST)
Steel slag is a co-product of the steelmaking industry, this material is rarely used as a binder due to its low cementitious properties. Thus, it´s believed that the alkaline activation of steel slag can enable its use as a cementitious material. This work has the objective of making a systematic bibliographic review on the theme "slag melt as a precursor in activated alkali binders". To this end, the ProKnow-C method was used for the selection and analysis of relevant research on the topic. The portfolio resulted in 71 texts, mostly journals paper. Bibliometrics showed that the country with the most publications is China and the journal with the most publications is Construction and Building Materials. The critical analysis concluded that the XRD, XRF, and compressive strength tests are the most used for the characterization of the material. It is possible to establish that there are some knowledge gaps on the subject, such as better mechanical characterization and greater production of works with dosing by the one-part method.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0272.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Thermally Activated Building System; thermal comfort; thermal mass
Online: 19 January 2022 (14:18:14 CET)
In recent years, several alternatives for improving the thermal comfort conditions inside buildings have been proposed. Among these alternatives, Thermally Activated Building Systems (TABS) have become of interest due to the benefits this technology brings to the building sector. The TABS are embedded in different building components and exchange heat with building envelope to improve the indoor air temperature. This review presents relevant results presented in the literature on the thermal behavior of TABS, the different types of TABS configurations, and the main parameters of TABS studied such as pipe separation, fluid inlet temperature, fluid velocity, and volumetric flow rate. The potential of TABS to improve thermal comfort conditions and provide energy savings is also discussed. Further, this study presents the different modes of application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0159.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: photodegradation; TiO2; ionic liquids; activated carbon; synergistic effect
Online: 24 October 2017 (11:32:13 CEST)
Ionic liquids (ILs) have gained interest among researchers due to its tunable properties that can be used in wide applications. However, toxicity and bio-degradation studies of ILs proved that most of the aromatic ILs, such as imidazolium is highly toxic and non-biodegradable. Several advance oxidation processes (AOPs) have been investigated by researchers to evaluate the efficiency of the systems for the removal of ILs from wastewater. However, the issue on relative high cost and environmental concern has limited the application of these AOPs in industry. In this research, photocatalytic study using hybrid nano-materials was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of this system as an alternative AOP system for removal of ILs from wastewater. The synergistic effect of adsorption-photodegradation was introduced by depositing Fe-TiO2 onto the functionalized activated carbon (AC). Nano-TiO2 was synthesized using micromulsion method before modification with transition metal and deposited onto the oxidized AC. Photodegradation reaction of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [bmim]Cl was investigated under simulated visible light irradiation. It was observed that the overall efficiency of the system was increased with the increasing amount of Fe dopant. Investigation on the extrinsic factors such as solution pH, initial concentration of ILs and photocatalyst dosage showed to significantly affect the overall efficiency of the systems where the optimum condition for the system was observed at pH 10, with initial ILs at 1mM at 1 g/L of photocatalyst. The best performance photocatalyst was 0.2Fe-TiO2/AC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0209.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: alkali activation; anions; alkali activated materials; blast furnace slag
Online: 15 March 2022 (11:20:53 CET)
In the study, ground granulated blast furnace slag was activated with a wide variety of sodium salts to compare the effect of their pH and anion size on the hydration progress and compressive strength development of GGBFS pastes. Research was carried out on samples activated with twelve different sodium salts, cured for one year. Changes in their phase composition (XRD), loss on ignition at different temperatures, expansion and microstructure (SEM+EDS) were examined over the entire curing period. Studies have shown that the presence of sodium ions is more important than the pH of the system, as activation took place even in the case of compounds whose solutions are characterized by low pH, such as sodium tartrate or phosphate. The compressive strength of the pastes ranged from approximately 8 to 65 MPa after one year of curing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0068.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: cold plasma; plasma activated liquid; cancer cell; melanoma; fibroblast
Online: 5 January 2021 (10:04:48 CET)
Plasma medicine is a new field focusing on biomedical and clinical applications of cold physical plasmas, including their anticancer effects. Cold plasmas can be applied directly or indirectly as plasma activated liquids (PAL). The effect of plasma activated cell growth medium (PAM) and plasma activated phosphate buffered saline (PAPBS) were tested using a plasma pen generating streamer corona discharge in ambient air, on different cancer cell lines (melanoma A375, glioblastoma LN229 and pancreatic cancer MiaPaCa-2) and normal cells (human dermal fibroblasts HDFa). The viability reduction and apoptosis induction were detected in all cancer cells after incubation in PAL. In melanoma cells we focused on detailed insights to the apoptotic pathways. The anticancer effects depend on the plasma treatment time or PAL concentration. The first 30 minutes of incubation in PAL were enough to start processes leading to the cell death. In fibroblasts, no apoptosis induction was observed, only PAPBS, activated for longer time, slightly decreased their viability. Anticancer effects of PAM and PAPBS on cancer cells showed selectivity compared to normal fibroblasts, depended on correctly chosen activation time and PAL concentration. This selectivity, supported by optimum ratio of hydrogen peroxide and nitrites in PAL, is very promising for potential clinical applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0441.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: biogas; renewable energy; anaerobic digestion; waste activated sludge; disintegration
Online: 19 November 2018 (09:57:56 CET)
Due to rapid urbanization, the quantity of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) has increased, and with it the amount of waste generated by them. Sustainable management of this waste can lead to the creation of energy-rich biogas through the fermentation process. This review presents recent advances in the anaerobic digestion process resulting in greater biogas production. Disintegration techniques for enhancing waste activated sludge fermentation can be generally partitioned into biological, physical and chemical, each of which are covered in this review. These disintegration techniques were compared mainly in terms of their biogas yield. It was found that ultrasonic and microwave disintegration provides the highest biogas yield (>500%); however, they are also the most energy demanding (>10,000 kJ kg-1 total solids).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0125.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Lamin, EBV latency, transformation, epigenetic regulation, activated B cell
Online: 24 November 2016 (17:53:07 CET)
Lamin A, B and C, the nuclear intermediate-filament proteins, play a role in epigenetic regulation. While Lamin B is expressed in all nucleated cells studied, Lamin A/C are transcribed in most somatic cell types except mature B lymphocytes. Since Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a human gammaherpesvirus, is associated with tumorigenic processes and is known to alter the epigenotype of its host cells, we studied the expression of the LMNA gene and its epigenetic marks in EBV-carrying human lymphoid cell lines. We observed a high lamin A/C mRNA and protein expression in EBV-immortalized lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) and in group III Burkitt lymphoma (BL) lines where hypomethylated first exons were observed with activating histone marks. In most cell lines with low promoter activity a highly methylated first exon could be detected. Our data showed that methylation of the first exon of LMNA was associated with the downregulation of LMNA expression whereas euchromatic histone marks were enriched at active LMNA promoters in EBV-immortalized LCLs. These data suggest a role for viral latency products to activate LMNAp in EBV-infected latency type III B cells in vitro. Expression of lamin A/C may contribute to the establishment of activated B cell phenotype that needs further explorations.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: MASM; new model for membrane activated sludge system; super-fast membrane activated sludge; particle size distribution; modified COD fractionation; captured COD fractions.
Online: 26 April 2021 (13:01:21 CEST)
The structure of existing activated models is inherently deficient in reflecting the major role of the membrane filtration. This study developed and proposed a novel model, MASM, for the membrane activated process. The effective filtration size imposed by the membrane module, entrapping larger size particles was adopted as the basis of the proposed model. The model defined a modified COD fractionation, accounting for the captured COD fractions as additional model components and utilizing related mass balance relationships. It was implemented for testing the fate of soluble hydrolysable COD and system performance of super-fast membrane activated sludge based on real data for the characterization and process kinetics of domestic sewage and denim processing effluents. Model evaluation was carried for parallel systems with gravity settling and membrane filtration operated at a sludge age range of 0.5-2.0 d. Results reflected significantly better performance of super-fast membrane activated sludge system for both wastewaters, underlining that it was crucially important to account for the captured COD fractions to provide an accurate evaluation of system behavior and effluent quality. This should also be identified as the major shortcoming of the ASM models for evaluating and predicting system performance of activated sludge configurations with membrane separation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0056.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: peroxymonosulfate; ferric alginate; activated carbon fiber; visible radiation; heterogeneous photocatalysis
Online: 7 January 2020 (10:32:48 CET)
Azo dyes are the most widely used synthetic dyes in the printing and dyeing process. However, the discharge of untreated azo dyes poses potential threat for human health and aqueous ecosystem. Herein, we fabricated a novel heterogenous catalyst - activated carbon fiber-supported ferric alginate (FeAlg-ACF) . Together with peroxymonosulfate (PMS) and visible light, this photocatalytic oxidation system was used to remove an azo dye - azophloxine. The results indicated that the proposed catalytic oxidation system can remove 100% azophloxine within 24 min, while under the same system, the removal rate was only 92 % and 84 % when ferric alginate was replaced with ferric citrate and ferric oxalate respectively, which showed the superiority of activated carbon fiber-supported ferric alginate. The degradation of azophloxine is achieved by the active radicals (SO4•− and •OH) released from PMS and persistent free radicals from activated carbon fiber. After treating for 24 min, the total organic carbon of azophloxine solution (50 μmol/L) decreased from 1.82 mg/L to 79.3 μg/L and the nitrate concentration of ions increased from 0.3 mg/L to 8.6 mg/L. That is, up to 93.5% azophloxine molecules were completely degraded into inorganic compounds. Consequently, potential secondary contamination by intermediate organic products during catalytic degradation was prohibited. The azophloxine removal ratio was kept almost constant after seven cycles, indicating the recyclability and longevity of this system. Furthermore, the azophloxine removal was still promising at high concentrations of Cl-, HCO3-, CO32-. Therefore, our proposed system is potentially effective to remove dye pollutants from seawater. It provides a feasible method for the development of efficient and environmental friendly PMS activation technology combined with FeAlg-ACF, has significant academic and application value.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0269.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: TMEM16A, CLCA1, Cl- channels, Ca2+, Ca2+-activated Cl- channels, Epithelium
Online: 30 March 2018 (11:04:55 CEST)
Calcium-activated chloride secretion in epithelial tissues described for many years. However, the molecular identity of the channel responsible for the Ca2+-activated Cl− secretion in epithelial tissues has remained a mystery. More recently, TMEM16A has been identified as a new putative Ca2 -activated Cl- channel (CaCC),. The primary goal of this article will be to review the characterization of TMEM16A, as it relates to the physical structure of the channel, as well as, important residues that confer voltage and Ca2+-sensitivity of the channel. This review will also discuss the role of TMEM16A in epithelial physiology and potential associated-pathophysiology. This will include discussion of developed knockout models that have provided much needed insight on the functional localization of TMEM16A in several epithelial tissues. Finally, this review will examine the implications of the identification of TMEM16A as it pertains to potential novel therapies in several pathologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0162.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Heterotrophic denitrification; Granular activated carbon (GAC); Bacterial Community; 3D-BER system
Online: 9 July 2020 (01:51:11 CEST)
In this study, a three-dimensional bioelectrochemical reactor system (3D-BERs) with granular activated carbon (GAC) epitomizes a novel treatment technology for treating nitrate-polluted water. The conventional denitrification process faces many challenges, including the huge demand for organic carbon, long-term accumulation of intermediate products, and the adaptation period. Results shown that under the optimal conditions of the COD/NO3--N ratio was 1.5, the denitrification efficiency reached 98.62%, when compared to 81.12% at COD/ NO3--N ratio of 3.5, and the initial pH of 7.5 ± 0.5, NO3--N was entirely removed at 2.2 h without accumulation of nitrite. The high initial ratio of NO2--N/NO3--N is mainly to accelerate the denitrification rate by accelerating the reduction of nitrite. Denitrification process followed by zero-order kinetics linear model for at different concentrations of inlet NO3--N, and achieved higher denitrification rate at greater inlet NO3--N concentration. High-throughput sequencing shows that the community structure and relative abundance of bacteria changed significantly, especially at the genes and the phyla level in immobilized GAC particles. Microbial composition enhanced the removal of nitrogen at the inner surface (IS) and bottom surface (BS) of immobilized GAC carriers. Therefore, this system is expected to be a more efficient and useful supplement or a cost-effective alternative compared to the traditional low carbon to nitrogen wastewater treatment system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0261.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: particle size distribution; grinding kinetics; slag; alkali activated materials; compressive strength
Online: 22 October 2019 (15:49:42 CEST)
This study aims to model grinding of a Polish slag and evaluate the particle size distributions of the products obtained after different grinding times. Then, selected products were alkali activated in order to investigate the effect of particle size on the compressive strength of the produced alkali activated materials (AAMs). Other parameters affecting alkali activation, i.e. temperature, curing and ageing time were also examined. Among the different mathematical models used to simulate the particle size distribution, Rosin-Rammler (RR) was found to be the most suitable. When piecewise regression analysis was applied to experimental data it was found that the particle size distribution of the slag products exhibits multi fractal character. In addition, grinding of slag exhibits non-first-order behavior and the reduction rate of each size is time dependent. The grinding rate and consequently the grinding efficiency increases when the particle size increases, but drops sharply near zero after prolonged grinding periods. Regarding alkali activation, it is deduced that among the parameters studied, particle size (and the respective specific surface area) of the raw slag product and curing temperature have the most noticeable impact on the compressive strength of the produced AAMs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0322.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: p21-activated kinase (PAK); Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA); PF-3758309; gemcitabine
Online: 17 September 2018 (15:28:54 CEST)
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) remains the most lethal malignancy due to lack of an effective treatment. P21-activated kinases (PAKs) play key roles in PDA growth, and the PAK inhibitor PF-3758309 synergistically reduced PDA growth with gemcitabine. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of PF-3758309 with multiple chemotherapeutic reagents on a panel of patient-derived PDA cell lines. Cells were treated with PF-3758309 plus or minus gemcitabine, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or abraxane, and cell proliferation was determined. Protein expression profiles were measured by Western blot. PDA cells were subcutaneously injected into the flanks of SCID mice which were then treated with PF-3758309, gemcitabine, PF-3758309 plus gemcitabine, or gemcitabine plus abraxane. Tumour growth was measured by volume and weight. PF-3758309 enhanced the inhibitory effects of 5-FU, gemcitabine and abraxane on a panel of patient-derived PDA cells, inhibited HIF-1 protein expression and reduced the protein levels of palladin and -SMA in these cells. The combination of PF-3758309 with gemcitabine maximally inhibited PDA growth in vivo, which was comparable to the combination of gemcitabine with abraxane. PF-3758309 enhanced the suppressive effects of multiple chemotherapeutic reagents on the growth of a panel of patient-derived PDA cell lines. The combination of PF-3758309 with gemcitabine provides a potential treatment option with less toxicity than gemcitabine plus abraxane.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0160.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Sound Absorption Coefficient; Noise; Activated Zeolite; Banana Stem Fibre; Acoustical material
Online: 10 September 2018 (09:32:23 CEST)
The unique porous crystal structure of zeolite offers various important utilizations, it is one of the considerations in selecting zeolite at this study as component of composite for restraining noise. It so happens, previous experiments show that banana stem has porous structure, fibrous, high flexibility and can be applied as material for many various products including as component of acoustic material. The combination of both is alleged that it has capability in absorbing noise. This paper presents an investigation on the composite that it was synthesized of Activated Zeolite and Banana Stem Fibre in various weight for determining its sound absorption coefficient alpha (a). Activating natural zeolite was conducted by using 6M HCl in order for enlarging zeolite pores. The sound absorption coefficient was measured in the frequency range between 125 Hz up to 6000 Hz. The results show that the different weight of banana stem fibre as component of the synthesized composite affects the value of alpha and shifts the frequency area.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0126.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Cold atmospheric Plasma; sterilization; Plasma-activated medium; Nitric oxide; Immunotherapy; COVID-19
Online: 8 April 2020 (11:34:11 CEST)
The recent pandemic has greatly stressed supply chains, treatment modalities, and medical resources. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) has been used for a wide range of applications in biomedical engineering due to its many components including electrons, charged particles, reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), free radicals, ultraviolet (UV) photons, molecules, electromagnetic fields, physical forces, and electric fields. In this manuscript, we develop CAP devices for COVID-19. Our manuscript indicates the advantages of highlydeployable CAP devices for both sanitation and treatment, without the need for supply chains of special consumables such as hand sanitizers and the like. We hope that this timely research will help engage the broader community of engineers that wish to help the medical community with this pandemic and to prevent and treat future outbreaks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0015.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), ω3-PUFA, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), autophagy
Online: 4 August 2017 (12:56:08 CEST)
Regulated autophagy is involved in the repair of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). ω3-Polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs) show protective effects against various renal injuries. It was recently reported that ω3-PUFAs regulate autophagy. We assessed whether ω3-PUFAs attenuated IR-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) and evaluated associated mechanisms. C57Bl/6 background fat-1 mice and wild-type mice (wt) were divided into four groups: wt sham (n = 10), fat-1 sham (n = 10), wt IRI (reperfusion 35 min after clamping both the renal artery and vein; n = 15), and fat-1 IRI (n = 15). Kidneys and blood were harvested 24 h after IRI. Renal histological and molecular data were collected. The kidneys of fat-1 mice showed better renal cell survival, renal function, and pathological damage than those of wt mice after IRI. In addition, fat-1 mice showed less oxidative stress and autophagy impairment; greater amounts of LC3, Beclin-1, and Atg7; lower amounts of p62; and higher levels of renal cathepsin D and ATP6E than wt kidneys. They also showed more AMPK activation, which resulted in the inhibition of phosphorylation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Collectively, ω3-PUFAs in fat-1 mice contributed to AMPK mediated autophagy activation, leading to a renoprotective response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0232.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: activated sludge; carcinogenic; ecotoxicity; effluent; environmental footprint; impact category; MBR; non-carcinogenic; toxicity
Online: 13 January 2023 (02:05:11 CET)
The assessment of an organization/product's environmental footprint is based on the protocols developed by the Joint Research Centre of the European Union, which take into account 16 impact categories. Among the categories covered are toxicity to freshwater ecosystems and to humans. Standard protocols use only chemical parameters as input data, preventing the true impact of entire complex mixtures, such as emissions discharged into the environment, from being determined. Biological assays allow us to bridge this gap: in the current study, assays were used to determine baseline toxicity towards aquatic organisms (green algae, luminescent bacteria, and crustaceans) as well as specific toxicity (mutagenicity and carcinogenicity). Expected impacts were compared using two approaches (standard and bioassay-centered results obtained are not always in line and, in general, the traditional method underestimates impacts). This demonstrates the importance of these assays and suggests that they be used in LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) protocols as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0395.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: blast furnace granulated slag; silica fly ash; alkali-activated materials; denitrification; material engineering.
Online: 26 January 2022 (12:33:00 CET)
This article deals with the possibility of partial replacement of blast furnace slag with fly ash after denitrification by the Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) method in alkali-activated materials. In the experiment, the basic physical-mechanical properties and durability properties were tested, the hydration reaction was monitored in a calorimeter and infrared spectroscopy was performed. Results were compared between mixtures prepared with fly ash without denitrification and also with reference mixture based only on alkali-activated blast furnace slag. The basic result is the finding, that hybrid alkali-systems with fly ash after denitrification show similar trends as hybrid alkali-systems with fly ash without denitrification. The significant effect of fly ash is manifested especially in terms of resistance to freeze-thaw. The reactions in the calorimeter show a slower development of reactions with increasing replacement of slag by fly ash. In the case of testing resistance to leaching in demineralised water, a decrease of flexural strength was found, which corresponds to the conclusions of strength testing, that long-term deposition of bodies in water causes deterioration of mechanical properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0627.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: activated carbon; winemaking waste; wastewater; Cr(VI) removal; adsorption process; Cr(VI) reduction
Online: 30 October 2020 (08:28:29 CET)
A winemaking waste was used as a precursor of activated carbon used in hazardous Cr(VI) removal from solutions. The preparation process consisted of a hydrothermal process, and a chemical activation, of the resulting product, with KOH. The adsorption results showed that the adsorption of Cr(VI) on the obtained activated carbon is strongly dependent on the stirring speed applied to the carbon/solution mixture, pH of the solution, and temperature. The equilibrium isotherm was well fitted to the Langmuir type-II equation, whereas the kinetic can be described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Thermodynamic studies revealed that Cr(VI) adsorption was an exothermic and spontaneous process. Finally, desorption experiments showed that Cr(VI) was effectively desorbed using hydrazine sulfate solutions, and at the same time, the element was reduced to the less hazardous Cr(III) oxidation state.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0244.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: activated inflammatory macrophages; quercetin; pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine genes; STAT3 protein phosphorylation; TLR2
Online: 20 November 2019 (16:04:42 CET)
Our previous studies demonstrated that quercetin (Q) could be ingested and metabolized by macrophages and exerted prophylactic immuno-stimulatory activity and therapeutic anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated macrophages ex vivo. To further clarify its possible anti-inflammatory mechanism, Q was selected to treat mouse peritoneal macrophages that obtained from female BALB/c mice exposed to LPS i.p. for 12 h. Relative gene expression of pro-/anti-inflammatory (TNF-α/IL-10) cytokines and components of inflammation-related intracellular signaling pathways (TLR2, TLR4, NF-κB, JAK2 and STAT3) was analyzed using two-step reverse transcription (RT) and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). STAT3 protein phosphorylation was determined using an in-cell ELISA method. As a result, Q and its metabolite quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronide (Q3G) decreased TNF-α gene expression amounts and ratios of pro-/anti-inflammatory (TNF-α/IL-10) cytokine gene expressions, but increased IL-10 gene expression amounts in activated inflammatory macrophages, supporting a substantial anti-inflammatory potential of Q and Q3G treatments. However, Q3G had lower effects than those of Q. Importantly, Q inhibited TLR2 gene expression and phosphorylation of STAT3 protein in the inflamed cells. Our results are the first report to suggest that Q inhibits LPS-induced inflammation ex vivo through suppressing TLR2 gene expression and STAT3 protein phosphorylation in activated inflammatory macrophages. Q has potential to further apply for treating inflammation-associated diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0114.v2
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: biomass; bio-char; activation; activated carbon; thermal treatment; physical activation; porosity; specific surface areas
Online: 25 June 2018 (05:08:15 CEST)
Activated carbons can be produced from biomass in a thermal process either in a direct carbonization-activation process or by first carbonizing the biomass and later on activating the biochars into activated carbons. The properties of the ACs are dependent on the type of process used for production. In this study, the properties of activated carbons produced in a one-stage and a two-stage process are considered. Activated carbons were produced by physical activation of two types of starting materials, bio chars produced from spruce and birch chips in a commercial carbonization plant and from the corresponding raw chips. The activated carbons produced were characterized regarding specific surfaces, pore volumes and pore size distributions. The un-activated bio chars had some degree of surface area 190 and 140 m2g-1 for spruce and birch and pore volumes of 0.067 and 0.092 cm3g-1. According to the results obtained, two slightly different types of activated carbons are produced depending if a one-stage or a two-stage carbonization and activation process is used. The ACs produced in the one-stage process had higher specific surface areas compared to the ones produced in a two-stage process (761-940 m2g-1 vs. 540-650 m2g-1) . In addition, total pore volumes were higher in one-stage process but development of micropores is greater compared to two-stage process. There was no significant difference in total carbon content between one-stage and two-stage process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0009.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: N2-Arylcarbonyl/sulfonylanthranilamides; Prothrombin time; Activated partial thromboplastin time; Thrombin; Factor Xa; U46619
Online: 3 February 2017 (18:55:26 CET)
Thrombin (factor IIa) and factor Xa (FXa) are key enzymes at the junction of the intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways and are the most attractive pharmacological targets for the development of novel anticoagulants. Twenty non-amidino N2-thiophencarbonyl- and N2-tosyl anthranilamides 1-20 and six amidino N2-thiophencarbonyl- and N2-tosylanthranilamides 21-26 were synthesized and evaluated prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) using human plasma at concentration 30 μg/mL in vitro. From these results, compounds 5, 9, and 21-23 were selected to study the further antithrombotic activity. The anticoagulant properties of 5, 9, and 21-23 significantly exhibited a concentration-dependent prolongation of in vitro PT and aPTT, in vivo bleeding time, and ex vivo clotting time. These compounds concentration-dependently inhibited the activities of thrombin and FXa and inhibited the generation of thrombin and FXa in human endothelial cells. In addition, data showed that 5, 9, and 21-23 significantly inhibited thrombin catalyzed fibrin polymerization and mouse platelet aggregation and inhibited platelet aggregation induced U46619 in vitro and ex vivo. N-(3'-Amidinophenyl)-2-((thiophen-2''-yl)carbonyl amino)benzamide (21) was most active.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0027.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: Liver X receptor (LXR); Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ); Adipose expansion; Insulin resistance
Online: 10 October 2016 (07:56:30 CEST)
Liver X receptors (LXR) are deemed as potential drug targets for atherosclerosis, whereas a role in adipose tissue expansion and its relation to insulin sensitivity remains unclear. To assess the metabolic effects of LXR activation, C57BL/6 mice on a high-fat diet (HFD) were treated with the dual LXRα/β agonist T0901317 (30 mg/kg per day) for 3 weeks. Differentiated 3T3-L1 was used for analysing the effect of T0901317 on glucose uptake.T0901317 reduced fat mass, accompanied by a massive fatty liver and lower adipokine levels in circulation of HFD mice. Increased adipocyte apoptosis and macrophage infiltration were found in epididymal fat of T0901317-treated HFD mice. In addition, T0901317 treatment promoted basal lipolysis, but blunted the anti-lipolytic action of insulin. Furthermore, LXR activation antagonized PPARγ target genes in epididymal fat and PPARγ-PPRE binding activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Although the glucose tolerance was comparable to that in vehicle-treated HFD mice, the insulin tolerance was significantly decreased in T0901317-treated HFD mice, indicating decreased insulin sensitivity by T0901317 administration, and which was further supported by impaired insulin signalling found in epididymal fat and decreased insulin-induced glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 by T0901317administration. These findings reveal that LXR activation impairs adipose expansion which contributes to decreased insulin sensitivity.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0394.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Cement By-Pass Dust; Blast Furnace Granulated Slag; Silica Fly Ash; Alkali-Activated Materials.
Online: 15 June 2021 (10:59:34 CEST)
Alkali-activated materials are alternative building binders, where secondary raw materials are processed. Possibility to use landfilled waste materials in their preparation, increases their potential application in construction practice, and therefore they are subject to extensive research, especially in recent years. This paper briefly summarizes interesting results of an experiment aimed at verifying the possibility of applying cement by-pass dust (CBPD) in the preparation of alkali-activated materials. The research work was focused on the possibilities of using these wastes for the preparation of small elements of garden architecture. The paper briefly evaluates in particular the results of X-ray diffraction, which were subjected to three types of binder pastes differing in the amount of used activator. In the experiment, a mixture of blast furnace granulated slag, fly ash and cement by-pass dust was alkali activated with sodium metasilicate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0580.v2
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: geopolymer; laterite; alkali-activated; alumino-silicates; I-optimal; response surface methodology; optimization; mine waste.
Online: 17 December 2020 (11:43:45 CET)
Geopolymer cement has been popularly studied nowadays compared to ordinary Portland cement because it demonstrated superior environmental advantages due to its lower carbon emissions and waste material utilization. This paper focuses on the formulation of geopolymer cement from nickel-laterite mine waste (NMW) and coal fly ash (CFA) as geopolymer precursors, and sodium hydroxide (SH) and sodium silicate (SS) as alkali activators. Different mix formulations of raw materials are synthesized to produce a geopolymer based from an I-optimal design and obtained different compressive strengths. A mixed formulation of 50% NMW and 50% CFA, SH-to-SS ratio of 0.5, and an activator-to-precursor ratio of 0.429 yielded the highest 28-day unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of 22.10 ± 5.40 MPa. Furthermore, using an optimized formulation of 50.12% NMW, SH-to-SS ratio of 0.516, and an activator-to-precursor ratio of 0.428, a UCS value of 36.30 ± 3.60 MPa was obtained. The result implies that the synthesized geopolymer material can be potentially used for concrete structures and pavers, pedestrian pavers, light traffic pavers, and plain concrete.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0360.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: p-21 activated kinase; pioglitazone, metformin, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer, chemoprevention, and inflammation.
Online: 19 September 2018 (00:50:05 CEST)
Hypothesis: Anti-diabetic drugs modulate p-21 activated kinase (PAK) signaling Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with increased cancer risk. PAK signaling is implicated in cellular homeostasis when regulated, and cancer when unrestrained. Recent reports provided a role for PAK signaling in glucose homeostasis, but the role of PAKs in the pathogenesis of T2DM is unknown. Here we performed a mini-meta analysis to explore if anti-diabetic drugs modify PAK signaling pathways, and provide insight regarding modulation of these pathways to potentially reduce diabetes-associated cancer risk. Methods: PAK interacting partners in T2DM were identified using online STRING database. Correlation studies were performed via systematic literature review to understand the effect of anti-diabetic drugs on PAK signaling. Mini meta analysis correlated multiple clinical studies and revealed the overall clinical response rate and percentage of adverse events in piogliazone (n=53) and metformin (n=91) treated patients with PAK-associated diseases. Results: A total of 30 PAK interacting partners were identified (10: reduced beta-cell mass; 10: beta-cell dysfunction; 10: obesity-insulin resistance) which were highly associated with Wnt, and G-protein signaling. Anti-diabetic drug metformin activated signaling pathways upstream; whereas pioglitazone inhibited pathways downstream of PAK. Overall clinical response upon pioglitazone treatment was 53%. 79% of pioglitazone and 75% of metformin treated patients had adverse events. Pioglitazone reduced molecular-PAK biomarkers of proliferation (Ki67 and CyclinD1), and metformin had the opposite effect. Conclusions: PAK signaling in T2DM likely involves Wnt and G-protein signaling which may be altered by anti-diabetic drugs metformin and pioglitazone. Apart from the therapeutic limitations of adverse events, pioglitazone may be promising in chemoprevention, however long-term multi-centered studies, which initiate pioglitazone treatment early will be required to fully assess the full potential of these drugs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0403.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: p-21 activated kinase; pioglitazone, metformin, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer, chemoprevention, and inflammation.
Online: 23 August 2018 (05:10:55 CEST)
Hypothesis: Anti-diabetic drugs modulate p-21 activated kinase (PAK) signaling Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with increased cancer risk. PAK signaling is implicated in cellular homeostasis when regulated, and cancer when unrestrained. Recent reports provided a role for PAK signaling in glucose homeostasis, but the role of PAKs in the pathogenesis of T2DM is unknown. Here we explored whether PAK signaling should be targeted via chemoprevention to reduce diabetes-associated cancer risk. Methods: PAK interacting partners in T2DM were identified using online STRING database. Systematic literature review provided the effect of anti-diabetic drugs on PAK signaling. Review of clinical studies revealed the overall clinical response rate and percentage of adverse events in piogliazone (n=53) and metformin (n=91) treated patients with PAK-dependent diseases. Results: A total of 30 PAK interacting partners were identified (10: reduced beta-cell mass; 10: beta-cell dysfunction; 10: obesity-insulin resistance) which were highly associated with Wnt, and G-protein signaling. Anti-diabetic drug metformin activated signaling pathways upstream; whereas pioglitazone inhibited pathways downstream of PAK. Overall clinical response upon pioglitazone treatment was 53%. 79% of pioglitazone and 75% of metformin treated patients had adverse events. Pioglitazone reduced molecular-PAK biomarkers of proliferation (Ki67 and CyclinD1), and metformin had the opposite effect. Conclusions: PAK signaling in T2DM involves Wnt and G-protein signaling which is altered by anti-diabetic drugs metformin and pioglitazone. Apart from the therapeutic limitations of adverse events, pioglitazone is promising in chemoprevention, however long-term multi-centered studies, which initiate pioglitazone treatment early will be required to fully assess the full potential of these drugs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0190.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: alkali activated materials; fly ash; ground granulated blast furnace slag; sulfate resistance; cation accompanying sulfate
Online: 8 November 2018 (07:52:29 CET)
In this study, the changes in mass, compressive strength and length were analyzed to investigate sulfate resistance according to ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) blending ratio and type of sulfate solution. All alkali activated mortars showed excellent sulfate resistance when immersed in sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) solution. However, when immersed in magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) solution, different sulfate resistance results were obtained depending on the presence of GGBFS. Alkali activated GGBFS blended mortars showed a tendency to increase mass, increase length and decrease compressive strength when immersed in magnesium sulfate solution, but the alkali activated FA mortars did not show any significant difference depending on the types of sulfate solution. The deterioration of alkali activated GGBFS blended mortars in the immersion of magnesium sulfate solution was confirmed by the decomposition of C-S-H which is the reaction product by magnesium ion and the formation of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) and brucite (Mg(OH)2).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0209.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: transit; entrepreneurship; rail; Effectuation; Entrepreneur Rail Model; finance; PPP; Transit-Activated Corridor; corridor transit; urban planning.
Online: 8 June 2021 (10:34:35 CEST)
The need for Transit Oriented Development (TOD) around railway stations has been well accepted and continues to be needed in cities looking to regenerate both transit and urban development. Large parts of suburban areas remain without quality transit down Main Roads which are usually filled with traffic resulting in reduced urban value. The need to regenerate both the mobility and land development along such roads will likely be the next big agenda in transport policy. This paper learns from century-old experiences in public-private approaches to railway systems from around the world, along with new insights from entrepreneurship theory and urban planning to create the notion of a ‘Transit Activated Corridor’ (TAC). TAC’s prioritise fast transit and a string of station precincts along urban Main Roads. TOD’s were primarily a government role, whereas TAC’s will be primarily a private sector, entrepreneurship role. The core policy processes for a TAC are outlined with some early case studies. Five design principles for delivering a TAC are presented in this paper, three principles from entrepreneurship theory and two from urban planning. The potential for Trackless Trams to enable TAC’s is used to illustrate how these design processes can be an effective approach for designing, financing and delivering a ‘Transit Activated Corridor’.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0197.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Cudratricusxanthone L; Cudrania tricuspidata; Neuroinflammation; Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB); Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)
Online: 9 August 2018 (20:43:24 CEST)
Neuroinflammatory responses are implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. In neurodegenerative diseases, neuroinflammatory reactions to neuronal injury are modulated by microglial cells, which are vital innate immune cells in the central nervous system. Activated microglial cells release proinflammatory cytokines, mediators, and neurotoxic factors that induce fatal neuronal injury. The present study investigated the anti-neuroinflammatory effects of cudratricusxanthone L (1), which was isolated from Cudrania tricuspidata. This compound reduced the levels of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammatory mediators and cytokines, including nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, and IL-12. These effects suggested that cudratricusxanthone L (1) suppressed the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway. Specifically, cudratricusxanthone L (1) also attenuated the phosphorylation of Jun kinase and inhibited p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in BV2 and rat primary microglial cells. These results indicated that cudratricusxanthone L (1) effectively repressed neuroinflammatory processes in BV2 and rat primary microglial cells by inhibiting NF-κB and the MAPK signaling pathway.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0387.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: alkali activated materials; construction and demolition waste; brick powder; acid resistance; extruded polystyrene aggregates lightweight materials
Online: 25 June 2018 (12:26:06 CEST)
The annual construction and demolition waste (CDW) generated from EU construction sector was 850 million tons, which represented 31% of the total waste generation and about 28% of CDW was ceramics (bricks and tiles). In this study, the feasibility of using CDW brick powder as the precursor of alkali activated mortar (AAM) and extruded polystyrene (XPS) as the lightweight aggregates to form lightweight brick powder AAM (LW-BP-AAM) for non-structural applications was investigated. The thermal conductivity of LP-BPAAM was 0.112 W/m·K with density of about 1,135 kg/m3 which was lower than the counterparts with similar density in literature. The acid resistance of LW-BP-AAM is comparable to conventional fly ash based AAM and superior than ordinary Portland cement. From the scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, there was no severe damage on the surface of LW-BP-AAM but aluminate was removed from the matrix which was further verified in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The mass and strength loss of LP-BP-AAM was 1.5% and 33%, respectively. Although the compressive strength of the LP-BP-AAM was low (about 1.8 MPa), it can be improved by optimising the particle size of the XPS aggregates.
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Alkali Activated Composite Mud Mortar; Alternate to Cement Mortar; Numerical Analysis; ANSYS; Bond strength; Shear crack behaviour
Online: 31 August 2020 (05:05:14 CEST)
This study identifies new Alkali Activated Composite Mud Mortar to alternate Cement Mortar used for laying masonry works. This study handles both experimental and numerical analysis of strength and durability for mortar, especially bond strength along mortar and brick joints have studied detail and compared with ANSYS. The bond strength has estimated through the triplet brick prism of shear behavior. The strength and deformation characteristics of masonry constituents obtained from these tests depend on the actual composite conduct of masonry. There is always a good reception for environmentally friendly, low energy, new construction materials, and used in preparing mortar/brick unit combinations all around the world. Also, this study fulfills those requirements. Especially, masonry laid with the mud mortar meets all. Fly Ash, Ground Granulated Blast furnace Slag, and Quarry Dust have utilized the new composites' preparation with 8Molority, 10Molority developed excellent strength. The composite specimens are having compression and bond strength, ranging from 4.84-5.14 and 0.12-0.18N/mm2. The mixed ratio of materials has taken (0.5 parts of Fly Ash, 0.5 parts of Steel Slag, 1.75 parts of Soil, and 0.25 parts of Quarry Dust). The samples tested resistance against acidic, sulfate, and alkalinity indicated PH values less than 7 and 9 simultaneously. Compression strength varied from 10-20% and gained more and fit composite used for mortar in masonry works.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0321.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Theaflavins; Hepatocyte; Insulin resistance; Insulin signaling pathway; Mitochondrial biogenesis; Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-1 (PGC-1)
Online: 13 November 2018 (15:16:30 CET)
Theaflavins, the characteristic and bioactive polyphenols in black tea, possess the potential improvement effects on insulin resistance-associated metabolic abnormalities including obesity and type 2 diebetes. However, the molecular mechanisms of theaflavins improving insulin sensitivity are still not clear. In this study, we investigated the protective effects and mechanisms of theaflavins on palmitic acid-induced insulin resistance in HepG2 cells. Theaflavins could significantly increase glucose uptake of insulin-resistant cells at noncytotoxic doses. This activity was mediated by upregulating the glucose transporter 4 protein expression, increasing the phosphorylation of IRS-1 at Ser307, and reduced the phosphor-Akt (Ser473) level. Moreover, theaflavins were found to enhance mitochondrial DNA copy number through down-regulate the PGC-1β mRNA level and up-regulate PRC mRNA expression in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells. These results indicated that theaflavins could improve free fatty acid-induced hepatic insulin resistance by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis, and were promising functional food and medicines for insulin resistance-related disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0025.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: plasma-liquid interactions; water electrospray; aerosol microdroplet; bulk water, plasma-activated water; Henry’s law solubility; ozone; hydrogen peroxide
Online: 1 December 2020 (13:16:22 CET)
Production and transport of reactive species through plasma-liquid interactions plays a significant role in multiple applications in biomedicine, environment, and agriculture. We experimentally investigated the transport mechanisms of hydrogen peroxide H2O2 and ozone O3, as the typical plasma species, into water. We measured the solvation of gaseous H2O2 and O3 in airflow into water bulk vs. electrosprayed microdroplets while changing the gas and water flow rates, applied voltage that determines the gas-liquid interface area, and treatment time. The solvation rate of H2O2 and O3 increased with the treatment time and the gas-liquid interface area. The total surface area of the electrosprayed microdroplets was larger than that of the bulk, but their lifetime was much shorter. We estimated that only microdroplets with diameters below ~ 40 µm could achieve the saturation by O3 during their lifetime, while the saturation by H2O2 was impossible due to its depletion from air. Besides the short-lived flying microdroplets, the longer-lived bottom microdroplets substantially contributed to H2O2 and O3 solvation in water electrospray. This study contributes to a better understanding of the gaseous H2O2 and O3 transport into water as a function of different parameters and will lead to design optimization of the plasma-liquid interaction systems.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Oleuropein; colon cancer; activated macrophages; chronic inflammation; inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS); cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2); nitric oxide (NO)
Online: 2 August 2021 (12:04:58 CEST)
Abstract: Oleuropein, the major compound of olive leaves, has been reported to exert numerous pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and anticancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate, for the first time, the effect of oleuropein-rich leaf extracts (ORLE) in already-developed colon tumours colon tumours arising in an Apc (adenomatous polyposis coli) mutated PIRC rats (F344/NTac-Apcam1137). Here, we were able to investigate in parallel the anti-cancer effect of ORLE, both in vivo and in vitro, and its anti-inflammatory effect on macrophages, which represents a critical and abundant population in most solid tumours microenvironment. We found that in vivo ORLE treatment promoted apoptosis and attenuated iNOS activity both in colon tumours as in peritoneal macrophages of PIRC rats. We confirmed in vitro using primary RAW264.7 cells: ORLE reduced iNOS activity in parallel with COX-2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1, IL-6 and TGF-. These findings suggest that ORLE possess a strong anti-inflammatory activity, which could be crucial for dampening the pro-tumourigenic activity elicited by a chronic inflammatory state generated by either tumour cells or tumour-associated macrophages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0747.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: alkali activated; fly ash; blast furnace slag; silica fume; metakaolin; ambient curing; strength development; flexural strength; freeze-thaw resistance
Online: 30 December 2020 (09:03:09 CET)
Concrete is the most commonly used construction material due to its various advantages, such as versatility, familiarity, strength and durability and it will continue to be in demand far into the future. However, with today’s sensitivity to the environmental protection, this material is facing unprecedented challenges due to its high greenhouse gas emission mainly during cement production. This paper investigates one of the promising cement replacement materials, alkali activated cement (AAC) concrete. Being produced mainly from byproduct materials and having a comparable structural performance to conventional concrete, AAC concrete has a potential to transform the construction industry. Mechanical properties such as compressive and flexural strength and the relationship between them are studied. Different source materials such as fly ash (FA), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), silica fume (SF) and Metakaolin (MK) are used. The effect of the source materials and the activator solutions on the concrete performance is studied. Furthermore, the freeze-thaw resistance of the concrete is studied. The results of the study showed that the behavior of AAC depends highly on the source material combinations as well as type used. The effect of the alkaline solution is also dependent on the source material used. Mixes with higher GGBS content in general showed the highest strength while mixes with MK showed the highest flexural strength. The results from the freeze-thaw test showed that proper design of AAC concrete with a lower water content is critical to achieve a good resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0239.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: EU Green Deal; Horizon 2030; clean energy production; High-rate algal ponds (HRAP); activated sludge system (AS); photovoltaic power (PV)
Online: 9 March 2021 (07:23:01 CET)
The European Union Green Deal aims at curbing planet-warming greenhouse gas emissions and introducing clean energy production. But to achieve energy efficiency, the opportunity cost of different energies must be assessed. In this article, we analyse two different systems for the treatment of wastewater that, at the same time, produce energy for its own operation. On the one hand, high-rate algal ponds system (HRAP) is considered; on the other hand, we study a conventional activated sludge system which uses photovoltaic power (AS+PV). This paper offers a viability analysis of both systems based on the capacity to satisfy their energetic consumption. In order to assess this viability, the probability of not achieving the energy consumption threshold at least one day is studied. The results point that the AS+PV system self-sufficiency is achieved using much lesser surfaces than those of HRAP system (for the former, less than 6.500 m2, for the latter 40.000 m2). However, the important AS capital cost makes still the HRAP system more economic, although storage provides a great advantage for using the AS+PV in locations where we have a lot of irradiance. This viability analysis, along with the opportunity cost analysis, will be used to assess these two projects devoted to the treatment of wastewater.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0171.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4; Fibroblast growth factor; Gastrointestinal peptide; Glucagon-like peptide 1; Glucagon receptor; Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor; Sodium glucose cotransporter
Online: 16 January 2020 (11:44:49 CET)
Liver related diseases are the 3rd leading causes (9.3%) of mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Japan. T2DM is closely associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) which is the most prevalent chronic liver disease worldwide. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a severe form of NAFLD, can lead to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and hepatic failure. There are no established pharmacotherapies for NASH patients with T2DM. Though vitamin E is established as a 1st line agent in NASH without T2DM, its efficacy was recently denied in NASH with T2DM. The effects of pioglitazone on NASH histology with T2DM have extensively been established, but several concerns exist such as body weight gain, fluid retention, cancer incidence, and bone fracture. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are expected to ameliorate NASH (LEAN study, LEAD trial, and E-LIFT study). Among a variety of SGLT2 inhibitors, dapagliflozin have already entered phase 3 trials (DEAN study). A key clinical question is what kinds of anti-diabetic drugs are the most appropriate for the treatment of NASH to prevent progression of hepatic fibrosis resulting in HCC/liver-related mortality without increasing risk at cardiovascular or renal events. The combination therapies such as glucagon receptor agonist/GLP-1 or gastrointestinal peptide /GLP-1 will be under development. This review focuses on antidiabetic agents and future perspectives on the view of the treatment of NAFLD with T2DM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0001.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: CRISPR-Cas9; high-content screening (HCS); fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS); Parkinson's disease (PD); patient-derived iPS; single-cell clones; isogenic cell lines; SNCA; alpha-synuclein; A30P
Online: 2 May 2020 (11:20:20 CEST)
The generation of isogenic induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines using CRISPR-Cas9 technology is a technically challenging, time-consuming process with variable efficiency. Here we use fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to sort biallelic CRISPR-Cas9 edited single-cell iPS clones into high-throughput 96-well microtiter plates. We used high-content screening (HCS) technology and generated an in-house developed algorithm to select the correctly edited isogenic clones for continued expansion and validation. In our model we have gene-corrected the iPSCs of a Parkinson’s disease (PD) patient carrying the autosomal dominantly inherited heterozygous c.88G>C mutation in the SNCA gene, which leads to the pathogenic p.A30P form of the alpha-synuclein protein. Undertaking a PCR restriction-digest mediated clonal selection strategy prior to sequencing, we were able to post-sort validate each isogenic clone using a quadruple screening strategy. Subsequent transfection with mRNA encoding excision-only transposase allows for the generation of footprint-free isogenic iPSC lines. These monoclonal isogenic iPSC lines retain a normal molecular genotype, express pluripotency markers and have the ability to differentiate into the three germ layers. This combinatory approach of FACS, HCS and post-sorted restriction digestion facilitates the generation of isogenic cell lines for disease modelling to be scaled-up on an automated platform.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0033.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: hepatic inflammation; high-fat-cholesterol diet; hypertension; mitogen-activated protein kinase; nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 pathway; nuclear factor-kappa B; spontaneously hypertensive rat; stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive5/Dmcr; Wistar Kyoto
Online: 14 July 2017 (10:54:38 CEST)
Populations with essential hypertension have a high risk of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In this study, we investigated the mechanism that underlies the progression of hypertension-associated NASH by comparing differences in the development of high fat and cholesterol (HFC) diet-induced NASH among three strains of rats, i.e., two hypertensive strains comprising spontaneously hypertensive rats and the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive 5/Dmcr, and the original Wistar Kyoto rats as the normotensive control. We investigated histopathological changes and molecular signals related to inflammation in the liver after feeding with the HFC diet for 8 weeks. The diet induced severe lobular inflammation and fibrosis in the livers of the hypertensive rats, whereas it only caused mild steatohepatitis in the normotensive rats. Increased activation of proinflammatory signaling (transforming growth factor-β1/mitogen-activated protein kinases pathway) was observed in the hypertensive strains fed with the HFC diet. In addition, the HFC diet suppressed the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 pathway in the hypertensive rats and led to lower increases in the hepatic expression of heme oxygenase-1, which has anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. In conclusion, these signaling pathways might play crucial roles in the development of hypertension-associated NASH.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0294.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Dimeric copper(I) complexes; PN phosphine ligands; X-ray structures; Combined thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) and phosphorescence; Combined singlet and triplet harvesting; High emission quantum yields; Tunability of photophysical properties; Zero-field splitting (ZFS), Spin-lattice relaxation (SLR); Triplet substate decay components.
Online: 12 April 2021 (12:41:01 CEST)
We present an overview over eight brightly luminescent Cu(I) dimers of the type Cu2X2(PN)3 with X = Cl, Br, I and P^N = 2-diphenylphosphino-pyridine (Ph2Ppy), 2-diphenylphosphino-pyrimidine (Ph2Ppym), 1-diphenylphosphino-isoquinoline (Ph2Piqn) including three new crystal structures (Cu2Br2(Ph2Ppy)3, 1-Br, Cu2I2(Ph2Ppym)3, 2-I, and Cu2I2(Ph2Piqn)3, 3-I). However, we mainly focus on their photo-luminescence properties. All compounds exhibit combined thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) and phosphorescence at ambient temperature. Emission color, decay time, and quantum yield varies over large ranges. For deeper characterization, we select Cu2I2(Ph2Ppy)3, 1-I, showing a quantum yield of 81 %. DFT and SOC-TDDFT calculations provide insight into the electronic structures of the singlet S1 and triplet T1 states. Both stem from metal+iodide-to-ligand charge transfer transitions. Evaluation of the emission decay dynamics, measured from 1.2 ≤ T ≤ 300 K, gives ∆E(S1-T1) = 380 cm-1 (47 meV), a transition rate of k(S1→S0) = 2.25×106 s-1 (445 ns), T1 zero-field splittings, transition rates from the triplet substates, and spin-lattice relaxation times. We also discuss the interplay of S1-TADF and T1-phosphorescence. The combined emission paths shorten the overall decay time. For OLED applications, utilization of both singlet and triplet harvesting can be highly favorable for improvement of the device performance.