REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0288.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Diet; Obesity; Gut microbes; High-fiber diet; High fat diet
Online: 16 September 2021 (13:50:36 CEST)
With the ever-increasing rate, obesity has become an epidemiological problem throughout the globe comprising about 39% of the world population as of now. Among several reasons, disruption of the gut microbial ecosystem might contribute to the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders, including obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and other associated comorbidities. Though the mechanisms related to dysbiosis are unclear, diet might play a modulating role where different dietary approaches manipulate microbial richness and abundance as well as stability. For instance, shifting of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes ratio in the gut might have a role in association with the dietary approaches and ingestion duration. Along with altered gut microbial composition, microbial metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) after ingestion of non-digestible dietary starches may have an impact on host metabolism by regulating lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and inflammation with potential associations to health and obesity. The dietary approaches like carbohydrates, fibre, protein, and/or fat diet at various arrangements can make a shift in the composition of gut microbiota if introduced for a short period. However, the unique pattern of the gut microbes usually remains the same along with the longer period of habitual diet. Though the short-term dietary intervention or circadian rhythm influences a transient change in gut microbes, other than habitual diet, the understanding related to long-term dietary change-induced permanent alterations is minimum. Alternatively, the usage of prebiotics, probiotics as well as postbiotics could be beneficial to overcome dysbiosis. This review highlights the current knowledge and the interaction between the human intestinal microbiota and diet as a modifying factor, in obesity allowing the scientists to uncover novel targets and tools to use as customized therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0109.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; Mediterranean Diet Score; Principal Component analysis; western diet; prudent diet
Online: 15 March 2018 (03:33:48 CET)
Specific foods and nutrients help prevent the progression from persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infection to cervical cancer (CC). We aimed to focus on dietary patterns which may be associated with hrHPV status and risk of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+). Overall, 539 eligible women, including 127 CIN2+, were enrolled in a cross-sectional study, and tested for hrHPV infection. Food intakes were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Logistic regression models were applied. Using the Mediterranean Diet Score, we demonstrated that, among 252 women with normal cervical epithelium, medium adherence to Mediterranean diet decreased odds of hrHPV infection when compared to low adherence (adjOR=0.40, 95%CI=0.22-0.73). Using principle component analysis, we also identified two dietary patterns which explained 14.31% of variance. Women in the 3rd and 4th quartiles of the “western pattern” had higher odds of hrHPV infection when compared with 1st quartile (adjOR=1.77, 95%CI=1.04-3.54 and adjOR=1.97, 95%CI=1.14-4.18, respectively). Adjusting for hrHPV status and age, women in the 3rd quartile of the “prudent pattern” had lower odds of CIN2+ when compared with 1st quartile (OR=0.50, 95%CI=0.26-0.98). Our study is the first to demonstrate the association of dietary patterns with hrHPV infection and CC, discouraging unhealthy habits in favour of Mediterranean-like diet.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0373.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Mediterranean diet; DASH diet; vegetables; fruits; hypertension; diabetes
Online: 25 January 2022 (09:54:12 CET)
The Seven Country study showed that traditional Japanese diet and Mediterranean diets are protective against cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Japanese diet is considered the healthiest because it provides highest longevity and health to Japanese. DASH diet and Mediterranean style diets are also considered the healthy diets, although, it is possible that Indo-Mediterranean style diet may provide better protective effects among patients with CVDs, compared to other diets. The concept of Indo-Mediterranean type of diets was developed, after examining its role in the prevention of CVDs in India, the value of which was confirmed by a landmark study from France; The Lyon Heart Study. These workers found that eating alpha-linolenic acid rich Mediterranean style diet can cause significant decline in CVDs and all-cause mortality. Later on in 2018, PREDIMED Study from Spain also reported that a modified Mediterranean style diet can cause significant decline in CVDs, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cancer. The Indo-Mediterranean diet may be superior to DASH diet and Mediterranean diet because it contains millets, porridge, beans and spices; turmeric, cumin, fenugreek and coriander which may have better anti-inflammatory and cardio-protective effects. These foods are rich sources of nutrients; flavonoids, calcium and iron as well as proteins which are useful in the prevention of under as well as over-nutrition and related diseases. It is known that DASH diet and Mediterranean style diets have similar influence on CVDs. However, Indo-Mediterranean style diet, may be as good as Japanese diet, due to improved food diversity and high content of antioxidants in the diets.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: metabolomics; metabolite profiling; prudent diet; western diet; food provisions; diet records; nutritional epidemiology; mass spectrometry
Online: 22 September 2019 (15:20:34 CEST)
A large body of evidence has linked unhealthy eating patterns with an alarming increase in obesity and chronic disease worldwide. However, existing methods of assessing dietary intake in nutritional epidemiology rely on food frequency questionnaires or dietary records that are prone to bias and selective reporting. Herein, metabolic phenotyping was performed on 42 healthy participants from the Diet and Gene Intervention (DIGEST) pilot study, a parallel two-arm randomized clinical trial that provided complete diets to all participants. Matching urine and plasma specimens were collected at baseline and following 2 weeks of provision of either a Prudent or Western diet with a weight-maintaining menu plan designed by a dietician. Targeted and nontargeted metabolite profiling was conducted using three complementary analytical platforms, where 80 plasma metabolites and 84 creatinine-normalized urinary metabolites were reliably measured (CV < 30%) in the majority of participants (> 75%) after implementing a rigorous data workflow for metabolite authentication with stringent quality control. We classified a panel of metabolites with distinctive trajectories following 2 weeks of food provisions when using complementary univariate and multivariate statistical models. Unknown metabolites associated with contrasting dietary patterns were identified with high resolution MS/MS and/or co-elution after spiking with authentic standards. Overall, 3-methylhistidine and proline betaine concentrations increased consistently after participants were assigned a Prudent diet (q< 0.05) in both plasma and urine samples with a corresponding decrease in the Western diet group. Similarly, creatinine-normalized urinary imidazole propionate, hydroxypipecolic acid, dihydroxybenzoic acid, and enterolactone glucuronide, as well as plasma ketoleucine and ketovaline increased with a Prudent diet (p< 0.05) after adjustments for age, sex and BMI. In contrast, plasma myristic acid, linoelaidic acid, linoleic acid, a-linoleic acid, pentadecanoic acid, alanine, proline, carnitine and deoxycarnitine, as well as urinary acesulfame K increased among participants following a Western diet. Most metabolites were also correlated (r > ±0.30, p< 0.05) to changes in average intake of specific nutrients from self-reported diet records reflecting good adherence to assigned food provisions. Our study revealed robust biomarkers sensitive to short-term changes in habitual diet for accurate monitoring of healthy eating patterns in free-living populations, which is required for validating evidence-based public health policies for chronic disease prevention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0448.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; Diabetes; Diet control diet; AMPK; Tau hyperphosphorylation
Online: 8 October 2018 (15:32:11 CEST)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease, and typical pathologic findings include abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau aggregation and neurofibrillary tangles. Insulin resistance and hyperglycemia have been assessed as risk factors for AD development. As the maintenance of optimal blood glucose levels is an important indicator of diabetes mellitus (DM) treatment, diet control is essential. AMPK is a crucial sensor of cellular bioenergetics for controlling anabolic and catabolic metabolism. Diet restriction to achieve euglycemia can increase AMPK activity in the liver and heart. Since AMPK is a direct regulator of tau phosphorylation, we hypothesized that strict diet control to achieve euglycemia affects tau protein phosphorylation through increased AMPK activity in the hippocampus of DM rats. To confirm this hypothesis, we generated insulin-deficient DM rats by subtotal pancreatectomy. Animals were categorized into the restriction (R) group, control (C) group and ad libitum (AL) group according to the diet. We found that tau phosphorylation was significantly increased in the R group compared with the C or AL group. AMPK activity in the R group significantly increased compared to that of the C group or AL group, as expected. Furthermore, the R group showed more critical tau pathology in the hippocampus than the other groups. These results suggest that diet control to achieve euglycemia in insulin-deficient DM conditions is harmful because of the increased possibility of AD development through increased tau phosphorylation by AMPK activation in the hippocampus. We propose that not only hyperglycemia but also euglycemia, which is beneficial in DM patients, must be considered a potential risk factor for AD development, especially when euglycemia is achieved by diet control during insulin deficiency.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0264.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: glioblastoma; brain tumor; paleolithic diet; ketogenic diet; paleolithic ketogenic diet; metabolic therapy; intestinal permeability; cancer treatment
Online: 9 November 2020 (11:25:35 CET)
Studies in animal models have suggested that the ketogenic diet may be effective in the treatment of cancer. However, human cohort studies on the ketogenic diet have, thus far, failed to show benefits in cancer survival or in any other hard clinical endpoints of the disease. This paper presents a case report of a patient with glioblastoma multiforme. The patient had initially been treated with standard oncotherapy including surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Despite standard treatment, the patient experienced a recurrence of the glioblastoma seven months later. Subsequently, the patient refused radiotherapy and chemotherapy and opted to use the paleolithic ketogenic diet (PKD) as a stand-alone therapy. Following the adoption of the PKD, progression of the disease has been completely halted. At the time of writing, the patient has remained in remission for 48 months, is without side-effects and experiences an excellent quality of life without the use of any drugs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0579.v1
Online: 30 December 2022 (09:44:17 CET)
It was estimated the proportion and number of invasive cancer cases and deaths for 26 cancer types in adults aged 30 years and older in the United States in 2014. In this study was found that these cancers were attributable to modifiable risk factors such as cigarette smoking, second-hand smoke, alcohol intake, physical inactivity, excess body weight, red and processed meat consumption, low consumption of vegetables and fruits, dietary calcium, and ultraviolet radiation and six cancer-associated infections. Several databases were reviewed including PUBMED, Google scholar, and Web of Science. The facts suggest that a number of individuals in the US present risk factors for cancer, which development in malignancies would ultimately depend on the interaction of environmental and genetic factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0482.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Dietary pattern; Mediterranean diet; healthy diet; pregnancy; lifestyle; sociodemographic factors.
Online: 18 March 2021 (12:34:28 CET)
The Mediterranean diet represents one of the most studied dietary patterns, however, there is no single tool for measuring the grade of adherence and no single criteria to adapting these indices to pregnant women. We characterized the adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MDA) of pregnant women participating in the NELA cohort and identified the sociodemographic determinants and lifestyle habits associated with a higher risk of a low MDA. Maternal diet during gestation was assessed by a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) (n=665). We estimated Relative Mediterranean Diet score (rMED), Alternative Mediterranean Diet score (aMED) and Alternate Healthy Index-2010 (AHEI-2010). Multivariate regression models were performed to identify the sociodemographic and lifestyle factors associated to each index. Mothers with lower age and more previous deliveries had a greater probability of low MDA (P <0.05). Only, for aMED index, mothers with university education and / or who practiced 2 or more hours per week sport activities had a lower probability of a low MDA (P <0.01). These results may be useful in order to design intervention strategies and dietary recommendation for pregnant women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0280.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: nutrition; plant-based diet; vegan diet; lifestyle; obesity; body composition; weight-loss
Online: 24 October 2019 (15:30:39 CEST)
Failure of various weight-loss programs and long-term maintenance of favorable body composition in all kinds of people is high, since the majority go back to old dietary patterns. Many studies have documented the efficacy of a plant-based diet (PBD) for body mass management, but there are opinions that maintaining a PBD is difficult. We aimed to evaluate the long-term success of a whole-food plant-based (WFPB) lifestyle program. We investigated the differences in the obesity indices and lifestyle of 151 adults (39.6 ± SD 12.5 years), who were on our program for short (0.5–<2 years), medium (2–<5 years), or long term (5–10 years). Body-composition changes were favourable for all three groups, both genders and all participants. There were no differences in relative body-composition changes (BMI, body fat percentage and muscle mass index (MMI)) between the three groups. All participants improved their BMI (baseline mean pre-obesity BMI range (kg/m2): 26.4 ± 5.6 to normal 23.9 ± 3.8, p < 0.001), decreased body mass (–7.1 ± 8.3 kg, p < 0.001) and body fat percentage (–6.4 ± 5.6 % points, p < 0.001). Those with the highest BMI at baseline lost the most of: a) BMI units, b) total body mass and c) body fat (a) (kg/m2) (–5.6 ± SD 2.9, –2.4 ± 1.8 and –0.9 ± 1.5), b) (kg) (–16.1 ± SD 8.8, –7.1 ± 5.4 and –2.5 ± 4.5) and c) (% points) (–9.5 ± SD 5.7, –6.6 ± 4.6 and –4.7 ± 5.3) for participants who had baseline BMI in obese, overweight and normal range, respectively; pbaseline vs. current < 0.001 for all). 85.6% (101 out of 118) of parents of underage children (< 18 years), introduced WFPB lifestyle to their children. WFPB lifestyle program provides long-term lifestyle changes for reversal of obesity and is effective transferred to the next generation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0065.v1
Online: 3 September 2021 (13:51:11 CEST)
Cancer is a prevalent disease worldwide and treatments such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy sometimes lead to adverse events. Oral mucositis is one of the most disabling and clinical guidelines do not take into account nutritional interventions. The primary endpoint was to gather the evidence about the efficacy of nutritional interventions in the prevention and/or treatment of antineoplastic induced oral mucositis in oncological patients. It was carried out a bibliographic review in PubMed data base by combining MesH terms with boolean operators. Articles were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria; 50 final articles were found. Although further evidence is needed, glutamine, honey and vitamins appear to be a good therapeutic option. The rest of the compounds presented controversial or insufficient results to draw conclusions over their utilization as prevention or treatment options. Low evidence is reported about oral mucositis nutritional interventions in spite of being attainable and affordable compounds. Scarce evidence is shown in paediatric patients compared to adults. Developing higher quality studies and combinations with the compounds researched is necessary to create stronger evidence.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0516.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Plant-dominant diet; low-protein diet; dietary protein intake; glomerular hyperfiltration; CKD prevention; uremia
Online: 31 May 2020 (21:22:42 CEST)
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects >10% of the adult population. Each year approximately 120,000 Americans develop end-stage kideny disease and initiate dialysis, which is costly and associated with functional impairments, worse health-related quality of life, and high early-mortality rates exceeding 20% in the first year. Recent declarations by the World Kidney Day and the U.S. Government Executive Order seek to implement strategies that reduce the burden of kidney failure by slowing CKD progression and controlling uremia without dialysis. Pragmatic dietary interventions may have a role in improving CKD outcomes and preventing or delaying dialysis initiation. Evidence suggests that a patient-centered plant-dominant low-protein diet (PLADO) of 0.6-0.8 g/kg/day comprised of >50% plant-based sources, administered by dietitians trained in non-dialysis CKD care, can be promising. The scientific premise of the PLADO is based on the observations that high protein diets with high meat intake are not only associated with higher cardiovascular disease risk but also higher CKD incidence and faster CKD progression due to increased intraglomerular pressure and glomerular hyperfiltration. Meat intake increases production of nitrogenous end-products, worsens uremia, and may increase the risk of hyperkalemia, given constipation from the typical low fiber intake. Plant-dominant, fiber-rich, low-protein diet may lead to favorable alterations in the gut microbiome, which can modulate uremic toxin generation and slow CKD progression, along with reducing cardiovascular risk in CKD patients. PLADO is a heart-healthy, safe, flexible, and feasible diet that could be the centerpiece of a conservative and preservative CKD-management strategy that challenges the prevailing dialysis-centered paradigm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0166.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: computational nutrition; meal plan generator; nutritional app; nutritional intervention; smartphone application; diet app; diet record.
Online: 9 December 2022 (01:11:03 CET)
Access to good nutritional health is one of the principal objectives of current society. Several e-services offer dietary advice. However, multifactorial and more individualized nutritional recommendations should be developed to recommend healthy menus according to the specific user's needs. In this article we present and validate a personalized nutrition system based on an application (APP) for smart devices with the capacity to offer an adaptable menu to the user. The APP was developed following a structured recommendation generation scheme, where the characteristics of the menus of 20 users were evaluated. Specific menus were generated for each user based on their preferences and nutritional requirements. These menus were evaluated by comparing their nutritional content versus the nutrient composition retrieved from dietary records. The generated menus showed great similarity to those obtained from the user dietary records. Furthermore, the generated menus showed less variability in micronutrient amounts and higher concentrations than the menus from the user records. The macronutrient deviations were also corrected in the generated menus, offering a better adaptation to the users. The presented system is a good tool for the generation of menus that are adapted to the user characteristics and a starting point to nutritional interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0052.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: Carbohydrates; keto diet; IRS; C-peptide
Online: 7 April 2022 (04:03:54 CEST)
Abstract: Carbohydrates form the major source of energy in Asian diets. A lower carbohydrate diet became the recommended golden standard for healthy lifestyle. However, the effects of low-carbohydrates diet on health in apparently healthy individuals have been poorly studied, especially in relation to insulin resistance syndrome (IRS). A total of 120 healthy weight participants with no previous history of a major medical condition and an average BMI of ≤ 25kg/m2 were recruited. Self-reported dietary intake and objective physical activity by accelerometry were tracked for seven days. Participants were divided into three categories according to their dietary intake of carbohydrates. Blood samples were collected for metabolic markers analysis. HOMA of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), β-cell function (HOMA-B) and C-peptide were used to evaluate glucose homeostasis. The consumption of low carbohydrates (less than 45% of total energy) significantly correlated with higher HOMA-IR, Lower HOMA-β % compared to moderate carbohydrate intake (between 45% to 65%). However, only the HOMA-β % was significantly influenced by carbohydrates intake. Moreover, low carbohydrates intake was significantly associated with elevated C-peptide secretion. The substitution of carbohydrates with other macronutrients, such as fat and proteins in the Atkins/ketogenic diet, resulted in a pronounced induction of IRS-related inflammatory markers; FGF2, IP-10, IL-6, IL-17A, MDC and reduction of IL-13. Overall, the presented data highlight, for the first time, that low carbohydrate intake results in significant glucose homeostasis imbalance that may be driven by a heightened state of inflammatory response.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0184.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Diabetes mellitus; diet, education; systematic review.
Online: 8 July 2021 (09:57:01 CEST)
As the incidence and prevalence of diabetes increases, intervention through dietary education is becoming more important for diabetes control. This systematic review aimed to confirm the ef-fect of dietary intervention education on diabetes control. The study subjects were type 2 diabet-ic patients, and the main outcome variable was glycosylated hemoglobin level (HbA1c). The target studies were randomized controlled trials. Thirty-six studies were included in the analysis, of which 33 were included in the meta-analysis. The effect size between the dietary education and general intervention, was -0.42 (n=5,639, MD=-0.42; 95% CI -0.53 to -0.31) and was signifi-cantly different (Z=7.73, P<.001). When subgroup analyses were performed following the appli-cation periods, intervention methods, and intervention contents, the mean differences in 4–6-month application, individual education, diet-exercise-psychosocial intervention were -0.51, (n=2,742, 95% CI -0.71 to -0.32), -0.63 (n=627, 95% CI -1.00 to -0.26), and -0.51 (n=3.244, 95% CI -0.71 to -0.32), respectively. Dietary education interventions provided for at least 3 months were highly effective in controlling blood sugar levels. Regarding the education method, individual-ized education was more effective, and for this, contact or non-contact education may be applied. Combining diet, exercise, and psychosocial intervention is more effective than diet education alone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0251.v1
Online: 9 April 2021 (09:48:31 CEST)
The objective of this study was to develop the least-cost starter’s diet and evaluated its effect on the growth performance of Sasso breeds and Indigenous ecotype of chicks under the local condition of the South Gondar Zone. The effects of substitution of different levels of commercial starters ration with homemade diet on the growth performance of Sasso and Indigenous chicks were studied in Hiruy Abaregay village of Farta district. The research area is 586km distant from the capital city of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A total of 510 Sasso T-44 and 90 Indigenous local ecotypes day-old chicks were randomly divided into five groups, each with 102 and 18 chicks, respectively. These were assigned into five treatments in which 100 (T1), 75 (T2), 50 (T3), 25 (T4), and 0% (T5) of commercial starter’s diet in factorial completely randomized design (CRD) with 3 replications for 60 days feeding period. The results obtained indicated that increased levels of substitution of a commercial diet with a homemade diet significantly depressed (p<0.001) mean daily feed consumption and retention of dry matter, nitrogen, and metabolizable energy. Growth rate as measured by mean daily weight gain, mean final body weight, and total feed consumption and feed cost were significantly miserable (p<0.001) in an increased homemade diet. On the contrary, there was an increase in feed conversion ratio and fiber content in high-level dilution of starter’s commercial diet with a homemade diet. However, the groups of chicks on 0, 25, and 50% commercial starters diets replaced by homemade diet were significantly higher (p<0.001) in mean daily feed intake, daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and final body weight attained. The results of this study indicated that up to 50% of expensive commercial starter’s diet could economically be replaced with the least cost homemade diet without adversely affecting the growth performance of chicks.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0629.v1
Online: 29 January 2021 (14:34:17 CET)
There is a disproportionate increase in the incidence of diet-related cardiometabolic disorders in racial and ethnic minority groups. This systematic review examines the extent to which diet-induced changes in health outcomes have been discussed by race or ethnicity in randomized controlled trials recruiting both minority and non-Hispanic White groups. Databases i.e. PubMed, Cochrane library and Web of Science were searched up to November 2019. Studies that discussed effects of defined dietary interventions on health outcomes by racial or ethnic minority group vs. non-Hispanic Whites (n=29) were included in the review. Most studies were conducted in Black vs. White people testing effects of energy restriction, macronutrient modification, sodium reduction, or variations of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on cardiometabolic outcomes. There was limited focus on other minority groups. Evidence suggests greater blood pressure reduction for Black people compared to Whites particularly on DASH (or similar) diets. Overall, there was limited consideration for group-specific eating patterns and diet acceptability in most studies. Adequately powered studies are needed for accurate interpretation of race by diet effects. With emerging precision nutrition initiatives, it is imperative to ensure adequate representation of racial and ethnic subgroups for addressing nutrition-related health disparities.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0355.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Keywords: microplastics; analysis; waste treatment; food; diet
Online: 23 May 2020 (04:58:22 CEST)
This preprint is focused in the presence of plastics and microplastics in food. We will discuss how many we eat, and how they arrive to the food, and why. We will treat many other things, such as the waste treatment in Europe and in Spain, with updated data; how much plastic waste is generated; what are microplastics and how they are analyzed, I will tell about the experience we have at the University of Alicante (UA); how they can be removed and we will estimate how many we eat over the course of a year.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0556.v1
Online: 24 October 2018 (08:01:35 CEST)
Background: Sodium intake has been related to several adverse health outcomes; such as, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases. Processed foods are major contributors to the population’s dietary sodium intake. The aim of the present study was to determine sodium levels in Mexican packaged foods; also to evaluate the proportion of foods that comply with sodium benchmark targets set by the UK Food Standards Agency (UK FSA) and those set by the Mexican Commission for the Protection of Health Risks (COFEPRIS). We also evaluated the proportion of foods that exceeded the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) targets. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that comprised data collected from the package of 2,248 processed foods from selected supermarkets of Mexico. Results: Many processed food categories contained excessive amount of sodium, being the processed meats (ham, bacon and sausages) those that have the highest concentrations. The proportion of foods classified as compliant in our sample was lower for international targets (FSA UK and PAHO) compared to the Mexican COFEPRIS criteria. Conclusions: These data provide a critical baseline assessment for monitoring sodium levels in Mexican processed foods.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0063.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: engagement; adolescents; obesity; diet; prevention; management
Online: 5 June 2018 (11:21:25 CEST)
Obesity is one of the greatest health challenges facing today’s adolescents. Dietary interventions are the foundation of obesity prevention and management. As adolescents are digital frontrunners and early adopters of technology, digital health interventions appear the most practical modality for dietary behaviour change interventions. Despite the rapid growth in digital health interventions, effective engagement with adolescents remains a pertinent issue. Key strategies for effective engagement include co-designing interventions with adolescents, personalisation of interventions, and just-in-time adaptation using data from wearable devices. The aim of this paper is to appraise these strategies, which may be used to improve effective engagement and thereby improve the dietary behaviours of adolescents now and in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0301.v1
Online: 22 May 2018 (11:37:00 CEST)
The 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends that individuals should eat as little dietary cholesterol as possible. However, current dietary cholesterol intake and its food sources have not been well-characterized. We examined dietary cholesterol intake by age, sex, race, and food sources using 24-hour dietary recall data from a nationally representative sample of 5047 adults aged 20 years or older who participated in NHANES (2013–2014 survey cycle). We also reported trends in cholesterol intake across the past 7 NHANES surveys. Mean dietary cholesterol intake was 293 mg/day (348 mg/day for males and 242 mg/day for females) in the 2013–2014 survey cycle; 39% of adults had dietary cholesterol intake above 300 mg/day (46% for males and 28% for females). Meat, eggs, grain products, and milk were the highest four food sources of cholesterol, contributing to 96% of the total consumption. Both average cholesterol intake and food source varied by age, sex, and race (each p < 0.05). Mean cholesterol intake of the overall population had been relatively constant at ~290 mg/day from 2001–2002 to 2013–2014 (p-trend = 0.98). These results should inform public health efforts in implementing dietary guidelines and tailoring dietary recommendations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0014.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: osteosarcopenic obesity; exercise; diet; aging; fall
Online: 2 May 2018 (08:02:13 CEST)
Osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO) is described by the simultaneous presence of osteopenia/osteoporosis, sarcopenia, and increased adiposity. Over time, older adults with OSO syndrome might be at greater risk for loss of physical function and bone fractures. Furthermore, a sedentary lifestyle, inadequate nutrition, pharmaceutical drugs and chronic conditions encompass the multifactorial nature of OSO syndrome. Physical activity and a healthy diet play a crucial role in management and treatment of OSO syndrome. Research has shown that even low-intensity physical activity or daily habitual activity can maintain bone mineral density, muscle strength and improve muscle quality, and reduce adiposity. However, older adults with high risk of fall and injuries require tailored exercise intensity. Also, balanced daily intake of vitamin D, calcium and protein is important in prevention and treatment of OSO syndrome in postmenopausal women. Effective measurement of bone mass, muscle mass and strength is required when detecting OSO syndrome and to evaluate the balance, strength and endurance of elder individuals and severity of the condition.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0016.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: wine; mediterranean diet; okinawa diet; health; nrf2; alcohol; polyphenols; hormesis; cardiovascular protection; cancer; Alzheimer; metabolic disease
Online: 2 November 2018 (05:08:46 CET)
Hippocrate, the father of medicine, already said:"Wine is a thing wonderfully appropriate to man if, in health as in disease, it is administered with appropriate and just measure according to the individual constitution." wine has always accompanied humanity, for religion or for health. Christians and Jews need wine for the liturgy. For Platon the wine was an indispensable element in society and took all its importance in the symposium. In this second part of the banquet, mixed with water, the wine gave the word. If the french paradox made a lot of ink flow; it was the wine that was originally responsible for it. Many researchers have tried to share the alcohol and polyphenols in order to solve the mystery. Beyond its cardiovascular effects, there are also effects on longevity, metabolism, cancer prevention and neuroprotection, and the list goes on. The purpose of this work is to make an analysis of current knowledge on the subject. Indeed, if the paradigm of the antioxidants is seductive, it is perhaps by their prooxidant effect that the polyphenols could act, by an epigenetic process mediated by nrf2. Wine is a preserve of antioxidants for the winter and it is by this property that the wine acts, in alcoholic solution. A wine without alcohol is pure heresy. By the way, we were not talking about elixir to design all this millennial pharmacopee that made the man was able to heal and prosper on the planet. From Alvise Cornaro to Serge Renaud, nutrition was the key to health and longevity, whether Cretan or Okinawa diet, it is the small dose of alcohol (wine or sake) that allows the bioavailability of polyphenols. Moderate drinking give a protection for diseases and a longevity potential. In conclusion, let’s drink fewer, but drink better to live older.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0509.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: inflammation; coronary disease; mediterranean diet; low-fat diet; C-reactive protein; adiponectin; visceral fat; body composition
Online: 26 July 2018 (10:33:01 CEST)
The Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) is recognised to reduce risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), in part, via its anti-inflammatory properties. Diet efficacy via this mechanism is however unclear in patients with diagnosed CHD. This study aimed to determine the effect of MedDiet versus low-fat diet intervention on inflammatory biomarkers and adiposity in a pilot cohort of Australian patients post coronary event. Participants (62±9 years, 83% male) were randomised to the MedDiet (n=34) or low-fat diet (n=31). At 0-, 3- and 6-months, dietary counselling, anthropometry, body composition (Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry) and venepuncture was conducted. Participants adhered well to the MedDiet intervention, however, there were no significant changes in body composition or inflammatory biomarkers hs-C-reactive protein or hs-interleukin-6 in the MedDiet compared to the low-fat diet group after 6-months. Adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory adipokine, tended to increase in response to the MedDiet (+1.1±4.2ng/mL, p=0.11) and decrease in response to the low-fat diet (-0.9±3.3ng/mL, p=0.20). In the pooled cohort, participants with greatest improvement in MedDiet adherence score had significantly lower waist circumference and subcutaneous fat levels at 6-months. A clinically significant effect of the MedDiet on inflammation and adiposity in CHD patients may require a larger sample, adjunct exercise intervention and/or caloric restriction.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0101.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: GLUT1 deficiency syndrome, modified Atkins diet, cognition, dystonia, dyskinesia, seizure, epilepsy, ketogenic diet, glucose transporter type 1.
Online: 6 May 2021 (15:12:17 CEST)
Glucose is the primary energy fuel used by the brain and is transported across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) by the glucose transporter type 1 and 2. A GLUT1 genetic defect is responsible for glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1DS). Patients with GLUT1DS may present with pharmaco-resistant epilepsy, developmental delay, microcephaly, and/or abnormal movements, with tremendous phenotypic variability. Diagnosis is made by the presence of specific clinical features, hypoglycorrhachia and an SLC2A1 gene mutation. Treatment with a ketogenic diet therapy (KDT) is the standard of care as it results in production of ketone bodies which can readily cross the BBB and provide an alternate energy source to the brain in the absence of glucose. KDTs have been shown to reduce seizures and abnormal movements in children diagnosed with GLUT1DS. However, little is known about the impact of KDT on cognitive function, seizures and movement disorders in adults newly diagnosed with GLUT1DS and started on a KDT in adulthood, or the appropriate ketogenic diet therapy to administer. This case report demonstrates the potential benefits of using a modified Atkins diet (MAD), a less restrictive ketogenic diet therapy on cognition, seizure control and motor function in an adult with newly-diagnosed GLUT1SD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0009.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: microbiome; melanoma; immune checkpoint inhibitor; diet; immunotherapy
Online: 3 October 2022 (12:19:54 CEST)
Gut microbiota is considered a key player modulating the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. The study investigated the association between response to the anti-PD-1 therapy and the baseline gut microbiome in the Polish cohort of melanoma patients, alongside selected agents modifying the microbiome. Sixty-four melanoma patients enrolled for the anti-PD-1 therapy and 10 healthy subjects were recruited. Response to the treatment was assessed according to the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors, and patients were classified as responders or non-responders. The association between selected extrinsic factors and response was investigated using questionnaire-based analysis, and metataxonomics of the microbiota. The Bacteroidota to Firmicutes ratio was higher, and the richness was decreased in the responders. The abundance of Prevotella copri and Bacteroides uniformis was related to the response, whereas non-responder gut microbiota was enriched with Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Desulfovibrio intestinalis, and some unclassified Firmicutes. Dietary patterns, including plant, dairy, and fat consumption, but also gastrointestinal tract functioning were significantly associated with the therapeutic effects of the therapy. The specific gut microbiota alongside diet were found associated with response to the therapy in the Polish population of melanoma patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0442.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: energy metabolism; South Asian; diet; physical activity
Online: 23 August 2021 (13:26:08 CEST)
The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing worldwide not only in Western countries but also in Asian countries. Among Asian countries, South Asian countries experience the rapid increase of overweight and obesity that co-exist with the rapid increase of obesity-related non communicable diseases such as diabetes, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular. The phenomena in South Asian countries are triggered by growth in population size, population aging, urbanization and changes in lifestyle including increases in energy intake and reductions in physical activity. The imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure leads to the development of positive energy balance, which over the time acumulate in a higher body fat. South Asians were reported to have a more unfavorable body composition with a higher body fat percentage as compared to BMI-matched Caucasians. The differences in body composition between South Asians and Caucasians contribute to differences in resting energy expenditure, in which South Asians have a lower resting energy expenditure as compared to BMI-matched Caucasians. Resting energy expenditure is the largest component of daily total energy expenditure, and therefore play an important role in determining the energy balance between energy intake and expenditure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0104.v1
Online: 2 March 2021 (16:02:07 CET)
Hepato-renal dysfunctions associated with hyperlipidemia necessitates continuous search for natural remedies. This study thus, evaluated the effect of dietary chitosan on diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (90 ± 5.2) g were randomly allotted into six (6) groups (n=5): Normal diet, High-fat diet (HFD), Normal diet + 5% chitosan. The three other groups received HFD, supplemented with 1%-, 3%-, and 5% of chitosan. The feeding lasted for 8 weeks, after which the rats were sacrificed. The liver and kidneys were harvested for Analyses. Hepatic alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and renal biomarkers (ALT, AST, urea, and creatinine) were assayed spectrophotometrically. Additionally, expression of hepatic and renal CD43 and p53 was estimated immunohistochemically. Hyperlipidemia caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the hepatic (AST, ALT, and ALP) and renal (AST and ALT) activities, while renal urea and creatinine increased. Furthermore, the HFD group showed an elevated level of hepatic and renal CD43 while p53 expression decreased. However, groups supplemented with chitosan showed improved hepatic and renal biomarkers, as well as corrected the aberrations in the expressions of p53 and CD43. Conclusively, dietary chitosan could effectively improve kidney and liver functionality via abatement of inflammatory responses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0365.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: semen quality; male infertility; nutritional model; diet
Online: 20 April 2020 (14:54:04 CEST)
Abnormalities in male fertility constitute about 50% of all infertility causes. According to some data, the quality of human semen has deteriorated by 50-60 % over the last 40 years. A high-fat diet and obesity, the development of which is encouraged by the western lifestyle, affects the structure of spermatozoa, but also the development of the offspring and their health in later stages of life. In obese individuals, disorders on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis are observed, as well as elevated oestrogen levels with simultaneous decrease of testosterone, LH and FSH hormone levels. Healthy dietary models clearly correlate with better sperm quality and a smaller risk of abnormalities in parameters, such as sperm count, sperm concentration and motility, as well as lower sperm DNA fragmentation. Apart from mineral components such as zinc and selenium, the role of omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidant vitamins should be emphasized, since their action will be based primarily on the minimization of oxidative stress and inflammation process. Additionally, the incorporation of carnitine supplements and coenzyme Q10 in therapeutic intervention seems also promising. Therefore, it is advisable to have a varied and balanced diet based on vegetables and fruit, fish and seafood, nuts, seeds, whole-grain products, poultry and low-fat dairy products.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0228.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: autoimmune disease; autoimmunity; dysbiosis; Mediterranean diet; microbiome
Online: 21 January 2020 (02:58:57 CET)
The nutritional habits regulate the gut microbiota and may provoke and/or prevent autoimmune disease. Western diet is rich in sugars, meat and poly-unsaturated fatty acids, which lead to dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota, disruption of gut epithelial barrier and chronic mucosal inflammation. On the other hand, Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) is rich in ω3 fatty acids, fruits and vegetables and has anti-inflammatory properties, which can restore gut eubiosis. The effect of MedDiet and its components in health and disease states have been thoroughly analyzed in several studies. Moreover, several studies have specifically investigated the association between MedDiet, microbiota and risk for autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, the MedDiet has been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular diseases, which plays a critical role in reducing mortality in patients suffering from autoimmune diseases with comorbidities. The aim of the present review is to specifically highlight current knowledge regarding possible interactions of MedDiet with the patterns of intestinal microbiota focusing on autoimmunity and a blueprint through dietary modulations for the prevention and management of diseases’s activity and progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0423.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Crohn’s disease, dietary intake, malnutrition, Mediterranean diet
Online: 18 October 2018 (12:03:28 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to (a) compare macro- and micronutrient intakes between male and female CD patients (b) compare micronutrient intakes of CD patients to a representative population of healthy individuals, and; (c) describe Mediterranean diet scores (P-MDS) of male and female CD patients in remission recruited from an IBD clinic in Calgary, AB. Consecutive patients with ileal and/or colonic CD in endoscopic remission were recruited for participation in this cross-sectional study. Sixty-seven patients were enrolled, with a mean age of 45, and a BMI ≥ 25. Compared with the healthy population, patients with CD had similar energy, protein, carbohydrate and total fat intake. However, PUFA, omega-6 and 3 and MUFA were lower in CD patients and dietary fibre intake was higher. Vitamins C, D, thiamin, niacin, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc and potassium were all significantly lower in all CD patients compared to a healthy population. Few patients with CD met P-MDS criteria for olive oil, vegetable, legumes, and fish intake or consuming Sofrito sauce (mean 4.5, SD=1.1 in males and 4.7, SD=1.8 in females). Patients with CD in remission have suboptimal dietary intakes and patterns and targeted dietary interventions may be beneficial in this population to improve intake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0004.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: breast cancer; optimal control; ketogenic diet; chemotherapy
Online: 1 February 2018 (04:45:40 CET)
In this paper, a mathematical model of breast cancer governed by a system of ordinary differential equations in the presence of chemotherapy treatment and ketogenic diet is discussed. Several comprehensive mathematical analysis was carried out using varieties of analytical methods to study the stability of the breast cancer model. Also, sufficient conditions on parameter values to ensure cancer persistence in the absence of anti-cancer drugs ketogenic diet and cancer emission when anti-cancer drugs, immune-booster, ketogenic diet are included were established. Furthermore, optimal control theory is applied to find out the optimal drug adjustment as an input control of the system therapies to minimize the number of cancerous cells by considering different controlled combinations of administering the chemotherapy agent and ketogenic diet using the popular Pontryagin’s Maximum Principle. Numerical simulations were presented to validate our theoretical results.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0081.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: insulin resistance; diet; exercise; microbiome; metabolic disorders
Online: 9 January 2018 (10:05:09 CET)
Insulin resistance is a prominent pathophysiologic syndrome in a plethora of metabolic disorders including obesity, prediabetes, type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Ten et al., 2007), impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, polycystic ovary syndrome and hypercoagulability (Smith & LeRoith, 2004). It is strongly associated with obstructive sleep apnea, hypoventilation syndrome, pancreatitis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, gall bladder disease, multiple cancers (breasts, uterus, cervix prostate, kidney, colon, esophagus, pancreas and liver), stroke, cataracts, coronary heart disease, and hypertension. It is also associated with causation of abnormal menses, infertility, polycystic ovary syndrome, osteoarthritis, phlebitis and other venous diseases. Insulin resistance is thought to be caused by intrinsic and extrinsic factors that contribute to its development. Once present, insulin resistance affects the metabolism, behavior, physical appearance and has lasting effects. This paper will review the latest evidence in development of insulin resistance, its pathogenesis and manifestation and its relation to other conditions. The final aim is to raise awareness of its role on diet, metabolic, genetics and microbiome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0039.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: diet, gut microbiota, epigenetics, inflammatory bowel diseases
Online: 15 July 2017 (00:46:37 CEST)
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) represent a growing public health concern due to increasing incidence worldwide. The current notion on the pathogenesis of IBD is that genetically susceptible individuals develop intolerance to dysregulated gut microflora (dysbiosis) and chronic inflammation develops as a result of environmental triggers. Among the environmental factors associated to IBD, diet plays an important role in modulating the gut microbiome, influencing epigenetic changes and, therefore, could be applied as a therapeutic tool to improve the disease course. Nevertheless, the current dietary recommendations for disease prevention and management are scarce and of weak evidence. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the complex interactions among diet, microbiome and epigenetics in IBD. Whereas over-abundance of calories and some macronutrients increases gut inflammation, several micronutrients have the potential to modulate it. Immunonutrition has emerged as a new concept putting forward the importance of vitamins such as vitamins A, C, E, D, folic acid and beta-carotene and trace elements such as zinc, selenium, manganese and iron. However, when assessed in clinical trials, specific micronutrients exerted a limited benefit. Beyond nutrients, anti-inflammatory dietary patterns as a complex intervention approach have become popular over the recent years. Hence, exclusive enteral nutrition in pediatric Crohn’s disease is the only nutritional intervention currently recommended as a first-line therapy. Other nutritional interventions or specific diets including the Specific Carbohydrate Diet, the low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyol diet and most recently the Mediterranean diet have shown strong anti-inflammatory properties and provide a promise for improving disease symptoms. Definitely, more work is required to evaluate the role of individual food compounds and complex nutritional interventions with potential to decrease inflammation as means for prevention and management of IBD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0114.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: multiple sclerosis; epidemiology; diet; childhood infections; interaction
Online: 22 November 2016 (13:00:45 CET)
An increased risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) had been found when individuals had consumed large amounts of processed meat and sausages at young age (Lauer, 2014). Furthermore it was found in many studies that MS patients had acquired a number of common childhood infections at higher ages than controls. Therefore, MS patients from an epidemiological long-term investigation in Germany and different hospital controls, were evaluated for a statistical interaction of these two factors. 324 MS patients and 242 hospital controls were inquired. The study focussed on age 0 - 16. Subjects were tested for additive interaction by multiple linear regression analysis (Knol et al., 2007). There was an additive interaction of the age at any common childhood infection with the consumption of scalded sausages (regression estimate = 0.1370; standard error = 0.0603; p = 0.0239). In contrast, no such interaction could be shown for: animal fats; smoked meat (e.g. ham and bacon); and cold - smoked German salami. Thus there was a synergy of the intake of scalded sausages (e.g. frankfurters, bolognas, etc.) and age at common childhood infections, for the later risk of MS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0185.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: pediatric pharmacy; complementary alternative medicine; dietary interventions; oral manifestations; chronic pediatric conditions; ketogenic diet; gluten free casein free diet
Online: 8 November 2018 (03:55:15 CET)
Complementary and alternative treatment approaches are becoming more common among children with chronic conditions. The pravelance of CAM use among US adults was estimated to be around 42% in 2015, and around 44% to 50% among adults with neurologic disorders. Studies report children with chronic illnesses such as cancer, asthma, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), genetic disorders, and other neurodevelopmental disorders are treated with complementary and alternative treatments at higher rates. Dietary therapies are gaining increasing popularity in the mainstream population, due to the heavy media involvement. Although, majority of “fad” diets do not have enough supporting evidence, some dietary therapies have been utilized for decades and have numerous published studies. The objective of this review is to describe the dietary interventions used in children with the specific chronic conditions, to evaluate their efficacy based on published data, and to encourage pharmacist involvement in the management and care of such patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0470.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Antioxidant; free radical stress; endothelial dysfunction; dyslipidemia; diet
Online: 26 January 2023 (08:20:52 CET)
There is evidence that behavioral risk factors such as western type diet, and life style can predispose to oxidative stress, deficiency in antioxidant status, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and increase in inflammation in tissues of various organs: beta cells of the pancreas, LDL receptors in the hepatocytes, endothelium, neurons, osteocytes and gut. Further studies indicate that diets rich in antioxidant flavonoids, omega-3 fatty acids and fiber in foods were inversely associated whereas western-type foods were positively associated with risk of mortality due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). One important cause for beneficial effects of diet may be certain foods and nutrients such as vegetables, fruits and whole grains that are rich in fiber and flavonoids, known to produce liters og molecular hydrogen in the gut. It seems that, high-fiber diets, prebiotic and probiotics can produce greater hydrogen, which acts as an antioxidant and may inhibit free radical generation. Recent studies indicate that molecular hydrogen can inhibit hydroxyl and nitrosyl radicals and can directly act as antioxidant in the cells and tissues, which can cause marked decline in oxidative stress and inflammation leading to significant decline in CVDs and metabolic diseases. Clinical and experimental studies indicate that hydrogen therapy such as hydrogen rich water can provide benefits in the management of CVDs and metabolic diseases. Larger studies are necessary to verify the role of hydrogen administration in CVDs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0437.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: freshman; weight gain; body composition; diet; physical activity
Online: 12 September 2022 (11:10:16 CEST)
Background: Students in the United States gain weight significantly during their first year of university, however limited data are available for Australian students. Methods: This 12-month observational study was conducted to monitor monthly body weight and composition, as well as quarterly eating behaviours, dietary intake, physical activity, sedentary behaviours, and basal metabolic rate changes amongst first-year Australian university students. Participants were first-year university students over 18 years. Results: Twenty-two first-year university students (5 males and 17 females) completed the study. Female students gained weight significantly at two, three, and four-months (+0.9 kg; +1.5 kg; +1.1 kg, p <0.05). Female waist circumference (2.5 cm increase at three-months, p = 0.012), and body fat also increased (+0.9%, p = 0.026 at three-months). Intakes of sugar, saturated fat (both >10% of total energy), and sodium exceeded recommended levels (>2000 mg) at 12-months. Greater sedentary behaviours were observed amongst male students throughout the study (p <0.05). Conclusions: Female students are at risk of unfavourable changes in body composition during the first year of university, while males are at risk of increased sedentary behaviours. High intakes of saturated fat, sugars, and sodium warrant future interventions in such a vulnerable group.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0257.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Western diet; oxidative stress; cardiomyocyte; micronutrients; dietary fat
Online: 20 June 2022 (03:38:07 CEST)
Heart failure (HF) has become a public health problem, but exact pathophysiology is still unknown. Western diet characterised with high sugar, high fat, red meat and processed meat, eggs, fried foods and sweetened beverages, may cause oxidative stress and inflammation, leading to oxidative dysfunction and adverse effects on cardiac-ultra-structure. However, only little is known about oxidative function of the of the myocardium and how oxidative dysfunction predispose Ca-overloading resulting in to physio-pathological remodelling leading to HF. Antioxidants such as flavonoids and polyphenolics, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins, minerals as well as essential and nonessential amino acids that are rich in Indo-Mediterranean type of diets, may have protective roles in maintaining oxidative functions of the heart. The cardiac cells use fatty acids and glucose for the metabolic functions depending upon physiological and metabolic requirements. Apart from glucotoxicity, lipotoxicity is also damaging to cardiac cells which worsen in presence of deficiency of endogenous antioxidants and lower exogenous antioxidants in the diet. There is increased production of ceramide, advanced glycation end products (AGE) and triamino-methyl-N-oxide (TMAO) due to high sugar and high fat diets, leading to oxidative dysfunction and Ca-overloading. The biological changes may begin with physiological remodelling to pathological remodelling due to oxidative damages. High fat diet in combination with inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOSi) via N-arginine methyl ester has been found to preserve ejection fraction in a mouse model of HF. It is possible that increased supplementation of High Exogenous Antioxidant Restorative Treatment (HEART) diet; polyphenolics and flavonoids, vitamins, minerals, arginine, with omega-3 fatty acids, and cessation of red meat and egg may further improve the oxidative function of cardiac cells, resulting in the prevention and improvement in the earliest of the Six Stages of HF. Cohort studies and randomised, controlled trials would be necessary for demonstration of the role of HEART diet in the management of HF.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0551.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: nudges; diet; healthy living; instant messaging; digital interventions
Online: 29 November 2021 (18:30:30 CET)
With roots beyond behavioural economics to psychology, nudges can be applied for influencing healthy behaviours such as food choice and portions to decrease obesity for better public health outcomes. However, the effectiveness of the type of nudges are contentious with conflicting literature. In this pilot study, we conducted a 23-day study surveying the food choices that included portion, locus of control, demographic data, and psychological measures of personality, perceived stress, narcissism, regulatory focus, food choice motive and dietary restraint, with the participants given four intervention conditions of 12 instant messaging sent every two days through WhatsApp. The messages were either factual (control), focused on consequences, through social comparison, or persuasive. Running over the COVID19 pandemic, 17 participants completed the full surveys showing significant effects between the experimental conditions with the psychological parameters except for diet confidence and extraversion and conscientiousness, as well as cognitive restraint. We found BMI and waistline measurements to be suitable measurements, with promising results from the fear and social comparison nudges for food-related behaviours and exercise. Our pilot findings have implications to the use of nudges upon which future studies investigating psychological factors can build on.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0339.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: microbiota; microbiome; manipulation; fiber; diet; prebiotic; nutrition; supplement
Online: 14 June 2021 (09:19:54 CEST)
Consumption of prebiotic fibers to modulate the human gut microbiome is a promising strategy to positively impact health. Nevertheless, given the compositional complexity of the microbiome and its inter-individual variances, generalized recommendations on the source or amount of fiber supplements remain vague. This problem is further compounded by availability of tractable in vitro and in vivo models to validate certain fibers. We employed a gnotobiotic mouse model containing an a priori characterized 14-member synthetic human gut microbiome (SM) for their ability to metabolize a suit of fibers in vitro; the SM contains 14 different strains belonging to five distinct phyla. Since soluble purified fibers have been a common subject of studies, we specifically investigated the effects of concentrated raw fibers (CRFs)—containing fibers from pea, oat, psyllium, wheat and apple—on the compositional and functional alterations in the SM. We demonstrate that, compared to a fiber-free diet, CRF supplementation increased the abundance of fiber-degraders namely Eubacterium rectale, Roseburia intestinalis and Bacteroides ovatus and decreased the abundance of the mucin-degrader Akkermansia muciniphila. These results were corroborated by a general increase of bacterial fiber-degrading α-glucosidase enzyme activity. Overall, our results highlight the ability of CRFs to enhance the microbial fiber-degrading capacity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0068.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: DNA methylation; histone modification; epigenetic diet; microRNAs; prediabetes
Online: 2 April 2021 (14:08:11 CEST)
Epigenetics refers to the DNA chemistry changes that result in the modification of gene transcription and translation independently of the underlying DNA coding sequence. Epigenetic modifications are reported to involve various molecular mechanisms, including classical epigenetic changes affecting DNA methylation and histone modifications and small RNA-mediated processes, particularly that of microRNAs. Epigenetic changes are reversible and are closely interconnected. They are recognised to play a critical role as mediators of gene regulation, and any alteration in these mechanisms has been identified to mediate various pathophysiological conditions. Moreover, genetic predisposition and environmental factors, including dietary alterations, lifestyle or metabolic status, are identified to interact with the human epigenome, highlighting the importance of epigenetic factors as underlying processes in the etiology of various diseases such as MetS. This review will reflect on how both the classical and microRNA regulated epigenetic changes are associated with the pathophysiology of Metabolic syndrome. We would then focus on the various aspects of epigenetic-based strategies used to modify MetS outcomes, including epigenetic diet, epigenetic drugs, epigenome editing tools, and miRNA-based therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0040.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: food choice; elderly people; healthy diet; caregiver; Thailand
Online: 2 October 2020 (12:23:26 CEST)
Over the past decade, Thailand has experienced a rapid increase in its elderly population. Many unfavorable health outcomes among elderly people are associated with nutrition. Nutrition in elderly people is affected by physical, mental, and social factors. This study explored the food choices and dietary practices among community-dwelling elderly people in Thailand from the perspective of both caregivers and the elderly people themselves. Six focus group discussions and six semi-structured interviews were conducted in the Samut Sakhon Province of Thailand. A combination of deductive and inductive thematic analyses was adopted, and the results show that physical and mental factors and societal factors are important determinants of food choices. Moreover, a changing food environment and economic factors were found to affect food choices. Issues of trust in food safety and food markets were highlighted as growing issues. Therefore, fostering healthy food choice interventions that consider both environmental and societal aspects is necessary.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0006.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: sustainable diet; carbon footprint; recommended nutrient intake; Malaysia
Online: 2 August 2020 (09:29:46 CEST)
A sustainable diet which is healthy and environmental friendly is a climate change mitigation option in addition to being a health promoting diet. However, there is a scarcity of information if the Asian diets are sustainable. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate if the diet of the Malaysian population is healthy and sustainable. This is a cross sectional study using dietary data generated from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ). The carbon footprint data were linked with the food items/ food groups in the FFQ. The nutrients of the participants’ diet were computed and the proportions of those who met the recommended nutrients intake were established. Contribution of carbon footprint for different food groups and total carbon footprint for each participant’s diet were computed and expressed as kgCO2eq. Comparison of carbon footprint from participants’ diets between age, sex and ethnicity were carried out. A total of 4825 participants were included in the analysis. Majority were Malays (66.4 %), females (84.0%), married (80.0%) and in the age groups of 30s to 40s (68.8%). The mean total energy intake was 2485+1000 kcal/day. Only 40 to 60% of all participants achieved the Malaysia Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) for calcium and less than half of the female participants who were aged 50 years and below fulfilled the RNI for iron. The most commonly consumed food groups were vegetables (270g/day), wheat, rice, fruits, sugar, seafood, poultry, legumes, snacks, milk and beef (46g/day). Total carbon footprint from the participants’ diets were 2.96 kgCO2eq/day, with the highest contributions of carbon footprint from rice, vegetables, beef, sugar, other cereals, poultry, seafood, wheat, milk, fruits, legume and snacks. Subgroups such as males, Malays and younger participants were more likely to consume diets with higher carbon footprint, compared to their counterparts. The participants’ diet was low in carbon footprint and environmentally friendly, however the quality of diet may need to be improved. Education measures should be targeted for all population and specifically for the sub-groups that consumed diets with higher carbon footprint.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0205.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: diabetes; vegetarian; diet; nutrition; metabolic syndrome; disparity; child
Online: 17 October 2019 (15:24:37 CEST)
The national rate of obesity in US Hispanic/Latinos exceeds all other major ethnic subgroups and represents an important health disparity. Plant-based diet interventions that emphasize whole plant foods with minimal processing and less refined grains and sugar have shown have shown great promise in control of obesity, but there is a paucity of data translating this treatment effect to disparity populations. The objective of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and scalability of the Healthy Eating Lifestyle Program (HELP) – a hospital-based, family centered, culturally tailored, plant-based diet intervention for Hispanic/Latino pediatric obesity patients and their families. Our evaluation methods included: 1) a quasi-experimental, one group, longitudinal study to measures changes in BMI at 0, 6, and 18 weeks of follow-up, and 2) A stakeholder analysis consisting of six key informant interviews of HELP program staff. We found a significant decrease in body mass index across all adults (-0.2 kg/m2 p=0.0047), that was much stronger in men. For children ages 5-12 years, there was also a significant decrease in BMI Z score from pre- to post- intervention (p=0.04). Program strengths were the cultural tailoring of the plant-based diet choices, and allowing a tiered approached that did not require adherence to strict vegetarianism. Our pilot study findings from HELP raise the possibility that incorporating plant-based diet choices into the treatment of pediatric obesity patients and their families can be an effective addition to a culturally responsive care model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0074.v1
Online: 5 November 2018 (02:34:30 CET)
Dietary factors are one of the risk factors that can impact the brain chemistry, which leads to mental distress. Based on our data mining approach, we found that mental distress in men is associated with eating unhealthy food. Our aim in this paper is to apply results from our big data analytics approach to inform system dynamics (SD) modeling to investigate the causal relationships between brain structures, nutrients from food and dietary supplements, and mental health. We perform descriptive analysis based on a large data set to estimate the SD modeling parameters. Finally, we calibrate the model towards a time series data collected for individuals on their dietary and distress patterns. The results reveal that bridging these different methodologies leads to further insights from the SD model and decreases the error of calibrated parameter values. Future research is needed to validate our initial results for investigating the relationship between mental distress and dietary intake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0317.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: celiac disease; body composition; gluten free diet; children
Online: 15 October 2018 (13:19:09 CEST)
The primary and proven therapy, in cases of celiac disease (CD), is a rigorous gluten-free diet. However, there are reports of its negative effects in the form of nutritional deficiencies, obesity and adverse changes in body composition. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of a gluten free diet (GFD) on the body composition of children with CD. In a case-controlled study (n = 41; mean age 10.81 y; SD = 3.96) children with CD, in various stages of treatment, underwent medical assessment. The control group consisted of healthy children and adolescents, strictly matched for gender and age in a 1:1 case-control manner. More than half of the examined children (n = 26) followed a GFD. CD children had significantly higher mean values of the fat free mass (FFM% = 80.68 vs. 76.66, p = 0.015), and total body water (TBW% = 65.22 vs. 60.47, p = 0.012), and lower mean values of the fat mass (FM% = 19.32 vs. 23.34, p = 0.015). Children who were on a GFD presented slightly higher, but not statistically significant, mean values of FM and FFM, than children who did not follow dietary recommendations (FM [kg] = 7.48 vs. 5.24, p = 0.064; FM% = 20.81 vs. 16.73, p = 0.087; FFM [kg] = 28.19 vs. 22.62, p = 0.110). After minimum one year of a GFD, CD children showed significantly higher values of FFM [kg] (p = 0.001), MM [kg] (p < 0.001), TBW [L] (p < 0.001) and BCM [kg] (p < 0.001). Furthermore, CD children who were on a GFD presented significantly higher weight (p = 0.034) and body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.021) increase. The children adhering to a GFD demonstrate a tendency towards higher indices of selected body composition components.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0269.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: dietary intervention; multilevel intervention; diet & exercise; health outcomes
Online: 16 July 2018 (09:59:19 CEST)
There is a growing need to utilize community interventions to address modifiable behaviors that lead to poor health outcomes like obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. Poor health outcomes can be tied to community-level factors such as food deserts (identified areas with low access to fresh fruit, vegetables, and other healthful whole foods) and individual behaviors like sedentary lifestyles, consuming large portion sizes, and eating high-calorie fast food and processed foods. Through a social ecological approach with family, organization and community, the Faithful Families Cooking and Eating Smart (FFCES) intervention was created to address these concerns in a rural South Carolina community. FFCES used gatekeepers to identify 18 churches and 4 apartment complexes in low-income areas. 176 participants completed both pre- and post- survey measures. Student’s t-test measures found statistically significant change in participant perception of food security (0.39, p-value=0.005), self-efficacy with physical activity and healthy eating (0.26, p-value=000), and cooking confidence (0.17, p-value=.01). There was not significant change in cooking behaviors as assessed through the Cooking Behaviors Scale. FFCES shows that a social ecological approach can be effective at increasing and improving individual healthy behaviors and addressing community-level factors in low-income rural communities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0064.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: western diet; microbiome; food processing; inflammation; metabolic diasease
Online: 19 March 2018 (07:31:47 CET)
The dietary pattern that characterizes the Western diet is strongly associated with obesity and related metabolic diseases, but biological mechanisms supporting these associations remain largely unknown. We argue that the Western diet promotes inflammation that arises from both structural and behavioral changes in the resident microbiome. The environment created in the gut by ultra-processed foods, a hallmark of the Western diet, is an evolutionarily unique selection ground for microbes that can promote diverse forms of inflammatory disease. Recognizing the importance of the microbiome in the development of diet-related disease has implications for future research, public dietary advice as well as food production practices. Research into food patterns suggests that whole foods are a common denominator of diets associated with a low level of diet-related disease. Hence, by studying how ultra-processing changes the properties of whole foods and how these foods affect the gut microbiome, more useful dietary guidelines can be made. Innovations in food production should be focusing on enabling health in the super-organism of man and microbe, and stronger regulation of potentially hazardous components of food products is warranted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0023.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Depression; Major depressive disorder; Diet; Nutrition; Randomized controlled trial, Randomized controlled pilot trial; Healthy Nordic diet; Mental health; Palatability; Food liking
Online: 1 February 2021 (12:31:47 CET)
Healthy diet interventions have been shown to improve depressive symptoms, but there is a need for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that are double-blind and investigate biological mechanisms. The primary objectives of this randomized controlled pilot trial were to test the palatability of the meals and acceptability of the intervention in preparation for a future 8-week RCT which will investigate whether a healthy Nordic diet improves depressive symptoms in individuals with major depressive disorder, and associated biological mechanisms. Depressed (n=10) and non-depressed (n=6) women and men were randomized to receive either a healthy Nordic diet (ND) or a control diet (CD) for 8 days. Participants were blinded to diet allocation and study hypotheses. Health questionnaires were completed before and after the intervention, and, throughout the study, questionnaires assessed ratings of liking and sensory properties of the meals, adherence, and open-ended feedback. In the ND group, 75% of participants consumed no non-study foods, compared to 50% of CD participants. The meals of both diets, on average, received good ratings for liking and sensory properties, though the ND ratings were somewhat higher. Overall, results were positive and informative, indicating that the planned RCT will be feasible and well-accepted, with some proposed modifications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0395.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Ketogenic diet; obesity; overweight; metabolism; energy low carb foods
Online: 21 December 2022 (09:04:52 CET)
Healthcare systems are mindful of the importance of proper diet and nutrition in reducing the risk of various chronic diseases resulting in hospitalizations. In this regard, they are focusing on promoting the intake of foods comprising various diets with health benefits, such as the ketogenic diet. In this meta-analysis, a total of 20 research studies on the effect of the ketogenic diet on the immune system were analyzed. The research studies were obtained from three databases: Google Scholar, PubMed, and Science Direct. From the meta-analysis, the odd ratio of a similar outcome of an improvement in the strength of immunity between the intervention and control group was 0.76. On the other hand, the p-value for the studies was 0.09, with 15 out of the 20 being considered statistically significant. The heterogeneity between the studies was I2 = 15%, signifying a low variability in the findings that is not by chance. The Ketogenic diet indeed has positive effects on immunity. Nonetheless, it can also result in negative effects that may harm human health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0377.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: diet; living environment; dietary patterns; characteristics of regions; Russia
Online: 21 December 2022 (02:50:22 CET)
The goal of our study was to examine the effect of regional characteristics of living environment on individual a priori and a posteriori dietary patterns of the Russian population. For the analysis, we used cross-sectional data from the Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases in the Regions of the Russian Federation study of 2013-2014. The sample included 18,054 men and women 25-64 years of age from 12 regions. Based on the frequency of consumption of basic foods, four a posteriori empirical dietary patterns (EDPs), along with an a priori cardioprotective dietary pattern (CPDP) were identified. To describe the regional living environment, 5 regional indices were used. The adherence to the meat-based EDP was directly associated with deterioration of social living conditions and the more northerly location of the region of residence. The probability of CPDP increased with deterioration of social living conditions, an aggravation of demographic crisis, higher industrial development of the region, as well as with a decline in the economic development of the region, income and economic inequality of the population. We detected some gender-dependent differences in associations. The revealed patterns reflect the national dietary preferences of Russians, and regional indices characterize the effect of living environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0394.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: hippocampus; seahorse; diet switch; stable isotopes; turnover; discrimination factor
Online: 30 March 2022 (15:19:41 CEST)
The initial development of seahorse juveniles is characterized by low digestion capabilities. Stable isotope analysis is an effective tool in studies of trophic food webs and animal feeding patterns. The present study provides new insights for the understanding of growth and food assimilation in early developing seahorses following a laboratory diet switch. The study was performed in early life stages of the seahorse Hippocampus reidi by assessing the influence of diet shift on changes and turnovers in carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotope in juveniles. Newborn seahorses were fed for 60 days following two feeding schedules (A6 and A11) based initially on copepods Acartia tonsa and subsequently on Artemia nauplii (since days 6 and 11, respectively). After prey shift, we determined δ13C and δ15N turnover rates as functions of change in either body mass (fitting model G) and days of development (fitting model D), contributions of metabolism and growth to those turnover rates, and diet-tissue discrimination factors. Survival, final dry weight and final standard length for diet A11 were higher compared to diet A6. The shift from copepods to Artemia lead to fast initial enrichments in δ13C and δ15N. Afterwards, the enrichment was gradually reduced until reaching the isotopic equilibrium with diet. In most cases, both fitting models performed similarly. The isotopic analysis revealed that 100% of tissue turnover was attributed to growth in diet A11, whereas 19-25% was endorsed to metabolism in diet A6. Diet-tissue discrimination factors were estimated for the first time in seahorse juveniles, resulting in higher estimates for diet A11 (2.9 ± 0.7‰ for δ13C; 2.5 ± 0.2‰ for δ15N) than in diet A6 (1.8 ± 0.1‰ for δ13C; 1.9 ± 0.1‰ for δ15N). This study highlights the relevance of feeding on copepods and their effect on isotopic patterns and discrimination factors in seahorse juveniles after a dietary shift. Regarding the application of the results achieved to feeding schedules in the rearing of H. reidi, a long period of feeding on copepods during the first days of development is highly recommended.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0320.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Butyrate; Colorectal cancer; Gut microbiota; Diet; omega-3 PUFAs
Online: 21 January 2022 (11:33:23 CET)
Knowledge regarding the influence of the microbial community in cancer promotion or protection has expanded even more through the study of bacterial metabolic products and how they can modulate cancer risk, which represents an extremely challenging approach for the relationship between intestinal microbiota and colorectal cancer (CRC). This review discusses research pro-gresses in the effect of bacterial dysbiosis from a metabolic point of view, particularly on the bio-chemical mechanisms of butyrate, one of the main short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) with an-ti-inflammatory and anti-tumor properties in CRC. Increased daily intake of omega-3 polyun-saturated fatty acids (PUFAs) significantly increases the density of bacteria that are known to produce butyrate. Omega-3 PUFAs have been proposed as a treatment to prevent gut microbiota dysregulation and lower the risk or progression of CRC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0462.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Celiac disease; diagnostic process; gluten free diet; delayed diagnosis
Online: 29 December 2021 (11:22:00 CET)
The diagnosis of celiac disease (CD) may be delayed due to non-specific clinical symptoms. The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical manifestation and diagnostic process of CD in Polish children and adults. Methods: The members of the Polish Coeliac Society (n=2 500) were asked to complete a questionnaire on socio-demographic factors, clinical and diagnostic aspects of CD. The analysis was based on 796 responses from patients with confirmed CD diagnosis, and included 224 (28.1%) children and 572 (71.9%) adults. Results: The mean duration of symptoms prior to CD diagnosis in children was significantly shorter than in adults (p < 0.001), and amounted to 3.1 and 9 years respectively. The most frequent symptoms before CD diagnosis were abdominal pain and bloating in children (70.4%), and chronic fatigue in adults (74.5%). Although almost all CD patients claimed to strictly avoid gluten after CD diagnosis, symptoms were still present in the majority of these respondents. No comorbid diseases were reported by 29.8% of children and by 11.7% of adults (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The results indicate that CD diagnosis is delayed in Poland, espe-cially in adults, and clinicians should be aware of the diversity in CD presentation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0233.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Diabetes; Chronic Kidney Disease; Proteinuria; Dialysis; Inflammation; Diet; Nutrition
Online: 8 June 2021 (13:33:23 CEST)
Chronic kidney disease is a critical health crisis in the US, affecting about 37 million adults. Known as "the silent killer" because it is often undiagnosed until it has reached a stage of progression. Renal dysfunction causes many adverse effects to the body's biological mechanisms, such as fluid electrolyte and pH balance, blood pressure regulation, excretion of toxins and waste, vitamin D metabolism, and hormonal regulation. Many CKD patients experience hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, chronic metabolic acidosis, bone deterioration, blood pressure abnormalities, and edema. Symptoms experienced may be minimized, and the disease's progression may be slowed through an appropriate diet, which is why medical nutrition therapy is a critical aspect of the medical intervention for CKD. The current KDOQI recommendations are proposed as well as the physiological mechanisms behind the recommendations. Current biological explanations of the effects of a whole foods plant-based diet are included for possible contrast with the current renal diet. Strong evidence continues to support the importance of proper nutrition in the prevention and progression of kidney disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0069.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: willow bark; chemical characterization; mechanism; broiler diet; heat stress
Online: 2 April 2021 (14:09:52 CEST)
Over the last decade, there has been a growing interest in the use of a wide range of phytoadditives to counteract the harmful effects of heat stress in poultry. Willow (Salix spp.) is a tree with a long history. Among various forms, willow bark is an important natural source of salicin, β-O-glucoside of saligenin, but also of polyphenols (flavonoids and condensed tannins) with antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity. In light of this, the current review presents some literature data aiming to: (1) describe the relationship between heat stress and oxidative stress in broilers, (2) present or summarize literature data on the chemical composition of Salix species, (3) summarize the mechanisms of action of willow bark in heat-stressed broilers, (4) present different biological effects of the extract of Salix species in different experimental models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0071.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: vocational students; healthy lifestyle intervention; physical activity; healthy diet
Online: 1 February 2021 (18:45:57 CET)
This study examines the effectiveness of the peer-delivered, school-based intervention Healthy by Design (HbD). Data were collected in two cross-sectional surveys before and after invention implementation. In total 1,177 vocational students (before: 557, after: 620) participated in an online health behaviour survey. Multilevel logistic and multilevel linear models explored the effect of the intervention over time and the effect of the intervention dose received on (determinants of) dietary of physical activity behaviours. A significant positive effect over time was found for moderate intensity physical activity. A high intervention dose was positively associated with increased water, breakfast and fruit consumption and higher levels of moderate and vigorous physical activity compared to no intervention dose received. A moderate and high intervention dose was negatively associated with high calorie snacks consumption compared to no intervention dose received. Effects of HbD on the investigated dietary and physical activity behaviours over time are limited, but these effects may be hard to demonstrate and link to the intervention due to the nature of the intervention design and the natural school-setting of this quasi-experimental study. However, a higher intervention dose showed a strong relation with healthier dietary and physical activity behaviours.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0135.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: evolution diet; metabolism; australopith; encephalization; hominin; colon; behavioral ecology
Online: 6 October 2020 (15:14:56 CEST)
Thesis Statement: The consumption of externally fermented foods acted as the initial metabolic trigger enabling hominid brain expansion. Because brain tissue is metabolically expensive, it is thought that the evolution of humans’ large brains was only possible through a concomitant reduction in the size of another expensive organ system, the gut. However, this gut reduction must have itself been made possible by dietary changes, the nature of which are still unclear. Here, we propose that the initial metabolic trigger of hominid brain expansion may have been the consumption of externally fermented foods. We define “external fermentation” as occurring outside the body, as opposed to the internal fermentation that occurs through the gut microbiome. This practice could have begun accidentally and with limited understanding, but over time, fermentation technologies may have become increasingly intentional, socially-transmitted, and culturally-reinforced. We detail the mechanisms by which external fermentation can mediate the evolution of increased brain size, as well as a reduction in gut size, by increasing the bioavailability of macro- and micronutrients while reducing digestive energy expenditure. Importantly, we calculate that the reduction in human gut size relative to modern apes is mainly due to a reduction in the colon, the site of internal fermentation. We also discuss the explanatory power of our hypothesis relative to others, including realistic plausibility in hominids with brains roughly the size of modern chimpanzees. Finally, we survey external fermentation practices across human cultures to demonstrate its viability across a huge range of environments, temperatures, and food sources. We close with suggestions for empirical tests.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: high fat diet; metabolic dysregulation; platelets; monocytes; hypercoagulation; inflammation
Online: 27 October 2019 (03:13:45 CET)
High fat-diet (HFD) feeding is known to induce metabolic dysregulation, however less is known on its impact in promoting the hypercoagulable state. The current study aimed to evaluate platelet-monocyte aggregate (PMA) formation following short-term HFD feeding. This is particularly important for understanding the link between inflammation and the hypercoagulable state during the early onset of metabolic dysregulation. To explore such a hypothesis, mice were fed a HFD for 8 weeks, with body weights as well as insulin and blood glucose levels monitored on weekly basis during this period. Basal hematological measurements were determined and the levels of spontaneous peripheral blood PMAs were assessed using whole blood flow cytometry. The results showed that although there were no significant differences in body weights, mice on HFD displayed impaired glucose tolerance and markedly raised insulin levels. These metabolic abnormalities were accompanied by elevated baseline PMA levels as an indication of hypercoagulation. Importantly, it was evident that baseline levels of monocytes, measured using the CD14 monocyte marker were significantly decreased in HFD-fed mice when compared to controls. In summary, the current evidence shows that in addition to causing glucose intolerance, such as that identified in a prediabetic state, HFD-feeding can promote undesirable hypercoagulation, the major consequence implicated in the development of cardiovascular complications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0061.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Asian Americans; child; diet; eating; feeding behavior; sodium, dietary
Online: 3 August 2018 (05:05:05 CEST)
Obesity has been identified as an emerging health concern for Chinese American children; however, very little is known about diets in Asian American children. The objective of our paper was to describe the dietary intakes of urban Chinese American schoolchildren using a state-of-the-art approach for dietary assessment. Data for this analysis come from the Food Journal Project 2017, a pilot and feasibility study conducted by a multi-sector collaboration. Children aged 8-12 (n=83) completed two dietary assessments using a food diary from January-June 2017. Children were then interviewed using the food diary as a guide and dietary data were entered into the online ASA24 system by study staff. Chinese American children were identified using surname, and were compared to non-Chinese peers with respect to nutrient intake and the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010). Chinese American children consumed more sodium dense diets, more protein, and less sugar compared to non-Chinese children. With regards to the HEI-2010, Chinese American children had less favorable whole grains and sodium scores; and more favorable seafood protein and empty calories scores compared to non-Chinese children. Sodium reduction and increasing whole grain intakes may be warranted in this group, but should be verified with additional studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0219.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: High-Fat Diet, Dietary Supplement, Oxidative stress, Inflammation, Neurodegeneration.
Online: 12 July 2018 (15:45:18 CEST)
Obesity and metabolic disorders can be risk factors for the onset and development of neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects on dysmetabolism and neurodegeneration of a natural dietary supplement (NDS), containing Curcuma longa, silymarin, guggul, chlorogenic acid and inulin, on the brains of high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. A decreased expression of FACL-4, CerS-1 and CerS-4, reduced cholesterol concentration, increased IR expression and insulin signaling activation, were found in brains of NDS-treated HFD mice, suggesting that NDS is able to prevent brain lipid accumulation and central insulin resistance. In the brains of NDS-treated HFD mice, the levels of RNS, ROS and lipid peroxidation, the expression of p-ERK, H-Oxy, i-NOS, HSP60, NF-kB, GFAP, IL-1β, IL-6, and CD4 positive cell infiltration were lower than in untreated HFD mice, suggesting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of NDS. The decreased expression of p-ERK and GFAP in NDS-treated HFD mice was confirmed by immunofluorescence. Lastly, a lower number of apoptotic nuclei was found in cortical sections of NDS-treated HFD. All these data indicate that NDS exerts neuroprotective effects in HFD mice by reducing brain fat accumulation, oxidative stress and inflammation and improving brain insulin resistance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0152.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: protein; skeletal muscle; sarcopenia; gut microbiome; metabolome; diet; supplementation
Online: 11 June 2018 (11:05:04 CEST)
Muscle mass, strength and physical function are known to decline with age. This is associated with the development of geriatric syndromes including sarcopenia and frailty. These conditions are associated with disability, falls, longer hospital stay, higher readmission rates, institutionalisation, osteoporosis, and death. Moreover, they are associated with reduced quality of life, as well as substantial costs to health services around the world. Dietary protein is essential for skeletal muscle function. Older adults have shown evidence of anabolic resistance, where greater amounts of protein are required to stimulate muscle protein synthesis and therefore require higher daily amounts of dietary protein. Research shows that resistance exercise has the most beneficial effect on preserving skeletal muscle. A synergistic effect has been noted when this is combined with dietary protein, yet studies in this area lack consistency. This is due, in part, to the variation that exists within dietary protein, in terms of dose, quality, source, amino acid composition and timing. Research has targeted participants that are replete in dietary protein with negative results. Inconsistent measures of muscle mass, muscle function, physical activity and diet are used. This review attempts to summarise these issues, as well as introduce the possible role of the gut microbiome and its metabolome in this area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0048.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Aging, Nutrition, Diet, Muscle atrophy, Body wasting, Food choice
Online: 5 February 2018 (23:43:16 CET)
Inadequate protein intake can impair protein balance and lead to skeletal muscle atrophy, impaired body growth, and functional decline. Foods provide both non-essential (NEAAs) and essential amino acids (EAAs) that may convey different metabolic stimuli to specific organs and tissues. In this study, we sought to evaluate the impact of six diets with various EAA/NEAA blends on body composition and the risk of developing tissue wasting in late middle-aged male mice. Mice consuming NEAA-based diets, although showing increased food and calorie intake, suffered the most severe weight loss. Interestingly, even moderate NEAAs prevalence was able to induce inflammatory catabolic stimuli, generalized body wasting and systemic metabolic alterations. Complete depletion of retroperitoneal white adipose tissue and a severe loss (>75%) of brown adipose tissue were observed together with muscle wasting. Conversely, EAA-based diets induced significant decreases in weight by reducing primarily fat reserves, but improved clinical parameters. Tissue wasting was caused by altered AA quality, independent of reduced nitrogen or caloric intake. Our results indicate that an optimized balance of AA composition is necessary for preserving overall bodily energy status. These findings are particularly relevant in the context of aging and may be exploited for contrasting its negative correlates including body wasting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0399.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Amino acids, lipids, diet, low-fat diet, cancer therapy, cancer metabolism, triple-negative breast cancer, lung cancer, melanoma, colorectal cancer, ovarian cancer, metastasis
Online: 21 December 2022 (10:05:50 CET)
Patients with metastatic triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) need new therapies to improve the low survival rates achieved with standard treatments. In this work, we show that the survival of mice with metastatic TNBC can be markedly increased by replacing their normal diet with artificial diets in which the levels of amino acids (AAs) and lipids are strongly manipulated. After observing selective anticancer activity in vitro, we prepared five artificial diets and evaluated their anticancer activity in a challenging model of metastatic TNBC. The model was established by injecting 4T1 murine TNBC cells into the tail vein of immunocompetent BALB/cAnNRj mice. First-line drugs doxorubicin and capecitabine were used as positive controls. AA manipulation led to modest improvements in mice survival when the levels or lipids were normal. Reducing lipid levels to 1% markedly improved the activity of several diets with different AA content. Mice fed the artificial diets as monotherapy lived longer than mice treated with doxorubicin and capecitabine. An artificial diet without 10 non-essential AAs, with reduced levels of essential AAs, and with 1% lipids improved the survival not only of mice with TNBC but also of mice with other types of metastatic cancers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0540.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Probiotics; Dysbiosis; Obesity; High Fat Diet; Lactobacillus plantarum; Enterococcus faecium
Online: 29 November 2021 (12:59:43 CET)
Fat reduction and anti-inflammation are commonly claimed properties of probiotics. Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium were tested in high fat-induced obesity mice and in vitro experiments. After 16 weeks of probiotics, L. plantarum outperforms E. faecium on the anti-obesity property as indicated by body weight, regional fat accumulation, serum cholesterol, inflammatory cytokines (in blood and colon tissue), and gut barrier defect (FITC-dextran assay). With fecal microbiome analysis, L. plantarum but not E. faecium reduced fecal abundance of pathogenic Proteobacteria without an alteration in total Gram-negative bacteria when compared with non-probiotics obese mice. With palmitic acid induction, the condition media from both probiotics similarly attenuated supernatant IL-8, improved enterocyte integrity and down-regulated cholesterol absorption-associated genes in Caco-2 cell (an enterocyte cell line) and reduced supernatant cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) with normalization of cell energy status (extracellular flux analysis) in bone-marrow-derived macrophages. Because the anti-inflammatory effect of the condition media of both probiotics on palmitic acid-activated enterocytes was neutralized by amylase, the active anti-inflammatory molecules might, partly, be exopolysaccharides. As L. plantarum out-performed E. faecium in anti-obesity property, possibly through the reduced fecal Proteobacteria, with a similar anti-inflammatory exopolysaccharide; L. plantarum is a potentially better option for anti-obesity than E. faecium.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0106.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: ketogenic diet; exercise therapy; community health planning; natural; exercise intervention
Online: 6 October 2021 (12:40:59 CEST)
The ketogenic diet and walking exercise training activity are two key public health lifestyle factors. The potential of combined lifestyle factors interventions focused on getting to compliance in forced exercise. A balanced ketogenic diet and regular exercise activity is a key modifiable factor to the prevention and management of chronic diseases. Influence health across the lifespan and reduction of the risk of premature death through several biological mechanisms. Community older group’s lifestyle factors interventions contribute identity in their natural living environment. While the older health benefits of walking exercise training strategies are commonly to study, combined ketogenic diet and walking exercise interventions have induced greater benefits in community older groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0417.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: healthy diet; fruits and vegetables; body image; happiness; excessive weight
Online: 16 March 2021 (11:57:13 CET)
Recent evidence suggests that among behavioral-lifestyle factors, adherence to a healthy dietary pattern such as the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) is linked not only to better psychological health and mental positive status but also to increased subjective well-being (SWB). Nevertheless, this association has been unexplored among individuals with excessive weight. This study explored whether adherence to the MedDiet and the intake of healthy foods such as fruits and vegetables (FV) are associated with increased happiness and life satisfaction among Spanish adults with overweight or obesity when weight, body image, and body satisfaction are also considered. A convenience sample of adult individuals with excessive weight completed self-reports on the study variables, and weight and BMI were measured by bioimpedance. No evidence of a relationship with SWB indicators was obtained for MedDiet global indicators, probably due to the low adherence to a healthy diet by these individuals. In contrast, FV intake, as a powerful indicator of healthy eating, was associated with life satisfaction when BMI and body image dimensions were considered, among which body satisfaction also had a key role. Moreover, life satisfaction fully mediated the relationship between FV consumption and happiness. Our findings are expected to make a relevant contribution to knowledge on the positive correlates or protective factors for overall well-being in obesity, including dietary habits and body appreciation. Our results may inform obesity management actions focused on inclusive, positive aesthetic models and promoting a healthy lifestyle for happiness in obesity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0720.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Weaning; Infant, newborn; Diet, vegetarian; Baby-led weaning; Complementary feeding
Online: 29 December 2020 (09:11:40 CET)
1) Background: Parents are increasingly fascinated by alternative weaning methods, such as ba-by-led or vegetarian weaning. However, international pediatric societies are still cautious to-wards alternative weaning methods, due to their significant risk of nutritional deficiencies. The aim of this study is to describe the attitude of Italian pediatricians towards unconventional weaning, with particular regard to vegetarian and baby-led. (2) Methods: A 20-question ques-tionnaire was sent to Italian pediatricians, from January to December 2019; (3) Results: Responses were received from 73/1000 (7.3%) pediatricians. The vast majority of surveyed pediatricians (78.1%) is familiar with baby-led and vegetarian weaning, but only 24.7% is in favor of their practice. A significant number of pediatricians (63.0%) received request from parents for an al-ternative weaning regimen. (4) Conclusions: The survey revealed a significant gap between pedi-atricians’ attitude and parental demand concerning unconventional weaning. This could signifi-cantly impair the alliance between parents and pediatricians with the risk to expose infants and children to severe nutritional deficiencies due to self-management by parents with poor surveil-lance from health professionals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0174.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: diet; plant sterols; stanols; omega-3 fatty acids; familial hypercholesterolemia
Online: 7 August 2020 (06:13:47 CEST)
Background: Although a cholesterol-lowering diet and the addition of plant sterols and stanols are suggested for the lipid management of children and adults with familial hypercholesterolemia, there is limited evidence evaluating such interventions in this population. Objectives: To investigate the impact of cholesterol-lowering diet and other dietary interventions on the incidence or mortality of cardiovascular disease and lipid profile of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. Search methods: Relevant trials were identified by searching US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health Metabolism Trials Register and clinicaltrials.gov.gr using the following terms: diet, dietary, plant sterols, stanols, omega-3 fatty acids, fiber and familial hypercholesterolemia. Selection criteria: Randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of cholesterol-lowering diet or other dietary interventions in children and adults with familial hypercholesterolemia were included. Data collection and analysis: Two authors independently assessed the trial eligibility and bias risk and one extracted the data, with independent verification of data extraction by a colleague. Results: A total of 17 trials were finally included, with a total of 376 participants across 8 comparison groups. The included trials had either a low or unclear bias risk for most of the parameters used for risk assessment. Cardiovascular incidence or mortality were not evaluated in any of the included trials. Among the planned comparisons regarding patients’ lipidemic profile, a significant difference was noticed for the following comparisons and outcomes: omega-3 fatty acids reduced triglycerides (mean difference [MD]: -0.27 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.47 to -0.07, p<0.01) when compared with placebo. A non-significant trend towards a reduction in subjects’ total cholesterol (MD: -0.34, 95% CI: -0.68 to 0, mmol/L, p=0.05) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (MD: -0.31, 95% CI: -0.61 to 0, mmol/L, p=0.05) was noticed. In comparison with cholesterol-lowering diet, the additional consumption of plant stanols decreased total cholesterol (MD: -0.62 mmol/l, 95% CI: -1.13 to -0.11, p=0.02) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (MD: -0.58 mmol/l, 95% CI: -1.08 to -0.09, p=0.02). The same was by plant sterols (MD: -0.46 mmol/l, 95% CI: -0.76 to -0.17, p<0.01 for cholesterol, and MD: -0.45 mmol/l, 95% CI: -0.74 to -0.16, p<0.01 for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol). No heterogeneity was noticed among the studies included in these analyses. Conclusions: Available trials confirm that the addition of plant sterols or stanols has a cholesterol-lowering effect on such individuals. On the other hand, supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids effectively reduces triglycerides and might have a role in lowering the cholesterol of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. Additional studies are needed to investigate the effectiveness of a cholesterol-lowering diet or the addition of soya protein and dietary fibers to a cholesterol-lowering diet in familial hypercholesterolemia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0436.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: obesity; meal frequency; hypocaloric diet; energy expenditure; ghrelin; weight loss
Online: 27 May 2020 (04:27:43 CEST)
Dietary approach is essential to obesity control, but the effectiveness of changes in meal frequency (MF) as strategies for loss and maintenance of body mass remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of MF on a hypocaloric diet on weight loss, active ghrelin levels and metabolic indicators of women with obesity. This is a randomized, parallel clinical trial, including forty women, randomized in two groups, both following a hypocaloric diet, according to MF (G1 – six meals/day; G2 – three meals/day). Dietary, laboratory, anthropometric and body composition indicators were assessed, as well as energy expenditure (EE), before and after the 90 days of intervention. After intervention, both groups decreased body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fat mass (FM), insulin and HOMA-IR. G1 increased insulin sensitivity and G2 reduced triglyceride and FM and increased fat-free mass (FFM). MF increased ghrelin levels. There were no differences in EE variables. Hypocaloric diet with different MF promoted a reduction in total weight, BMI, WC and FM and an improvement in glycidic metabolism. However, the accomplishment of the three meals/day increased the FFM and active ghrelin and reduced triglyceride, while six meals/day was more beneficial in increasing insulin sensitivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0216.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: amino acid; digestive enzyme; low protein diet; nitrogen balance; pigs
Online: 19 November 2019 (02:56:38 CET)
This study was conducted to determine the dynamic effects of dietary crude protein (CP) intake on nitrogen (N) balance, ileal amino acid digestibility, and gene expression levels of digestive enzymes at three stages in pigs. In Experiment 1, 18 growing pigs (average body weight (BW) = 9.5 kg) were randomly assigned to one of three treatments (n = 6/treatment group), including normal (20% CP), low (17% CP), and very low (14% CP) protein intake. In Experiment 2, 18 growing pigs (average BW = 30 kg) were allotted randomly to one of three treatments (n = 6/treatment group), including normal (18% CP), low (15% CP), and very low (12% CP) protein intake. In Experiment 3, 18 growing pigs (average BW = 45 kg) were assigned randomly to one of three treatments (n = 6/treatment group), including normal (16% CP), low (13% CP), and very low (10% CP) protein intake. Growing pigs fed the 14% CP and 17% CP diets had lower final BW (P < 0.05) and average daily gain (ADG) (P < 0.05) compared to pigs fed the 20% CP diet. Reducing the dietary CP level from 20 to 14% decreased urinary N excretion by 52.8% (P < 0.001) in Experiment 1. Reducing the dietary CP level from 18 to 12% decreased urinary N excretion by 55.3% (P < 0.001) and reduced fecal N excretion by 34% (P < 0.05) in Experiment 2. Reducing the dietary CP level from 16 to 10% decreased urinary N excretion by 56.4% (P < 0.001) and fecal N excretion by 47.1% (P < 0.001) in Experiment 3. Pigs fed the very low (14%, 12%, and 10% CP) diets showed higher digestibility for CP (P < 0.05), His (P < 0.05), Ile (P < 0.05), Phe (P < 0.05), Thr (P < 0.05), Trp (P < 0.05), Glu (P < 0.05), and Ser (P < 0.05) compared to pigs fed the normal (20%, 18%, and 16% CP) diets among the three experiments. Pigs fed the very low (14%, 12%, and 10% CP) diets showed higher mRNA levels for chymotrypsin C (P < 0.01 in Experiment 1 and 2; P < 0.05 in Experiment 3) compared to pigs fed the normal (20%, 18%, and 16% CP) diets among the three experiments. These results indicated that a reduction in dietary CP by 6% limited the growth performance of growing pigs, and a reduction of dietary CP by 3% supplemented with essential amino acids could reduce the excretion of N into the environment without affecting weight gain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0180.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: GPETAFLR peptide; protein hydrolysate; liver; hepatic steatosis; high-fat diet
Online: 15 July 2019 (06:09:04 CEST)
Bioactive peptides are related to the prevention and treatment of many diseases. GPETAFLR is an octapeptide which was isolated from lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.) and showed anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential activity of GPETAFLR to prevent non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed a standard diet or an HFD. Two of the groups fed the HFD diet were treated with GPETAFLR in their drinking water at 0,5 mg/kg/d or 1 mg/kg/d. To determine the ability of GPETAFLR to improve the onset and progression of NAFLD, histological studies, hepatic enzyme profile, inflammatory cytokine and lipid metabolism-related genes and proteins were analyzed. Our results suggest that HFD-induced inflammatory metabolic disorders were alleviated by treatment with GPETAFLR. In conclusion, dietary lupine consumption could repair HFD-induced hepatic damage, possibly via modifications in the liver’s lipid signalling pathways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0173.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: diet composition; food culture; mayan community; type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Online: 14 July 2019 (17:29:13 CEST)
Aim: To perform a descriptive analysis of eating patterns and biophysical conditions of previously diagnosed and currently under treatment individuals from a semi-urban Mayan community of Yucatan, and to contrast them with T2DM therapeutic guidelines. Methods: The present study is derived from a randomized clinical trial conducted at Komchen, Yucatan. Participants’ diagnosed with T2DM were included. A 24-hour dietary recall, anthropometric parameters (weight, visceral fat, height, and waist circumference), biochemical (HbA1c) and clinical (blood pressure) variables were evaluated and compared via hypothesis test with T2DM treatment cut-off points (based on World Health Organization criteria). Results: Anthropometric characteristics differ significantly from the ideal criteria. Obesity prevalence within women with T2DM was 92.9%. Only 21% of the participants were under T2DM control (≤7%). Energy and carbohydrates consumption, significantly exceed therapeutic guidelines, whereas protein, fat, and fiber intake were lower than the recommendations. Conclusions: Komchen’s diet, concomitantly with food characteristics, could be related to glycemic decontrol. There is a disproportion in macronutrients consumption in favor of carbohydrates, probably associated with socioeconomic limitations, food availability, and price. Developing nutritional assistance programs which contemplate cultural and economic factors in this Mayan population must be taken into consideration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0196.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: gluten neuropathy; coeliac disease; gluten free diet; quality of life
Online: 16 April 2018 (08:19:54 CEST)
Background: Gluten neuropathy (GN) is defined as an otherwise idiopathic peripheral neuropathy in the presence of serological evidence of gluten sensitivity (positive antigliadin and/or transglutaminase or endomysium antibodies). We aimed to compare the quality of life (QoL) of GN patients with control subjects and to investigate the effect of a gluten free diet (GFD) on the QoL. Methods: All consecutive patients with GN attending a specialist neuropathy clinic were invited to participate. Overall Neuropathy Limitations Scale (ONLS) was used to assess the severity of neuropathy. The SF-36 questionnaire was used to measure participants’ QoL. A strict GFD was defined as effectively been able to eliminate all circulating gluten sensitivity-related antibodies whilst on the diet. Results: Fifty-three patients with GN and 53 age and gender matched controls were recruited. Compared to controls, GN showed significantly worse scores in physical functioning, role limitations due to physical health, energy/fatigue and general health subdomains of SF-36. After having adjusted for age, gender and disease severity, being on a strict GFD correlated with better SF-36 scores on the pain domain of the SF-36 (beta 0.317, p=0.019) and the overall health change domain of the SF-36 (beta 0.306, p=0.017). Conclusion: In GN physical dysfunctioning is the major determinant of poor QoL compared to controls. Routine checking for elimination of gluten sensitivity-related antibodies that results from a strict GFD should be encouraged as such elimination ameliorates the overall pain and health scores, indicating better QoL.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0200.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: Diet: Functional foods: Western foods: Mediterranean foods: Feeding, Plant breeding
Online: 29 May 2017 (17:38:59 CEST)
There is evidence that optimal nutrition is fundamental to human health and in the prevention of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) later in adult life. The identification, production and consumption of functional foods worldwide can increase health benefits for all who can access and afford such foods subject to advice from nutritionists. Recent meetings organized by the health agencies, give a crucial opportunity to make nutrition, a central part of the post-2015 sustainable human and agricultural development agenda. The aim of discussions in these meetings was to provide functional crops and foods to achieve optimal health by prevention of NCDs. It is possible that these efforts might ensure that the goals and targets set in the agenda are adequate to address the many challenges of global undernutrition as well as obesity which are major risk factors of NCDs. In many developing and middle income countries, food security provided by the governments, in one sense understandably, gave least consideration to functional foods supply and the prevention of obesity and metabolic syndrome, resulting in to emergence of NCDs. The Thailand Declaration reiterates that commitments to eradicate hunger and undernutrition as well as over-nutrition, and to increase investments in effective interventions; designers foods and designers crops. However, in planning coherent policies, our past experience on rapidly absorbed, energy-rich processed foods should be taken in to account while developing sustainable food systems. The food industry should be educated to exploit the expertise of food scientists and health professionals in designing functional foods taking cognizance of manufacturing and processing. Similarly, agriculture scientists may be actively involved in educating farmers so as to grow cash crops providing functional foods. The aim should be to achieve an increase in the availability of functional foods to an extent, or by a policy, by which such foods are available to poors, at affordable cost to prevent hunger and undernutrition and related diseases as well as NCDs. In addition our efforts might help in developing an international consensus on how to approach the development of new designer foods by farmers and food industry to produce low glycemic index foods. Such efforts may establish an international framework for the prevention of NCDs, so that human susceptibility to these diseases is substantially diminished.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0344.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: diet quality; neighborhood deprivation; Japanese areal deprivation index; neighborhood socioeconomic status; hazard ratios; mortality; Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top; well-balanced diet; early death
Online: 31 July 2019 (04:26:11 CEST)
Individuals residing in more deprived areas have a lower diet quality. While several studies have shown that individuals with a lower diet quality have a higher mortality risk, a low quality diet might also lead to poor health in highly deprived areas. We aimed to examine the association between deprivation within an area and all-cause mortality risk according to diet quality. Methods: We conducted a population-based prospective study on 27994 men and 33273 women aged 45–75 years. Neighborhood deprivation was assessed using the Japanese areal deprivation index (ADI). Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated 147-item food frequency questionnaire. Subsequently, Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top scores were calculated. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of mortality were calculated according to tertiles of ADI by diet quality score. Results: Individuals residing in the most deprived area had the lowest dietary scores. During the 16.7-year follow-up, compared to individuals with a high quality diet residing in the least deprived area, individuals with a low quality diet had a higher risk of mortality according to increment of ADI (P trend = 0.02); the multivariate adjusted HR (95% CI) was 1.07 (1.00-1.15), 1.15 (1.07-1.24), and 1.18 (1.08-1.29) in those residing in the lowest through the highest third of ADI, respectively. However, individuals with a high quality diet had no significant association between ADI and mortality (P trend =0.87). Conclusion: A well-balanced diet may prevent early death associated with neighborhood socioeconomic status among those residing in highly deprived areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0412.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: pipefish; Syngnathus acus; biology; ecology; reproduction; trophic plasticity; stable isotopes; diet
Online: 31 March 2022 (14:37:45 CEST)
The great pipefish Syngnathus acus is one of the most representative European syngnathid, being highly associated with seagrass and macroalgal beds. Surprisingly, the ecology of this ovoviviparous marine fish has received scanty attention. The population inhabiting three sites on Cíes Archipelago (Atlantic Islands National Park, NW Spain) was monitored in 2017-2018 for spatial and temporal changes in abundances, reproduction traits, trophic niche occupancy and dietary regimes across reproduction states through an isotopic (δ13C and δ15N) approach. Abundances were highly variable across seasons and sites, decreasing significantly from mid-autumn. The population consisted almost exclusively of large adults that migrate by the end of the breeding season, which extended from mid-spring to summer. Operational sex ratios suggest that the species is sex-role reversed. S. acus is a secondary consumer (Trophic position= 3.36 ± 0.05) preferring amphipods but displaying annual and seasonal dietary plasticity. Mature fish were less selective than immatures (especially females) with a higher preference for amphipods (36-68%) in the former. The second most preferred prey were carideans, copepods or isopods, depending on the year and reproduction state. Overall, the wider trophic niches in females and immature specimens compared to males and mature fish would indicate a higher variability in both the use of prey resources and/or their origin. The present study highlights the trophic plasticity and unique features of S. acus population in Cíes Archipelago, especially regarding the outstanding size of the fish and the exceptional occurrence of breeders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0071.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: COVID-19; lockdown; Mediterranean diet; personality traits; physical activity; lifestyle habits
Online: 2 April 2021 (14:21:13 CEST)
The coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) resulted in lockdowns and social distancing measures enforced by governments. Using a cross-sectional design, this study aimed to identify changes in adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) and physical activity (PA) and associations with personality, during lockdown in Qatar. A sample of 543 participants was recruited online between April and May 2020. Results showed a reduction in Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence during lockdown (5.9 ± 0.08) compared to before lockdown (6.1 ± 0.08) (p ˂ 0.001). Although there was an increase in the percentage of participants who consumed ≥4 tablespoons olive oil per day (9% vs 12%; p ˂ 0.001), vegetables (54.3% vs 58.7%; p = 0.005), legumes (11.8% vs 15.3%; p = 0.007) and sofrito (70.9% vs 77.3%; p ˂ 0.001), there was also a significant decrease in the percentage of participants who consumed fresh fruit (39.4% vs 15.8%; p ˂ 0.001) and fish/seafood (5.9% vs 3.9%; p = 0.035) and an increase in saturated fat consumption (45.9% vs 53.8%; p ˂ 0.001), during lockdown compared to before lockdown. Participants who scored high in the extraversion personality dimension had a higher MD adherence (B = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.04, 1.64; p = 0.039) before lockdown compared to participants who scored high in the agreeableness personality dimension, although this difference did not reach statistical significance during lockdown. Those who scored high in openness had the lowest change in MD adherence score (B = -0.31; 95% CI = -0.58, -0.04; p = 0.026). Total PA (B = -506.26; 95% CI = -678.60, -333.92; p ˂ 0.001), vigorous activity (B = -155.95; 95% CI = -274.64, - 38.21; p = 0.010), moderate activity (B = -93.04; 95% CI = -148.07, -38.01; p = 0.010) and walking (B = -257.27; 95% CI = -337.87, -176.67; p ˂ 0.001) were decreased during lockdown, while sitting was increased compared to before lockdown (B = 940.91, 95% CI = 831.9, 1049.90; p ˂ 0.001). Openness was positively associated with all PA (B = 562.2; 95% CI = 62.7, 106.7; p = 0.027), including walking (B = 241.7; 95 % CI = 29.4, 454.0; p = 0.026) and negatively associated with sitting (B= -303.4; 95% CI = -590.0; -16.8; p = 0.038) when compared to those with high agreeableness scores, before lockdown. During lockdown, the time spent sitting was lower in those with high scores on neuroticism when compared to those with high agreeableness scores (B= -619.5; 95 % CI = -1215,-23.9; p = 0.042). Differential changes in lifestyle habits by personality dimensions during lockdown, suggest the need to tailor lifestyle interventions based on people’s personality types, for more effective lifestyle change.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0419.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Resveratrol; Cardiovascular disease; Bioavailability; Diet; COVID-19; Resveratrol carriers; Cardiovascular protection
Online: 16 March 2021 (12:00:17 CET)
Resveratrol is a phytoalexin produced by many plants as a defense mechanism against stress-inducing conditions. The richest dietary sources of resveratrol are berries and grapes, their juices and wines. Good bioavailability of resveratrol is not reflected in its high biological activity in vivo because of resveratrol isomerization and its poor solubility in aqueous solutions. Proteins, cyclodextrins and nanomaterials have been explored as innovative delivery vehicles for resveratrol to overcome this limitation. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated beneficial effects of resveratrol in cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Main beneficial effects of resveratrol intake are cardioprotective, anti-hypertensive, vasodilatory, anti-diabetic, and improvement of lipid status. As resveratrol can alleviate the numerous factors associated with CVD, it has potential as a functional supplement to reduce COVID-19 illness severity in patients displaying poor prognosis due to cardio-vascular complications. Resveratrol was shown to mitigate the major pathways involved in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 including regulation of the renin-angiotensin system and expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, stimulation of immune system and downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines release. Therefore, several studies already have anticipated potential implementation of resveratrol in COVID-19 treatment. Regular intake of resveratrol rich diet, or resveratrol-based complementary medicaments, may contribute to a healthier cardio-vascular system, prevention and control of CVD, including COVID-19 disease related complications of CVD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0701.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: COVID-19; eating behavior; diet; food concern; Google Trends; health behavior.
Online: 28 December 2020 (12:55:42 CET)
COVID-19 pandemic and its restrictive measures have present serious unprecedented challenges to human eating behavior. Given that Google Search has become a valuable information resource to examine, predict, and estimate human online interests and behavior, that somehow linked to real people concerns. This study aimed to investigate the features and evaluate the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and its lockdown on consumer worldwide interest in eating behavior and its related factors. Google Trends-Relative Search Volumes (RSV) of distinct keywords related to eating behavior, were obtained from a timeframe before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, from January 1, 2018, to December 13, 2020. During the global lockdown from March 11, 2020, to June 30, 2020, RSV curves exhibited a short-term fluctuation of interest in multiple keywords related to eating behavior and its related factors such as food purchasing, food security, food poisoning, panic buying, stocking up, health awareness and mental illness. Spearman’s correlation analysis showed a strong correlation between daily confirmed cases and examined keywords. Univariate repeated measures ANOVA following with Bonferroni Post-hoc test revealed that during the year with the presence of COVID-19 pandemic, people worldwide pay more concerns in each keyword (1) environmental and economic factors (unemployment: +269%, food shortage: +180%, food bank: +50%); (2) health- and food-safety concerns (immunity: +138%, vitamin C: +90%, vitamin D: +55%, zinc: +47%, food storage containers: +40%, food packaging: +31%); (3) food choices and interest (local meat: +84%, frozen food: +67%, CSA: +65%, flour: +66%, bread: +53%, soybean oil: +45%, local fruit: +43%, canned tomato: +42%, refrigerated food: +41%, canned meat: +39%, pancake: +37%, cookie: +29%, butter: +29%, canned fish: +29%, liquior: +20%); (4) social and individual factors (take-out: +128%, deliver: +53%), (6) lifestyle factors (stationary bicycle: +110%, dumbbell: +89%, yoga mat: +84%, treadmill: +65%, grocery store: +51%); (6) psychological factors (isolation: +113%). COVID-19 pandemic and its lockdown have had far-reaching effects on global concerns in many factors related to human eating behavior. Swift action is necessarily performed to strengthen the resilience of the food supply chain system, support and adapt to the new normal behavior, and mitigation the profound negative changes, especially targeting those in high-risks and vulnerable groups and food-insecure regions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0368.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: fruit; vegetables; depressive symptoms; depression; young people; young adult; nutrition; diet
Online: 15 December 2020 (10:18:23 CET)
Higher consumption of fruit and vegetables has been associated with a lower risk of various chronic diseases including coronary heart disease, obesity, and certain cancers. Recently, fruit and vegetable intake has also been linked with mental health, including depression. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the association between fruit and vegetable intake and depressive symptoms in young people and adults aged 15-45. The systematic review focused on peer-reviewed cohort studies published from 1 January 2000 to 31 August 2020 using searches of six electronic databases. The exposure was fruit and vegetable consumption analysed both separately and/or together, and the outcome was depression or depressive symptoms. Data from eligible studies were extracted according to predefined criteria and the studies were appraised using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for Cohort Studies to evaluate for study quality and risk of bias. To evaluate the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and depressive symptoms, a narrative synthesis was conducted. Of 9667 potentially relevant studies that were screened for title and abstracts, 144 full text studies were evaluated, and 12 studies from seven countries were deemed eligible and included in the qualitative synthesis. Using the NOS framework one study was categorised as ‘very good’ quality, ten studies were ‘good’ quality, and two studies were ‘moderate’ quality. With respect to combined fruit and vegetable consumption, two studies demonstrated an inverse association with depression. When the effects of fruit and vegetable on depression were analysed separately, five studies showed significant associations in fruit consumption, and two studies showed significant associations in vegetable consumption. Four studies showed no association between combined fruit and vegetable consumption and depression, one study showed no association between fruit consumption and depression, and two studies showed no association between vegetable consumption and depression. Despite some contradictory results in the studies included in this review, the evidence seems to be building that a possible association exists, and this may have implications for addressing the burden of mental illness in young people and adults aged 15-45 years. Well-designed prospective cohort studies are needed to provide more robust evidence on the diet-depression relationship.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0343.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19; platelet activating factor; thrombosis; inflammation; Mediterranean diet; PAF-inhibitors
Online: 14 December 2020 (14:16:37 CET)
The new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an emerging situation with high rates of morbidity and mortality, in the pathophysiology of which inflammation and thrombosis are implicated. The disease is directly connected to the nutritional status of patients and a well-balanced diet is recommended by official sources. Recently, the role of platelet activating factor (PAF) was suggested in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. In the present review several micronutrients (vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin D, selenium, omega-3 fatty acids, minerals), phytonutrients and Mediterranean diet compounds (olive oil, fish, honey, plant foods) with potential anti-COVID activity are presented. We further underline that the well-known anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic actions of the investigated nutrients and/ or holistic dietary schemes, such as the Mediterranean diet, are also mediated through PAF. In conclusion, although there is no single food to prevent coronavirus, the aim is to follow a healthy diet containing PAF inhibitors in order to target both inflammation and thrombosis and try to avoid or/and reduce the deleterious effects of the COVID-19 epidemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0455.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: NHANES; periodontal diseases; periodontitis; tooth loss; inflammation; diet; nutrition; oral health
Online: 17 November 2020 (14:44:20 CET)
Background: We aimed to assess the association between DII and PD and the mediation effect of DII in the association of PD with systemic inflammation. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009-2010, 2011-2012 and 2013-2014, participants that received periodontal exam and provided dietary recall data were included. The inflammatory potential of diet was calculated via DII. Periodontitis was defined according to the 2012 case definition. The clinical outcomes of interest were mean periodontal probing (PPD), mean clinical attachment loss (CAL) and thresholds of PPD and CAL. White blood cells (WBC), segmented neutrophils and C-reactive protein (CRP) were used as proxies for systemic inflammation. The periodontal measures were regressed across DII values using adjusted multivariate linear regression. Adjusted mediation analysis appraised the influence of DII in the association of periodontitis and systemic inflammation. 10,178 participants were included. DII was significantly correlated with mean PPD, mean CAL, thresholds of PPD and CAL, WBC, segmented neutrophils and DII (p<0.01). A linear regression logistic adjusted for multiple confounding variables confirmed the association between DII and mean PPD (B = 0.02, Standard Error [SE]: 0.02, p<0.001) and CAL (B = -0.02, SE: 0.01, p<0.001). The association of mean PPD and mean CAL with both white blood cells and segmented neutrophils were mediated by DII (from 2.1 to 3.5%, p<0.001). In the 2009-2010 subset, the association of mean CAL with serum CRP was mediated by DII (52.0%, p<0.01). In conclusion, inflammatory diet and PD may be associated. Also, the inflammatory diet significantly mediated the association of leukocyte counts and systemic inflammation with periodontitis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0041.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Children; diet; greenhouse gas emission; intervention; linear programming; optimization; sustainable development
Online: 2 September 2020 (10:37:18 CEST)
Introducing children to sustainable and healthy school meals can promote a long-term dietary shift to lower climate impact and improve population health. The aim of the OPTIMAT study was to optimize meals for minimum deviation from the current food supply while reducing greenhouse gases and ensuring nutritional adequacy without increasing cost. Optimized menus were tested in four primary schools in Sweden and effects on daily food consumption and waste evaluated. Pupils received their usual menu plan for three weeks and then the isocaloric optimized menu plan for another three weeks. Nutritional recommendations for a school lunch and a maximum of 500 grams of CO2eq/meal were applied as constraints during linear programming. Pulses, Cereals, Meat and Eggs increased, while Fats and Oils, Dairy, Sauces and Seasonings decreased. The amount of ruminant meat was reduced in favor of other meat products. The new menu was 28% lower in greenhouse gas emissions and slightly less costly than the original. No significant changes in mean food consumption or plate waste were found in interrupted time series analysis between the two periods. This pragmatic approach for combining linear optimization with meal planning could accelerate sustainable development of the meal sector in Sweden and abroad.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0345.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: veganism; vegan diet; nutrition status; vitamin B12 deficiency; health status disparities
Online: 30 October 2019 (04:01:40 CET)
The vegan diet excludes animal-derived product consumption and health advantages had been reported when followed. However, heterogeneous eating habits, food availability, and sociocultural characteristics among regions could lead to different physiological results. The objective of this case-control cross-sectional pilot study was to analyze body composition, daily nutrients consumption, and basic serum biomarkers as a general overview of the health status of Mexican adults with a vegan diet for ≥3 years, randomly paired with omnivores. Body composition was assessed through bioelectric impedance analysis. Eating patterns were evaluated and daily nutrients intake was calculated. A complete blood count, glycated hemoglobin, cobalamin, and creatinine serum concentrations were analyzed. We hypothesized certain nutrient deficits and specific biomarker impairments originated from cultural particularities driving food selection in Mexicans following a plant-based diet. Body composition did not differ among groups. Lower protein, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, cobalamin, calciferol, fluoride, iodine, and selenium intake yet greater fiber, folic acid, vitamin E, copper, and molybdenum were observed in the plant-based group when compared with controls. Vegans presented lower cobalamin and creatinine serum concentrations. Hematologic abnormalities were prevalent in vegans. Insufficient consumption of several nutriments was identified in both dietary groups, suggesting that the local diet may be unbalanced, affecting both vegans and non-vegan individuals. However, vegans might present additional deficiencies, especially vitamin B12, with potential repercussions. Clinical and nutritional guidance is required in this particular population to avoid possible health adverse events.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0012.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: zebrafish diet; heavy metals; contaminant; toxin; development; behavior; persistent organic pollutant
Online: 1 August 2019 (10:28:59 CEST)
Dietary contaminants are often an over-looked factor in the health of zebrafish. Typically, water is considered to be the source for most contaminants, especially within an aquatic environment. For this reason, source water for zebrafish recirculating systems is highly regulated and monitored daily. Most facilities use reverse osmosis or de-ionized water filtration systems to purify incoming water to ensure that contaminants, as well as pathogens, do not enter their zebrafish housing units. However, diets are rarely tested for contaminants and, in the case of manufactured zebrafish feeds, since the product is marketed for aquaculture or aquarium use it is assumed that the feed is acceptable for animals used for research. The following provides examples as to how contaminants could lead to negative effects on development and behavior of developing zebrafish.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: diet quality; socioeconomic status; inequalities; education, income; obesity; 24h dietary recall
Online: 21 June 2019 (09:56:57 CEST)
Socioeconomically disadvantaged people are disproportionally more likely to develop obesity and obesity-related diseases. However, it remains unclear to what extent diet quality contributes to socioeconomic inequalities in obesity. We aimed to assess the role of diet quality in the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity. Data originated from the national nutrition survey, a cross-sectional sample of the adult Swiss population (N=1860). We used education and income as proxies for SES; calculated the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) as measure of diet quality; and used body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) as obesity markers. We applied counterfactual mediation modelling to generate odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and the proportion mediated by diet quality. Individuals with less than a tertiary education were two to three times more likely to be obese, regardless of the marker (OR; 95% CI: 3.36 (2.01, 5.66) using BMI; 2.44 (1.58, 3.75) using WC; 2.48 (1.63, 3.78) using WHR; and 2.04 (1.43, 2.96) using WHtR). The proportion of the association between educational level and obesity that was mediated by diet quality was 22.1% using BMI, 26.6% using WC, 31.4% using WHtR, and 35.8% using WHR. Similar findings were observed for income. Our findings suggest that diet quality substantially contributes to socioeconomic inequalities in obesity while it does not fully explain them. Focusing efforts on improving the diet quality of disadvantaged groups could help reduce social inequalities in obesity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0479.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: Blood-Brain Barrier; Neurodegeneration; obesity; high-fat diet; protein tyrosine phosphatase 1b
Online: 25 November 2021 (13:54:27 CET)
Insulin receptors are internalized by endothelial cells; however, the impact of hyperinsulinemia on this process is not known. Thus, the aim of this study is to determine the role of hyperinsulinemia on insulin receptor function and internalization, as well as the potential impact of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). To this end, hippocampal microvessels were isolated from male C57Bl/6J mice on either a control or high-fat diet and assessed for insulin receptor signaling. Cell surface insulin receptors in brain microvascular endothelial cells were labelled with biotin to assess the role hyperinsulinemia plays on receptor internalization in response to stimulation, with and without Claramine treatment, a potent PTP1B antagonist. Our results indicated that insulin receptor levels increased in tandem with insulin receptor dysfunction in the high-fat diet mouse hippocampal microvessels. Hyperinsulinemic cell-receptors demonstrate a shift in splice variation towards decreased IR-A/IR-B ratios and demonstrate a higher membrane-localized proportion. This corresponded with decreased autophosphorylation at sites critical for receptor internalization and signaling, however, Claramine restored signaling and receptor internalization in hyperinsulinemic cells. In conclusion, hyperinsulinemia negatively impacts brain microvascular endothelial cell insulin receptor function and internalization, likely through both alternative splicing and increased negative feedback from PTP1B.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0055.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: dietary intake; diet monitoring; digital receipts; purchase quality indicators; FSA-NPS DI
Online: 2 July 2021 (14:07:49 CEST)
In light of the globally increasing prevalence of diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs), new scalable and non-invasive dietary monitoring techniques are urgently needed. Automatically collected digital receipts from loyalty cards have the potential to serve as an objective and automatically traceable digital biomarker for individual food choice behavior and do not require patients to manually log each individual meal item. Until recently, such electronic purchase records were hard to collect for researchers and were only validated in national empirical studies. Multiple quantitative indicators for purchase quality have been suggested, but so far no comparison has validated the potential of these alternative indicators to discriminate between health-beneficial and -detrimental food choices. With the introduction of the General Data Privacy Regulation in the European Union, millions of consumers gained the right to access their purchase data in a machine-readable form, representing a historic chance to leverage purchase data for scalable monitoring of food choices. This study hence is the first study comparing the calibration capacity and validating the discrimination potential of previously suggested purchase indicators for the nutritional quality of purchased groceries, incl. HEI-2015, HETI, GPQI, and FSA-NPS DI. To assess the indicators' potential, 464 study participants were asked to complete a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and to donate their digital receipts from the loyalty card programs of the two leading Swiss grocery retailers, representing 69\% of the national grocery market. 89 participants fulfilled the eligibility criteria, i.e. completed the FFQ and were frequent users of the loyalty card systems. Compared to absolute food and nutrient intake, correlations between density-based relative food and nutrient intake and food purchase data are stronger. Counterintuitively, although the frameworks of the HETI and the GPQI are centered around food groups, both indicators do not capture food group intake such as vegetables or sweets very well. The FSA-NPS DI has the best calibration and discrimination performance in classifying participants' consumption of nutrients and food groups, and seems to be a superior indicator to estimate nutritional quality of a user's diet based on digital receipts from grocery purchases in Switzerland.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0692.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Ryanodine receptor; skeletal muscle; cardiac muscle; exercise and injury; heart function; diet
Online: 29 June 2021 (08:37:53 CEST)
The ryanodine receptor (RyR) is a Ca2+ release channel in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal and cardiac muscles and plays a key role in excitation-contraction coupling. The activity of the RyR is regulated by many intracellular factors such as divalent cations (Ca2+ and Mg2+), nucleotides, associated proteins, and reactive oxygen species. Since these intracellular factors change depending on the condition of the muscle, e.g., exercise, fatigue, or disease states, the RyR channel activity will be altered accordingly. In this review, we describe how the RyR channel is regulated under various conditions and discuss the possibility that the RyR acts as a sensor for change in the cellular environment of muscles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0239.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: adipose tissue; non-nutritive sweeteners; artificial sweeteners; high-fat diet; glucose intolerance
Online: 8 June 2021 (15:56:03 CEST)
Sugar-sweetened beverages are associated with metabolic dysfunction, particularly in those with increased risk factors. Artificial sweeteners (AS) are often promoted as a healthier alternative, yet findings remain conflicting as to their effects on metabolic function. Further, there is a lack of data exploring the interaction between AS and high-fat diets (HFD). We therefore examined the effects of HFD and the AS Acesulfame-potassium (Ace-K) on glucose intolerance and adipose tissue physiology in male and female C57BL/6 mice. 40 mice were randomised to receive either a) a control diet (CDCon; standard control diet/water), b) control diet and Ace-k (CDAS; CD/7.5mM AS in drinking water), c) HFD (HFCon; HFD (45%kcal from fat)/water), or d) HF and AS (HFAS; HFD/7.5mM AS in drinking water) for 6 weeks. A HFD increased body weight in male and female mice independently of AS supplementation. AS induced sex-specific effects protecting against HFD-induced hyperglycaemia and adipocyte hypertrophy in male mice and reducing inflammatory gene expression in the adipose tissue. Conversely in females, AS induced hyperinsulinemia in HFD mice and increased expression of immune-related genes. These findings suggest that supplementation of HFD with AS exacerbates metabolic dysfunction in female mice. This work supports the importance of studying sexually dimorphic responses to an altered nutritional environment and highlights the need for further investigation into the intake of AS, particularly in those already at risk of metabolic disease such as the obese or overweight.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0385.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Health-related quality of life; Vitality; Body composition; Phenolic compounds; Mediterranean diet
Online: 15 December 2020 (13:09:12 CET)
Overweight and obesity adversely affect health-related quality of life (HRQOL) through day-to-day impairments of both mental and physical functioning. It is assumed that polyphenols within the Mediterranean diet may contribute to improve HRQOL. This investigation aimed at studying the effects of a polyphenol-rich ingredient on HRQOL in overweight and obese but otherwise healthy individuals. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study including 72 volunteers was conducted. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive for a 16-week period either 900 mg/day of the supplement or a placebo. Dietary recommendations were individually determined, and intakes were recorded; daily physical mobility was monitored. Improvement of HRQOL was set as the primary outcome and assessed at baseline and at the end of the investigation, using the Short-Form 36 (SF-36) Health survey. Body composition was analyzed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Physical activity level was calculated using International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). After 16 weeks, despite there was no adherence to the Mediterranean Diet Serving Score (MDSS), supplemented individuals experienced significant HRQOL improvement (+5.3%; P=0.001), including enhanced perceived physical (+11.2%; P=0.002) and mental health (+4.1%; P=0.021) components; bodily pain, vitality, and general health, being the greatest contributors. Besides, body fat mass significantly decreased (-1.2 kg; P=0.033), mainly within trunk area (-1.0 kg; P=0.002). Engagement in physical activity significantly increased (+1308 Met-min/week; P=0.050). Hence, chronic supplementation with a nutritional diversity and dose of a Mediterranean diet-inspired polyphenol-rich ingredient resulted in a significant amelioration in both perceived physical and mental health, concomitant with the improvement of body composition, in healthy subjects with excessive adiposity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0197.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Maternal diet; Dietary behaviour change intervention; Nutrition education; Balanced plate; Qualitative methods
Online: 9 July 2020 (16:15:13 CEST)
Social, cultural, environmental and economic factors closely regulate the selection, allocation and consumption of maternal diets. We developed a nutrition behaviour change intervention to promote a balanced diet in pregnancy through practical demonstration in rural Bangladesh and tested the impact with a cluster randomised controlled trial. This paper presents the findings of the process evaluation and describes the strategies that worked for intervention compliance. We conducted in-depth interviews with pregnant women, women who birthed recently, and their husbands; focus groups with mothers and mothers-in-law; key-informant interviews with community health workers, and observation of home visits. We identified six key areas within the intervention strategy that played a crucial role in achieving the desired adherence. These included practical demonstration of portion sizes; addressing local food perceptions; demystifying animal-source foods; engaging husbands and mothers-in-law; leveraging women’s social networks; and harnessing community health workers’ social role. Practical demonstration, opportunity to participate and convenience of making of the plate with the food available in their kitchen or neighbours’ kitchen were the most commonly mentioned reasons for acceptance of the intervention by the women and their families. The balanced plate intervention helped women through practical demonstration to learn about a balanced meal by highlighting appropriate portion sizes and food diversity. The women needed active involvement of community health workers in mobilising social support to create an enabling environment essential to bring changes in dietary behaviours. Programs to promote a nutritious maternal diet should focus on encouraging the use of healthy foods through practical demonstration of portion sizes and engagement of the women and family instead of replicating the traditional information-based counselling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0147.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: gut microbiota; obesity; weight-loss; Mediterranean diet; 16S rRNA; High-throughput sequencing
Online: 8 July 2020 (11:07:10 CEST)
Although it is known that the gut microbiota (GM) can be modulated by diet, the efficacy of specific dietary interventions in determining its composition and diversity in obese patients remains to be ascertained. The present work aims to evaluate the impact of a moderately hypocaloric Mediterranean diet on the GM of obese and overweight patients (OB). The GM of 23 OB patients (F/M= 20/3) was compared before (T0) and after 3 months (T3) of the nutritional intervention (NI). Fecal samples were analyzed by Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. At baseline, the GM characterization confirmed the typical obesity-associated dysbiosis. After 3 months of NI, patients presented a statistically significant reduction of the body weight and fat mass, along with changes in the relative abundance of many microbial patterns. In fact, we observed an increased abundance in several Bacteroidetes taxa (i.e. Sphingobacteriaceae, Sphingobacterium, Bacteroides spp., Prevotella stercorea) and depletion of many Firmicutes taxa (i.e. Lachnospiraceae members, Ruminococcaceae and Ruminococcus, Veillonellaceae, Catenibacterium, Megamonas). In addition, the phylum Proteobacteria showed an increased abundance, while the genus Sutterella, within the same phylum, decreased after the intervention. Metabolic pathways, predicted by bioinformatic analyses, showed a decrease in membrane transport and cell motility after NI. The present study extends our knowledge of the GM profiles in OB, highlighting the potential benefit of a moderate caloric restriction in counteracting the gut dysbiosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0187.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: gas chromatography assay; cardiovascular diseases; feeding patterns; lipids; nutritional status; vegan diet
Online: 19 June 2019 (15:47:29 CEST)
The vegan diet excludes animal-derived products consumption. The objective of the present study is to analyze dietary lipid intake, nine plasmatic fatty acids concentrations (from C14:0 [lauric acid] to C20:4 [arachidonic acid]), and conventional clinical lipid profile among vegan individuals with omnivore controls. A case-control and cross-sectional study was performed between 2016 and 2017. Vegans were paired in a 1:1 ratio with omnivores from Merida, Mexico. A 150-item Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire was conducted to evaluate eating patterns. Serum fatty acids were determined from total blood with a gas chromatography assay. Lower cholesterol, stearic, arachidonic and trans fatty acids intake, but higher consumption of lauric acid were observed in the vegan group (p= <0.001, 0.014, <0.001, 0.005, respectively). Decreased plasma concentrations of stearic, arachidonic and linoleic acids were found (p= 0.017, <0.001 and 0.026, respectively). Following a vegan diet for more than three years generate modifications in serum concentrations of saturated and polyunsaturated ω-6 fatty acids, which could lower inflammatory markers’ biosynthesis. Potential benefits regarding cardiovascular risk may be assumed in favor of vegan individuals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0281.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: acculturation; diet quality; healthy eating index; body mass index; Mexican Americans; NHANES
Online: 12 November 2018 (10:23:55 CET)
Background and Objectives: Acculturation is associated with excessive weight gain among immigrants to the U.S. Whether dietary factors mediate this association is unclear. This study aimed to examine whether overall diet quality or specific component(s) of diet quality mediate the association between acculturation and Body Mass Index (BMI) among Mexican American (MA) men and women. Material and Methods: This is a secondary data analysis using dietary intake data from 24-hour dietary recalls, measured height and weight, and self-reported acculturation from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycles 1999-2000 to 2011-2012. A total of 6848 MA adults (≥20 yrs) with reliable dietary recall status and body measures were included in the study. Path analyses was performed in Mplus with complex survey design effects adjusted. Results: HEI components of whole grains and sodium were found to play meditating roles in the acculturation-BMI association, and their effects on BMI were opposing [indirect effect were -0.01 (SE 0.00) and 0.02 (0.01), respectively]. In gender-specific analysis, sodium [0.01 (0.00)] was a significant mediator only in MA men; whereas, whole grains [-0.01 (0.00)] was a significant mediator only in MA women. Conclusions: HEI components of whole grains and sodium appeared to be significant dietary mediators in the acculturation-BMI association. Understanding the variations of dietary components and their relationship with acculturation as well as BMI is useful for developing dietary interventions and obesity reduction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0487.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: bio-accessibility; 24-h diet; preschool children; arsenic intake; cadmium intake; lead intake
Online: 6 October 2018 (11:02:24 CEST)
Lead, known as a metal with high neurotoxicity to children, cadmium, which is a carcinogenic and bioaccumulative contaminant, and arsenic, a class 1 carcinogenic according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, are toxic elements (TEs) whose relevant route of exposure may be diet. We determined the bio-accessible fraction of lead, cadmium, and arsenic from the diet of preschool children from two day care centers (DCC). A cross-sectional study was conducted with 64 one–four-year-old children from two DCCs where the 24-h duplicate diet samples were collected. The diet samples were analyzed by ICP-MS for lead, cadmium, and arsenic total concentrations (n = 64) and their bio-accessibility were analyzed for a subsample (n = 10). The dietary intake (DI) mean for lead, cadmium, and arsenic were 0.18 ± 0.11 µg kg−1 bw, 0.08 ± 0.04 µg kg−1 bw, and 0.61 ± 0.41 µg kg−1 bw, respectively. All DI calculated for TEs, considering total intake, were found lower than the tolerable limits (TL) (European Union, or World Health Organization, WHO, when applicable) except for one child’s Pb intake. Bio-accessibilities ranged between 0% to 93%, 0% to 103%, and 0% to 69%, for lead, cadmium, and arsenic, respectively. Although DI for TEs has been found lower than TL, these reference values have been recently decreased or withdrawn since it was for lead and arsenic whose TL were withdrawn by WHO.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0240.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: celiac disease; gluten-free diet; facebook; gluten-free ingredients; misleading information; alternative treatment
Online: 17 October 2022 (12:55:58 CEST)
Facebook (FB) is the most popular online networking platform. There are several FB pages dedicated to spreading awareness about the Celiac disease (CD). To get the latest information, a huge number of CD patients follow Celiac disease Facebook (CD-FB) pages. Such pages frequently post beneficial information. However, very less is known if they provide appropriate information to CD patients. We conducted this study to know if CD-FB pages spread misleading information to CD patients. CD-FB pages from three celiac-influenced countries were explored using the FB platform and Google search engine. From October 2021 to April 2022, a total of 147 CD-FB, Italy (n=63), the USA (n=46), and India (n=38), were found eligible. Of them, 13% of pages (followers Mean±SD; Italy 2478±2011; USA 12635±12486; India 667±313) shared misleading information, particularly about gluten-free ingredients, and treatment of CD. In total,16% of CD-FB pages discussed alternative treatments option. Surprisingly, 7% of pages (followers Mean±SD; USA 23800±10465; India 628±333) supported alternative treatments for CD. CD-FB pages are useful for disseminating celiac-related information. While most of such pages provide useful information, a few pages sometimes contain misleading information. CD patients must consult their treating unit before following any uncertain information posted on CD-FB pages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0456.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: Mediterranean Diet; weight loss; determinants of health; healthy lifestyle; clinically significant weight loss
Online: 29 July 2022 (09:52:36 CEST)
Evidence indicates that unhealthy eating habits constitute multilevel obstacles threatening our health and well-being—studies suggesting that consumer choices turn irremovably towards Western diets. Mediterranean diets (MD) have been identified as one of the most effective in preventing and treating overweight and obesity. Considering this scientific substantiation in prevention and treatment activity, the purpose of this investigation is to verify this evidence. In our prospective interventional study, we examined the effect of MD on body weight in a female cohort sample. The analyzed group consisted of (n=181) females divided into three distinct groups based on their age (tricenarian, quadragenarian, and quinquagenarian). Anthropometric (weight, BMI, FATP, VFATL, FFM, TBW, and BMR), biochemical examinations (urea, creatinine, uric acid, ALT, AST, GGT, CHOL, HDL-CH, non-HDL, LDL-CH, TAG, GLU, and CRP) and comprehensive, personalized three months MD program was completed on the examined subjects. We didn’t establish convincing evidence of MD on weight reduction and its magnitude of correlation with a positive correspondence on selected determinants in all groups combined. There is a challenge to construct more robust prospective cohort studies that will incorporate add-on critical integrands that will be appropriate to monitor, evaluate and predict weight management in experimenting.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0324.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: circadian clock; otitis media; late dinner; common cold; Mediterranean diet; oxidative stress; chronotype
Online: 23 June 2022 (10:37:16 CEST)
Running at odds with the timing imposed by the circadian clock plays an important role in the process that leads to communicable and non communicable diseases. The primary objective of this study was to analyse whether early dinner eater children were at lower risks of acute respiratory infections than late dinner eater children, during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted from July to December 2020 on children attending Majorcan emergency services. Clinical data collected included timing, symptoms, laboratory tests and imaging studies of current illness. Each diagnosis was validated by general paediatricians. Our survey on dinner time habits was carried out by using self-administered questionnaires. Results: A total of 669 children under age 18 were included in the study. The median of dinner time was 8:30 pm. Late dinner eaters accounted for a higher proportion of acute otitis media than early dinner eaters (7% vs 3%; P=0.028). Other infectious diseases were not associated with dinner time habits. Conclusions: We make a preliminary estimate of the link between late dinner habits and acute otitis media in children. However, no conclusions about causality can be established due to the observational design of the study.