Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

The Association between Self-Reported Daily Energy Intake from Carbohydrates with Insulin Resistance in Healthy Weight Nor-Mal-Weight Individuals

Version 1 : Received: 6 April 2022 / Approved: 7 April 2022 / Online: 7 April 2022 (04:03:54 CEST)

How to cite: Al-Rashed, F.; Sindhu, S.; Madhoun, A.A.; Alzaqqah, F.; Akter, N.; Al-Mulla, F.; Ahmad, R. The Association between Self-Reported Daily Energy Intake from Carbohydrates with Insulin Resistance in Healthy Weight Nor-Mal-Weight Individuals. Preprints 2022, 2022040052 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202204.0052.v1). Al-Rashed, F.; Sindhu, S.; Madhoun, A.A.; Alzaqqah, F.; Akter, N.; Al-Mulla, F.; Ahmad, R. The Association between Self-Reported Daily Energy Intake from Carbohydrates with Insulin Resistance in Healthy Weight Nor-Mal-Weight Individuals. Preprints 2022, 2022040052 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202204.0052.v1).

Abstract

Abstract: Carbohydrates form the major source of energy in Asian diets. A lower carbohydrate diet became the recommended golden standard for healthy lifestyle. However, the effects of low-carbohydrates diet on health in apparently healthy individuals have been poorly studied, especially in relation to insulin resistance syndrome (IRS). A total of 120 healthy weight participants with no previous history of a major medical condition and an average BMI of ≤ 25kg/m2 were recruited. Self-reported dietary intake and objective physical activity by accelerometry were tracked for seven days. Participants were divided into three categories according to their dietary intake of carbohydrates. Blood samples were collected for metabolic markers analysis. HOMA of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), β-cell function (HOMA-B) and C-peptide were used to evaluate glucose homeostasis. The consumption of low carbohydrates (less than 45% of total energy) significantly correlated with higher HOMA-IR, Lower HOMA-β % compared to moderate carbohydrate intake (between 45% to 65%). However, only the HOMA-β % was significantly influenced by carbohydrates intake. Moreover, low carbohydrates intake was significantly associated with elevated C-peptide secretion. The substitution of carbohydrates with other macronutrients, such as fat and proteins in the Atkins/ketogenic diet, resulted in a pronounced induction of IRS-related inflammatory markers; FGF2, IP-10, IL-6, IL-17A, MDC and reduction of IL-13. Overall, the presented data highlight, for the first time, that low carbohydrate intake results in significant glucose homeostasis imbalance that may be driven by a heightened state of inflammatory response.

Keywords

Carbohydrates; keto diet; IRS; C-peptide

Subject

LIFE SCIENCES, Endocrinology & Metabolomics

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