ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0252.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: BCG; hepatitis B; vaccination; allergy; atopic eczema
Online: 5 June 2023 (07:57:17 CEST)
Previous studies have shown that immunization within the first hours/days after birth promotes the shift from the intrauterine Th2 immune response toward the Th1 immunity resulting in lower risk of developing allergic diseases. We are currently conducting a prospective cohort study among 307 participants divided into groups based on their TB and hepatitis B vaccination status (vaccinated at birth, within the first 12 months of life or unvaccinated) and also based on whether the participants had factors contributing to the development of allergic diseases. In each group we assessed the fact of primary diagnosis of atopic dermatitis at 12 and 18 months of age. It was demonstrated that atopic dermatitis (AD) was diagnosed from birth to 12 months of age much less frequently in those infants who had received the tuberculosis (TB) vaccine from day 3 to day 7 and hepatitis B vaccine within the first 24 hours of birth, including newborns with a high risk of developing allergic diseases. The probability of onset of AD at 12 and 18 months was also lower in timely vaccinated children, even though a burdened allergic anamnesis starts playing a more central role in development of AD at this age. Our findings testify to the fact that timely BCG-M and hepatitis B vaccination can produce a protective effect against the onset of AD, yet this effect diminishes with aging.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0143.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Systemic sclerosis; treatment; Janus kinase inhibitors; fibrosis; anti-cytokine treatment
Online: 2 June 2023 (07:07:00 CEST)
Citation: Lastname, F.; Lastname, F.; Last-name, F. Title. Phar-maceuticals 2022, 15, x. https://doi.org/10.3390/xxxxx Academic Editor: Firstname Lastname Received: date Accepted: date Published: date Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdic-tional claims in pub-lished maps and insti-tutional affiliations. Copyright: © 2023 by the authors. Submitted for possible open access publication under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons 1Olga Gumkowska-Sroka, 2Kacper Kotyla, 3Ewa Mojs, 2Klaudia Palka, 1,2*Przemysław Kotyla 1. Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology Voivodeship Hospital No5 in Sosnowiec Medical University of Silesia Katowice, Poland 2. Department of Internal Medicine Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology Medical University of Silesia Katowice , Poland 3. 3. Department of Clinical Psychology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences Poznan, Poland *Correspondence: Prof Przemysław Kotyla Department of Internal Medicine Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland- Summary Systemic sclerosis is a connective tissue disease of unknown origin and unpredictable course, with both cutaneous and internal organ manifestations. In spite of enormous progress in rheumatology and clinical immunology, the background of diseases is largely unknown and no specific therapy exists. The therapeutic approach to the disease is aimed to treat and preserve the function of internal organs, and this approach is commonly referred to as an organ-based treatment. However, in modern times data from the other branches of medicine may help to treat disease-related complications, making it possible to find a group of drugs to be utilized in the treatment of the disease. In this review, we present possible therapeutic options aiming to stop the progression of fibrotic processes, restore aberrant immune response, stop improper signalling from proinflammatory cytokines, and halt the production of disease-related autoantibodies.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2234.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; booster vaccine; post-vaccine IgG antibody persistence
Online: 31 May 2023 (11:18:10 CEST)
Our aim was to evaluate the immune response of healthcare workers included in the RIPOVAC study, after receiving a booster dose (third dose), in terms of intensity and persistence of induced antibodies. In the second phase of RIPOVAC study, between December 2021 and January 2022, eight months after the second dose, 389 voluntary, immunocompetent, non-pregnant healthcare workers received a booster dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, and a serum sample was obtained. Two groups of patients were established: with and without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. In order to quantify anti-S1 IgG (AU/mL) we used CMIA (Abbott). All the health workers were anti-S IgG positive 8 months after receiving the booster dose of the vaccine, with a mean of 17040 AU/mL. In 53 patients without previous infection, antibody levels had increased by a mean of 10762 AU/mL. This figure is 7 times higher than the one produced after the second dose (1506 AU/mL). The booster dose produces a robust elevation of the antibody level, which persists at 8 months with levels up to values significantly higher than those reached after the second dose, that allow to predict a persistence of more than one year. The study demonstrates the efficacy of the booster dose of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2002.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: rotavirus; coronavirus; vaccine; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; cross immunity; trained immunity; vaccinated breakthrough infections; COVID variants; long-Covid
Online: 29 May 2023 (09:29:18 CEST)
This proposal was prepared in the very first weeks of 2020 because of the outbreak of COVID-19. There are good reasons to suppose that rotavirus vaccine can be used as protection tool to effectively and safely fight and mitigate SARS-CoV-2 infection and the impact caused by COVID- 19 in adult humans, due to the development of cross and trained immunity following rotavirus vaccination. Up-to-date, some rotavirus vaccines are available and approved, two of them have a large experience in results and safety. Little experience has been achieved in the use of rotavirus vaccine in adults. However, it can be expected that it would be safe and effective in adults and in the elderly as well. This proposal explains the background of this hypothesis based on lungs and intestine relationships.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1699.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Vitamin D; mite allergy; dermatophagoides; monomeric allergoid; immunotherapy; rhinitis; anti-histamine; Immunoglobulin; IgE; asthma; corticosteroid; children
Online: 24 May 2023 (05:14:28 CEST)
The post-hoc analysis presented here aimed to address the influence of endogenous vitamin D in the immunological mechanism underlying effective mite allergoid-immunotherapy (AIT). Previously, we have shown that one subpopulation of T regulatory cells results in phenotypically identifiable as functionally potentiated and memory cells in allergic children after 12 months of this immunoactive treatment. Indeed, AIT is the only known treatment able to reshape the detrimental immune response against the allergen into a not noxious one. Besides, VD is widely considered an immunoregulatory molecule endogenously produced and exogenously provided with foods and supplements that might interact with AIT mechanism and affect its outcome. Therefore, a post-hoc analysis of the clinical and immunological data of three different cohorts of allergic patients was performed. One cohort (N=70) was on standard symptoms-controlling pharmacological treatment while the other two (N=60 and N=35, respectively) were treated with AIT for 12 months. Among the first were observed a lower mean endogenous VD level (<22 ng/ml) along with worse symptoms and higher use of medications. Remarkably, the comparison between two sub-cohorts of patients with serum VD above (N=32) or below (N=28) a cut-off value set at mean value (27 ng/ml) revealed that optimal improvement of all clinical and immune parameters was achieved (as expected by effective AIT), irrespective of the VD level. Notably, the third analysis, carried out on one cohort of AIT patients also taking concomitantly VD3 as food supplement (N=19), was distinguished by uppermost overall treatment outcome (amelioration of symptoms, lowest medications requirement, and reduction of total and allergen-specific IgE) as well as the increase of allergen-specific tolerogenic memory T regulatory cells. These findings suggest that endogenous VD level affects allergy severity and allergen immunotherapy effectiveness. Also, VD3 might be investigated as an add-on supplement to get the best out of immunotherapy in VD deficient/insufficient allergic patients. The immunogenic but low-allergenic mite allergoid used as bioactive agent might have contributed to minimize allergic and highlight immunological effects described here.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1190.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: B cell response; mRNA vaccination; Computational analysis; SARS-COV-2; COVID-19
Online: 17 May 2023 (05:01:27 CEST)
The mRNA vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 have demonstrated efficacy and immunogenicity in the re-al-world setting. However, most of the research on vaccine immunogenicity has been centered on characterizing the antibody response, with limited exploration into the persistence of spike-specific memory B cell response. Here we monitored the durability of the memory B cell response and characterize the trajectory of spike-specific B cell phenotypes in healthy individuals who have received two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine up to 9 months post-vaccination. To profile the spike-specific B cell response we applied the tSNE and Cytotree automated approaches. Our data showed the induction of spike-specific IgA+ and IgG+ plasmablasts and IgA+ activated cells 7 days after the second dose which disappeared 3 months later, while subsets of spike-specific IgG+ resting memory B cells became predominant 9 months after vaccination, and they were capable to differentiate into spike-specific IgG secreting cells when in vitro restimulated. Other subsets of spike-specific B cells, such as IgM+ or unswitched IgM+IgD+ or IgG+ double negative/atypical cells, were also elicited by the BNT162b2 vaccine and persisted up to month 9. The analysis of circulating spike-specific IgG, IgA and IgM was in line with the plasmablasts observed. The longitudinal analysis of the antigen-specific B cell response elicited by mRNA-based vaccines provides valuable insights into our understanding of the immunogenicity of this novel vaccine platform destined to a future widespread use, and it is crucial in guiding future decisions and vaccination schedules.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0829.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome; COVID-19; Computed Tomography; Hormesis; Ionizing radiation; NLRP3 inflammasome
Online: 11 May 2023 (08:50:49 CEST)
United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of 2006 report was the first document released by an abandoned the classical paradigm that ionizing suppressive, considering the idea that at low doses enhances the appearance of antiinflammatory biomarkers [UNSCEAR 2006]. It considers energetic an immune modulation agent due to the multitude the innate immune system, depending on various age, health status, co-morbidities, genetic background, co-stressors [Lumniczky et al.]. Natural background radiation is the most hazardous public health, followed by medical imaging as a close Naturally occurring radionuclides attach to particulate ionizing radiation after inhalation and deposition in the in this article that exposure to particle radioactivity of inflammation. With that purpose, we have done an on common anti-inflammatory biomarkers between cases on COVID-19 elderly patients, and those found low-intensity natural ionizing radiation in locations with hypothesize that radioactivity increases biomarkers of strategy involved the use of databases from PubMed, (e.g., dose response, hormesis, J-shaped, NLRP3 LNT model, etc.). Extrapolating these effects to artificial ionizing radiation drawn conclusions on the over use of X-ray computed images in elderly ICU admitted patients with pulmonary oxygen species (ROS) generation by this action seems inflammation of leucine-rich protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, waking up an over cytokine production.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0420.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: macrophage-derived chemokine; MDC/CCL22, chemokines; novel coronavirus infection; COVID-19; post-COVID
Online: 6 May 2023 (10:40:04 CEST)
Macrophage-derived chemokine belongs to the CC subfamily. It is produced by dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages with or without external stimulation. We have previously shown a statistically significant depletion of MDC/CCL22 concentrations in a number of studies concerning COVID-19. These shifts in concentrations demonstrated stability unrelated to the SARS-CoV-2 genetic variant and remained noticeable even in convalescent patients. In this work, we analyze MDC/CCL22 dynamics in various diseases, including those that manifest with inflammation in lung tissue. In addition, we provide our hypothesis on such a decrease in MDC/CCL22 concentrations in COVID-19. If its secretion by producer cells is unperturbed, then it is possible for viral products to bind to this chemokine and to block its functional activity. There is, however, another possible explanation directly linked to depletion in DC subpopulations and the inhibition of their function. We also discuss MDC/CCL22's role in the immunology of novel coronavirus infection, based on both our own data and other studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0039.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Airborne allergens; Exposome; Climate change; Atopy; Allergic rhinitis; Asthma; Atopic dermatitis
Online: 2 May 2023 (01:50:56 CEST)
Climate change and exposure to environmental pollutants play a key role in the onset and aggravation of allergic diseases. As different climate-dependent patterns of molecular immunoglobulin E (IgE) reactivity have been regionally described, we sought to investigate the evolving allergen exposome in distinctive allergic phenotypes, and subtropical weather conditions through a Precision Allergy Molecular Diagnosis (PAMD@) model. Concurrent sensitization to several house dust mites (HDM) and storage mite molecules were broadly dominant in the investigated cohort, followed by the major cat allergen Fel d 1, and regardless of the basal allergic disease. Although a complex repertoire of allergens was recognized, a steadily increasing number of IgE binding molecules was associated with the complexity of the underlying atopic disease. Besides the highly prevalent IgE responses to HMD major allergens, Der p 21, Der p 5, and Der p 7 also showed as serodominant molecules, especially in those subjects bothered with asthma and atopic dermatitis. The accurate characterization of the external exposome at the molecular level and their putative role as clinically relevant allergens is essential to elucidate the phenotypic diversity of atopic disease in terms of personalized diagnosis and therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1243.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: autoimmunity; inflammation; fibrosis
Online: 30 April 2023 (02:59:41 CEST)
Fibrosis is an important health problem and its pathogenetic activation is still largely unknown. It can develop either spontaneously or, more frequently, as a consequence of various underlying diseases, such as chronic inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Fibrotic tissue is always characterized by mononuclear immune cells infiltration. The cytokine profile of these cells shows clear proinflammatory and profibrotic characteristics. Furthermore, the production of inflammatory mediators by non-immune cells, in response to several stimuli, can be involved in the fibrotic process. It is now established that defects in the abilities of non-immune cells to mediate immune regulation may be involved in the pathogenicity of a series of inflammatory diseases. The convergence of several, not yet well identified, factors results in the aberrant activation of non-immune cells, such as epithelial cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts, that producing pro-inflammatory molecules, exacerbate the inflammatory condition leading to the excessive and chaotic secretion of extracellular matrix proteins. However, the precise cellular mechanisms involved in this process have not yet been fully elucidated. In this review we explore the latest discoveries on the mechanisms that initiate and perpetuate the vicious circle of abnormal communications between immune and non-immune cells, responsible for fibrotic evolution of inflammatory autoimmune diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1071.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: peanut allergy; children; anaphylaxis; allergen components; severity
Online: 27 April 2023 (10:16:16 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Peanut allergy is the most common single cause of anaphylaxis in children. The risk factors for anaphylaxis in children with peanut allergy are not well defined. Therefore, we aimed to identify epidemiological, clinical and laboratory characteristics of children with peanut allergy that may predict the severity of allergic reaction and anaphylaxis. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study and included 94 children with peanut allergy. Allergy testing was performed, including skin prick testing and determination of specific IgE levels to peanut and its Ara h2 component. In case of discordance between patient history and allergy testing, an oral food challenge with peanut was performed. Results: Anaphylaxis, moderate and mild reactions to peanuts occurred in 33 (35.1%), 30 (31.9%) and 31 (33.0%) patients, respectively. The severity of the allergic reaction only weakly correlated (p = 0.04) with the amount of peanuts consumed. The median number of allergic reactions to peanut was 2 in children with anaphylaxis compared with 1 in other patients (p = 0.04). The median level of specific IgE to Ara h2 was 5.3 IU/ml in children with anaphylaxis compared to 0.6 IU/ml and 10.3 IU/ml in children with mild and moderate peanut allergy (p = 0.06). The optimal cutoff for distinguishing between anaphylaxis and a less severe allergic reaction to peanut was a specific IgE Ara h2 level of 0.92 IU/ml with 90% sensitivity and 47.5% specificity for predicting anaphylaxis (p = 0.04). Conclusions: Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the patient cannot predict the severity of allergic reaction to peanut in children. Even standard allergy testing, including component diagnostics, is a relatively poor predictor of the severity of allergic reaction to peanuts. Therefore, more accurate predictive models including new diagnostic tools are needed to reduce the need for oral food challenge in most patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0756.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; pediatric COVID-19; MIS-C; lymphocyte subpopulations; IFNγ; IL-6; IL-10; malnutrition; steroids
Online: 23 April 2023 (04:00:53 CEST)
Several studies suggest that children infected with SARS-CoV-2 have fewer clinical manifestations than adults; when they develop symptoms, they rarely progress to severe disease. Different immunological theories have been proposed to explain this phenomenon. In September 2020, 16% of the active COVID-19 cases in Venezuela were children under 19 years. We conducted a cross-sectional study of pediatric patients' immune response and clinical conditions with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The patients were admitted to the COVID-19 area of the emergency department of Dr José Manuel de los Ríos Children's Hospital (2021-2022). The lymphocyte subpopulations were analysed by flow cytometry, and IFNγ, IL-6 and IL-10 serum concentrations were quantified using commercial ELISA assays. The analysis was conducted on 72 patients aged one month and 18 years. The majority, 52.8%, had mild disease, and 30.6 % were diagnosed with MIS-C. The main symptoms reported were fever, cough and diarrhoea. A correlation was found between IL-10 and IL-6 concentrations and age group; lymphocyte subpopulations and nutritional status and steroid use; IL-6 concentrations and clinical severity. The results suggest a different immune response depending on age and nutritional status that should be considered for treating pediatric COVID-19 patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0204.v6
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Covid-19 vaccination; death rate; sick status days
Online: 27 February 2023 (07:51:58 CET)
Background. The main impetus behind the worldwide Covid-19 vaccination campaign in 2021 was to reduce the mortality attributed to SARS-CoV-2 infection in the preceding year. Nevertheless, rigorous analyses of the mortality benefits conferred by this massive vaccination effort have been lacking. Methods Statistics offers us an essential methodological approach for measuring the impacts of Covid-19 vaccination on public health. The mathematical relation between vaccinated-alive groups can be repeated between vaccinated-dead groups with relatively high statistical reliability because of the large population numbers involved. This method also confers greater statistical usefulness because it eliminates the Simpson effect. Results Calculations were performed for each of the following five(5) four-week intervals: weeks 35-38 (2021), weeks 39-42 (2021), weeks 43-46 (2021), weeks 47-50 (2021), and weeks 51(2021)-2(2022). The results obtained confirm that the mortality of the vaccinated coronavirus-infected groups was 14.5% higher on average than the mortality of non-vaccinated coronavirus-infected groups. Conclusions Vaccinated infected groups appear to have higher average mortality than their non-vaccinated infected counterparts. The findings suggest the legitimacy of extending the statistics between vaccinated living and vaccinated dead individuals for different age groups. Calculating the impact of Covid-19 vaccination on the mortality rate is a necessary step towards satisfying the first principle of medicine: “Primum non nocere”, “Do no harm”.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0425.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: sleep apnea; hypoxia; gout; hyperuricemia; urate; metabolic comorbidities
Online: 24 February 2023 (09:31:14 CET)
Gout is not only associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), but the intermittent episodes of hypoxia that occur with OSA may also have a role in causing gout. Epidemiological studies have documented a higher incidence and prevalence of gout in individuals diagnosed with OSA than in individuals never diagnosed with OSA. The pathophysiology of OSA’s chronic episodes of hypoxia leading to hyperuricemia and gout involves boththe overproduction and underexcretion of uric acid. Treating OSA may be an additional way to control gout and its life-threatening comorbidities. Clinicians are urged to evaluate their patients with hyperuricemia/gout for OSA as it may lead to alternative ways to control gout with superior outcomes that simply pharmacologic treatment alone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0414.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; COVID-19 vaccinations; all-cause mortality; relative risk
Online: 24 February 2023 (02:03:36 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemics has had an unprecedented global impact, and the COVID-19 mass vaccination campaign has been commonly regarded as crucial to overcome the pandemics. Since all-cause mortality is the best way to measure the consequences of a health intervention, the present study was devised to analyze the all-cause mortality data of the United Kingdom (UK), which are made publicly available broken down by vaccination status. Data from January to May 2022 were retrospectively collected and analyzed according to age groups and vaccination status and the relative risk (RR) for all-cause mortality was calculated in comparison to the corresponding unvaccinated groups. All-cause mortality RR was also calculated from January to May 2021 for vaccinated people. Results show that the all-cause mortality RR was higher in people who received one or two doses of COVID-19 vaccines throughout the whole period and in any of the age groups considered. People vaccinated with three doses more than 21 days earlier had RRs lower than unvaccinated people, which however linearly increased over time. RR in vaccinated people of all ages in comparison to unvaccinated people were lower in January-May 2021, however they steadily grew over time. The finding that all-cause mortality RR in vaccinated in comparison to unvaccinated people increases over time requires careful examination to understand the underlying factors. Meanwhile, all the other major countries should undertake a systematic collection of all-causes mortality broken down by vaccination status, and mass vaccination campaigns should be suspended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0350.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; vaccination; all-cause mortality; excess mortality; causal inferences; ecological fallacy; individualistic fallacy
Online: 21 February 2023 (03:49:52 CET)
We primarily study a possible link between 2021 COVID-19 vaccination uptake in Europe and monthly 2022 excess all-cause mortality, i.e., mortality higher than before the pandemic. Analyses of 31 countries weighted by population size show that all-cause mortality during the first nine months of 2022 increased more the higher the 2021 vaccination uptake; a one percentage point increase in 2021 vaccination uptake was associated with a monthly mortality increase in 2022 by 0.105 percent (95% CI, 0.075-0.134). When controlling for alternative explanations, the association remained robust, and we discuss the result emphasizing causality as well as potential ecological fallacy. Also, the study shows that 2021 all-cause mortality was lower the higher the vaccination uptake, but this association became non-significant when controlling for alternative explanations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0143.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19 vaccines; demyelinating disorders; PEG
Online: 8 February 2023 (09:55:41 CET)
Introduction: The rapid emergence of COVID-19 as a global crisis has led to the approval of many vaccinations, which were unfortunately associated with high complication rates due to a lack of sufficient safety studies. Objectives: The following manuscript focuses on discussing the demyelinating disorders that were noticed after COVID vaccine administration. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study using anonymous medical records from the US vaccine adverse events reporting system, complications retrieved included Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), Guillain Barre syndrome (GBS), and Multiple sclerosis (MS), outcome parameters were age, sex and the dose after which this complication was observed. Patients younger than 18 years-old were excluded as some of the vaccines, namely Janssen (JNJ-78436735) is not yet approved below this age. Results: Our analysis showed that demyelinating disorders were more likely to occur in patients over the age of 50 compared to other age groups, regardless of the type of vaccination, except for MS and ADEM occurrences after the Jansen vaccine. In addition, demyelinating complications were more likely to occur after the first dose of vaccination. Conclusion: Further research and observation of demyelinating diseases in different vaccinations, as well as additional in vitro studies, are recommended to further explain the pathogenesis of demyelinating disorder occurrence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0314.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Interleukin-6; primary knee osteoarthritis; Visual analogue scale; Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index; WOMAC; Kellegren-Lawrence score
Online: 18 January 2023 (01:58:20 CET)
Background: Osteoarthritis is the most common degenerative joint disease resulting in pain and altered joint function. Objective: We investigated the possible association between serum interleukin-6 and symptoms of knee osteoarthritis with regard to pain, stiffness, physical function, assessed by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). We also examined the connections between serum interleukin-6 and radiographic severity in primary knee osteoarthritis patients. Methods: In this case-control study, fifty primary knee osteoarthritis patients and fifty age and sex matched controls were randomly recruited. Serum interleukin-6 levels were immunoassayed in patients’ and controls’ serum. Patients’ knee pain, stiffness and physical function were assessed by the respective subscales of the WOMAC Index. Standing anteroposterior radiographs of the knee joint were performed and graded with the Kellegren-Lawrence grade. Results: The mean serum IL-6 level was significantly higher in osteoarthritis patients (110.22 ± 46.98pg/ml) than controls (46.04 ± 12.34 pg/ml) (p=0.001). The WOMAC Index in patients ranged from 0 – 95 and the Kellegren-Lawrence score mean was 2.7 ± 0.76. There was a significant correlation between serum IL-6 levels and pain (r=0.595 p=0.001), physical function score (r=0.666, p=0.001)), and the radiographic score (r=0.799, p=0.001). Regression analysis showed that IL-6 level had a greater impact on both the WOMAC Index (p=0.005) and the Kellegren-Lawrence score (p=0.01). Conclusion: Serum IL-6 level is increased in primary knee osteoarthritis patients. Also, serum interlukin-6 is significantly related to osteoarthritis symptoms and radiographic severity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0229.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: psoriasis; psoriatic arthropathy; psoriasis and association
Online: 13 January 2023 (01:52:05 CET)
Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and prevalence of psoriatic arthropathy and to point out the problem of their occurrence in a sample of patients diagnosed with psoriasis. Methods. 109 patients with diagnosed psoriasis and psoriatic arthropathy, took part in the survey. The average age of patients was 48,85±10,11. We analyzed the incidence and prevalence of the psoriatic arthropathy occurrence for the patients with psoriasis. Results. Psoriatic arthropathy registered with patients wer those with arthritic changes on: sacroiliac joints with 24 (22,02%) patients, 19 (79,17%) male and 5 (20,83%) female (p<0,001); spine with 11 (10,09%) patients, 6 (54,56%) male and 5 (45,45%) female (p=0,578); peripheral joints with 74 (67,89%) patients, 33 (44,59%) male and 41 (55,41%) female (p<0,01). When comparing the symptoms, most of the patients (63,30%) skin changes were represented before arthritis, for 27,52% patients arthritis preceded the skin changes, and for 9,17% patients the changes were simultaneous, Conclusion. Psoriatic arthropathy occurs more often in median age (31 to 50 years old) and it is more common for men than women. For most patients psoriatic skin changes preceded joints affection, with the most common ones being polyarthritis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0562.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Monkeypox vaccine; vaccine willingness; healthcare workers
Online: 29 December 2022 (14:35:18 CET)
Early experience with Covid-19 shows that vaccines can be the most effective way of preventing the spread of infection. However, vaccine hesitancy is among the most significant hurdles in preventing the spread of novel infections. Monkeypox (MPX) has already been declared a global health emergency by WHO. Thus, there is an urgent need to understand the MPX vaccine willingness in various population groups. In this cross-sectional study, an online survey was conducted among Saudi healthcare workers (HCWs) to understand the monkeypox vaccine willingness in healthcare workers in Saudi Arabia. Saudi has already confirmed multiple MPX cases, and thus it is essential to initiate timely protective measures, including vaccination. The study had 743 respondents. The study found that among Saudi HCWs, 52.7% were willing to receive the MPX vaccine. The study found that sociodemographic factors had a small impact on vaccine willingness. However, early experience with vaccination had a significant impact. Thus, more than 70% who had influenza or COVID-19 vaccine were willing to receive the MPX vaccine. Some of the most significant concerns influencing vaccine acceptability were the safety and efficacy of the vaccine. Hence, it is strongly recommended to focus on disseminating information regarding the safety and efficacy of the MPX vaccine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0224.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: fibromyalgia; myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome; autoantibodies; autoimmunity
Online: 13 December 2022 (02:47:48 CET)
(1) Background: Recent studies provide some evidence for the contribution of antibody-mediated autoimmune mechanisms to the nature of fibromyalgia (FM) and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). Much attention was paid to the autoantibodies (AAb) targeting G protein-coupled receptors as natural components of the immune system. However, natural AAb network is much more extensive, and has not been previously investigated in these disorders; (2) Methods: The enzyme immunoassays ELI-Viscero-Test and ELI-Neuro-Test were used to determine changes in serum content of a 33 natural AAb to neural, organ-specific and non-tissue-specific autoantigens a) in 11 FM patients with comorbid ME/CFS; b) in 11 ME/CFS patients without FM; c) in 11 healthy controls. Individual autoantibody profiles and their correlation with some clinical symptoms were analyzed. (3) Results: both patients with ME/CFS and ME/CFS+FM were characterized by more frequent and pronounced deviations in the immunoreactivity to GABA-receptors than healthy controls. Although the level of other natural AAb did not differ between study groups, AAb correlation signatures were changing in patients compared to healthy controls. Both in patients and healthy controls the level of natural AAb to various neural and tissue-specific antigens correlated with the severity of fatigue, bodily pain, depression, anxiety, physical and mental-health related quality of life. Notably, that widely different correlation patterns were observed between study groups. (4) Conclusions: Findings from this pilot study provide some evidence that the homeostasis of autoimmune relationships, which are possibly a physiological part of our immune system, may break down in FM and ME/CFS. The correlation of disease-induced perturbations in individual AAb profiles with some clinical symptoms may arise from the immune system's ability to reflect qualitative and quantitative changes in antigenic composition of the body.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0069.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: human adipose mesenchymal stem cell; human peripheral blood mononuclear cells; cytokine; immune cell frequency; C57BL/6 mouse; ICR mouse
Online: 5 December 2022 (09:01:51 CET)
Human adipose stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles (hASC-EVs) are key mediators of paracrine signaling with promising therapeutic applications. Although hASC-EVs are derived from human cells and are less immunogenic, their immunogenicity cannot be completely excluded. Here, we evaluate the immune responses of ICR and C57BL/6 mice to high doses of hASC-EVs for 10 days after injection. Lymphocyte subpopulations are analyzed using flow cytometry at 0.5, 1, 3 and 24 h post injection. In the spleen and blood of C57BL/6 mice, neutrophils sharply increased at 0.5 h and decreased at 3 h following hASC-EV treatment. We observe increased proportions of monocytes, macrophages, and natural killer cells at 3 h but returned to similar level of vehicle control at 24 h post injection in the spleen and blood of ICR mice. Although the in vivo experiments reveal different immune responses to hASC-EV treatment in C57BL/6 and ICR strains, no major changes occur in human peripheral blood mononuclear cell composition after applying hASC-EVs in vitro. In conclusion, unlike those in mice, immune responses to hASC-EVs in humans are not detectable, indicating a minimal risk of fatal side-effects from hASC-EV-based therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0057.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; BNT162b2; vaccination; S-RBD; SARS-CoV-2; seroconversion
Online: 1 December 2022 (10:22:30 CET)
The humoral response of the COVID-19 vaccine varies from person to person. It largely depends on prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, obtaining an adequate immune response, and leaving a trace of changing antibody concentration over time. We retrospectively analyzed five clinical cases from selected patients and employees of the oncology hospital. All mild COVID-19 convalescents received the BNT162b2-Comirnaty mRNA vaccine three or four times. The levels of SARS-CoV-2 IgM- and IgG-specific antibodies, as well as S-RBD antibodies, were analyzed for two years. The concentration of antibodies was assessed in the laboratory using the chemiluminescent immunoassay CLIA, MAGLUMI. Results: (1) Active autoimmune disease stabilized the level of IgG-specific antibodies after systemic mRNA vaccination for at least six months. (2) Post-vaccination IgG and S-RBD levels decreased when vaccination was performed within three months of onset. (3) The booster dose administered only increased the S-RBD antibody levels. Declining IgG-specific antibodies were observed. (4) The S-RBD IgG levels were not correlated with the SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels in the vaccinated convalescents. (5) Subsequent reinfection with SARS-CoV-2 after vaccination three times released a more significant specific antibody response. Based on the collected data, we suggest that monitoring S-RBD antibodies is sensitive but not equivalent to a specific humoral response for SARS-CoV-2 IgG. We suggested that administering at least three doses of the mRNA vaccine should serve as the basis for immunization. The three-month interval may be the best alternative to an immunization schedule for non-immunocompromised people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0004.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: SMI (silicone mammary implants); FBR (foreign body response); wound healing; wound infection; capsular fibrosis; implant encapsulation; early-stage fibrosis; surface adsorption; immunomics; biomarkers
Online: 1 December 2022 (02:02:11 CET)
The etiology of exaggerated fibrous capsule formation around silicone mammary implants (SMI) is multifactorial but primarily induced by immune mechanisms toward the foreign material silicone. The aim of this work was to enlighten the disease progression from implant insertion and immediate tissue damage response reflected in (a) the acute wound proteome, and (b) the adsorption of chronic inflammatory wound proteins at implant surfaces. An intra-individual absolute quantitation TMT-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry approach was applied to profile wound proteome formed around SMI the first five days post-implantation. Compared to plasma, the acute wound profile resembled a more complex composition comprising plasma-derived and locally differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). DEPs were subjected to functional enrichment analysis, which revealed the dysregulation of signaling pathways mainly involved in immediate inflammation response and ECM turnover. Moreover, we found time-course variations in protein enrichment immediately post-implantation and adsorbed to SMI surfaces after 6-8 months. Characterization of the expander-adhesive proteome by label-free approach uncovered a long-term adsorbed acute wound and the fibrosis-associated proteome. Our findings propose a wound biomarker panel for the early detection and diagnosis of excessive fibrosis that could potentially broaden insights into the characteristics of fibrotic implant encapsulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0401.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: TB-HIV integration; Challenges and barriers; Patients; O.R Tambo District; Eastern Cape; South Africa
Online: 22 November 2022 (03:08:13 CET)
Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemics in South Africa have been closely related and persistent, posing a significant burden for healthcare provision. We explored the patients perspectives on challenges and barriers of scaling up TB and HIV integrated services. A descriptive cross-sectional study applying a qualitive research approach was used. Through focus group discusssions (FGDs), we interviewed 29 patients accessing TB and HIV services at the study sites which were selected at primary health care (PHC) clinics in the O.R Tambo district in Eastern Cape, South Africa. Anonymised data was analysed using both content and thematic analysis technique. Challenges and barriers identified included a lack of health education about TB and HIV; an inadequate counselling for antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) and HIV; a lack of awareness of the National TB control program; and poor quality of services provided by the health care facilities. These findings suggest that the O.R. Tambo district needs to strengthen its TB-HIV integration immediately. Keywords: TB-HIV integration; Challenges and barriers; Patients; O.R Tambo District; Eastern Cape; South Africa
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0336.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19 Booster; Influenza and COVID-19; Vaccination Strategy; Combining Vaccination
Online: 17 November 2022 (10:31:53 CET)
Background: The uptake of COVID-19 booster vaccines has been significantly low. Therefore, it is questionable whether combining the COVID-19 booster vaccines with Influenza vaccines can increase the population's interest in taking such vaccines and manage the health pandemic effectively. Methodology: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, a synthesis of the findings and summary of a total of 30 research articles based on the topic, ‘combining influenza and COVID-19 booster vaccination strategy’ was undertaken. The research articles were identified from three databases, namely, PubMed, Cochran Library, and Google Scholar using specific keywords and inclusion criteria. However, research articles that were not peer-reviewed and not published in English were excluded from the systematic review and meta-analysis. The average risk ratio of the included articles was 0.78% based on a 95% CI. On the other hand, the heterogeneity between such studies was I2 = 35%, while the statistical significance of their findings occurred at p < 0.05. The average p-value of the included research studies was p = 0.62, implying that the null hypothesis was not rejected in almost all the studies. Results: A synthesis of the chosen research articles revealed that when influenza and COVID-19 booster vaccines are combined, there is potential for an increase in the uptake of the latter, mainly because many populations have already been accustomed to taking influenza vaccines on an annual basis. Conclusions: In this way, through such findings, medical health experts can make informed decisions to increase the population's willingness to receive the COVID-19 booster vaccines.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0120.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Medicine; Applications
Online: 28 October 2022 (09:56:54 CEST)
The medical & the dental field is a never ending field of innovations & developments and each time the reasearchers come up with something new. One such new dimension in the fields of medicine being the incorporation of Artificial intelligence assisted technologies improving diagnosis, treatmemt plan and treatment stategies. This review focusses on the application of different technologies of AI in different fields of medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0119.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: influenza; vaccine; adult; vaccine effectiveness; elderly; older adults
Online: 10 October 2022 (10:14:42 CEST)
Older adults (age ≥65) are at high risk of influenza morbidity and mortality. This study evaluated the impact of a hypothetical two-dose influenza vaccine regimen per season to reduce symptomatic flu cases by providing preseason (first dose) and mid-season (second dose) protection to offset waning vaccine effectiveness (VE). The Framework for Reconstructing Epidemiological Dynamics (FRED), an agent-based modeling platform, was used to compare typical one-dose vaccination to a two-dose vaccination strategy. Primary models incorporated waning VE of 10% per month and varied influenza season timing (December through March) to estimate cases and hospitalizations in older adults. Additional scenarios modeled reductions in uptake and VE of the second dose, and overall waning. In seasons with later peaks, two vaccine doses had the largest potential to reduce cases (14.4% with February peak, 18.7% with March peak) and hospitalizations (13.1% with February peak, 16.8% with March peak). Reductions in cases and hospitalizations still resulted but decreased when 30% of individuals failed to receive a second dose, second dose VE was reduced, or overall waning was reduced to 7% per month. Agent-based modeling indicates that two influenza vaccine doses could decrease cases and hospitalizations in older individuals. The highest impact occurred in the more frequently observed late-peak seasons. The beneficial impact of the two-dose regimen persisted despite model scenarios of reduced uptake of the second dose, decreased VE of the second dose, or overall VE waning.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0429.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; Sars-CoV-2; Natural immunity; Cellular immunity; Vaccine-induced immunity; Hybrid immunity; Cross-reactivity; Omicron
Online: 28 September 2022 (03:38:36 CEST)
Background: Both natural immunity and vaccine-induced immunity to COVID-19 may be useful to reduce the mortality/morbidity of this disease, but still a lot of controversy exists. Aims: This narrative review analyzes the literature about: a) the duration of natural immunity; b) cellular immunity; c) cross-reactivity; d) the duration of post-vaccination immune protection; e) the probability of reinfection and its clinical manifestations in the recovered patients; f) comparisons between vaccinated and unvaccinated in the possible reinfections; g) the role of hybrid immunity; h) the effectiveness of natural and vaccine-induced immunity against Omicron variant; i) comparative incidence of adverse effects after vaccination in recovered individuals vs. COVID-19-naïve subjects. Material and Methods: through multiple search engines we investigated COVID-19 literature related to the aims of the review, published since April 2020 through July 2022, including also the previous articles pertinent to the investigated topics. Results: nearly 900 studies were collected and 238 pertinent articles were included. It was highlighted that the vast majority of individuals after COVID-19 develop a natural immunity both of cell-mediated and humoral type, which is effective over time and provides protection against both reinfection and serious illness. Vaccine-induced immunity was shown to decay faster than natural immunity. In general, the severity of the symptoms of reinfection is significantly lower than in the primary infection, with a lower degree of hospitalizations (0.06%) and an extremely low mortality. Conclusions: this narrative review regarding a vast number of articles highlighted the valuable protection induced by the natural immunity after COVID-19, which seems comparable or superior to the one induced by anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Vaccination of the unvaccinated COVID-19-recovered subjects may not be indicated. Further research is needed in order to: a) measure the durability of immunity over time; b) evaluate both the impacts of Omicron-5 on vaccinated and healed subjects and of hybrid immunity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0139.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG); tuberculosis; Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM); nonspecific effects; Trained Immunity; Type 1 Diabetes; Multiple Sclerosis; Parkinson’s Disease; Alzheimer’s disease; Mycobacterium avium ss. paratuberculosis (MAP); molecular mimicry; Global Burden of Disease
Online: 12 September 2022 (09:36:16 CEST)
The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine has been used for over one hundred years to protect against the most lethal infectious agent in human history, tuberculosis. Over four billion BCG doses have been given and, worldwide, most newborns receive BCG. A few countries, including the United States, did not adopt the WHO recommendation for routine use of BCG. Moreover, within the past several decades, most of Western Europe and Australia, having originally employed routine BCG, have discontinued its use. This review article articulates the impacts of those decisions. The associated consequences include increased tuberculosis, increased infections caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), increased autoimmune disease (autoimmune diabetes and multiple sclerosis) and increased neurodegenerative disease (Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease). This review also offers an emerged zoonotic pathogen, Mycobacterium avium ss. paratuberculosis (MAP) as a mostly unrecognized NTM that may have a causal role in some, if not all, of these diseases. Current clinical trials with BCG for varied infectious, autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases have brought this century-old vaccine to the fore due to its presumed immuno-modulating capacity. With its historic success and strong safety profile, the new and novel applications for BCG may lead to its universal use –putting the Western World back onto the road not taken.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0463.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19 vaccines; vaccine effectiveness; BNT162b2 vaccine; mRNA-1273 vaccine; ChAdOx1 vaccine; 19 Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S assay; reactogenicity; vaccine-associated symptoms
Online: 26 August 2022 (14:14:39 CEST)
This prospective study provides data on long-term humoral immunogenicity of a heterologous off-label vaccine regimen combining the adenoviral vectored ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 from Astra-Zeneca (ChAd) with the mRNA-1273 vaccine from Moderna (m1273) in comparison to two different homologous mRNA vaccine schedules. Of the 316 COVID-19 naïve adult health care workers (HCW) included to complete a survey on vaccine-associated symptoms (VAS), 197 had received the homologous BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine from Pfizer/BioNTech (BNT/BNT), 76 the homologous m1273/m1273, and 43 the heterologous ChAd/m1273 vaccine regimen. Concentration of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in plasma 5-7 months after the second vaccine dose was higher in the m1273/m1273 and ChAd/m1273 than the BNT/BNT vaccine group. The frequency of systemic VAS after first vaccine dose was 86% after ChAd compared to 35% and 39% after BNT and m1273, respectively (p < 0.0001), and after second vaccine dose highest (89%) in the m1273/m1273 group (p < 0.001). Individuals with systemic VAS achieved higher levels of antibodies irrespective of vaccine regimen. In conclusion, VAS serve as a strong predictor of long-term humoral immune response, and the heterologous ChAd/m1273 vaccine regimen provides an at least equal long-term humoral immune response compared with the standard vaccine regimens used in Denmark.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0380.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Osteoarthritis; pathophysiology; subchondral bone; synovium; inflammation
Online: 22 August 2022 (10:44:18 CEST)
ABSTRACT: Understanding the basis of osteoarthritis (OA) has seen some interesting advancements in recent years. It has been observed that cartilage degeneration is preceded by subchondral bone lesions, suggesting a key role of this mechanism within the pathogenesis and progression of OA, including the formation of ectopic bone and osteophytes. Moreover, low-grade, chronic inflammation of the synovial lining has gained a central role in the definition of OA pathophysiology, and central immunological mechanisms, innate but also adaptive, are now considered crucial in driving inflammation and tissue destruction. In addition, the role of neuroinflammation and central sensitization mechanisms has been characterized as underlying causes of pain chronicity. This has led to a renewed definition of OA, which is now intended as a complex multifactorial joint pathology caused by inflammatory and metabolic factors underlying joint damage. Since this evidence can directly affect the definition of the correct therapeutic approach to OA, an improved understanding of these pathophysiological mechanisms is fundamental. This review provides an overview of the most updated evidence on OA pathogenesis; it presents the most recent insight on the pathophysiology of OA, describing the interplay between immunological and biochemical mechanisms proposed to drive inflammation and tissue destruction, as well as central sensitization mechanisms. Moreover, although the therapeutic implications consequent to the renewed definition of OA are beyond this review scope, some suggestions for intervention have been addressed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0305.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: drug repurposing; combination therapeutics; PubMed; ChEBI; disease ontology; gene ontology; drug interaction; MeSH terms; COVID-19
Online: 17 August 2022 (05:51:53 CEST)
This paper presents a computational approach designed to construct and query a literature-based knowledge graph for predicting novel drug therapeutics. The main objective is to offer a platform that discovers drug combinations from FDA-approved drugs and accelerates their investigations by domain scientists. Specifically, the paper introduced the following algorithms: (1) an algorithm for constructing the knowledge graph from drug, gene, and disease mentions in the biomedical literature; (2) an algorithm for vetting the knowledge graph from drug combinations that may pose a risk of drug interaction; (3) and two querying algorithms for searching the knowledge graph by a single drug or a combination of drugs. The resulting knowledge graph had 844 drugs, 306 gene/protein features, and 19 disease mentions. The original number of drug combinations generated was 2,001. We queried the knowledge graph to eliminate noise generated from chemicals that are not drugs. This step resulted in 614 drug combinations. When vetting the knowledge graph to eliminate the potentially risky drug combinations, it resulted in predicting 200 combinations. Our domain expert manually eliminated extra 54 combinations which left only 146 combination candidates. Our three-layered knowledge graph, empowered by our algorithms, offered a tool that predicted drug combination therapeutics for scientists who can further investigate from the viewpoint of drug targets and side effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0406.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: unroofing curettage; Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease; pilonidal sinus; complex pilonidal disease; lay open technique; recurrence
Online: 29 June 2022 (10:31:26 CEST)
Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease is a chronic inflammatory condition with an incidence of 26:100,000 in the United States. However, its etiology and optimal treatment remain controversial. We included 129 and 74 patients with simple and complex sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease, respectively. The primary outcome was pilonidal sinus recurrence after unroofing curettage. Secondary outcomes were pain scores, time to return to work/school, and time to complete recovery. At a median follow-up of 53 months, the recurrence rate was 4.9% in all patients, not significantly higher in subjects with the complex disease. Duration of surgery (15.4 vs. 12.2 min), time to return to school/work (9.8 vs. 7.7 days), and complete healing time (44 vs. 36 days) were longer in patients with the complex disease. Postoperative complication rates, pain scores, and quality of life scores between the two groups did not differ. Unroofing curettage may be a good first-choice treatment for both simple and complex sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0334.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: non-smoking COPD; phenotypes; air pollution; biomass; occupational exposure
Online: 24 June 2022 (08:18:34 CEST)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is strongly associated with tobacco smoking and it is the increasing cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The prevalence of COPD among never smokers varies widely across regions, areas, and nations. COPD in smokers has been extensively explored worldwide, however, COPD in non-smokers is under-explored and there is limited data available on non-smoking COPD. We determined the role of environmental pollution and biomass fuel exposure in COPD patients who were non-smokers. We evaluated the clinical profile of non-smokers with COPD in a retrospective observational study. 180 non-smoker COPD patients were selected from the year 2016-to 2018. We found that many patients with COPD are non-smokers and the incidence is higher among the rural population, suggesting that non-smoking COPD is evolving rapidly due to biomass smoke and other environmental pollutant exposures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0176.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: machine learning; ankylosing spondylitis; diagnostic model; immune microenvironment; informatics
Online: 13 June 2022 (09:42:04 CEST)
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder with unknown etiology and hard to early diagnose. It’s imperative to investigate the changes in AS patients’ peripheral blood, which may contribute to the diagnosis and further understanding of AS. Common differential expressed genes between normal and AS patients in GSE73754 and GSE25101 were screened by machine learning algorithms. IL2RB and ZDHHC18 were hubgenes screened and a diagnostic model was established. C-indexes and calibration analyses suggested high prediction accuracy of the model in training and validation cohorts. The AUC values of the model in GSE73754, GSE25101, GSE18781 and GSE11886 were 0.86, 0.84, 0.85 and 0.89 respectively. Decision curve analyses suggested high net benefit by the model. Functional analysis of the differential expressed genes indicated that they were mainly clustered in processes related to immune response. Immune microenvironment analysis revealed that neutrophils were expanded and activated in AS, while some T cells were decreased. IL2RB and ZDHHC18 were potential blood biomarkers for AS and might be used for early diagnosis and a supplementary diagnostic tool to the existing methods. Our study deepened the insight into the pathogenesis of AS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0123.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Influenza vaccines; Vaccine hesitancy; Healthcare workers (HCWs); South Africa
Online: 8 June 2022 (10:03:21 CEST)
Vaccination attitudes among healthcare workers (HCWs) is a vital factor for measuring their level of vaccination uptake and intention to recommend vaccinations to their patients. To our knowledge, no study has been conducted in South Africa to assess hesitancy to influenza vaccines among HCWs. We used questionnaire adapted from Betsch and colleagues to conduct an online and face-to-face cross-sectional study among HCWs at the start of COVID-19 vaccine roll-out prior to the flu season. Main outcome was influenza vaccine hesitancy. We used multivariate logistic regression to assess predictors of influenza vaccine hesitancy. Of 401 participants, 64.5% were women, 49.2% nurses, and 12.5% physicians. A total of 54.9% were willing to accept vaccination, 20.4% were undecided, and 24.7% intended to refuse. Older participants above 17-25 years and physicians were likely to receive the vaccine. Key predictors of vaccine acceptance were confidence in the effectiveness, consideration of benefits and risks, and willingness to be vaccinated to protect others. Influenza vaccine hesitancy was highest in those who did not trust that influenza vaccines are safe. For future flu seasons, tailored education programs targeting younger HCWs and more information about the composition of flu vaccines would be vital to improve vaccine uptake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0080.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19 reactions; ITP syndromes 2; COVID-vaccine women susceptibility
Online: 6 June 2022 (09:43:09 CEST)
Vaccination is the most promising approach for ending or containing the SARS-CoV2 pandemic. However, serious post-COVID vaccine reactions including immunocytopenia (ITP) syndrome has been increasingly reported. Several factors cause increased risks including multiple doses, age-dependent heterogeneity in immune-responses, platelet cross-reactions with microbial components, and Long-COVID syndrome. Thus, in the absence of a widely available specific therapeutics, vigilance is important while more studies are imperative. Using a structured questionnaire sent to different regions in Saudi Arabia, we conducted a comprehensive investigation on the frequency, rates, disease patterns, and patient demographics of post-COVID-19 side effects on febrile patients after three major vaccines. Results indicated the majority administered Pfizer BioNtech vaccine (81%, n=809); followed by AstraZeneca (16%, n=155); and Moderna (3%, n=34). In overall 998 participants, 74% (n=737) had no serious symptoms; however, 26.2% (n=261) revealed typical syndrome. In a focused group of 722, shortness of breath (20%), bruises or bleeding (18%), inattention (18%), GIT symptoms (17.6%), skin irritation (8.6%), and anosmia and ageusia (8%) were the most prominent. The onset time was mostly in 1-3 days in 49% (n=128), followed by 4-7 days in 21.8% (n=57), 8-14 days in 16.5% (n=43), and more than a month in 12.6% (n=33). The onsets occurred mostly after the first, second, or both doses 9%, 10%, and 7%, respectively. The frequency of symptoms was significantly higher among after Moderna ® vaccine (P-value = 0.00006) and it was significantly lower in participants who received Pfizer (P-value 0.00231). We did not find significant difference in symptoms related to differences in regions. Similarly, the region, age, gender, education, and nationality had no influence in the dose and onset timings. The findings of this study have significant clinical implications in disease management strategies, preventive measures, and vaccine development. Future vertical studies would reveal more insights into the mechanisms of post-COVID vaccine syndrome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0029.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Anorexia; adolescents; pediatric; liver injury; aminotransferase; renal injury; refeeding
Online: 2 June 2022 (07:58:28 CEST)
Background: Only few pediatric reports exist regarding the prevalence, cause and evolution of liver and renal injury in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence and the risk factors of hepatic and renal failure at admission and during hospitalization, especially during refeeding in a cohort of hospitalized adolescents with AN.Methods: In a retrospective cohort study of adolescents with AN in a single hospital of Marseille from 2013 to 2019, we compared four groups on admission: elevated aminotransferases (AT)/normal AT and renal injury/no renal injury to analyze the differences between them (demographic factors, anthropometric factors, disease duration, initial prescribed calories, speed of refeeding, aminotransferase level, glomerular filtration rate). We observed the evolution of AT and renal injury for these four groups during refeeding (by the increase of kilocalories). Results: A total of 29 subjects with AN met eligibility criteria (age: 14.2 years, female (86.2%), BMI at admission (Z-score= -2.8 standard deviation (SD)) with elevated AT (20.7 %) and renal injury (13.8 %) on admission. Lower Z-score BMI (-4.05 vs -2 SD, p = 0.013), lower expected weight for height (69% vs 76%, p = 0.034) and longer disease duration (2.1 vs 0.9 years, p =0,032) were significantly associated with elevated liver enzymes at admission. Lower Z-score BMI (-3.35 vs -2.5 SD, p = 0.002), lower expected weight for height at admission (69% vs 74,5%, p = 0.002) and loss of weight before admission (0.66 vs à 0.20 kg per day, p = 0.002) were associated with renal injury at admission. Time nadir BMI (13.5 vs 6.5 days, p = 0.034) and duration of hospitalization (55 vs 41 days, p = 0.036) were longer in elevated enzymes on admission group. During refeeding, liver enzymes (95% confidence interval (CI), odds ratio (OR) aspartate aminotransferase: -0.07 [-0.11; -0.03] and OR alanine aminotransferase: -0.16 [-0.27; -0.06]) and renal injury (95% CI, OR creatinine: -0.013 [-0.017; -0.008]) have normalized with the increase of calories, with significant association.Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that degree of malnutrition is associated with liver and renal injury on admission. Theses failures disappeared with refeeding. In the future, prospective multicentric studies could examine evolution of renal and hepatic failure undergoing refeeding in large pediatric cohort of AN.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0024.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: second COVID-19 booster; vaccination; COVID-19; willingness; predictors; general population
Online: 2 June 2022 (04:07:07 CEST)
Given the concerns of waning immunity from the primary COVID-19 vaccines and the first booster dose, we conducted an on-line cross-sectional study in May 2022 to investigate willingness to receive a second COVID-19 booster dose or a new COVID-19 vaccine and its associated factors. Overall, 22.7% of participants were willing to be vaccinated, 39.3% were unsure, but tend to be willing, 25.8% were unsure, 4.9% were unsure, but tend to be unwilling, and 7.4% were unwilling to be vaccinated. The main reasons against accepting a second COVID‐19 booster dose or a new COVID-19 vaccine COVID-19 dose included concerns about the side effects, the opinion that further vaccination is unnecessary, and effectiveness uncertainties. Males, younger individuals, participants without a previous COVID-19 diagnosis, and those with good/very good self-perceived physical health were significantly more frequently willing to receive a second COVID‐19 booster dose or a new COVID-19 vaccine. Also, increased fear of the COVID-19, increased trust in COVID-19 vaccination and decreased fear of a second booster dose or a new COVID-19 vaccine were associated with increased willingness. Our results show some hesitancy and unwillingness toward further COVID-19 vaccination and indicate that fear of COVID-19 and trust in COVID-19 vaccination affect public opinion
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0269.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: inflammation; calcium-sensing receptor; burns; chemokines; NLRP3 inflammasome
Online: 20 May 2022 (04:01:33 CEST)
Burn injury serves as an example of a condition with a robust inflammatory response. The elevation of circulating interleukins (IL)- 1 beta and -6 in children with severe burn injury up-regulate the parathyroid calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) resulting in hypocalcemic hypoparathyroidism with urinary calcium wasting. This effect protects the body from the hypercalcemia resulting from bone resorption liberating calcium into the circulation. Extracellular calcium can exacerbate and prolong the inflammatory response by stimulating mononuclear cell chemokine production as well as the NLRP3 inflammasome of the innate immune system, resulting in increased IL-1 production by monocytes and macrophages. Interestingly, the CaSR response to inflammatory cytokines disappears with age, potentially trapping calcium from bone resorption in the circulation and allowing it to contribute to increased inflammation and possibly increased calcium deposition in small arteries, , such as the coronaries, as conditions with increased chronic inflammation, such as spinal cord injury, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis have an incidence of cardiovascular disease and coronary artery calcium deposition significantly higher than the unaffected age-matched population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0411.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Vaccines; anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike total antibodies; Surrogate viral neutralizing antibody; T-cell immune response; CoronaVac; ChAdOx1; BNT162b2; booster
Online: 31 March 2022 (14:28:11 CEST)
Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (CoronaVac) is commonly used in national immunization programs. However, the immune response significantly declined within a few months. Our study assessed the immune response against SARS-CoV-2 after receiving booster shots of BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 among health care workers who previously received CoronaVac as their primary immunization. Fifty-six participants received ChAdOx1 and forty-two participants received BNT162b2 were enrolled into this study which evaluated the immune responses including anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike total antibodies (Elecsys®), surrogated viral neutralization test (sVNT) to ancestral strain (cPass™; GenScript) and five variants of concern (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron) (Luminex; multiplex sVNT) and the ELISpot with spike (S1 and S2) peptide pool against the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 strain. The samples were analyzed at baseline, 4, and 12 weeks after primary immunization as well as 4 and 12 weeks after receiving the booster. This study showed a significantly higher B-cell response among the BNT162b2 than the ChAdOx1 booster group, particularly against the Omicron variant, as well as a trend of good T-cell immune response in the BNT162b2 group. Moreover, the immune response rapidly declined at 12 weeks after the booster. A fourth dose or a second booster should be recommended, especially for reducing Omicron severity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0342.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: albumin-globulin ratio; postoperative pancreatic fistula; pancreaticoduodenectomy
Online: 25 March 2022 (09:00:37 CET)
Background and aim: The albumin-globulin ratio (AGR) is one of the indicators of inflammation and immunity and it has a prognostic significance in many malignant diseases. Previous studies have shown the relationship between inflammatory mediators and POPF. This study aimed to evaluate the relation of AGR, which is a relatively new indicator, with postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF). Methods: Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) patients between 2017 and 2020 were retrospectively analyzed and divided into two groups as those with and without clinically relevant POPF (CR-POPF). They were compared in terms of preoperative-postoperative AGR and clinicodemographic characteristics. AGR was calculated as Albumin / (Total protein-albumin) and the cutoff point for AGR was determined according to Youden’s index. Results: CR-POPF developed in 21% of 121 patients who underwent PD. There was no difference between the groups in terms of age, gender, comorbid disease status, pancreatic duct width, and anastomosis technique. Preoperative and postoperative day-3 (POD3) albumin levels and AGR were found to be significantly lower in the CR-POPF group. Multivariate analysis showed that AGR and pancreatic tissue stiffness are independent risk factors for the development of POPF. Conclusions: Low AGR is an independent risk factor for the development of CR-POPF. To reduce the incidence of POPF, this ratio should be tried to be kept at an optimal level.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0071.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis; precision medicine; new treatment; drug development; method development
Online: 4 March 2022 (03:13:22 CET)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic, abnormal inflammatory immune response. It is characterized by the involvement of the synovium and multiple organs and the destruction of joints and articular cartilage. In the past 30 years, several promising novel compounds and antibodies have been developed for the treatment of RA. The introduction of new drugs and precision medicine for all forms of RA raises several issues related to access to novel treatments by patients, optical regimen selection, cost-effectiveness, prognosis monitoring and outcome surveillance, particularly with regard to the development of low drug response rates, drug resistance and adverse side effects. Tremendous attention has been given to the identification of optimized drug combinations for the treatment of RA, particularly in early high-risk vulnerable and early individuals. Addressing these issues requires novel therapeutic approaches with new mechanisms and the establishment of accurate guidelines for drug selection, drug recombination, and non-chemical therapeutic efforts. In this study, we reviewed the most exciting recently established or ongoing novel drugs and approaches according to the clinical trial database maintained by the United States National Library of Medicine and discussed the trends in RA drug development and challenges in the treatment, providing a reference significant for the accurate treatment of RA and the research direction in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0333.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: antibody; BNT162b2; coronavirus disease 2019; severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; vaccine hesitancy; vaccine booster
Online: 25 February 2022 (10:01:23 CET)
This was a retrospective cohort study, which aimed to investigate the factors associated with hesitancy to receive the third dose of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine. A paper-based questionnaire survey was administered to all participants. Accordingly, the study included participants who provided answer in the questionnaire whether they have an intent to receive the third dose of vaccine. Data on sex, age, area of residence, adverse reactions after the second vaccination, whether the third vaccination was desired, and reasons to accept or hesitate booster vaccination were retrieved. Among the 2439 participants with mean (±SD) age of 52.6±18.9 years, and median IgG-S antibody titer of 324.9 (AU/mL), 97.9% of participants indicated their intent to accept a third vaccination dose. The logistic regression revealed that younger age (OR=0.98; 95% CI: 0.96-1.00) and higher antibody level (OR=2.52; 95% CI: 1.27-4.99) are positively associated with the third vaccine hesitancy. The efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccine and concerns about adverse reactions had significant impact on the third vaccination behavior. A rapid increase in the booster dose rate is needed to control the pandemic, and specific approaches should be taken in these groups that are likely to hesitate the third vaccine, subsequently increasing booster contact rate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0276.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: synovial fluid; crystals; biomarker; PSA
Online: 22 February 2022 (11:40:15 CET)
Analyzing synovial fluid from joints affected by the pathological process of psoriatic arthritis is part of the overall patient examination, since it may have differential diagnostic significance. The purpose of this study was to assess the presence of crystals in the synovial fluid of psoriatic arthritis patients as biomarkers for disease activity. Materials and methods: The synovial fluid of 156 patients with proven PSA diagnosis (patients covered CASPAR criteria) was analyzed over 24 months and compared to 50 patients with activated gonarthrosis. The Leica DM4500P polarization microscope (Leica Microsystems, Germany) was used for crystal detection. Pain and disease activity measures were also evaluated (PSA VAS for pain, DAPSA, PASDAI, mCPDAI, and HAQ-DI). The statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 26 with a significance set at p < 0.05. Results: The macroscopic appearance of synovial fluid from patients with psoriatic arthritis was clear in 84.6% of the patients. Synovial fluid crystals were found in 23.71% of patients with psoriatic arthritis - predominantly monosodium urate (67.58%) but also calcium pyrophosphate (21.62%) and lipid drops (5.4%). The presence of monosodium urate crystals significantly correlates with all pain and disease activity measures – VAS for pain, DAPSA, PASDAI, mCPDAI, and HAQ-DI. In 67.56% of patients with established crystals treatment with an anti-TNF blocker was started at the discretion of the treating rheumatologist due to high levels of disease activity. Conclusion: Examining the synovial fluid in PSA patients is a necessary minimally invasive procedure in cases of joint effusion, since the presence of synovial fluid crystals is a significant indicator of disease severity. The current analyses demonstrate that the presence of synovial fluid crystals in PSA patients can be used as a biomarker for disease severity and the necessity to commence biological treatment (most often TNF-a-blocker).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0134.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: DOLAVI; Dolutegravir; Lamivudine; Real World Data; HIV
Online: 9 February 2022 (10:45:33 CET)
Background: Objectives were to determine the real-life effectiveness and safety of DT with dolutegravir (50 mg/QD) plus lamivudine (300 mg/QD) in multiple-tablet regimen (MTR) in naïve PLHIV followed up for 48 weeks and to evaluate the compliance and satisfaction of patients. Material and methods: Open, single-arm, multicenter, non-randomized clinical trial from May 2019 through September 2020 with 48-week follow-up. Results: The study included 88 PLHIV (91% male) with mean age of 35.9 years; 76.1% were MSM. Mean baseline CD4 was 516.4 cells/uL, with viral load (VL) of 104,828 cop/mL, and 11.4% were in AIDS stage. DT started within 7 days of first specialist consultation in all patients and the same day in 84.1%; 3.4% had baseline resistance mutations (K103N, V106I+E138A, and V108I); 12.5% were lost to follow-up. At week 48, 86.3% had VL< 50 cop/uL by intention-to-treat analysis and 98.7% by per-protocol (PP) analysis. Virological failure (VF) was recorded in 1.1%, with no resistance mutation. One blip was detected in 5.2%, without VF. Three reported anxiety, dizziness, and cephalgia, respectively, at week 4 and one insomnia at week 24; none reported adverse events at week 48. Mean weight was 4 kg higher at 48 weeks (p=0.0001) and abdominal circumference 3 cm larger at 24 weeks (p=0.022). No forgetfulness occurred in 98.7% of patients. Patient satisfaction was 90/100 at 4, 24, and 48 weeks. Conclusion: Real-world data demonstrate that dolutegravir plus lamivudine in MTR is effective, safe, and satisfactory, moderately increasing weight and abdominal circumference and administrable on a test-and-treat strategy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0061.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: HIV; approach; strategies; patient; methodologies
Online: 3 February 2022 (15:44:38 CET)
HIV infection invariably attracts the attention of medical staff in complex medical specialties. To achieve the goal of elimination by 2020, various approaches are required, including the establishment of prevention, diagnosis, monitoring, treatment, control measures. These should be supported by statistical studies that report on restricted or extended geographical areas, to the level of social class and age. Such an approach, combing the medical and social science perspectives (medicosocial) can prove useful for developing control measures. Due to the complexity of this immunodeficiency pathology, the condition also attracts comorbidities (most notably tuberculosis). Hence, prospective strategies need to be developed and oriented towards the goal of eradicating HIV infection. This paper presents strategies for consideration.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0177.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: variant effect maps; cardiac arrest; cardiovascular genetics
Online: 12 January 2022 (15:42:46 CET)
While genetic testing is becoming standard of care for patients with potentially inherited cardiovascular disease, the prevalence of uncertain results severely limits its utility. One promising approach is to generate variant effect maps that report the function of all possible variants in a gene prospectively. The proactive clinical application of these maps is nascent, and requires careful integration with current American College of Medical Genetics guidelines for variant interpretation. Here, we describe three pediatric cases of cardiac arrest or sudden cardiac death with variants of uncertain significance in calmodulin genes. We demonstrate the prospective clinical utility of a calmodulin variant effect map to inform variant interpretation, and therefore diagnosis and family care, in each case. This study was approved by the Stanford University and Vanderbilt University Medical Center IRBs. Consent was waived based on low risk of de-identified retrospective data collection per the IRB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0483.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Hymenoptera; insect; bee; wasp; hornet; epidemiology; fatalities; venomous animals; public health
Online: 30 December 2021 (12:17:52 CET)
Epidemiology of Hymenopteran-related deaths in Europe due to bee, wasp and hornet stings (Cause Code of Death: X23) based on official registers from WHO Mortality Database is described. Over a 23-year period (1994-2016), a total of 1,691 fatalities were officially recorded, mostly occurring in Western (42.8%) and Eastern (31.9%) Europe. The victims tended to concentrate in: Germany (n=327; 1998-2015), France (n=211; 2000-2014) and Romania (n=149; 1999-2016). The majority of deaths occurred in males (78.1%), within the age group of 25-64 years (66.7%), and in an “unspecified place” (44.2%). The X23 gender ratio (X23GR) of mortality varied from a minimum of 1.4 for Norway to a maximum of 20 for Slovenia. The highest X23MR, expressed in terms of annual rates and per million inhabitants, were recorded in countries from Eastern Europe (0.35) followed by Western (0.28), Northern (0.23) and Southern Europe (0.2). The countries with the highest and lowest mean X23MR were Estonia (0.61), Austria (0.6) and Slovenia (0.55); and Ireland (0.05), United Kingdom (0.06) and the Netherlands (0.06), respectively. Country-by-country data show that the incidence of insect-sting mortality is statistically low, but not negligible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0362.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis; inflammation, oxidative stress; red blood cells; estrogen receptors.
Online: 22 December 2021 (12:25:17 CET)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease associated with a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular mortality, mainly attributed to accelerated atherosclerosis. Methods: Thirty-two women (aged more than 18 years) with RA, and 25 age-matched healthy women were included in this study. Biomarkers of inflammation, red blood cells (RBCs) redox balance, estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α) expression as well as ERK 1/2 phosphorylation content were evaluated in RA patients at baseline and six months after treatment with disease modifying anti‐rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Results: For the first times we demonstrated that in RA patients: i) disease activity score (DAS-28) positively correlated with RBC ER-α expression, and negatively with total antioxidant capacity of plasma; ii) RBC ER-α expression positively correlated with systemic inflammatory biomarkers and oxidative stress parameters as well as ERK 1/2 phosphorylation; and iii) DMARDs treatments improved the clinical condition measured by DAS-28 score decrease, although the RBCs appeared to be more prone to pro-oxidant status associated to the expression of survival molecules. Conclusion: Our data strongly suggest that RBCs could also participate in vascular homeostasis through fine modulation of an intracellular signal linked to the ER-α.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0285.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: patient empowerment; home-administration; patient preferences; adherence; biologics
Online: 17 December 2021 (11:06:55 CET)
Severe asthma patients are at increased risk of major exacerbations and they need to be monitored regularly. The COVID-19 pandemic has impressively impacted on the health care resources. The telemedicine approach applied to the follow-up of asthmatic patients has been proved to be effective in monitoring their disease and adherence to the therapy. The aim of our study was to investigate the satisfaction of severe asthma patients, before the activation of a telemedicine management complemented by a standard of care. An ad hoc questionnaire was developed and sent by e-mail to 180 severe asthma patients. Most of subjects (82%) were confident with the idea of doing self-measurements and self-managing their disease; 77% of subjects favoured to carry out virtual visit and telemedicine. 93% of patients considered easy the self-injection therapy. 94% of subjects felt safe and 93% were not worried while self-administering. Only mild adverse events were reported in 22% subjects after self-administration. Our results showed an agreement between what is considered necessary and practicable by healthcare personnel and what is perceived by the severe asthma patients, in terms of treatment and monitoring of the disease with Telehealth. Biologics have a safety profile and can be easily self-administred at home
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0202.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: helminth; self-treatment; clinical trials; inflammation; dose escalation
Online: 13 December 2021 (12:46:41 CET)
The virtually complete loss of intestinal worms, known as helminths, from Western society has resulted in elimination of a range of helminth-induced morbidities. Unfortunately, that loss has also led to inflammation-associated deficiencies in immune function, ultimately contributing to widespread pandemics of allergies, autoimmunity, and neuropsychiatric disorders. Several socio-medical studies have examined the effects of intentional reworming, or self-treatment with helminths, on a variety of inflammation-related disorders. In this study, the latest results from ongoing socio-medical studies are described. The results point toward two important factors that appear to be overlooked in some if not most clinical trials. Specifically, (a) the method of preparation of the helminth can have a profound effect on its therapeutic efficacy, and (b) variation between individuals in the effective therapeutic dosage apparently covers a 10-fold range, regardless of the helminth used. These results highlight current limits in our understanding of the biology of both hosts and helminths, and suggest that information from self-treatment may be critical for clinical evaluation of the benefits and limits of helminth therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0167.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: drug delivery; allergen; glycyrrhizic acid; allergen-specific immunotherapy
Online: 10 December 2021 (08:50:57 CET)
The most effective method of treating allergic diseases, aimed not at relieving symptoms, but at eliminating the cause of the disease, is allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT). To reduce the risk of side effects and improve the delivery of allergens to the mucosa, various delivery systems, such as liposomes, dendrimers, nanoparticles, etc., can be used. To date, there are data on the creation of delivery systems based on glycyrrhizic acid (GA) and its derivatives, but such a delivery system has not been used for allergen-specific therapy until now. At the same time, it is known that GA has an anti-inflammatory effect, shifts the balance towards Th1, and increases the number of Treg cells, which means that in the future it can enhance the anti-allergic effect of AIT and reduce the risk of unwanted side effects. Thus, the study of the immunomodulatory effect of supramolecular complexes (micelles) of GA with extracts of allergens seems to be very promising for the development of new drugs for AIT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0122.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: hepatitis B virus; besifovir dipivoxil maleate (BSV); nucleos(t)ide analog; drug resistance; reverse transcription
Online: 8 December 2021 (12:06:52 CET)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is known to cause severe liver diseases such as acute or chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection is a major health problem with nearly 300 million individuals infected worldwide. Currently, nucleos(t)ide analogs (NAs) and interferon alpha are clinically approved treatments for HBV infection. NAs are potent antiviral agents that bind to HBV polymerase and block viral reverse transcription and replication. Besifovir dipivoxil maleate (BSV) is a newly developed NA against HBV in the form of acyclic nucleotide phosphonate that is available for oral administration similar to adefovir and tenofovir. Until now, resistance to BSV treatment has not been reported. In this study, we found a CHB patient who showed viral breakthrough after long-term treatment with BSV. The isolated HBV DNA from patient’s serum were cloned into the replication-competent HBV 1.2mer and the sequence of reverse transcriptase (RT) domain of HBV polymerase were analyzed. We also examined the drug susceptibility of generated clones in vitro. Several mutations were identified in HBV RT domain. A particular mutant harboring ten RT mutations showed resistance to BSV treatment in vitro. The ten mutations include rtV23I (I), rtH55R (R), rtY124H (H), rtD134E (E), rtN139K (K), rtL180M (M), rtM204V (V), rtQ267L (L), rtL269I (I) and rtL336M (M). To further identify the responsible mutations for BSV resistance, we performed in vitro drug susceptibility assay on several artificial clones. As a result, our study revealed that rtL180M (M) and rtM204V (V) mutations, already known as lamivudine-resistant mutations, confer resistance to BSV in the CHB patient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0009.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: neutrophils; priming; innate immunity; immune-memory
Online: 1 December 2021 (11:00:01 CET)
Neutrophils as innate immune cells primarily act as first responders in acute infection and directly maintain inflammatory responses. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that neutrophils also bear the potential to mediate chronic inflammation by exhibiting memory-like features. We recently showed that priming by serial doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from gram-negative bacteria can trigger opposing memory-like responses (exaggerated inflammation, i.e. trained sensitivity or suppression of inflammation, i.e. tolerance) depending on the LPS-dose. We now asked whether this observation could also hold true for lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from gram-positive S. aureus. We found comparable effects of LTA on neutrophil priming as seen for LPS. Low-dose (1 ng/mL) LTA-priming promoted increased production of pro-inflammatory mediators (i.e., TNF-α, IL-6, ROS), whereas high-dose (10 µg/mL) results in contrary reactions supporting anti-inflammatory responses by increased IL-10 and declined pro-inflammatory capacity. In vitro neutrophil recruitment was similarly regulated by LTA -priming. Investigation of signalling patterns revealed TLR2/MyD88-mediated regulation of NFκB-p65 through intermediate PI3Ks/MAPK. Collectively, our data suggest a previously unknown capacity of neutrophils to be differentially primed by varying doses of LTA, endorsing memory-like features in neutrophils.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0454.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: supportive supervision; health systems strengthening; document analysis; LMIC; maternal and child health
Online: 24 November 2021 (12:45:25 CET)
Background: Supportive supervision has lately been gaining traction in various national health systems as an effective way of boosting the performance of community health workers in a constructive and sustainable way. However, not much is known about the basis/mandate of supportive supervision and its approach in maternal and child health programs in India. The current analysis contributes to a clearer understanding of the paradigms within which supportive supervision is envisioned to operate within India and identifies potential strengths and areas requiring attention. Method: Document analysis of implementation documents such as guidelines/ operational manuals/operationalization modules/ training modules of nationally implemented maternal and child health programs, with data extraction according to a pre-determined domain-based template. Results: Many of the documents reviewed do not mention supportive supervision at all. In the few documents where supportive supervision is mentioned, the paradigms within which it is supposed to operate (who will do it, when will it be done, how to do it, training and logistic support, reporting formats, etc.) have not been clearly identified in most programs. Conclusion: Even though supportive supervision is being increasingly identified as an effective way of performative improvement in national health programs in India, more effort needs to be put into identifying and enforcing the tenets of supportive supervision in practice, in order to bring about the desired change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0307.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Histoplasmosis; Antigen; HIV; Opportunistic infections
Online: 17 November 2021 (12:44:23 CET)
Among people with HIV, histoplasmosis represents an important cause of mortality. Previous studies have provided estimates of the disease incidence. Here, we compared those estimates with the results obtained from a screening program implemented in Guatemala, which included histoplasmosis detection for people with HIV. To compare the results of this program, with previous estimations, a literature search was done and reports about histoplasmosis incidence were analyzed. The screening program enrolled 6,366 patients. The overall histoplasmosis incidence in the screening program was 7.4%, which was almost double than those estimated by the previous studies. From 2017 to 2019, the screening program showed an upward trend in histoplasmosis cases from 6.5% to 8.8%. Histoplasmosis overall mortality among those who were newly HIV diagnosed showed a decrease at 180 days from 32.8% in 2017 to 21.2% in 2019. The screening approach using rapid diagnostic assays detects quickly more cases of histoplasmosis, allowing a specific treatment, which decreases the mortality of the disease. Therefore, the use of these new techniques, especially in endemic areas of histoplasmosis, must be implemented.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: behavior; neurodevelopment; infant; child; autism
Online: 19 October 2021 (10:13:55 CEST)
Background: Although widely believed to be safe for use in infants and children when used as directed, increasing evidence indicates that early life exposure to paracetamol (acetaminophen) may cause long-term neurodevelopmental problems. Further, recent studies in animal models demonstrate that cognitive development is exquisitely sensitive to paracetamol exposure during early development. In this study, evidence for the claim that paracetamol is safe was evaluated using a systematic literature search. Methods: Publications on PubMed between 1974 and 2017 that contained the keywords “infant” and either “paracetamol” or “acetaminophen” were considered. Of those initial 3096 papers, 218 were identified that made claims that paracetamol was safe for use with infants or children. From these 218, a total of 103 papers were identified as sources of authority for the safety claim. Results and Conclusions: A total of 52 papers contained actual experiments designed to test safety, and had a median follow-up time of 48 hours. None monitored neurodevelopment. Further, no trial considered total exposure to drug since birth, eliminating the possibility that the effects of drug exposure on long-term neurodevelopment could be accurately assessed. On the other hand, abundant and sufficient evidence was found to conclude that paracetamol does not induce acute liver damage in babies or children when used as directed.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0162.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Epidemiological model; immunity; Covid-19
Online: 6 October 2021 (11:50:28 CEST)
Compartmental models like the SIR model that dynamically divide the host population in categories such as susceptible, infected and immune form the mainstream of epidemiological modelling. Effectively such models treat infection and immunity as binary variables. We show here that considering immunity as a continuous variable instead of binary and incorporating factors that bring about small changes in immunity lead to qualitatively different epidemiological predictions. The small immunity effects (SIE) constitute cross immunity by other infections, small increments in immunity by sub clinical exposures and slow decay in the absence of repeated exposure. The SIE model explains many epidemiological patterns observed during the Covid-19 pandemic that are not adequately explained by conventional models. In the SIE model repeated waves are possible without the need for new variants. Peak and decline of a wave much before reaching herd immunity threshold, low level apparently stable existence of the pathogen, new surges after variable and unpredictable gaps, new surge after vaccinating majority of population are the common features of the pandemic mimicked by simulations using the SIE model. The model further shows complex interactions of different interventions that can be contextually synergistic as well as antagonistic. As a result, interventions intended to arrest the transmission are not always effective and can turn counterproductive under some conditions. Interventions that are beneficial in the short run can be potentially hazardous in the long run. In the absence of empirical estimates of many parameters, the model may not be useful to make quantitative predictions at this stage but it certainly challenges traditional wisdom and currently held beliefs behind non-pharmaceutical interventions recommended to control the epidemic. We also suggest testable predictions to differentiate between the causal logic of the SIE model against the prevalent explanations for the same observed phenomena.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0036.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: influenza vaccine; HIV; vaccine hesitancy; Italy
Online: 4 October 2021 (09:44:35 CEST)
There are scarce data regarding flu vaccination among people with HIV infection (PWHIV). The goal of this explorative study is to assess hesitancy toward influenza vaccination in a group of PWHIV during the pandemic. A questionnaire was administered to 219 patients vaccinated at our clinic during the 2020-2021 campaign. It evaluated subjects’ adherence over the last 3 seasonal vaccination campaigns, vaccine confidence, complacency and convenience, and the effect of the pandemic on the choice to vaccinate. The population was divided into two groups: fully adherent (all 3 campaigns, 117 patients) and non-fully adherent (1 or 2 campaigns, 102 patients). Adherence increased in non-fully adherent group in 2020-2021, but the pandemic did not affect the choice. Misbelieves emerged: influenza vaccine was considered protective SARS-CoV-2 (22.8% of total population); almost half of all patients thought influenza vaccine could improve their CD4+ cell level (57.3% in fully adherent, 40.2% in non-fully adherent, p<0.05). A quarter of the non-fully adherent group would not have vaccinated in a location other than our clinic (24.5% vs 11.9% in fully adherent group, p<0.05). Conclusively, offering a secure and private space for vaccination seems to encourage vaccination; healthcare professionals should improve counselling to increase adherence and correct misbeliefs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0455.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: inflammation; neuro-immune; cytokines; major depression; chronic fatigue syndrome; affective disorders
Online: 27 September 2021 (16:30:00 CEST)
Background. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disorder which affects the joints in the wrists, fingers, and knees. RA is often associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms as well as chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)-like symptoms.Aim. To examine the association between depressive symptoms (measured with the Beck Depression Inventory, BDI), anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, HAMA), and CFS-like (Fibro-fatigue Scale) symptoms and immune-inflammatory, autoimmune, and endogenous opioid system (EOS) markers, and lactosylceramide in RA. Methods. The serum biomarkers were assayed in fifty-nine RA and fifty-nine patients without increased psychopathology (PP) and fifty healthy controls.Results. There were highly significant correlations between the BDI, FF, and HAMA scores and severity of RA, as assessed with the DAS28-4, clinical and disease activity indices, the number of tenders and swollen joints, and patient and evaluator global assessment scores. A common latent vector (reflective model) could be extracted from the PP and RA-severity scales, which showed excellent psychometric properties. Partial least squares analysis showed that 69.7% of the variance in this common core underpinning PP and RA symptoms could be explained by the regression on immune-inflammatory pathways, rheumatoid factor, anti-citrullinated protein antibodies, CD17, and mu-opioid receptor levels. Conclusions. Depression, anxiety, and CFS-like symptoms due to RA are reflective manifestations of the phenome of RA and are mediated via the effects of the same immune-inflammatory, autoimmune, and EOS pathways and lactosylceramide that underpin the pathophysiology of RA. These PP symptoms are clinical manifestations of the pathophysiology of RA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0530.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; antibodies; cohort; population-based; body mass index; ECLIA
Online: 23 September 2021 (11:10:54 CEST)
In March 2020, several mass gathering events were related to the Falles festival in Borriana (Spain), resulting in a 536 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases outbreak among participants. Our objective was to estimate anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies persistence six months after and factors associated with antibody response. A prospective population-based cohort study was carried out by the Public Health Center of Castellon and the Emergency and Clinical Analysis and Microbiology Services of Hospital de la Plana in Vila-real. In October 2020, sero-epidemiologic study to estimate the persistence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies by a electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) was implemented. We enrolled 484 (90.2%) of the 536 members of the initial outbreak cohort and detected persistent antibodies in 479 (99%) without re-infection episodes. Five participants had a negative antibody test. Factors associated with a negative result were a lower body mass index (BMI), and less contact with other COVID-19 cases. Among the 469 participants with two ECLIA tests, 96 (20.5%) had an increase of antibodies and 373 (79.5%) a decline. Increased antibodies were associated with older age, higher BMI, more severe illness, and low current smokers. After a COVID-19 infection, a high proportion of cases maintained detectable anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0125.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: cell fusion; syncytia; cell hybrids; viruses; coronaviruses; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; fusogens; blood coagulation cascade; thrombosis, cancer; vaccines; neurological complications
Online: 9 September 2021 (10:54:14 CEST)
A distinctive feature of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is its ability to efficiently fuse cells, thus producing syncytia found in COVID-19 patients. This commentary proposes how this ability enables spike to cause COVID-19 complications as well as side effects of COVID-19 vaccines, and suggests how these effects can be prevented..
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: purinergic signaling; regulatory role; neutrophils; inflammation
Online: 8 September 2021 (13:16:11 CEST)
Purinergic signaling is that nucleotides (especially ATP) and adenosine are utilized as transmitter molecules, which play an important role in the immune system. In the extracellular ventricle, ATP plays a significant role of pro-inflammatory molecules mainly through activating P2 receptors, while adenosine plays the role as anti-inflammatory molecule mainly through activating P1 receptors. As we know，neutrophils are the most abundant immune cells in our circulation and have become an essential part of coordinating a series of complex events during inflammatory diseases. However, due to the destruction of inflammatory substances from neutrophils, the activation of neutrophils is fine-tuned, and purinergic signaling is associated with this process. As a matter of fact, altering the balance between P2 and P1 signals is of great importance for neutrophils to exert immune activities properly. Here, we review the role of purinergic signaling in regulatory function of neutrophils during inflammatory disease, and then discuss the potential contribution of targeted purinergic signals in the treatment of the neutrophil during inflammatory diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0404.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: pelvic floor; bowel; dysfunction; sacral nerve; stimulation
Online: 19 August 2021 (12:19:52 CEST)
Prevention of obstetric trauma from damage to the pelvic floor is not always possible and sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) may be necessary later in life. Sacral nerve stimulation has been a promising innovation in the management of moderate to severe faecal incontinence and following sphincter repair failure. Although the indication spectrum for SNS is expanding, the success of neuromodulation for constipation is limited. Adverse events of SNS requiring re-intervention are not common but a long-term successful outcome may depend on interventions for maintenance of the device.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0147.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: metabolic syndrome; colorectal cancer; nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; liver surgery; hepatic resection; fatty liver; nutrition; protein
Online: 5 August 2021 (14:55:25 CEST)
Over the recent years, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common liver disorder in the developed world, accounting for 20% to 46% of liver abnormalities. Steatosis is the hallmark of NAFLD and is recognized as an important risk factor for complication and death after general surgery, and even more so after liver resection. Similarly, liver steatosis also impacts the safety of live liver donation and transplantation. We aim to review surgical outcomes after liver resection for colorectal-metastases in patients with steatosis, and discuss the most common pre-operative strategies to reduce steatosis. Finally, as illustration, we report the favourable effect of a low-caloric, hyper-protein diet during a two-stage liver resection for colorectal metastases in a patient with severe steatosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0144.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Nocturia; Quality of life; Lower urinary tract symptoms, Male adults, NQoL, Urinary frequency, Bedtime urination.
Online: 5 August 2021 (11:14:31 CEST)
Background: Most prevalence surveys on nocturia have focused on older populations. This study aimed to measure the nocturia prevalence across the full spectrum of male adults living in Hong Kong, where severity and associated quality-of-life (QoL) were also explored. Methods: A cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted in men aged 18 or above using the ICIQ-NQoL Questionnaire. Results: With 1,239 respondents at age ranged 18-99, the overall nocturia prevalence were found to be 63.0% (ranged 41.6-84.6% at different age groups) and 31.2% (ranged 13.0-56.3% at different age groups), for ≥1 and ≥2 bedtime voiding episodes, respectively. The chance of nocturia was dramatically increased at age 60 or above while both prevalence and voiding frequency were increased with advancing age. About 83% of the nocturia men experienced 1-2 voiding episodes per night, but many of them had self-rated their QoL poor or very poor and indicated moderate-to-high bothersome. Younger men at age 18-39 were found to have high prevalence as 41.6% and almost 30% of them rated poor or very poor QoL. Conclusions: Nocturia was not only affecting the older populations but also caused significant bothersome and negative impacts on QoL in younger males.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0117.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: AIP; PBGD; glucose metabolism; mitobiogenesis; alpha-lipoic acid
Online: 4 August 2021 (14:45:07 CEST)
Background: Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is caused by haploinsufficiency of porphobilin-ogen deaminase (PBGD) enzymatic activity. Acute attacks occur in response to fasting and altera-tions in glucose metabolism, insulin resistance and mitochondrial turnover may be involved in AIP pathophysiology. Therefore, we investigated the metabolic pathways in PBGD-silenced hepatocytes and assessed the efficacy of an insulin-mimic, the α-lipoic acid (α-LA) as a potential therapeutic strategy. Methods: HepG2 cells were transfected with a siRNA targeting PBGD (siPBGD). Cells were cul-tured with low glucose concentration to mimic fasting and exposed to α-LA alone or with glu-cose. Results: At baseline, siPBGD cells showed lower expression of genes involved in glycolysis and mitochondrial dynamics along with reduced total ATP levels. Fasting further unbalanced gly-colysis by inducing ATP shortage in siPBGD cells and activated DRP1, which mediates mito-chondrial separation. Consistently, siPBGD cells in fasted state showed the lowest protein levels of Complex IV which belong to the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) machinery. α-LA up-regulated glycolysis and prompted ATP synthesis and triglyceride secretion, thus possibly providing energy fuels to siPBGD cells by improving glucose utilization. Finally, siPBGD exposed to α-LA plus glucose raised mitochondrial dynamics, OXPHOS activity and energy production. Conclusions: α-LA-based therapy may ameliorate glucose metabolism and mitochondrial dys-functions in siPBGD hepatocytes. Keywords: AIP, PBGD, glucose metabolism, mitobiogenesis, α-lipoic acid
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0116.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: 6-OHDA, NF-κB, Mangiferin, Inflammation, Cox, Caspases
Online: 4 August 2021 (13:22:51 CEST)
Background: Persistent up regulation of NF-κB leads to chronic inflammation and subsequent microglial activation and takes neurons towards death by activating death receptor domains and the p53 pathway. Thus, inhibition of NF-κB may lead to more effective treatment for Parkinson’s disease. Therefore, we have used mangiferin, specific inhibitor of NF-κB in this study. Method: The study utilized male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 gm (n=8 in each group). Stereotactic surgery of rats was done to induce 6-OHDA lesioning in rats. On day 42, rats were subjected to behavioural studies to evaluate effect of mangiferin and their brains were taken out after euthanasia to perform biochemical and molecular studies. Results: Mangiferin significantly increases locomotor parameters in 6-OHDA lesioned rats. It also decreases activity of Cyclooxygenase enzyme which then leads to decrease concentration of inflammatory cytokines. Microglial inflammation was also substantially reduced by reducing MPO concentration. Oxidative stress burden was also reduced after treatment with mangiferin as indicated by increase in Total Antioxidant Capacity, SOD and Catalase and reduction in concentration of MDA. Treatment with mangiferin also reduces burden of oxidative stress by increasing the activity of NRF2/ARE pathway. Activity of Caspase 3 and 9 was also significantly reduced after treatment with mangiferin. Significant decrease in activity of both Cox1 and Cox 2 was also observed. Maximum improvement in all parameters was observed in rats treated with grouping of mangiferin 45mg.kg-1 and levodopa 10mg.kg-1. Treatment with levodopa alone has no significant effect on biochemical and molecular parameters though it significantly improves behavioural parameters. Conclusion and Implications: Results of this study suggest that mangiferin has protective effect in hemi-parkinsonian rats by inhibiting NF-κB. Current treatment of Parkinson’s disease does not target the underlying problem of the disease. Therefore, combination therapy of mangiferin and levodopa can be helpful in better management of Parkison’s.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0115.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: beta-amyloid toxicity, proteolytic digestion, membrane channel, intracellular ion disturbances, calcium homeostasis, intracellular pH, lysosome
Online: 4 August 2021 (13:19:50 CEST)
In this manuscript, we reassess the data on beta-amyloid-induced changes of intracellular ions concentrations published previously by Abramov et al. (2003, 2004). Their observations made using high-resolution confocal microscopy with fast temporal resolution of images formed by fluorescent ion-sensitive fluorescent probes in living cells represent an unequivocal support for the amyloid channel theory. However, closer look reveals multiple facts which cannot be explained by channel formation in plasma membrane. Recently proposed amyloid degradation toxicity hypothesis provides the interpretation to these facts by considering that channels are formed in the lysosomal membranes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0109.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN); Retinol binding protein (RBP); Prognostication; End-stage renal diseases
Online: 4 August 2021 (12:06:22 CEST)
Initially, retinol-binding protein (RBP), was thought to be a biomarker for proximal convoluted tubule dysfunction could be important in chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) is an important cause of CKD and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Therefore, monitoring MGN patients using urinary RBP is important in effective treatment decision making and prognostication of MGN patients. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique was used to detect the RBP in the urine samples of 69 MGN patients comprising 47 primary and 22 secondary MGN, at the end of the follow-up period. The test for the urinary biomarker gave the following results: urinary RBP was detected in 27 (39.1%) and 6 (8.7%) of the primary and secondary MGN patients, respectively. The correlation analysis demonstrated a significant relationship between urinary RBP and renal function test parameters, in addition to a logistic regression analysis that proved urinary RBP as a prognostic non-invasive biomarker for primary MGN. Therefore, urinary RBP could be employed to monitor and provide effective prognosis and early treatment decisions in primary MGN.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0089.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Pig; Porcine Circovirus 2; ORF2 capsid protein; vaccine; protection.
Online: 3 August 2021 (15:01:17 CEST)
Porcine Circovirus 2 (PCV2) vaccines are based on either inactivated whole virion, or recombinant ORF2 capsid protein assembled into Virus-like Particles (VLPs). No data are available instead about the immunizing properties of free, non-assembled capsid protein. To investigate this issue, ORF2 of a reference PCV2b strain was expressed in a Baculovirus-based expression system without assembly into VLPs. The free purified protein was formulated into an oil vaccine at three distinct Ag payloads: 10.8 / 3.6 / 1.2 micrograms /dose. Each dose was injected intramuscularly into five, 37-day old piglets, carefully matched for maternally-derived antibody. Five control piglets were injected with sterile PBS in oil adjuvant. Twenty-eight days later, all the pigs were challenged intranasally with 200,000 TCID50 of PCV2b strain DV6503. After challenge infection, all the pigs remained in good clinical conditions. The recombinant vaccine did not induce significant antibody and PCV2-specific IFN-gamma responses. ELISPOT and lymphocyte proliferation data confirmed poor induction of cell-mediated immunity. In terms of PCV2 viremia, there was no significant difference between vaccinated and control animals. The histological data indicated the absence of a detectable viral load and of PCVAD lesions in both vaccinated and control animals, as well as of histiocytes and multi-nucleated giant cells. We conclude that free, non-assembled ORF2 capsid protein does not induce protective immunity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0065.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); older people; frailty; antidiabetic drugs; comprehensive geriatric assessment; therapeutic targets; hypoglycemia.
Online: 3 August 2021 (09:07:51 CEST)
Type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM) represents a chronic condition with increasing prevalence worldwide among the older population. T2DM condition increases the risk of micro and macro-vascular complications as well as the risk of geriatric syndromes as falls, fractures and cognitive impairment. The management of T2DM in the older population represents a challenge for the cli-nician, and a Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment should always be prioritized, in order to tailor the glycate haemoglobin target according to functional and cognitive status comorbidities, life ex-pectancy and type of therapy. According to the most recent guidelines, older adults with T2DM should be cathegorized in three groups: healthy patients with good functional status, patients with complications and reduced functionality and patients at the end of life; for each group the target for the glycemic control is different, also according to the type of treatment drug. The therapeutic ap-proach should always begin with lifestyle changes; after that, several lines of therapies are available, with different mechanism of action and potential effect other than glucose level reduction. Partic-ular interest is growing around sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors, due to their effect on the cardiovascular system. In this review we evaluate the therapeutic options available for the treat-ment of older diabetic patients, to ensure a correct treatment approach
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0200.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Neuropathic Pain; Combination Therapy; Pharmacotherapy; Randomized Control Trial
Online: 2 August 2021 (14:52:46 CEST)
Pharmacological treatment is not very effective for neuropathic pain (NP). A progressive decrease in the estimated effect of NP drugs has been reported, giving rise to an increase in the use of the multimodal analgesic approach. We performed a new, independent review to assess whether more evidence and of better-quality has become available since the last systematic review. We evaluated the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of double-blinded, randomized, controlled trials involving only adult participants and comparing combination therapy (CT: ≥ 2 drugs) to a placebo and/or at least one other comparator with an NP indication. The primary outcome assessed was the proportion of participants reporting ≥50% pain reductions from baseline. The secondary outcome assessed was the proportion of drop-outs due to treatment-emergent adverse events. After removing duplicates, 2323 citations were screened, with 164 articles assessed for eligibility, from which 16 were included for qualitative analysis. From the latter, only five lasted for at least 12 weeks and only six complied with the required data for complete analysis. CT has been adopted for years without robust evidence. Efforts have been made to achieve better-quality evidence, but the quality has not improved over the years. In this regard, guidelines for NP should attempt to make recommendations about CT research, prioritizing which combinations to analyze.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0048.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: ulcerative colitis; biomarkers; diagnosis; inflammatory bowel disease; Crohn’s disease
Online: 2 August 2021 (14:39:13 CEST)
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is one of the two disorders known as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) along with Crohn’s disease (CD), with complex pathogenesis, requiring costly invasive investigations. Objective: to examine the most recent biomarkers proposed for UC diagnosis; to establish the strategy used to make the differential diagnosis between UC and CD relying on these biomarkers, also adding the benefit of finding new non-invasive tools in managing this condition. The search was performed in a single database (Web of Science) using the specific keywords „ulcerative colitis”, „biomarkers” and „diagnosis” for the last five years. Study eligibility criteria: clinical trials on adults and pediatric patients with ulcerative colitis compared with Crohn’s disease. Results: We selected 57 studies, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and clinical case series (CCS), summarizing the latest most specific biomarkers in diagnosis of UC. Limitations: we considered RCTs and CCS from one database, limited to the search topics. Our findings indicate a important number of potential biomarkers with diagnostic value, which bring the advantage of a non-invasive method to approach this challenging disorder.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0031.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: antibiotics; antimicrobial resistance; antimicrobial stewardship; AWaRe; Pharmacovigilance; Lareb; adverse drug reactions
Online: 2 August 2021 (12:27:02 CEST)
(1) Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) requires urgent multidisciplinary solutions, and Pharmacovigilance (PV) has the potential to strengthen current antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) strategies. This study aimed to characterise AMR-relevant adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports submitted to The Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre (Lareb); (2) Methods: We carried out a descriptive analysis of ADR reports submitted to Lareb, coded with AMR-relevant MedDRA Preferred Terms (PTs).; (3) Results: Between 1998 and Jan 2019, 252 AMR-relevant ADR reports were submitted to Lareb. The most frequent antibiotics were tobramycin (n=89; 35%), colistin (n=30; 11,9%), ciprofloxacin (n=16; 6,35%), doxycycline (n=14; 5,5%) and aztreonam (n=12; 4,76%). The most frequently used PTs were drug ineffective (n=71; 28%), pathogen resistance (n=14; 5%) and drug resistance (n=13; 13%). A total of 119 reports (74%) suggested use-related issues. Watch antibiotics were in 54% of the reports and Reserve antibiotics were in 19%. In the Watch group, “Off label use” and “Product use in unapproved indication” were the most frequent PTs and majority of reports on Reserve antibiotics were coded as “Off label”. (4) Conclusions: Addressing AMR using the PV methods will provide an opportunity for PV expansion and could encourage further investment in both in AMS programs and PV systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0023.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Nicotine toxicity; Wnt1 pathway; spinal cord injury; locomotor networks; excitotoxicity; fictive locomotion; postnatal; rat; mice
Online: 2 August 2021 (11:52:54 CEST)
The postnatal rodent spinal cord in-vitro is a useful model to investigate early pathophysiological changes after injury. While low dose nicotine (1µM) induces neuroprotection, how higher doses affect spinal networks is unknown. Using spinal preparations of postnatal wild-type Wistar rat and Wnt1Cre2:Rosa26Tom double-transgenic mouse, we studied the effect of nicotine (0.5-10µM) on locomotor networks in-vitro. Nicotine 10µM induced motoneuron depolarization, suppressed monosynaptic reflexes, and decreased fictive locomotion in rat spinal cord. Delayed fall in neuronal numbers (including motoneurons) of central and ventral regions emerged without loss of dorsal neurons. Conversely, nicotine (0.5-1µM) preserved neurons throughout the spinal cord and strongly activated the Wnt1 signaling pathway. High-dose nicotine enhanced expression of S100 and GFAP in astrocytes suggesting their response to stress. Excitotoxicity induced by kainate was contrasted by nicotine (10µM) in the dorsal area and persisted in central and ventral regions with no change basal Wnt signaling. When combining nicotine with kainate, the activation of Wnt1 was reduced compared to kainate/sham. The present results suggest that high dose nicotine was neurotoxic to central and ventral spinal neurons as the neuroprotective role of Wnt signaling became attenuated. This also corroborates the risk of cigarette smoking for the foetus/newborn since tobacco contains nicotine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0019.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: leptin; JAK/STAT pathway; myocardial infarction; hemodynamics; arrhythmias; dyslipidaemia; inflammation; cardiac remodeling
Online: 2 August 2021 (11:24:57 CEST)
Hyperleptinemia potentiates the effects of many atherogenic factors, such as inflammation, platelet aggregation, migration, hypertrophy, proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cell dysfunction. The present study analysed the eﬀects of long-term hyperleptinemia in an in vivo myocardial ischemia-reperfusion model to demonstrate whether the in vivo deleterious effect also affects cardiac structure and function. Rats by were subcutaneously administered leptin for 8 days to estimate the involvement of the JAK/STAT pathway. Data from 58 male Wistar rats were included in the final analysis. Myocardial infarction (MI) was modelled by the 30-minute ligation of the main left coronary artery followed by 120-minute reperfusion. Hemodynamic measurements, electrocardiography monitoring, echocardiography, myocardial infarct size and area at risk, blood biochemical parameters, leptin, IL-6, TNF-alpha, FGF-21, and cardiomyocyte morphology were measured. Statistical analyses were performed using IBM SPSS Statistics v.26. Seven-day hyperleptinemia in rats led to increased an blood pressure and heart rate, myocardial hypertrophy, impaired LV function, an increased frequency of ischemic arrhythmias, dyslipidaemia, systemic inflammation, and an increased size of induced myocardial infarction. The blockade of the JAK/STAT signalling pathway effectively reversed the negative effects of leptin, including increased blood pressure and total cholesterol.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0006.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: cultured neurons; insulin; glutamate; [Ca2+]i; mitochondrial potential; ATP; oxygen consumption rate; superoxide; ROS
Online: 2 August 2021 (09:10:44 CEST)
Glutamate excitotoxicity is implicated in the pathogenesis of many disorders, including stroke, traumatic brain injury, and Alzheimer’s disease, for which central insulin resistance is a comorbid condition. Massive glutamate release primarily through ionotropic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) causes a sustained rise in [Ca2+]i, followed by mitochondrial depolarization and an increase in intracellular O2• (superoxide) production. Recently, we found that insulin protected neurons against excitotoxicity by diminishing the delayed calcium deregulation (DCD), However, a role of insulin in superoxide production in excitotoxicity still needs to be clarified. The present study is aimed to investigate the effects of insulin on glutamate-evoked superoxide generation and DCD using the fluorescent indicators dihydroethidium, MitoSOX Red, and Fura-FF in rats cultured cortical neurons. We found that insulin significantly diminished both the intracellular and mitochondrial superoxide production in neurons exposed to glutamate and there was a strong linear correlation between [Ca2+]i and intracellular superoxide. MK 801, an inhibitor of NMDAR-gated Ca2+ influx, completely abrogated the glutamate effects in both the presence and absence of insulin. In experiments on sister cultures, insulin diminishes neuronal death. Thus, collectively, data obtained suggest that insulin diminishes glutamate-induced superoxide production in neurons via fall of [Ca2+]i increased and thereby improves viability of neurons
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: DNA methylation; air pollution; particulate matter; saliva; biomarker
Online: 2 August 2021 (09:04:00 CEST)
Background: Exposure in utero to particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) is associated with maladaptive health outcomes. Although exposure to prenatal PM2.5 and PM10 have cord blood DNA methylation signatures at birth, signature persistence into childhood and saliva cross-tissue applicability has not been tested. Methods: In the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a United States 20-city birth cohort, average residential PM2.5 and PM10 during pregnancy was estimated using air quality monitors with inverse distance weighting. Saliva DNA methylation at ages 9 (n=749) and 15 (n=793) was measured using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450k BeadArray. Cumulative DNA methylation scores for particulate matter were estimated by weighting participant DNA methylation at each site by meta-analysis effect estimates from Gruzieva et al. 2019 and standardizing the sums. Using mixed effects regression analysis, we tested the associations between cumulative DNA methylation scores at ages 9 and 15 and PM exposure during pregnancy, adjusted for child sex, age, race/ethnicity, maternal income to needs ratio, nonmartial birth status, and saliva cell type proportions. Results: Our study sample was 50.5% male, 56.3% non-Hispanic Black, and 19.8% Hispanic, with median income to needs ratio of 1.4. In the third trimester, mean PM2.5 exposure levels were 27.9 ug/m3/day (standard deviation: 7.0, 23.7% of observations exceeded safety standards) and PM10 were 15.0 ug/m3/day (standard deviation: 3.1). An interquartile range increase in PM2.5 exposure (10.73 g/m3/day) was associated with -0.0287 standard deviation lower cumulative DNA methylation score for PM2.5 (95% CI: -0.0732, 0.0158, p=0.20) across all participants. An interquartile range increase in PM10 exposure (3.20 g/m3/day) was associated with -0.1472 standard deviation lower cumulative DNA methylation score for PM10 (95% CI: -0.3038, 0.0095, p=0.06) across all participants. The PM10 findings were driven by the age 15 subset where an interquartile range increase in PM10 exposure was associated with -0.024 standard deviation lower cumulative DNA methylation score for PM10 (95% CI: -0.043, -0.005, p=0.012). Findings were robust to adjustment for PM exposure at ages 1 and 3. Conclusion: In utero PM10 associated DNA methylation differences persist until age 15 and can be detected in saliva. Benchmarking the persistence and cell type generalizability is critical for epigenetic exposure biomarker assessment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0004.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: extracellular vesicles; EVs; exosomes; mesenchymal stem cell EVs; plant-derived EVs; wound healing; scaffolds
Online: 2 August 2021 (08:57:45 CEST)
Each year, millions of individuals suffer from a non-healing wound, abnormal scarring, or injuries accompanied by an infection. For these cases, scientists are searching for new therapeutic interventions, from which one of the most promising is the use of extracellular vesicles (EVs). Naturally, EV-based signalling takes part in all four wound healing phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation and remodelling. Such an extensive involvement of EVs suggests exploiting their action to modulate the impaired healing phase. Furthermore, next to their natural wound healing capacity, EVs can be engineered for better defined pharmaceutical purposes, such as carrying specific cargo or targeting specific destinations by labelling them with certain surface proteins. This review aims to promote scientific awareness in basic and translational research of EVs by summarizing the current knowledge about their natural role in each stage of skin repair and the most recent findings in application areas, such as wound healing, skin regeneration and treatment of dermal diseases, including the stem cell-derived, plant-derived and engineered EVs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0001.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Antitumoral drug; Choline kinase inhibition; Choline uptake
Online: 2 August 2021 (08:42:22 CEST)
Choline kinase inhibitors are an important class of cytotoxic compounds useful for the treatment of different forms of cancer since aberrant choline metabolism is a feature of neoplastic cells. Here we present the characterization and the structure activity relationship of a series of non-symmetrical choline kinase inhibitors characterized by a 3-aminophenol moiety, bound to 4-(dimethylamino)- or 4-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)pyridinium cationic heads through several linkers. These derivatives were evaluated both for their inhibitory activity on the enzyme and for their antiproliferative activity in a panel of six human tumor cell lines. The compounds with the best inhibitory results were those connected to the linker by the N-atom (4a-h) and these results are supported by docking studies. The compounds with the best antiproliferative results were those connected to the linker by the O-atom (3a-h). On the other hand, as was predictable in both families, the inhibitory effect on the enzyme is greater the shorter the length of the linker, while in tumor cells, lipophilicity and choline uptake inhibition could play a decisive role. Interestingly compounds 3c and 4f, selected for both their ability to inhibit the enzyme and good antiproliferative activity, are endowed with a low toxicity in non-tumoral cells (e.g human peripheral lymphocytes) respect to cancer cells. These compounds were also able to induce to induce apoptosis in Jurkat leukemic cells without causing significative variations of cell cycle. It is worth to mention that these derivatives, beside their inhibitory effect on choline kinase, displayed a modest ability to inhibit choline uptake thus suggesting that this mechanism may also contribute to the observed cytotoxicity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0710.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: diaper, dioxin; dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; formaldehyde; fragrance.
Online: 30 July 2021 (23:52:09 CEST)
In January 2019, the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES) published an opinion on risks related to the presence of hazardous chemicals in infant diapers. ANSES found that health reference values were largely exceeded for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), dioxins (PCCD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (DL-PCBs). The levels of formaldehyde and of some fragrances were also considered potentially unsafe. Therefore, ANSES concluded that actions have to be taken to restrict levels of these contaminants in diapers. Under the exposure scenario deemed the most reliable by ANSES, estimates of cancer risks of the most potent PAHs detected in diapers exceeded 10-3 and hazard quotients for neurobehavioral effects attained values up to 66. Regarding dioxins and DL-PCBs, ANSES derived a hazard quotient of 12 for the risk of decreased sperm count at adult age. The aim of this critical review was to examine whether the exposure and risk assessment conducted by ANSES contained potential flaws that could explain such a high exceedance of health reference values. The review will also put into perspective the exposure from diapers with that from breast milk whose benefits for child’s health are undisputable despite contamination by PAHs, dioxins and DL-PCBS.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Stroke; Qualitative; Narrative; Master Plot; Experience; Perception
Online: 30 July 2021 (15:10:28 CEST)
(1) Background; limited research exists which considers master plots expressed by individuals with Stroke. The literature so far has focused on identified pre-established illness narrative types; (2). Methods: A narrative method was selected and a purposive sample of individuals with Stroke are identified. A categorical-form analysis was undertaken; (3) Results: A narrative master plot named overcoming the monster is identified and explored for its components and located temporally for each participant; (4) Conclusions: Health care professionals need to understand the importance of understanding the master plot overcoming the monster. This research supports the need for health care professionals to recognise and support narratives by listening in a non-directive way.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0402.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Very preterm infants; Z-score on weight; neonatal nutrition; appropriate intrauterine neonatal growth
Online: 30 July 2021 (15:00:25 CEST)
Introduction: In general, everyone believes that the smallest preterm infants should achieve normal intrauterine growth rates, but many thinks that this is not possible with current nutrition guidelines. There is resistance to giving enough nutrition for fear of "toxicity". The difference in weight Z-score between birth and a corrected gestational age (CGA) at discharge is assess in postnatal growth in our unit. Material and methods: An observational study was done between January 2018 and December 2020 where all cases that had ≤ 29 weeks of GA at birth and survived to 36 weeks corrected GA or that were discharged home. An aggressive nutrition protocol including parenteral as well as enteral nutrition was followed. Patients and their weight trajectory was plotted on the Fenton 2013 growth curve. The patients who had had a smaller WZP difference were also plotted. Results: A total of 32 cases were found. The median change in Z-score between birth and discharge of the whole group was -0.52 (IQR 0.53). Six of 32 (19%) had a more than one WZP, all of whom had severe pathologies. The median decline in Z score for this group with poor growth was 1.24 (IQR 0.22). There were 26 cases with a < 1 WZP (81%) and a median Z score fall of 0.39 (IQR 0.55). No important complications secondary to the ingested volumes or parenteral nutrition were reported. Conclusion: The group of cases with a > 1 WZP drop had severe pathologies. All the other cases had adequate growth parallel to normal weight growth charts and a few cases had some catch-up growth. The study showed that it is possible for many preterm infants to achieve normal intrauterine growth rates if they are given enough nutrition, but bigger multicenter studies are needed to confirm these findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0706.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: epilepsy; glutamatergic transmission; glutamine synthesis; methionine sulfoximine; metabolomics
Online: 30 July 2021 (14:26:35 CEST)
Pretreatment with non-convulsive dose of methionine sulfoximine (MSO) attenuated lithi-um-pilocarpine-induced (Li-Pilo) seizures in young rats . We hypothesized that the effect of MSO results from a) glutamine synthetase block-mediated inhibition of conversion of Glu/Gln precursors to neurotransmitter Glu, and/or from b) altered synaptic Glu release. Pilo was admin-istered 60 min prior to sacrifice, MSO at 75 mg/kg, i.p., 2.5 h earlier. [1,2-13C]acetate and [U-13C]glucose were i.p.-injected either together with Pilo (onset) or 15 min before sacrifice (final phase). Their conversion to Glu and Gln in hippocampus and entorhinal cortex was followed us-ing [13C] gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Release of in vitro loaded [3H]D-Asp from ex vi-vo brain slices was measured in continuously collected superfusates. Protein and mRNA expres-sion were measured by Western Blot and real-time PCR techniques, respectively. At no time point nor brain region did MSO modify incorporation of [13C] to Glu or Gln in Pilo-treated rats. MSO pretreatment decreased by ~37% high potassium-induced [3H]D-Asp release and reduced by ~50% the synaptic vesicular Glu transporter VGLUT1 protein, but not mRNA content in the hippo-campus. The results indicate that MSO at non-convulsive dose mitigates the initial Pilo-induced seizures by interfering with synaptic Glu-release but not with neurotransmitter Glu recycling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0703.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: tympanic membrane; chronic perforation; fat myringoplasty; success rate; middle ear packing; fibrin glue packing
Online: 30 July 2021 (13:25:54 CEST)
Background: To date, FM using middle ear packing has rarely reported. In this study, we hypothesized that middle ear packing with dexamethasone soaked gelfoam and fibrin glue over the fat graft could promote the success rate of TMP closure regardless of perforation size. Methods: Between January 2005 and July 2020, a total of 209 patients who underwent fat myringoplasty due to chronic TMP at tertiary referral center were encountered and analyzed. The success rate and audiologic outcome was analyzed. Results: The mean successful TM closure rate was 88.0 %. The success rate by different age generation was not significant difference. The size of the perforation grade showed no significant difference. The perforation site by anterior or posterior was not significant. The preoperative mean threshold of AC, BC and ABG were 55.71, 12.98 and 42.73 dB respectively. The postoperative mean threshold of AC, BC and ABG were 23.67, 12.98 and 10.69 dB. The change of preoperative and postoperative hearing showed statistically significant. Conclusion: From our results, the simple trimming of the perforation edge and middle ear packing with external ear canal packing using fibrin glue induced the stable adhesion between the remnant TM and the fat graft.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0692.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Lyme disease; Quebec; Spatiotemporal patterns; front wave velocity; clusters; emergence
Online: 30 July 2021 (09:38:26 CEST)
Lyme disease is a growing public health problem in Québec. Its emergence over the last decade is caused by environmental and anthropological factors that favour the survival of Ixodes scapularis, the vector of Lyme disease transmission. The objective of this study was to estimate the speed and direction of Lyme disease emergence in Québec and to identify spatiotemporal risk patterns. A surface trend analysis was conducted to estimate the speed and direction of its emergence based upon the first detected case of Lyme disease in each municipality in Québec since 2004. A cluster analysis was also conducted to identify at-risk regions across space and time. These analyses were reproduced for the date of disease onset and date of notification for each case of Lyme disease. It was estimated that Lyme disease is spreading northward in Québec at a speed varying between 18 and 32 km/year according to the date of notification and the date of disease onset, respectively. A high rate of disease risk was found in seven clusters identified in the south-west of Québec in the sociosanitary regions of Montérégie and Estrie. The results obtained in this study improve our understanding of the spatiotemporal patterns of Lyme disease in Québec, which can be used for proactive, targeted interventions by public and clinical health authorities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0688.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: mHealth; multiple sclerosis; telemonitoring; longitudinal assessment; rehabilitation; fatigue; walking; cognition
Online: 30 July 2021 (09:26:43 CEST)
The development of mobile technology and internet mobile offers new possibilities in both rehabilitation and for patients’ assessment in a longitudinal and MS management perspective. However, because the mobile health applications (mHealth) have only been developed recently, the level of evidence supporting the use of mHealth in patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) is currently unclear. Therefore, this study aims to list and describe the different mHealth available for rehabilitation and self-assessment of pwMS and to define the level of evidence supporting these interventions for functioning problems categorized within the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). 36 studies, performed with 22 different mHealth, were included in this review, 30 about rehabilitation and 6 for self-assessment, representing 3,091 patients. For rehabilitation, most of the studies were focusing on cognitive function and fatigue. Concerning the efficacy we found a small but significant effect of the use of mHealth for cognitive training (SMD = 0.28 [0.12 ; 0.45]) and moderate effect for fatigue (SMD = 0.61 [0.47 ; 0.76]). mHealth is a promising tool in pwMS but more studies are needed to validate these solutions in the others ICF categories. More replications studies are also needed as most of the mHealth have only been assessed in one single study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0680.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: NEC; Surgical; Medical; Risk factor; Outcome; Neonate
Online: 30 July 2021 (09:11:09 CEST)
Background: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the leading causes of death in newborns, however, little is understood of which patients can be treated medically or require surgery. The purpose of our study is to analyze the associated factors of surgically treated patients compared to patients requiring only medical treatment. Methods: Patients diagnosed with necrotizing enterocolitis over a period of 14 years in a single children’s hospital were retrospectively enrolled. Demographics and clinical data patients were collected and analyzed. Results: A total of 189 patients with NEC were included. Surgically treated patients had a lower gestational age (P = .018), body weight at birth (P = .034), and percentage of exclusive breast milk feeding (P= .001). They had increased comorbidity with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) (P = .005), number of days of antibiotic use (P = .014), and length of hospital stay (P = .000). In multivariate logistic analysis, a lower percentage of exclusive breast milk feeding (OR = 0.366, 95% CI: 0.164-0.817) and a longer hospital stay (OR = 1.010, 95% CI: 1.001- 1.019) was associated with surgical NEC. Conclusion: Comparing medical and surgical NEC, a significantly lower percentage of surgical NEC patients were exclusively fed breast milk and their hospital stays were longer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0676.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: ultrasound; endometrial cancer; lymph nodes metastasis; myometrial invasion; tumor-free distance
Online: 30 July 2021 (09:06:16 CEST)
Background: Ultrasonography’s usefulness in endometrial cancer (EC) diagnosis consists of its staging and predictive roles. Ultrasound-measured tumor-free distance from the tumor to the uterine serosa (uTFD) is a promising marker for this variable. The aim of the study was to determine the usefulness of this biomarker in locoregional staging, and thus in the prediction of lymph node metastasis (LNM). Methods: We conducted a single-institutional, prospective study on 116 consecutive patients with EC who underwent 2D transvaginal ultrasound examination. The uTFD marker was compared with the depth of ultrasound-measured myometrial invasion (uMI). Univariate and multivariate logit models were evaluated to assess the predictive power of the uTFD and uMI in regard to LNM. The reference standard was a final histopathology result. Survival was assessed by the Kaplan-Meyer method. Results: LNM was found in 17% of the patients (20/116). In the univariate analysis, uMI and uTFD were significant predictors of LNM. Accuracy was 70.7%, and NPV was 92.68% (OR 4.746, 95% CI 1.710-13.174) for uMI (p = 0.002), and 63.8%, and 89.02% (OR 0.842, 95% CI 0.736 – 0.963), respectively, for uTFD (p = 0.01). The cut-off value for uTFD in the prediction of LNM was 5.2 mm. The absence of LNM was associated more with biomarker values uMI <1/2 and uTFD >=5.2 mm than with the presence of metastases with uMI >1/2 and uTFD values <5.2 mm. In the multivariate analysis, the accuracy of the uMI-uTFD model was 74%, and NPV was 90.24% (p = NS). Neither uMI nor uTFD are surrogates for overall and recurrence-free survivals in endometrial cancer. Conclusions: Both uMI and uTFD, either alone or in combination, are valuable tools for gaining additional preoperative information on expected lymph node status. Negative lymph nodes status is better described by ultrasound biomarkers than a positive status. It is easier to use uTFD measurement as a biomarker of EC invasion than uMI, and the former still maintains a similar predictive value for lymph node metastases to the latter at diagnosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0671.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: axon initial segment (AIS); action potential (AP); ankyrin-G; spectrins; plasticity; neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs)
Online: 29 July 2021 (15:49:42 CEST)
The 20–60-μm axon initial segment (AIS) is proximally located at the interface between the axon and cell body. AIS has characteristic molecular and structural properties regulated by the crucial protein, ankyrin-G. The AIS contains a high density of Na+ channels relative to the cell body, which allows low thresholds for initiation of action potential (AP). Molecular and physiological studies have shown that the AIS is also a key domain for the control of neuronal excitability by homeostatic mechanisms. The AIS has high plasticity in normal developmental processes and pathological activities such as injury, neurodegeneration, and neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). In the first half of this review, we provide an overview of the molecular, structural, and ion-channel characteristics of AIS, AIS regulation through axo-axonic synapses, and axo-glial interactions. In the second half, to understand the relationship between NDDs and AIS, we discuss the activity-dependent plasticity of AIS, the human mutation of AIS regulatory genes, and the pathophysiological role of the abnormal AIS in the NDD model animals and patients. We propose that AIS may provide a potentially valuable structural biomarker in response to abnormal network activity in vivo as well as a new treatment concept at the neural circuit level.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: cardiac fibroblasts; WNT3a; WNT5a; beta-catenin; TGF-beta signalling; IL-11; cardiac fibrosis
Online: 29 July 2021 (13:15:00 CEST)
Cardiac fibrosis is a pathological process associated with development of heart failure. TGF-β and WNT signaling have been implicated in pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis, however little is known about molecular cross-talk between these two pathways. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of exogenous canonical WNT3a and non-canonical WNT5a in TGF-β-activated human cardiac fibroblasts. We found that WNT3a and TGF-β induced -catenin-dependent response, whereas WNT5a prompted AP-1 activity. TGF-β triggered profibrotic signature in cardiac fibroblasts, and co-stimulation with WNT3a or co-activation of the β-catenin pathway with GSK3β inhibitor CHIR99021 enhanced collagen I and fibronectin production and development of active contractile stress fibers. In the absence of TGF-β, neither WNT3a nor CHIR99021 exerted profibrotic response. On a molecular level, in TGF-β-activated fibroblasts WNT3a enhanced phosphorylation of TAK1 and production and secretion of IL-11 but showed no effect on Smad pathway. Neutralization of IL-11 activity with the blocking anti-IL-11 antibody effectively reduced profibrotic response of cardiac fibroblasts activated with TGF-β and WNT3a. In contrast to canonical WNT3a, co-activation with non-canonical WNT5a suppressed TGF-β-induced production of collagen I. In conclusion, WNT/β-catenin signaling promotes TGF-β-mediated fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition by enhancing IL-11 production. Thus, the uncovered mechanism broadens our knowledge on molecular basis of cardiac fibrogenesis and defines novel therapeutic targets for fibrotic heart diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0650.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: chronic disorders; inflammation; human superorganism; holobiont; microbiome; multimorbidity; microimmunosome; polypharmacy; drug safety; sustainable healthcare
Online: 29 July 2021 (11:37:20 CEST)
Microbiome First Medicine is a suggested 21st century healthcare paradigm that prioritizes the entire human, the human superorganism, beginning with the microbiome. To date, much of medicine has protected and treated patients as if they were a single species. This has resulted in unintended damage to the microbiome and an epidemic of chronic disorders [e.g., noncommunicable diseases and conditions (NCDs)]. Along with NCDs came loss of colonization re-sistance, increased susceptibility to infectious diseases, and increasing multimorbidity and polypharmacy over the life course. To move toward sustainable healthcare, the human micro-biome needs to be front and center. This paper presents microbiome-human physiology from the view of systems biology regulation. It also details the ongoing NCD epidemic including the role of existing drugs and other factors that damage the human microbiome. Examples are provided for two entryway NCDs, asthma and obesity, regarding their extensive network of comorbid NCDs. Finally, the challenges of ensuring safety for the microbiome are detailed. Under Microbiome First Medicine and considering the importance of keystone bacteria and critical windows of development, changes in even a few microbiota-prioritized medical decisions could make a significant difference in health across the life course.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0642.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; RAS; acute kidney injury; immune response
Online: 29 July 2021 (10:20:36 CEST)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To contain the virus, numerous preventive measures have been taken including isolation of patients, careful infection control, social distancing, and taking vaccine. So far, new confirmed and death cases are still increasing. SARS-CoV-2 invades cells by using the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). ACE2 is an essential enzyme of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) which converts angiotensin II (Ang II) to angiotensin (1-7). ACE2 is expressed in different organs, including lung, heart, and kidney. A high number of COVID-19 patients developed kidney injury has been reported. Renal impairment and acute injury are associated with mortality of COVID-19, which is 14-16 times higher than other general patients. Acute Kidney Injury has been occured in 2.9 up to 43% of intensive care unit patients. The increasing evidence show that the components of RAS can activate the complement cascade, and cytokines production. Kidney injury caused by SARS-CoV-2 is related mainly to systemic and local inflammation. Moreover, the uncontrolled immune responses mediated by SARS-CoV-2 including hypercytokinaemia, secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, antibody dependent enhancement, complement system, and phagocytic cells activation can contribute in the virus pathogenesis leading to associated renal dysfunction. However, the role and crosstalk between of RAS components and immune response in mediating kidney injury remain undefined. In this review, we focus on the recent studies to provide the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 interacting with RAS and immune responses to mediate kidney injury.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; lymphoma; BNT162b2; mRNA-1273
Online: 28 July 2021 (17:21:17 CEST)
Currently available COVID-19 mRNA vaccines have demonstrated high efficacy in clinical trials.1-3 However, cancer patients, including those with hematological malignancies, were largely excluded from these trials. In this prospective, observational study we measured anti-S protein IgG titers as well as avidity in lymphoma patients (n=67) vaccinated with a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine. Serological response rates in lymphoma patients who were treatment naïve (100% in CLL, 88.9% in other, non-CLL non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients), or who were last treated more than 24 months prior to vaccination (100% in CLL, 90% in other-NHL), were similar to healthy controls (100%). Patients on active therapy, however, had a diminished response rate (40% in CLL, 21.0% in other-NHL). No patient who received anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) within six months of vaccination responded. Thus, the utility of testing anti-S titers should be explored in patients on active therapy or with recent anti-CD20 mAb exposure, to assess their response to vaccination. We also propose studying passive protection with S-protein mAbs as an alternative prophylactic strategy for patients who respond poorly to vaccination.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0635.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTS); biomarkers; specific and effective treatments; TTS management; genetic and epigenetic factors; systematic review
Online: 28 July 2021 (17:07:01 CEST)
Takotsubo syndrome (TTS), recognized as stress’s cardiomyopathy, or better as left ventricular apical balloon syndrome in the recent years, is a rare pathology, described for the first time by Japanese researchers in 1990. TTS is characterized by an interindividual heterogeneity in onset and progression, and by the strong predominance in postmenopausal women. The clear causes of these TTS features are uncertain, given the reduced understanding of this intriguing syndrome until now. However, the increasing frequency of TTS cases in the last years, and particularly correlated to SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, leads us to imperative necessity both of a complete knowledge of TTS pathophysiology for identifying biomarkers facilitating its management, and targets for specific and effective treatments. The suspect of a genetic basis in TTS pathogenesis has been evidenced. Accordingly, familial form of TTS has been described. But a systematic and comprehensive characterization of the genetic or epigenetic factors significantly associated with TTS is lacking. Thus, we, here, conducted a systematic review of literature before June 2021, to contribute to identify potential genetic and epigenetic factors associated with TTS. Interesting data were evidenced, but of reduced number and with diverse limitations. Consequently, we concluded further work is needed to address the gaps discussed, and probably a clear evidence may arrive using multi-omics investigations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0599.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Clinical Study; Retrospective Studies; Surgical Procedures, Operative; Postoperative Period; Follow-Up Studies.
Online: 28 July 2021 (16:56:31 CEST)
Background In this study, we describe our clinical experience with the fifth-generation of a breast implant with a smooth, fine surface from a Korean manufacturer (BellaGelÒ SmoothFine; HansBiomed Co. Ltd., Seoul, Korea) in Asian women. Methods We analyzed 223 women (mean age=35.28±9.45 years and mean follow-up period=12.03±2.48 months), comprising 118 bilateral cases and 109 unilateral ones, who received breast augmentation using the BellaGelÒ SmoothFine at our hospital between June 4, 2018 and February 28, 2019. For safety assessment, we analyzed frequencies of postoperative complications and overall survival of the BellaGelÒ SmoothFine. Results Postoperatively, complications (12 cases, 5.38%) include asymmetry (3 cases, 1.35%), hematoma (2 cases, 0.90%), hypertrophic scars (2 cases, 0.90%), wound disruption (2 cases, 0.90%), rippling (1 case, 0.45%), capsular contracture (1 case, 0.45%), stretch deformities with skin excess (1 case, 0.45%). In addition, time-to-events were calculated as 10.94±0.64 months (95% CI 9.69-12.19) and the survival rate reached 0.290±0.168 (95% CI 0.094-0.901) at 12 months postoperatively. Conclusions Here, we describe our clinical experience with the BellaGelÒ SmoothFine. Our results are of significance in that this is the first report about the fifth-generation of a breast implant with a smooth, fine surface from a Korean manufacturer in Asian women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0625.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVD-19; moral distress; healthcare worker; mental health; communication; leadership
Online: 28 July 2021 (10:45:50 CEST)
Background: Sudden changes in clinical practice and the altered ability to care for patients due to the COVID-19 pandemic have been associated with moral distress and mental health concerns in healthcare workers internationally. This study aimed to investigate the severity, prevalence, and predictors of moral distress experienced by Australian healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A nationwide, voluntary, anonymous, single time-point, online survey of self-identified frontline healthcare workers was conducted between 27th August and 23rd October 2020. Participants were recruited through health organisations, professional associations or colleges, universities, government contacts, and national media. Results: 7846 complete responses were received from nurses (39.4%), doctors (31.1%), allied health staff (16.7%) or other roles (6.7%). Many participants reported moral distress related to resource scarcity (58.3%), wearing PPE (31.7%) limiting their ability to care for patients, exclusion of family going against their values (60.2%), and fear of letting co-workers down if they were infected (55.0%). Many personal and workplace predictors of moral distress were identified, with those working in certain frontline areas, metropolitan locations, and with prior mental health diagnoses at particular risk of distress. Moral distress was associated with an increased risk of adverse mental health outcomes. Feeling appreciated by the community mitigated this risk in healthcare workers. Conclusions: Safeguarding healthcare workforces during crises is important for both patient safety and workforce longevity. Targeted interventions are required to prevent or minimise moral distress and associated mental health concerns in healthcare workers during COVID-19 and other crises.