ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0011.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: diabetes mellitus; insulin resistance; inflammation; biomarkers; atherogenicity
Online: 3 June 2020 (05:41:03 CEST)
Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with increased atherogenicity and inflammatory responses, which may be related to increased levels of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1). Objective: The role of HMGB1 and DKK1 in T2DM is examined in association with lipid and insulin profiles. Methods: Serum HMGB1 and DKK1 were measured in T2DM with and without hypertension and compared with controls. Results: HMGB1 and DKK1 are significantly higher in T2DM irrespective of hypertension. T2DM was also accompanied by increased atherogenicity indices. HMGB1 and DKK1 are significantly correlated with HbA1c, glucose, indices of insulin resistance, β-cell function, and glucose toxicity, and different atherogenic indices. A large part of the variance in the β-cell index (30.5%) and glucose toxicity (34.8%) was explained by the combined effects of HMGB1 and DKK1 and hypertension. We found that 18.3% of the variance of the atherogenic index of plasma was explained by HMGB1 and DKK1 levels and that 31.2% was explained by glucose toxicity, HMGB1 and body weight. Conclusion: The higher serum HMGB1 and DKK1 levels in T2DM patients and the associations with atherogenicity indicate that low grade inflammation and disorders in the Wnt pathways are associated with T2DM and that both HMGB1 and DKK1 may contribute to increased atherogenicity in T2DM. Moreover, both biomarkers may cause more deficits in β-cell function and increase glucose toxicity leading to the development of more inflammation and diabetic complications. HMGB1 and the Wnt pathways are new drug targets in the treatment of T2DM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0341.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: AGEs; aortic calcification; type 2 diabetes mellitus; diabetes-related complications
Online: 21 May 2020 (09:46:56 CEST)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). This was a prospective cross-sectional study conducted from January 2017 to June 2018. One-hundred and four consecutive patients with DM2 were given lateral lumbar X-rays in order to quantify aortic abdominal calcification AAC. Circulating levels of AGEs and classical cardiovascular risk factors were determined. Clinical history was also registered. Patients with higher AGEs values had higher grades of aortic calcification and higher number of diabetic related complications. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that being older, male and having high levels of AGEs and triglycerides were the independent risk factors associated to moderate-severe AAC when compared to no-mild AAC. Our results suggest that AGEs plays a role in the pathogenesis of aortic calcifications. In addition, the measurement of AGEs levels may be useful for assessing the severity of AAC in the setting of diabetic complications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0065.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); older people; frailty; antidiabetic drugs; comprehensive geriatric assessment; therapeutic targets; hypoglycemia.
Online: 3 August 2021 (09:07:51 CEST)
Type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM) represents a chronic condition with increasing prevalence worldwide among the older population. T2DM condition increases the risk of micro and macro-vascular complications as well as the risk of geriatric syndromes as falls, fractures and cognitive impairment. The management of T2DM in the older population represents a challenge for the cli-nician, and a Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment should always be prioritized, in order to tailor the glycate haemoglobin target according to functional and cognitive status comorbidities, life ex-pectancy and type of therapy. According to the most recent guidelines, older adults with T2DM should be cathegorized in three groups: healthy patients with good functional status, patients with complications and reduced functionality and patients at the end of life; for each group the target for the glycemic control is different, also according to the type of treatment drug. The therapeutic ap-proach should always begin with lifestyle changes; after that, several lines of therapies are available, with different mechanism of action and potential effect other than glucose level reduction. Partic-ular interest is growing around sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors, due to their effect on the cardiovascular system. In this review we evaluate the therapeutic options available for the treat-ment of older diabetic patients, to ensure a correct treatment approach
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0095.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Tuberculosis; Type 2; diabetes mellitus PM2.5; air pollution; inflammation
Online: 11 January 2018 (01:45:36 CET)
Rapid urbanization, increasing population and increased industrialization to cater to demands of the growing population has imposed upon us a huge environmental cost. The significantly deteriorated air quality across the globe is associated with a direct and indirect impact on public health. While associated disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, heart failures are well documented, less is known about the biological basis of the process. We hypothesize that the worsening air quality may likely impact common systemic inflammatory processes, thus driving communicable and non-communicable diseases alike.Receptor mediated entry of particulate matter (PM2.5) results in activation of signaling cascades which culminate in production of inflammatory chemokine and cytokine responses, traversing through the blood mediating impacting not only on other organs but also dysbiosis of microflora. For the purpose of the review we choose tuberculosis (TB) as a model for communicable infectious disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as a marker for non-communicable disorder. The increasing prevalence of these co-morbidities and the burdening of public health systems justifies this example. However the hypothesis may be applicable to other inflammation driven disorders also.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0071.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: diabetes mellitus; metformin; glibenclamide and lipid profile
Online: 14 November 2016 (07:14:00 CET)
Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been defined as a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. This study includes (84) subjects, their age ranged from (40 to 54) years. (20) subjects were healthy chosen as control group and (64) patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were divided into three groups according to their type of anti diabetic therapy: (23) newly diagnosed group without therapy (Group1), (20) with metformin therapy (Group2) and (21) with metformin plus glibenclamide therapies (Group3). In the study lipid profile level were quantitatively determine by enzymatic methods, in addition to that fasting plasma glucose (FPG), Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c%) and body mass index (BMI) were identified in the patients. There is significant increase in the level of lipid profile in patients group. Metformin alone produce a non-significant favorable effect on all lipids profile parameters while metformin plus glibenclamide showed a significant reduction in TC and LDL-C.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0280.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: diabetes mellitus; breast cancer; pulmonary volumes
Online: 27 June 2019 (06:08:48 CEST)
Background and Objective: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and breast cancer (BC) are diseases of high prevalence worldwide. Both alter lung function separately. So suffering both tables would increase this decrease in lung function. The objetive was to determine the effects of DM2 and BC on ventilation volumes and pressures in adult women. Material and Methods: Forty-two women patients were recruited, of whom 40 were accepted under the exclusion criteria. They were divided into four groups: control group (CG), DM2, BC and DM2+BC. Body plethysmography was used to measure forced vital capacity, lung volumes, airway resistance and muscle pressures. Finally the normality of the data was determined using Student's t test or the Mann-Whitney U test; the threshold of significance was p<0.05. Results: No significant differences were observed in the anthropometric variables between the control group and the other groups. The ventilation flows showed no significant differences, while the lung volumes presented significant differences in the inspiratory capacity (IC) variables (p<0,002). Maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressures (MIP-MEP) also presented significant diminution (p<0,001; p<0,041, respectively). Conclusions: From the results obtained we can conclude that the combination of type 2 diabetes mellitus with breast cancer caused a diminution in ventilation volumes and pressures, specifically in IC, MIP and MEP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0089.v1
Online: 5 July 2019 (04:53:09 CEST)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a polygenic metabolic disease described by hyperglycemia, which is caused by insulin resistance or reduced insulin secretion. Interaction between various genetic variants and environmental factors triggers T2DM. The main aim of this study was to find the risk associated with genetic variant (rs5210) of KCNJ11gene in the development of T2D in Indian Population. A total number of 300 cases of T2D and 100 control samples were studied to find the polymorphism in KCNJ11 through PCR-RFLP. The genotype and allele frequencies in T2DM cases were significantly different from the control population. We found a significant association of KCNJ11 (rs5210) gene polymorphism with T2DM in North Indian patients indicating the role of this variant in developing risk for T2DM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0225.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: circular RNAs (circRNAs); circulating circRNA; type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); pre-diabetes; microarray analysis; biomarker
Online: 29 August 2016 (13:37:38 CEST)
The purpose of current study was to investigate the expression characteristic of circular RNAs (circRNAs) in peripheral blood of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and their potentials as diagnostic biomarkers for pre-diabetes and T2DM. In present study, the circRNAs in the peripheral blood from 6 healthy individuals and 6 T2DM patients were collected for microarray analysis. The results indicated that there were 489 differentially expressed circRNAs, of which 78 were upregulated and 411 were downregulated in the T2DM group. Then we selected 5 circRNAs as the candidate biomarkers under a stricter screening criteria and further verified them in another cohort (control group, n=20; pre-diabetes group, n =20; T2DM group; n=20). 3 of the 5 circRNAs presented upregulated expression in the experimental groups, including 2 circRNAs of the T2DM group that had higher expression than the pre-diabetes group. Hsa_circ_0054633 was identified to have the largest area value under the carve (AUC). In another independent cohort (control group, n=60; pre-diabetes group, n=63; T2DM group, n=64), the diagnostic capacity of hsa_circ_0054633 was tested. The results showed that the AUC for the diagnosis of pre-diabetes was 0.751(95% confidence interval=[0. 666-0.835], P＜0.001) while it was 0.793 ([0.716-0.871], P＜0.001) for the diagnosis of T2DM. After including the risk factors of T2DM, the AUC increased to 0.841 ([0.773-0.910], P <0.001) and 0.834 ([0.762-0.905], P <0.001), respectively. Hsa_circ_0054633 presented a certain diagnostic capability for pre-diabetes and T2DM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0408.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Type 2 Diabetes; Osteoporosis; Bisphosphonate; MRONJ; Osteoclast
Online: 31 March 2022 (13:44:57 CEST)
Osteoporosis is a common metabolic bone disease in patients with diabetes, which can develop simultane-ously with Type 2 diabetes (T2D) in postmenopausal women. Bisphosphonate (BP) is administered to pa-tients with both the conditions and may cause medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ). It affects the differentiation and function of osteoclasts as well as thickness of cortical bone through bone mineralization. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of T2D on osteoclast differentiation and activity as well as cortical bone formation in postmenopausal patients with MRONJ. Tissue samples were collected from 10 patients diagnosed with T2D and Stage III MRONJ in the experimental group and from 10 patients without T2D in the control group. Histological examination was conducted, and expres-sion of dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) was assessed. Cortical bone formation was analyzed using CBCT images. The number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts and DC-STAMP-positive mononuclear cells were significantly less in the experi-mental group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the thickness and ratio of cortical bone were significantly greater in the experimental group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, T2D decreased the differentiation and function of osteo-clasts, and increased cortical bone formation in postmenopausal patients with MRONJ.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0218.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus; walking speed; sarcopenia
Online: 14 April 2020 (08:45:26 CEST)
Diabetes is a risk factor for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. However, how the clinical characteristics of type 2 diabetic patients with MCI are linked to sarcopenia and/or its criterion remain to be elucidated. Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were categorized into the MCI group for MoCA-J (the Japanese version of the Montreal cognitive assessment) score <26, and into the non-MCI group for MoCA-J ≥26. Sarcopenia was defined by a low skeletal mass index along with low muscle strength (handgrip strength) or low physical performance (walking speed <1.0 m/s). Univariate and multivariate-adjusted odds ratio models were used to determine the independent contributors for MoCA-J <26. Among 438 participants, 221 (50.5%) and 217 (49.5%) comprised the non-MCI and MCI groups, respectively. In the MCI group, age (61 ± 12 vs. 71 ± 10 years, p < 0.01) and duration of diabetes (14 ± 9 vs. 17 ± 9 years, p < 0.01) were higher than those in the non-MCI group. Patients in the MCI group exhibited lower hand grip strength, walking speed, and skeletal mass index, but higher prevalence of sarcopenia. Only walking speed (rather than muscle loss or muscle weakness) was found to be an independent determinant of MCI after adjusting for multiple factors, such as age, gender, BMI, duration of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking, drinking, eGFR, HbA1c, and history of coronary heart diseases and stroke. In subgroup analysis, a group consisting of male patients aged ≥65 years, with BMI <25, showed a significant OR for walking speed. This is the first study to show that slow walking speed is a sole determinant for the presence of MCI in patients with type 2 diabetes. It was suggested that walking speed is an important factor in the prediction and prevention of MCI development in patients with diabetes mellitus.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0045.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: fNIRS; diabetes; brain imaging; point of care
Online: 3 February 2022 (10:10:08 CET)
Abstract—Low-frequency Fahræus–Lindqvist-driven (not blood pressure-driven) oscillations in the small vessels are crucial because oscillations in small vessels support nutrient supply. Understanding of this is critical in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) to develop therapeutic measures to prevent Alzheimer's Disease Related Dementias: vascular factors contribute to cerebrovascular disease as well as mild cognitive impairment and dementia, which are predicted to affect 152 million people by 2050 (Alzheimer's Disease International London, UK, 2019). In this clinical study, we performed functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) of the forehead to investigate the effect of the Mini-Cog with three-item recall test on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation and the relative oscillatory power in the 0.01–0.02-Hz (Fahræus–Lindqvist effect) and 0.021–0.052 Hz (smooth muscle autonomic innervation) frequency bands in elderly (60 years and older) T2DM and age-matched controls. We found a significant (p<0.01) difference in the PFC activation between elderly subjects with T2DM and age-matched elderly controls. Moreover, power spectral density (PSD) analysis revealed a significantly lower relative power in 0.021–0.052 Hz (smooth muscle autonomic innervation) frequency band in elderly subjects with T2DM during the Mini-Cog three-item recall test. Furthermore, a drop in the oscillatory power in the 0.01–0.02-Hz frequency band during Mini-Cog three-item recall test was found more pronounced in the elderly subjects with T2DM. Therefore, our study highlighted portable brain imaging to capture cerebrovascular reactivity to cognitive load that may provide a biomarker of cerebrovascular dysfunction in T2DM.Clinical Relevance— Our study establishes forehead portable brain imaging for monitoring cerebrovascular function in T2DM under cognitive load.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0283.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Type 1 diabetes; human leukocyte antigen; Kuwait Type 1 Diabetes Study; Islet autoantibodies; Insulin; prediction
Online: 13 August 2021 (08:19:26 CEST)
The incidence of Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) in the Arab world, particularly, oil and gas rich Gulf Cooperative Council (GCC) countries has more than doubled in the last twenty years. Therefore, there is a dire need for careful systematic familial cohort studies, especially in high-risk populations. Several immunogenetic factors affect the pathogenesis of the disease. Genes in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) account for the major genetic susceptibility to the disease. The triggering agents initiate disease onset by destruction of pancreatic β-cells. The autoantibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), insulinoma antigen-2 (IA-2A), insulin (IAA), and zinc transporter-8 (ZnT-8A) comprise the most reliable biomarkers for T1D in both children and adults. Although three of the GCC countries, namely Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Qatar are among the top 10 countries with high incidence rate of T1D, no proper diagnostic and prediction tools were applied in the region. Understanding the disease sequelae in a homogenous gene pool with high consanguinity in the GCC could help solve the challenges in understanding pathogenesis, as well as hasten the prevention of T1D. Arab states must incorporate T1D predictive and intervention policies on a war-footing basis to minimize the burden of this serious disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0029.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: HLA; type 1 diabetes; ethnicity; screening; haplotype
Online: 7 September 2016 (12:49:02 CEST)
Aims/Hypothesis): Type 1 diabetes is an immune-mediated disease with destruction of the pancreatic β-cells, a process that is conditioned by multiple genes and other factors. HLA counts as the major susceptibility gene. Significant variations in HLA genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes between Caucasians, African and Asian and other ethnic groups may have led to the variation in incidence of type 1 diabetes globally. Type 1 diabetes is characterized upon HLA identification. In this chapter we discuss global variations in genetic susceptibility of HLA with regard to type 1 diabetes globally with a particular attention to Arab population. Methods): Haplotype configuration of HLA class I A, B, C and Class II –DR/DQ/DP were studied in Caucasians, African and Asian and in Arab population to see if that is responsible for the exponential rise in the rate of type 1 diabetes. Results): Although Arabs have one of the highest global incidence and prevalence rates of type 1 diabetes, unfortunately, there is a dearth amount of information regarding HLA genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes in the Arab world. HLA haplotype configurations contribute to its risk value. However, out of an insufficient present study there are examples of misjudgment of HLA risk according to HLA alleles rather than haplotypes. Conclusion): To date HLA outlooks for the characterization of type 1 diabetes. There is an ethnicity difference in HLA characteristics which is responsible for variation in type 1 diabetes. Although Arab population have contributed heavily in the rise of burden of type 1 diabetes, however, there is significantly a dearth amount of studies on HLA in Arab population. Obviously, any future prediction, prevention or cure of the disease will be based on the HLA genetics. There is a dire need for a systematic screening of HLA for Arab population with type 1 diabetes, identification of Arab HLA-risk values and identify those who are prone to get the disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0650.v1
Subject: Keywords: TCF7L2, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiometabolic risk factors, single nucleotide polymorphisms
Online: 26 April 2021 (10:41:30 CEST)
Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been strongly associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TCF7L2 gene. This study investigated the association between rs12255372, rs7903146 and T2DM in a Ghanaian population. A case-control study design was used for this study. A total of 106 T2DM patients and 110 control participants were selected. Basic data collected included body mass index, blood pressure and socio-demographics. Fasting blood samples were collected and used for serum lipid analysis, HbA1c, plasma glucose estimation and DNA extraction. Common and allele-specific primers were designed for genotyping using the Modified Tetra-Primer Amplification assay. Associations were evaluated using logistic regression models. The rs7903146 risk variant was significantly associated with 2.16 vs 4.06 increased odds for T2DM in patients <60 years vs ≥60 years. Both rs7903146 and rs12255372 are significantly associated with increased odds of T2DM in women, overweight/obese; T2DM negative family history (T2DM-NFH) and low-HDL-C. In a multivariate model, rs7903146 but not rs12255372 was significantly associated with 2.18, 5.01 and 2.25 increased odds of T2DM, under the codominant, recessive and additive model, respectively (p<0.05). The association between rs7903146 and rs12255372 with T2DM is more highly associated in a subgroup- women and those with T2DM-NFH, yet have cardiometabolic risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0217.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Diabetes Technology; CGM; Accuracy; Type 1 Diabetes; Sustainability
Online: 12 November 2021 (11:58:57 CET)
Aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and usability of a novel continuous glucose moni-toring (CGM) system designed for needle-free insertion and reduced environmental impact. We assessed sensor performance of two GlucoMen® Day CGM systems worn simultaneously in eight participants with type 1 diabetes. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) was performed reg-ularly over 14 days at home. Participants underwent two standardized 5-hour meal challenges with frequent plasma glucose (PG) measurements using a laboratory reference instrument at the research center. When comparing CGM to PG the overall mean absolute relative difference (MARD) was 9.7 [2.6-14.6]%. The overall MARD of CGM vs SMBG was 13.1 [3.5-18.6]%. In the consensus error grid (CEG) analysis, 98% of both CGM/PG and CGM/SMBG pairs were in the clinically acceptable zones A and B. The analysis confirms that GlucoMen® Day CGM meets the clinical requirements for state-of-the-art CGM. The needle-free insertion technology is well toler-ated by users and reduces medical waste compared to conventional CGM systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0463.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: diabetes mellitus; insulin resistance; cytokines; adaptor proteins; CLNK
Online: 25 April 2020 (11:32:48 CEST)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an endocrine illness associate with various changes in the immune system and adaptor protein levels. Cytokine dependent hematopoietic cell linker (CLNK) is an adapter protein that regulates immune receptor signaling and acts as a regulator of the receptor signaling of T-cells and natural killer T-cell. The role of CLNK in T2DM is not studied previously. In the present study, serum CLNK level was measured and correlated with some sociodemographic and insulin resistance (IR) parameters. This is achieved by performing measurement of CLNK and insulin parameters (glucose, insulin, and HbA1c in addition to the calculation of the functions of IR (HOMA2IR), insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S), and beta-cell function (HOMA%B)) in 60 T2DM patients and 30 controls. The results indicated a significant increase (p=0.025) in serum CLNK in patients group in comparison with the controls. Multivariate generalized linear model (GLM) analysis revealed no significant effect of age, BMI, and sex on the CLNK level. The results of tests for between-subjects showed that the CLNK affects diagnosis significantly (F=7.445, p=0.008, partial η2 =0.081) and its effect is approximately the same as the effect of insulin (F=8.107, p=0.006, partial η2 =0.087). The correlation study showed a highly significant positive correlation between CLNK and the duration of disease (rho=0.420, p<0.001). It can be concluded that the increase CLNK in T2DM revealing the role of the adaptor proteins level in the nature of disease. Elevation of CLNK level may be used as a predictor for diabetes complications, which needs more investigations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0169.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: adolescents; diabetes type I; quality of life; family conflicts; fear of injecting
Online: 10 May 2021 (10:54:28 CEST)
A good management of diabetes requires at the same time self-regulation behaviour and a balanced involvement of family components. This study’s aims were: understanding fear of injections and perceptions of family conflicts in preadolescents and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus and their mothers, comparing their perceptions, and identifying the risk factors impacting patients’ quality of life. Participants were one hundred and two patients (Mean age = 14.63, SD = 2.43; age range = 10-19 years; Females = 52) and their mothers (Mean age = 46.94, SD = 6.2, age range = 27-63 years), who filled in self and proxy-report questionnaires. Twenty % of patients and 14.7% of their mothers reported clinical score for fear of self-injection and blood testing. Mothers reported higher fear of injecting and family conflicts compared with the patients. Age, fear of injecting and family conflicts impacted significantly on patients’ quality of life perceptions. Clinical consideration and recommendations are given basing on the empirical results.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0574.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: enterovirus; type 1 diabetes; virome; vaccine; antiviral; islet autoimmunity; coxsackievirus; next-generation sequencing; unbiased sequencing
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:19:33 CEST)
For over a century, viruses have left a long trail of evidence implicating them as frequent suspects in the development of type 1 diabetes. Through vigorous interrogation of viral infections in individuals with islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes using serological and molecular virus detection methods, and mechanistic studies of virus infected human pancreatic β-cells, the prime suspects have been narrowed down to predominantly human enteroviruses. Here we provide a comprehensive overview of evidence supporting the hypothesised role of enteroviruses in the development of islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes. We also discuss concerns over the historical focus and investigation bias toward enteroviruses, and summarise current unbiased efforts aimed at characterising the complete population of viruses (the “virome”) contributing early in life to the development of islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes. Finally, we review the range of vaccine and antiviral drug candidates currently being evaluated in clinical trials for the prevention and potential treatment of type 1 diabetes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0578.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Type 1 diabetes; insulin therapy; C-peptide; islet transplantation, mesenchymal stem cells; induced pluripotent stem cells; pancreatic β cell; gene therapy; β-cell regeneration and reprogramming, type 1 diabetes precision medicine, diabetes personalized care.
Online: 28 October 2020 (10:02:34 CET)
Type 1 diabetes affects millions of people globally and requires careful management to avoid serious long-term complications, including heart and kidney disease, stroke, and loss of sight. The present standard-of-care for type 1 diabetes is exogenic insulin substitutional therapy. The most advanced stretegies in this area is the development of hybrid-closed loop system and the producing of long-acting insulins. Progresses in stem cell therapies have started to revolutionize the care of patients with type 1 diabetes; however, significant challenges remain including the limited islets availability, difficulties in maintaining the viability, the heterogeneity within a complex pathology and in patients’ responses to treatment. On the way, a considerable amount of efforts in maximizing the islet transplantation effectiveness by controlling the advantageous of different stem cell approaches. With the availability and the use of big data, the concept of precision medicine is gaining wide attention worldwide and could bring the dream of “presonlaized” therapies as a reality in the near future. Here we review the current range of treatments available as well as recent pre-clinical breakthroughs in the field of personlaized medicine for type 1 diabetes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0053.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: diabetes type-1; T1D; diabetes type-2; T2D; antibiotics; antibiotic classes; microbiome; dysbiosis; prevalence; concordance
Online: 3 December 2021 (12:45:23 CET)
Abstract: Several publications have raised the issue that the development of diabetes is preceded by alteration of the microbiome (dysbiosis) and hence, the role of environmental factors, triggering dysbiosis, should be considered. Antibiotics are powerful agents inducing dysbiosis and the authors wanted to explore the possible relationship between the consumption of different major classes of antibiotics and the prevalence of diabetes (type-1, /T1D/, type-2 /T2D/) in thirty European countries. According to our hypothesis, if such association exists, the dominant use of certain major antibiotic classes might be reflected in the prevalence of T1D and T2D in different countries. Comparisons were performed between the prevalence of diabetes (T1D and T2D) estimated for 2019 and featured in the Diabetes Atlas with the average yearly consumption of major antibiotic classes of the previous 10 years (2010-19) extracted from the ECDC yearly reports on antibiotic consumption in Europe. Pearson correlation and variance analysis were used to estimate the possible relationship. Strong, positive (enhancer) associations were found between the prevalence of T1D and the consumption of tetracycline (J01A /p: 0.001/) and the narrow spectrum penicillin (J01CE /p: 0,006/, CF /p: 0.018/). Strong negative (inhibitor) association was observed with broad-spectrum, beta-lactamase resistant penicillin (J01CR /p: 0.003/), macrolide (J01F /p: 0.008/) and quinolone (J01M /p: 0.001/). T2D showed significant positive associations with cephalosporin (J01D /p: 0.048/) and quinolone (J01M /p: 0.025/), and a non-significant negative association was detected with broad-spectrum, beta-lactamase-sensitive penicillin (J01CA /p: 0.67/). Countries with the highest prevalence of diabetes (first 10 positions) showed concordance with the higher consumption of “enhancer” and the lower consumption of “inhibitor” antibiotics (first 10 positions) as indicated by variance analysis. Countries with high prevalence of T1D showed high consumption of tetracycline (p: 0.015), and narrow spectrum, beta-lactamase sensitive penicillin (p: 0.008), and low consumption of “inhibitor” antibiotics (broad-spectrum, beta-lactamase resistant, combination penicillin (p: 0.005), cephalosporin (p: 0.036), and quinolone (p: 0.003). Countries with a high prevalence of T2D consumed more cephalosporin (p: 0.084), quinolone (p: 0.54), and less broad-spectrum, beta-lactamase sensitive penicillin (p: 0.012) than other countries. Conclusion/Interpretation: The development of diabetes-related dysbiosis might be attached to higher consumption of specific classes of antibiotics, showing positive (enhancer) associations with the prevalence of diabetes, and the low consumption of other classes of antibiotics shoving negative (inhibitory) associations. Those groups of antibiotics are different in T1D and T2D
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0008.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Glucose Oscillation; Prediction; Multi-agent; Type 1 Diabetes; Personalized; Recommendation
Online: 1 September 2022 (07:13:20 CEST)
The glucose-insulin regulatory system and its glucose oscillations is a recurring theme in the literature because of its impact on human lives, mostly the ones affected by diabetes mellitus. Several approaches were proposed, from mathematical to data-based models, with the aim of modeling the glucose oscillation curve. Having such a curve, it is possible to predict, when injecting insulin in type 1 diabetes (T1D) individuals. However, the literature presents prediction horizons no longer than 6 hours, which could be a problem considering their sleeping time. This work presents Tesseratus, a model that adopts a multi-agent approach to combine machine learning and mathematical modeling to predict the glucose oscillation up to 8 hours. Tesseratus uses the pharmacokinetics of insulins and data collected from T1D individuals. Its outcome can support endocrinologists while prescripting daily treatment for T1D individuals, and provide personalized recommendations for such individuals, to keep their glucose concentration in the ideal range. Tesseratus brings pioneering results for prediction horizons of 8 hours for nighttime, in an experiment with seven real T1D individuals. It is our claim that Tesseratus will be a reference for classification of glucose prediction model, supporting the mitigation of short- and long-term complications in the T1D individuals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0095.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: beta cell, type 1 diabetes, islet transplantation, biomarkers, microRNA
Online: 6 May 2021 (15:01:45 CEST)
Ongoing beta cell death in type 1 diabetes (T1D) can be detected using biomarkers selectively discharged by dying beta cells into plasma. MicroRNA-375 (miR-375) ranks among top biomarkers based on studies in animal models and human islet transplantation. Our objective was to identify additional microRNAs that are co-released with miR-375 proportionate to the amount of beta cell destruction. RT-PCR profiling of 733 microRNAs in a discovery cohort of T1D patients 1 hour before/after islet transplantation indicated increased plasma levels of 22 microRNAs. Sub-selection for beta cell selectivity resulted in 15 microRNAs that were subjected to double-blinded multicenter analysis. This led to identification of 8 microRNAs that were consistently increased during early graft destruction: besides miR-375, these included miR-132/204/410/200a/429/125b, microRNAs with known function and enrichment in beta cells. Their potential clinical translation was investigated in a third independent cohort of 46 transplant patients, by correlating post-transplant microRNA levels to C-peptide levels 2 months later. Only miR-375 and miR-132 had prognostic potential for graft outcome and none of the newly identified microRNAs outperformed miR-375 in multiple regression. In conclusion, this study reveals multiple beta cell-enriched microRNAs that are co-released with miR-375 and can be used as complementary biomarkers of beta cell death.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0314.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Diabetes; Theory; Model; Concept; Management; Health Care
Online: 21 September 2022 (05:46:19 CEST)
BackgroundGood management behavior in patients with diabetes mellitus can reduce disease complications and improve quality of life. This philosophical problem is very important for nurses who are able to provide management care for diabetic patients. The purpose of this literature review is to describe the concept, model or theory that can be used in improving the management of diabetes mellitus patients.MethodsThe method used is by searching several studies published through the Scopus database, PubMed, CINAHL, SpingerLink, and web of science (WOS). The search strategy uses a combination of the terms MeSH Terms. The research questions were designed using the principles of the PICOS framework. Selected studies were published from 2017-2022.ResultsA total of 15 studies were included, with 12 using quantitative methodology and 3 were qualitative. The studies were conducted across various countries. The majority of articles used the concept of self-management intervention based on digital-based development and e-health (n=6), Dorothea Orem's self-care deficit nursing theory n=2) and the transtheoretical model (n=2). These concepts, models and theories are able to improve good self-management through lifestyle changes, psychosocial, cultural acculturation and increase in spiritual values (n=6).ConclusionTransitional change focuses on changing the modifiable factors found in the concepts, models and theories of the articles obtained. Future research can be developed to assess the existence of elaborations and modifications based on the philosophy that people with diabetes are responsible for their own health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0693.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: chromatin; DNA methylation; epigenetics; histone modifications; metaboloepigenetics; miRNA; therapy; type 1 diabetes
Online: 28 September 2020 (17:48:05 CEST)
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune condition where the body’s immune cells destroy their insulin-producing pancreatic beta-cells leading to dysregulated glycaemia. Individuals with T1D control their blood glucose through exogenous insulin replacement therapy, often using multiple daily injections or pumps. However, failure to accurately mimic intrinsic glucose regulation results in glucose fluctuations and long-term complications impacting key organs such as the heart, kidneys, and/or the eyes. It is well-established that genetic and environmental factors contribute to the initiation and progression of type 1 diabetes, but recent studies show that epigenetic modifications are also important. Here, we discuss key epigenetic modifications associated with type 1 diabetes pathogenesis and discuss how recent research is finding ways to harness epigenetic mechanisms to prevent, reverse, or manage type 1 diabetes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0426.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: microRNA; diabetes; pregnancy; prenatal testing
Online: 27 December 2021 (11:37:18 CET)
Background/Aims: Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are currently done at 24 - 28 weeks of conception, missing out on the most vulnerable period of organogenesis and thus preventing clinicians from starting treatments until the late second or third trimester. MicroRNAs (miR) are small non-coding RNA molecules that could aid in detecting or predicting GDM through establishing a novel non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) tool. The objective of this study was to summarize the most recent updates on plasma microRNAs as GDM diagnostic biomarkers. Methods: Between April and June 2021, a PubMed literature search was undertaken to review recent articles on human plasma miR associated with GDM. Animal studies and papers that are written in languages other than English were excluded. Only plasma miRNAs were used to avoid coagulation biases. Results: A total of 31 miRNAs were found significantly upregulated in the plasma samples of patients with GDM. It was found mainly during the 2nd or 3rd trimester except for miR-223 and miR-23a that were upregulated at 9 – 11 weeks of gestation. Conclusion: Though extensive prospective cohort studies are required, miR-223 and miR-23a should be considered the most promising to develop a successful NIPT tool because they were found to be upregulated earliest, during the first trimester.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0092.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: children, immunology, miRNA, partial remission phase, type 1 diabetes
Online: 5 October 2018 (09:29:15 CEST)
The objective of this study was to identify circulating miRNAs affected by disease duration in newly diagnosed children with type 1 diabetes. Forty children and adolescents from The Danish Remission Phase Cohort were followed with blood samples drawn at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 60 months after diagnosis. Pancreatic autoantibodies were measured at each visit. Cytokines were measured only the first year. miRNA expression profiling was performed by RT-qPCR and quantified for 179 human plasma miRNAs. The effect of disease duration was analyzed by mixed models for repeated measurements, adjusted for sex and age. Eight miRNAs (hsa-miR-10b-5p, hsa-miR-17-5p, hsa-miR-30e-5p, hsa-miR-93-5p, hsa-miR-99a-5p, hsa-miR-125b-5p, hsa-miR-423-3p and hsa-miR-497-5p) were found to significantly change expression (adjusted p-value < 0.05) with disease progression. Three pancreatic autoantibodies ICA, IA-2A, GADA65 and 4 cytokines IL-4, IL-10, IL-21, IL-22 were associated with the miRNAs at different time points. Pathway analysis revealed association with various immune-mediated signaling pathways. Eight miRNAs, involved in immunological pathways changed expression levels during the first five years after diagnosis in children with type 1 diabetes, and were associated with variations in cytokine and pancreatic antibodies, suggesting a possible effect on the immunological processes in the early phase of the disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0029.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: diabetes mellitus; hypertension; obesity; Coronavirus; mechanism; COVID-19; viral interaction
Online: 2 September 2020 (05:37:46 CEST)
The pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2), is causing substantial morbidity and mortality. Older age and presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and obesity significantly increases the risk for hospitalization and death in COVID-19 patients. In this Perspective, informed by the studies on SARS-CoV-2, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV), and the current literature on SARS-CoV-2, we discuss potential mechanisms by which diabetes modulates the host-viral interactions and host-immune responses. We hope to highlight gaps in knowledge that require further studies pertinent to COVID-19 in patients with diabetes mellitus, hypertension and obesity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0265.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: Aging; Alzheimer’s disease; brain insulin resistance; db/db diabetic mouse model; diabetic cognopathy; insulin resistance; metabolic syndrome; mixed dementia; obesity; type 2 diabetes mellitus
Online: 9 September 2019 (06:12:15 CEST)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and late-onset Alzheimer’s disease-dementia (LOAD) are increasing in global prevalence and current predictions indicate they will only increase over the coming decades. These increases may be a result of the concurrent increases of obesity and aging. T2DM is associated with cognitive impairments associated with metabolic factors and increases the cellular vulnerability to develop the age-related increased risk of LOAD. This review addresses possible mechanisms due to obesity, aging, multiple intersections between T2DM and LOAD and mechanisms for the continuum of progression. Multiple ultrastructural images in female diabetic db/db models are utilized to demonstrate marked cellular remodeling changes of mural and glia cells and provide for the discussion of functional changes in T2DM. Throughout this review multiple endeavors to demonstrate how T2DM increases the vulnerability of the brain’s neurovascular unit (NVU), neuroglia and neurons are presented. Five major intersecting links are considered: i. aging (chronic age-related diseases); ii. metabolic (hyperglycemia - advanced glycation end-products and its receptor (AGE/RAGE) interactions and hyperinsulinemia – insulin resistance (a linking linchpin); iii. oxidative stress (reactive oxygen-nitrogen species); iv. inflammation (peripheral macrophage and central brain microglia); v. vascular (macrovascular accelerated atherosclerosis - vascular stiffening and microvascular NVU/neuroglial remodeling) with resulting impaired cerebral blood flow.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0159.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Enterovirus; Coxsackievirus; 2A protease; polyclonal antibody; type 1 diabetes
Online: 5 February 2021 (11:34:57 CET)
The need for antiserum for immunohistochemical (IHC) detection of enterovirus (EV) in formaldehyde fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens is increasing. The standard monoclonal antibody against EV-envelope protein (VP1), clone 5D8/1, was proven to cross-react with other proteins. Another candidate marker of EV proteins is 2A protease (2Apro), which is coded by the EV gene and translated by host cells during EV replication. We raised polyclonal antiserum by immunizing rabbits with an 18-mer peptide of Coxsackievirus B1 (CVB1)-2A protease (2Apro) and examined the specificity and sensitivity for EV on FFPE tissue samples. ELISA study showed a high titer of antibody for CVB1-2Apro. IHC demonstrated that antiserum against 2Apro reacted with CVB1-infected Vero-cells. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that 2Apro labelled by the antibody located in the same cell with VP1 stained with 5D8/1. IHC demonstrated dense positive reactions pancreatic islets of EV-associated fulminant type 1 diabetes (FT1DM), and located in the same cell stained positive with 5D8/1. Specificity of IHC staining FT1DM pancreas was confirmed by absorption with an excessive concentration of immunized peptide. In conclusion, our study provides a new polyclonal antiserum against CVB1 2Apro which may be useful for detection of EV-infected human tissues stored as archive of FFPE tissue samples.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0241.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus; Vascular Dementia; Alzheimer’s Disease; Inflammation; Atherosclerosis; Mitochondrial dysfunction; Cognitive dysfunction
Online: 17 January 2022 (15:46:10 CET)
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is being increasingly associated with dysfunction of cognition. Dementia, including vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s disease, is being recognized as comorbidities of this metabolic disorder. The progressive hallmarks of this cognitive dysfunction include mild impairment of cognition and cognitive decline. Dementia and mild impairment of cognition appear in older patients primarily. Studies on risk factors, neuropathology, and brain imaging have provided important suggestions for mechanisms that lie behind the development of dementia. It is a significant challenge to understand the disease processes related to diabetes which affect the brain and lead to dementia development. The connection between Diabetes Mellitus and dysfunction of cognition has been observed in many human and animal studies that have noted mechanisms related to Diabetes Mellitus are possibly responsible for aggravating cognitive dysfunction. This article attempts to narrate the possible association between type 2 diabetes and Dementia, reviewing studies that have noted this association in vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s disease and helping to explain the potential mechanisms behind the disease process. The Google search for ‘Diabetes Mellitus and Dementia’ was carried out. Also, the search was done using ‘Diabetes Mellitus,’ ‘Vascular Dementia,’ ‘Alzheimer’s Disease.’ The literature search was done from Google Scholar, Pubmed, Embase, ScienceDirect, and MEDLINE. Keeping in mind the increasing rate of Diabetes Mellitus, it is important to establish the type 2 diabetes effect on the brain and diseases of neurodegeneration. This narrative review aims to build awareness regarding different types of dementia and their relationship with diabetes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0340.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: T-regulatory cells, immune regulation, Foxp3, PPARγ, autoimmune diabetes, NOD mouse, Thiazolidinediones, ciglitazone.
Online: 22 June 2018 (09:33:32 CEST)
Immunomodulation as means of immunotherapy has been studied in major research and clinical laboratories for many years. T-Regulatory (Treg) cell therapy is one of the modulator used in immunotherapy approaches. Similarly, nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) has extensively been shown to play a role as an immuno-modulator during inflammation. Given their mutual roles in downregulating the immune response, current study examined the influence of PPARγ ligands i.e thiazolidinedione (TZD) class of drugs on Foxp3 expression and possible crosstalk between PPARγ and nTreg cells of NOD and NOR mice. Results showed that TZD drug, ciglitazone and natural ligand of PPARγ 15d-prostaglandin downregulated Foxp3 expression in activated nTreg cells from both NOD and NOR mice. Interestingly, addition of the PPARγ inhibitor, GW9662 further downregulated Foxp3 expression in these cells from both mice. We also found that PPARγ ligands negatively regulate Foxp3 expression in activated nTreg cells via PPARγ-independant mechanism(s). These results demonstrate that both natural and synthetic PPARγ ligands capable of suppressing Foxp3 expression in activated nTreg cells of NOD and NOR mice. This may suggest that the effect of PPARγ ligands in modulating Foxp3 expression in activated nTreg cells is different from their reported effects on effector T cells. Given the capability to suppress foxp3 gene, it is possible to be tested as immunomodulators in cancer-related studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0153.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: diabetes; education; environmental tobacco smoke; smoker
Online: 20 March 2017 (09:09:44 CET)
Background: Smoking, including environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is a well-known risk factor for diabetes. Low socioeconomic status, especially lack of education, also is a risk factor for diabetes. Therefore, we assessed the association of education and smoking status, including ETS exposure, with the prevalence of diabetes. Methods: Data were from the 2007–2013 Korea National Health and Nutritional Evaluation Survey (KNHANES). Multivariable logistic regression examined associations between various lifestyle and health factors and prevalence of diabetes while controlling for potential confounding variables. Subgroup analysis was performed according to smoking status to determine factors associated with diabetes. Results: Of 19,303 individuals analyzed, 1,325 (11.4%) had diabetes. Greater average age, male sex, lower educational level, unemployment, and coexisting health problems were significantly associated with diabetes. Individuals with only elementary, middle, or high school level education had significantly greater odds ratios (p<0.05) compared to college graduates; smokers and nonsmokers exposed to ETS had significantly greater OR (p<0.05) than nonsmokers unexposed to ETS. Subgroup analysis of diabetics according to smoking status revealed significant associations (p<0.05) for diabetic nonsmokers exposed to ETS with female sex, single status, elementary level education, urban residence, National Health Insurance (NHI), hypertension, no alcohol intake, and no moderate physical activity. For diabetic smokers, there were significant associations (p<0.05) with elementary education, urban residence, lack of moderate physical activity, no alcohol intake, and NHI. Conclusions: The results suggested that smoking status, including ETS exposure, was associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes especially in populations with less education. Thus, we should direct efforts for controlling diabetes toward individuals with lower levels of education, and those who are smokers and nonsmokers exposed to ETS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0253.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: diabetes mellitus; ROS; carbohydrate metabolism; antioxidants; chronic unpredictable environmental stress
Online: 14 September 2018 (05:20:37 CEST)
Chronic unpredictable environmental stress (CUES) may induce predisposition to diabetes mellitus. This study investigates the role of CUES on impaired homeostasis. Stressed group mice (n = 20) were exposed to CUES for 16 weeks. Weekly body weight, feed consumption, feed efficiency ratio, fasting blood glucose were monitored. Plasma HbA1c, plasma cortisol, plasma epinephrine and plasma insulin, serum lipids, antioxidants and carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes activity were assessed along with DNA damage and histopathological examination of liver, kidney, pancreas, spleen and skeletal muscles. Fasting blood glucose levels & HbA1c in the stressed were significantly higher compared to control (p < 0.001). Serum lipids were found insignificantly higher in stressed mice compared to control. Body weights of the stressed mice and feed efficiency ratio were found significant (p < 0.001). Plasma corticosterone, plasma epinephrine, HOMA-IR was found to be significantly higher in the stressed group (p < 0.001). Plasma insulin level was found to be significantly lower in the stressed group (p < 0.001). Significant changes were observed in antioxidants level, carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes activity, peripheral tissues and DNA integrity. CUES initiates pathogenesis of diabetes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0373.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: archaic human genes; obesity; diabetes mellitus; Indigenous Australians
Online: 25 June 2018 (08:13:36 CEST)
Indigenous Australians have been particularly affected by type 2 diabetes mellitus due to their genetic susceptibility and a range of environmental risk factors. Recent genetic studies link predisposition to some diseases, including diabetes, to archaic humans, such as Neanderthals and Denisovans, suggesting persistence of ancient alleles in the genomes of modern humans. In this review we discuss the evolutionary role of the negative genetic selection associated with an adopted Western lifestyle as well as DNA variants influencing predisposition to obesity and diabetes in the Australian Indigenous population. We review the contribution of the ancient gene/pathways to the modern human phenotypes including the Neanderthal haplotype-tagging SNPs in NTRK2 gene, which may continue to play a role in obesity in Indigenous Australians.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0048.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: cholecalciferol; omega3; EPA; DHA; arachidonic acid; AA/EPA ratio; type 1 diabetes; remission period; honeymoon period
Online: 3 July 2019 (08:10:44 CEST)
Vitamin D and ω-3 fatty acids (ω-3) co-supplementation potentially improve type 1 diabetes (T1D) by attenuating autoimmunity and counteracting inflammation.This cohort study preliminary to a randomized control trial (RCT) is aimed to evaluate, in a series of T1D children assuming Mediterranean diet and taking cholecalciferol 1000U/day fromT1D onset, if ω-3 co-supplementation preserves the residual endogen insulin secretion (REIS).Therefore, 22 new onsets of 2017 received ω-3 [eicosapentenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 60mg/kg/day], and were compared retrospectively vs. 37 previous onsets without ω-3 supplementation. HbA1c%, daily insulin demand (IU/Kg/day) and IDAA1c, a composite index (calculated as IU/Kg/dayx4 + HbA1c%) as surrogate of REIS, were evaluated at recruitment (T0) and 12 months later (T12). In the ω-3 supplemented group, dietary intakes were evaluated at T0 and T12. As outcome, decreased insulin demand (p<0.01), particularly pre-meal boluses (p<0.01), and IDAA1c (p<0.05), were found in the ω-3 group while HbA1c% were not different in the two groups. Diet analysis, at T12 vs. T0, showed that the intake of arachidonic acid (AA) was decreased (p<0.01) in the ω-3 supplemented group while other nutrients were unchanged; at T0, the AA intake was inversely correlated with HbA1c% (p<0.05; r;.0.411). In conclusion, the results suggest that vitamin D plus ω-3 co-supplementation and AA reduction in Mediterranean diet display benefits for T1D children and deserve further investigation.
Online: 23 December 2020 (09:28:02 CET)
Permanent neonatal diabetes may occur either in isolation or associated with multi-organ syndromes. It is caused by mutations in the genes responsible for pancreatic β cell mass or function. We report new cases of consanguineous parents from Saudi Arabia with a homozygous deletion of exons 1and 2, and exon 5-9 of the GLIS3 gene, who presented with permanent neonatal diabetes associated with intrauterine growth retardation, severe congenital hypothyroidism without other manifestation in the liver, renal or eyes in the 1st one and cystic renal changes in the 2nd patient. Mutations in the GLI-similar 3 (GLIS3) gene encoding the transcription factor GLIS3 are a rare cause of neonatal diabetes and congenital hypothyroidism with only 15 reported patients worldwide to date.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0742.v1
Subject: Keywords: Diabetes mellitus; Glucose metabolism; Histone deacetylase; HDACs; Histone deacetylase inhibitor; HDACi, Insulin release; Sirtuins, Sirtuin activation
Online: 28 April 2021 (10:23:12 CEST)
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the principal manifestations of metabolic syndrome and its prevalence with modern lifestyle is increasing incessantly. Chronic hyperglycemia can induce several vascular complications that were referred to be the major cause of morbidity and mortality in DM. Although several therapeutic targets have been identified and accessed clinically, the imminent risk of DM and its prevalence are still ascending. Substantial pieces of evidence revealed that histone deacetylase (HDAC) isoforms can regulate various molecular activities in DM via epigenetic and post-translational regulation of several transcription factors. To date, 18 HDAC isoforms have been identified in mammals that were categorized into 4 different classes. Classes I, II, and IV are regarded as classical HDACs, which operate through a Zn-based mechanism. In contrast, class III HDACs or Sirtuins depend on nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) for their molecular activity. Functionally, most of the HDAC isoforms can regulate β cell fate, insulin release, insulin expression and signaling, and glucose metabolism. Moreover, the roles of HDAC members have been implicated in the regulation of oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, fibrosis, and other pathological events, which substantially contribute to diabetes-related vascular dysfunctions. Therefore, HDACs could serve as the potential therapeutic target in DM towards developing novel intervention strategies. This review sheds light on the emerging role of HDACs/isoforms in diabetic pathophysiology and emphasized the scope of their targeting in DM for constituting the novel interventional strategies for metabolic disorders/complications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0127.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Apoptosis; preclinical research; diabetes type 2; HIPPO pathway
Online: 8 November 2021 (11:45:49 CET)
Diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous disease of complex etiology and pathogenesis. Hyperglycemia leads to many serious complications, but also directly initiates the process of β cell apoptosis. A potential strategy for the preservation of pancreatic β cells in diabetes may be to inhibit the implementation of pro-apoptotic pathways or to enhance the action of pancreatic protective factors. The HIPPO signaling pathway is proposed and selected as a target to manipulate the activity of its core proteins in therapy - basic research. MST1 and LATS2 as major upstream signaling kinases of the Hippo pathway are considered as target candidates for pharmacologically induced tissue regeneration and inhibition of apoptosis. Manipulating the activity of components of the HiPPO pathway offers a wide range of possibilities, and thus is a potential tool in the treatment of diabetes and the regeneration of β cells. Therefore, it is important to fully understand the processes involved in apoptosis in diabetic states and to fully characterize the role of this pathway in diabetes. Therapy consisting in slowing down or stopping the mechanisms of apoptosis may be an important direction of diabetes treatment shortly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0342.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19 lockdown; diabetes mellitus; meta-analysis; metabolic control; systematic review
Online: 14 June 2021 (09:44:15 CEST)
Background: The abrupt implementation of COVID-19 lockdown had impacted the management of diabetes mellitus. Limited access to health facilities and alterations in daily lifestyle put metabolic control among patients at risk. Thus, we observed the differences in metabolic control parameters in diabetic patients before and during the lockdown. Methods: We performed searches from five databases. Meta-analyses were done using random or fixed-effect approaches with glycemic control parameters (HbA1c, RBG, FBG, TIR, TAR, TBR) as primary outcomes. Mean difference (MD), Confidence Interval (CI), and p-value were calculated. Lipid profile presented as secondary outcome. Results: 21 studies with 3992 diabetic patients were included in the study. Meta-analysis presented an increase on HbA1c of T1D and T2D patients [MD=+0.06% (95%CI -0.10–0.23), I2=77%, p=0.45], TBR of T1D patients [MD=-0.05% (95%CI -0.38–0.28), I2=0%, p=0.77], FBG of T2D patients [MD=+3,47 mg/dL (95%CI 1.22–5.73), I2=0%, p=0.002], and lipid profile on qualitative analysis. However, TIR, TAR, and RBG of T1D patients were improved [MD=+3.52% (95%CI 0.29–6.74), I2=76%, p=0.03; MD=-3.36% (95%CI -6.48–-0.25), I2=75%, p=0.03; MD=-0.91 mg/dL (95%CI -4.52–6.34), I2=88%, p=0.74]. Conclusion: Lockdown enforcement did not worsen the glycemic control parameter in diabetic patients. Particular parameters inclined to improve during the lockdown.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0398.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: diabetes mellitus; sepsis; diabetes complication severity index score
Online: 22 July 2018 (10:54:29 CEST)
Background Diabetic patients have an increased risk of infections; however, the association between type 2 diabetes and hospital outcomes of sepsis remains controversial when the diabetes severity is not considered. We examined this association using nationwide and hospital-based databases concomitantly. Methods The first part of this study was conducted using 2 nationwide databases: the Longitudinal Cohort of Diabetes Patients and the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000. The diabetic complication burden was evaluated using the adapted Diabetes Complications Severity Index score (aDCSI score). In the second part, we used the hospital-based database with laboratory data, such as initial blood glucose and HbA1c levels, to make comparisons between surviving and dead patients with type 2 diabetes and sepsis. Results The nationwide study included 19,719 type 2 diabetic sepsis patients and an equal number of non-diabetic patients. The diabetic sepsis patients had an increased odds ratio (OR) of 1.14 (95% CI 1.1-1.19) for hospital mortality. The OR for mortality increased as the complication burden increased (diabetic sepsis patients with aDCSI scores of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and ≥5 had ORs of 0.91, 0.87, 1.14, 1.25, 1.56, and 1.77 for mortality, respectively (all P<0.001 and P for trend <0.001)). A total of 1,054 diabetic sepsis patients were included from the hospital-based database. Initial blood glucose levels in the surviving and dead diabetic sepsis patients did not differ significantly: 273.9 ± 180.3 versus 266.1 ± 200.2 (mg/dL) (P=0.095). Moreover, the surviving diabetic sepsis patients did not have a lower HbA1c (%): 8.4 ± 2.6 versus 8.0 ± 2.5 (P=0.078). Conclusions In the case of type 2 diabetic sepsis patients, the diabetes-related complication burden is the major determinant of hospital mortality rather than the diabetes itself. Contrary to popular belief, initial blood glucose and HbA1c levels may not be as important as previously thought.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0184.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Diabetes mellitus; diet, education; systematic review.
Online: 8 July 2021 (09:57:01 CEST)
As the incidence and prevalence of diabetes increases, intervention through dietary education is becoming more important for diabetes control. This systematic review aimed to confirm the ef-fect of dietary intervention education on diabetes control. The study subjects were type 2 diabet-ic patients, and the main outcome variable was glycosylated hemoglobin level (HbA1c). The target studies were randomized controlled trials. Thirty-six studies were included in the analysis, of which 33 were included in the meta-analysis. The effect size between the dietary education and general intervention, was -0.42 (n=5,639, MD=-0.42; 95% CI -0.53 to -0.31) and was signifi-cantly different (Z=7.73, P<.001). When subgroup analyses were performed following the appli-cation periods, intervention methods, and intervention contents, the mean differences in 4–6-month application, individual education, diet-exercise-psychosocial intervention were -0.51, (n=2,742, 95% CI -0.71 to -0.32), -0.63 (n=627, 95% CI -1.00 to -0.26), and -0.51 (n=3.244, 95% CI -0.71 to -0.32), respectively. Dietary education interventions provided for at least 3 months were highly effective in controlling blood sugar levels. Regarding the education method, individual-ized education was more effective, and for this, contact or non-contact education may be applied. Combining diet, exercise, and psychosocial intervention is more effective than diet education alone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0324.v1
Online: 31 January 2019 (08:56:46 CET)
Introduction: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major driver of health care costs, thus treatments enabling T2D reversal may reduce expenditures. We examined the impact of a T2D continuous care intervention (CCI) on health care utilization. Previous research documented that CCI, including individualized nutrition supported by remote care, simultaneously reduced hemoglobin A1c and medication use and improved cardiovascular status after two years; however, the impact on utilization is unknown. Methods: This study used four years of data (two years pre-intervention, two years post-intervention) from the Indiana Network for Patient Care (INPC) health record. Two methods estimated the impact of CCI on utilization. First, an interrupted time series (ITS) including only CCI participants (n=193) compared post-intervention utilization to expected utilization had the pre-intervention trend persisted. Deviation from the trend was estimated non-parametrically for each 6-month interval after the implementation of CCI . Second, a 1:3 matched comparator group (n=579) was constructed and used for a difference-in-differences (DiD) analysis. The primary outcome was annualized outpatient encounters. Secondary outcomes included emergency encounters and hospitalizations. Results: In two years prior to intervention, CCI participants had a mean of 5.77 annualized encounters (5.62 outpatient, 0.04 hospitalizations, 0.11 emergency). The CCI group showed a reduction in outpatient utilization after intervention. In ITS analysis, 1.6 to 1.9 fewer annualized outpatient encounters occurred in each 6-month interval post-intervention relative to expected utilization based on pre-intervention trends (p<0.01 each 6-month period; 28-33% reduction). The DiD analysis suggested a larger reduction; 5 fewer annualized outpatient encounters in the quarter after intervention, diminishing to 2.5 fewer after 2 years (p<0.01 each quarter). The study was underpowered to draw conclusions about hospitalization and emergency encounters due to the limited number of CCI patients and the rarity of encounters. Conclusions: Outpatient encounters were significantly reduced for a T2D patient population up to 2 years after receiving an individualized intervention supporting nutrition and behavior change through remote care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0194.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: HLA; MHC class I; polymorphism; variant; type 2 diabetes; mexican
Online: 15 March 2022 (03:49:43 CET)
Type 2 diabetes has been linked to the expression of Human Leukocyte Antigens, principally to the major Histocompatibility Complex Class II and only scarce reports to Major Histocompatibility Complex class I in specific populations. The objective of the present work was to explore the presence of polymorphisms in the MHC class I related to Type 2 diabetes in the Mexican population using the GWAS SIGMA database. This database contains information of 3,848 Mexican individuals with type 2 diabetes and 4,366 control individuals from the same population without clinical or hereditary history of the disease. The searching criteria considered a P value < 0.005 and odds ratio, OR > 1.0. Ten novel statistically significant nucleotide variants were identified: four polymorphisms associated with HLA-A (A*03:01:01:01), and six with HLA-C (C*01:02:01:01). These alleles have a high prevalence in Latin American populations and could potentially be associated with autoimmunity mechanisms related with the development of Type 2 diabetes complications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0456.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: Real-time continuous glucose monitoring; Intermittently scanned continuous glucose monitoring; Type 1 diabetes; Glucose variability; Hypoglycemia; Insulin resistance
Online: 20 July 2021 (14:58:11 CEST)
The switch from intermittently scanned continuous glucose monitoring (isCGM) to real-time (rt) CGM could improve glycemic management in suboptimal controlled type 1 diabetes patients, but long-term study is lacking. We evaluated retrospectively the ambulatory glucose profile (AGP) in such patients after switching from Free Style libre 1 (FSL1) to Dexcom G4 (DG4) over 1 year. Patients (n=21, 43±15 years, BMI 25±5, HbA1c 8.1±1.0%) had severe hypoglycemia and/or HbA1c≥8%. AGP metrics (time-in-range (TIR) 70-180 mg/dL, time-below-range (TBR)<70 mg/dL or <54 mg/dL, glucose coefficient of variation (%CV), time-above-range (TAR) >180 mg/dL or >250 mg/dL, glucose management indicator (GMI), average glucose) were collected the last 3 months of FSL1 use (M0) and of DG4 for 3, 6 (M6) and 12 (M12) months of use. Values were means ± standard deviation or medians [Q1;Q3]. At M12 versus M0, the higher TIR (50±17 vs. 45±16, P=0.036), and lower TBR<70 mg/dL (2.5 [1.6;5.5] vs. 7.0 [4.5;12.5], P=0.0007), TBR<54 mg/dL (0.7 [0.4;0.8] vs. 2.3 [0.8;7.0], P=0.007) and %CV (39±5 vs. 45±8, P=0.0009), evidenced a long-term effectiveness of the switch. Compared to M6, TBR<70mg/dL decreased, %CV remained stable, while the improvement on hyperglycemia exposure decreased (higher GMI, TAR and average glucose). This switch was a relevant therapeutic option, though a loss of benefit on hyperglycemia stressed the need for optimized management of threshold alarms. Nevertheless, few patients attained the recommended values for AGP metrics, and the reasons why some patients are “responders” vs “non-responders” warrant to be investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0173.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: diet composition; food culture; mayan community; type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Online: 14 July 2019 (17:29:13 CEST)
Aim: To perform a descriptive analysis of eating patterns and biophysical conditions of previously diagnosed and currently under treatment individuals from a semi-urban Mayan community of Yucatan, and to contrast them with T2DM therapeutic guidelines. Methods: The present study is derived from a randomized clinical trial conducted at Komchen, Yucatan. Participants’ diagnosed with T2DM were included. A 24-hour dietary recall, anthropometric parameters (weight, visceral fat, height, and waist circumference), biochemical (HbA1c) and clinical (blood pressure) variables were evaluated and compared via hypothesis test with T2DM treatment cut-off points (based on World Health Organization criteria). Results: Anthropometric characteristics differ significantly from the ideal criteria. Obesity prevalence within women with T2DM was 92.9%. Only 21% of the participants were under T2DM control (≤7%). Energy and carbohydrates consumption, significantly exceed therapeutic guidelines, whereas protein, fat, and fiber intake were lower than the recommendations. Conclusions: Komchen’s diet, concomitantly with food characteristics, could be related to glycemic decontrol. There is a disproportion in macronutrients consumption in favor of carbohydrates, probably associated with socioeconomic limitations, food availability, and price. Developing nutritional assistance programs which contemplate cultural and economic factors in this Mayan population must be taken into consideration.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0227.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: endoplasmic reticulum; endoplasmic reticulum stress; apoptosis; homeostasis; unfolded protein response; type II diabetes
Online: 8 June 2021 (13:07:30 CEST)
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a multifunctional role in lipid biosynthesis, calcium storage, protein folding, and processing. Thus, maintaining ER homeostasis in insulin-secreting beta-cells is essential. Several pathophysiological conditions and pharmacological agents disrupt the ER homeostasis, thereby causing ER stress. The cells react to ER stress by initiating an adaptive signaling process called the unfolded protein response (UPR). However, the ER initiates death signaling pathways whenever the ER stress persists. ER stress has been linked to several diseases, such as cancers, obesity, and diabetes. Thus, the regulation of ER stress may provide possible therapeutic targets for many diseases. Current evidence suggests that chronic hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia linked to type II diabetes disrupt ER homeostasis, resulting in irreversible UPR activation and cells death. Despite much progress in understanding the pathophysiology of UPR and ER stress, to date, the mechanisms of ER stress in relation to type II diabetes remain unclear. This review provided up-to-date information regarding the current status of UPR, ER stress mechanisms, insulin dysfunction, oxidative stress, and the therapeutic potential of targeting specific ER stress pathways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0316.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Type 2 diabetes; cancer; shared pathways; shared genes and proteins; relationship between cancer and type 2 diabetes
Online: 15 October 2020 (09:47:35 CEST)
Obesity, type 2 diabetes, and different forms of cancers are among the leading human diseases and highly complex in terms of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Diabetes and cancer are among the most frequent and complex diseases and based on epidemiological evidence and study it can be concluded that the patients suffering from diabetes are considered to be significantly at higher risk for a number of cancer types. Both these diseases are among the highly complex and heterogeneous in nature. There are a number of evidences which support the hypothesis that these diseases interlinked and obesity may aggravate the risk(s) of both these diseases type 2 diabetes and different types of cancers. Multi-level unwanted alterations such as (epi-)genetic alterations, changes at the transcriptional level, and altered signaling pathways (receptor, cytoplasmic, and nuclear level) are the major source which promotes a number of complex diseases and such heterogeneous level of complexities are considered as the major barrier in the development of therapeutic. With so many known challenges, it is critical to understand the relationships and the common shared causes between type 2 diabetes and cancer which is difficult to unravel and understand. Furthermore, the real complexity arises during diagnosis from contended corroborations that specific drug(s) (individually or in combination) during diagnosis process of type 2 diabetes may increase or decrease the cancer risk or affect cancer prognosis. In this review article, we have presented the recent and most updated evidences from the studies where the origin, biological background, correlation between them have been presented or proved. Furthermore, we have summarized the methodological challenges and tasks that are frequently encountered. we have also outlined the physiological links between type 2 diabetes and cancers. Finally, we have presented and summarized the outline of the hallmarks for both these diseases diabetes and cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0342.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus; Chronic Kidney Diseases; Hypertension; Risk Factors; Bangladesh
Online: 19 November 2021 (09:26:12 CET)
Diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are a major public health burden in low-and-middle-income countries. This study aimed to explore factors associated with CKD in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 315 adults with T2D presenting at the outpatient department of Bangladesh Institute of Health Sciences (BIHS) hospital between July 2013 to December 2013. CKD was diagnosed based on estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate using the ‘Modification of Diet in Renal Disease’ equations and presence of albuminuria estimated by the albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with CKD. The overall prevalence of CKD among patients with T2D was 21.3%. In the unadjusted model Factors associated with CKD were: aged 40-49 years (OR: 5.7, 95% CI: 1.3-25.4), age 50-59 years (7.0, 1.6-39), age ≥60 years (7.6, 1.7-34); being female (2.2, 1.2-3.8), hypertensive (1.9, 1.1-3.5) and household income between 128.2-256.4 US$ (2.9, 1.0-8.2) compared with income ≤128.2$. However, after adjustment of other covariates, only duration of hypertension and household income (128.2-256.4 US$) remained statistically significant. There is a need to implement policies and programs for early detection and management of hypertension and CKD in T2D patients in Bangladesh.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0489.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: diabetes mellitus; blood glucose; kidney; diabetic neuropathy; pancreas
Online: 22 October 2018 (10:45:08 CEST)
This present study was designed to find out whether the acankoreagenin showed the antidiabetic and renoprotective effects in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephropathy (DN) rats. Type I diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (70 mg/kg). At the end of the experiment, rats were euthanized and serum/plasma was separated for the determination of glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), C-peptide, biochemical parameters, and kidney function. One kidney was used for determining glutathione, superoxide dismutas, malondialdehyde, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels. The other kidney and pancreas were used for histopathological studies and immunohistochemical measurement of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) or NF-κB. Acankoreagenin (2 mg/kg) treatments led to a significant reduction in blood glucose assessed via oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in diabetic rats at 2 h. The treatment also resulted in improved body weight, decreased HbA1c, restored lipid profile, and renal oxidative stress. By inhibiting NF-κB, the release of proinflammatory cytokines was suppressed and by inhibiting TGF-β, the renal fibrosis was suppressed in STZ-induced diabetic rat model. Histopathological injury was also observed in pancreatic and renal tissues. These findings support the beneficial effect of acankoreagenin treatment in DN, which could be attributed to its antidiabetic and renoprotective effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0092.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Type 2 diabetes; urea albumin excretion; food frequency questionnaire survey; β-cryptoxanthin; fruits
Online: 8 July 2019 (14:44:24 CEST)
Background: The dietary factors and nutrients contributing to the prevention of microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetic nephropathy is unclear, so we investigated dietary factors affecting urinary albumin excretion in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: 42 patients with type 2 diabetes were participated, the subjects were divided to a normal albuminuria group (urinary albumin / creatinine ratio of less than 30 mg / g Cr) and a microalbuminuria group of 30 mg / g to 299 mg / g Cr. We performed casual blood sampling and conducted a food frequency questionnaire survey. Results: There were no significant differences in age, BMI and other physiological and biochemical data, the average daily intake of energy and many of nutrients, while β-cryptoxanthin was significantly lower in the microalbuminuria group than in the normal group (506.4 ± 793.9 μg/day vs. 715.3 ± 500.3 μg/day, p <0.05). The intake of 17 food groups per day showed that the intakes of fruits were significantly lower in the microalbuminuria group than in the normal group (76.9 ± 134.1 g vs. 111.9 ± 84.5 g, p <0.05). Conclusion: These results suggest that fruits and foods rich in β-cryptoxanthin would make it possible to prevent diabetic nephropathy progression.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0104.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: diabetes self-management; family support; glycemic uncontrolled; type 2 DM; systematic review
Online: 12 May 2017 (05:27:28 CEST)
Abstract Background: Diabetes mellitus is dramatically increasing in the wide world. The managing of diabetes care emphasized the self-management education and support into patients’ care and family care. Objective: to review and synthesizes the effectiveness of DSME strategies involving family as a key person to provide social support for diabetes mellitus self-management of glycemic uncontrolled patients Method: Three databases through PubMed, CINAHL, and Scopus were reviewed to assess the relevant articles. The following search terms: “type 2 diabetes,” “self-management,” “family support,” and “glycemic uncontrolled.” We summarized details of family support on self-management among glycemic uncontrolled patients for 14 existing studies. Results: A total of 22 intervention studies were identified. Those studies have a heterogeneous of the education strategies, support perceived, follow-ups strategies and outcomes among type 2 DM. Family integration on diabetes self-management education (DSME) has a positive impact on several outcomes including, self-care behaviors, psychological outcomes, self-efficacy and clinical outcomes Conclusions: This systematic review found robust data related to the integration of family support on diabetes self-management among glycemic uncontrolled patients. Consequently, the improvement in outcomes was identified. Implications: The findings suggest model of family engagement is better and needed for sustaining the diabetes care in the long-term care
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0100.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: type 2 diabetes; glycemic control; insulin resistance; nutrients; umbrella review
Online: 9 May 2022 (05:05:33 CEST)
Background: Nutrient supplements are widely used for type 2 diabetes (T2D) yet evidence-based guidance for clinicians is lacking. Methods: We searched the four electronic databases from November 2015–December 2021. The most recent, most comprehensive, high-ranked systematic reviews, meta-analyses and/or umbrella reviews of randomised controlled trials in adults with T2D were included. Data were extracted on study characteristics, aggregate outcome measures per group (glycemic control, measures of insulin sensitivity and secretion), adverse events, and GRADE assessments. Quality was assessed using AMSTAR-2. Results: Twelve meta-analyses and one umbrella review were included. There was very low certainty evidence that chromium, Vitamin C and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (-3 PUFAs) were superior to placebo for the primary outcome of HbA1c (MD -0.54%, -0.54% and ES -0.27 respectively). Probiotics were superior to placebo for HbA1c (WMD -0.43%). There was very low certainty evidence that Vitamin D was superior to placebo for lowering HbA1c in trials of <6 months (MD -0.17%). Magnesium, zinc, Vitamin C, probiotics and polyphenols were superior to placebo for FBG. Vitamin D was superior to placebo for insulin resistance. Data on safety was limited. Conclusions: Future research should identify who may benefit from nutrient supplementation, safety, and optimal regimens and formulations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0442.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: nutrition status; muscle strength; diabetes; handgrip; insulin resistance; functional tests
Online: 24 April 2020 (13:52:32 CEST)
Background and Aims: We aimed to investigate cross-sectional relationships of relative handgrip strength (RHGS) with presence of diabetes and hypertension in a community setting. Methods and Results: Between 2016 and 2018, we enrolled 601 consecutive women with an average age of 70.7 ± 6.9 years (mean ± SD). Nutritional status was evaluated by the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) score. Muscular strength and level of fitness were assessed by handgrip strength (HGS) and other standardized physical functional tests. The majority of participants were overweight or obese (80% with BMI > 25). Prevalence of diabetes and hypertension was 13 and 60%, respectively. Participants in the lowest quartile of HGS adjusted for BMI (RHGS) had significantly higher prevalence of diabetes and hypertension compared with those in the lower quartile (20.7 vs. 5.3% and 49.3 vs. 39.3%, respectively, p < 0.01 for both), whereas differences in nutritional status were not observed. Likelihood of having diabetes was significantly reduced in women with higher RHGS values (OR 0.77; 0.59–0.86 CI95%; p=0.002), independently of age, abdominal adiposity and presence of hypertension. RHGS was positively correlated with most of the physical functional tests performed. Conclusion: RHGS is an easy-to-obtain and inexpensive measure of muscular strength, independently associated with presence of diabetes in overweight elderly women. Prospective studies are required to assess its predictive value in individuals at risk of new onset or progression of diabetes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0213.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: short stature; type 2 diabetes; end-stage renal disease; mortality
Online: 16 December 2019 (11:12:15 CET)
Short stature has been associated with increased various disease and all-cause death, but no reliable data exist the association between height and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in diabetic patients. We investigated the relationship between short stature, development of ESRD, and mortality in type 2 diabetes. This study analyzed clinical data using the National Health Insurance Database in Korea. Height was stratified by five groups according to age and sex. Risk of ESRD and all-cause mortality was analyzed with Cox proportional hazards models. During a 6.9-year follow-up period, 220,457 subjects (8.4%) died and 28,704 subjects (1.1%) started dialysis. Short stature significantly increased the incidence of ESRD and all-cause mortality in the overall cohort analysis. In multivariable analysis, hazard ratios (HR) for development of ESRD comparing the highest versus lowest quartiles of adult height were 0.86 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.83–0.89). All-cause mortality also decreased with highest height compared to patients with lowest height after fully adjusting for confounding variables (HR 0.79, 95% CI, 0.78–0.81). Adult height had an inverse relationship with newly diagnosed ESRD and all-cause in both males and females. Short stature is strongly associated with an increased risk of ESRD and all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0307.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: miR-221-3p/222-3p cluster; human adipose tissue; obesity; type 2 diabetes
Online: 24 February 2022 (09:54:33 CET)
Background: The course of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) development is highly dependent on adipose tissue (AT) angiogenesis. Moreover, angiogenic microRNAs (miRNAs) play pivotal role in AT functionality. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship of the human AT miR-221-3p/222-3p cluster and their regulatory network with obesity and T2D. Methods: miR-221-3p/222-3p and their target genes (TG) expression levels were measured in visceral and subcutaneous ATs from patients classified according to their BMI and to their glycemic status with a high degree of insulin resistance (IR) and T2D. In silico analyses of miR-221-3p/222-3p and their TGs were performed to identify relevant signaling pathways. Results: A multivariate analysis, including the simultaneous expression of miR-221-3p and miR-222-3p as dependent variables, showed significant differences considering the variables; tissue depot, obesity, IR and T2D altogether as independent variables. In addition, miRNAs and their TGs were differentially expressed according to obesity degree, glycemic status, and AT depot type. Our in silico analysis showed that miR-221-3p/222-3p cluster TGs are mostly involved in angiogenesis, WNT signaling pathway and apoptosis. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the miR-221-3p/222-3p cluster and their related regulatory networks could represent tangible targets for the management of obesity and associated metabolic disorders
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0563.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: diabetes; omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid; lipoprotein subfraction; dyslipidemia; randomized controlled trial
Online: 27 October 2020 (20:37:15 CET)
Objectives To determine the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) from animal and plant sources on glucolipid metabolism and lipoprotein subfractions in type 2 diabetic patients with dyslipidemia. Methods Participants were recruited from the diabetes clinic at the Guanlin Hospital, Yixing City in Jiangsu province, China, from March 2017 through June 2017. Ninety participants were randomly assigned to take 3g/day fish oil (FO, containing EPA and DHA), 3g/day perilla oil (PO, containing ALA), or 3g/day blend oil containing fish oil and linseed oil (BO, containing EPA, DHA and ALA) for 3 months. The levels of serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), C-peptide, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), non-HDL, apolipoprotein A1 (Apo A1), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), lipoprotein a (Lp(a)), and free fatty acids were determined at baseline and after the 3 months. In addition, four fatty acids in serum and red blood cells membranes (RBCm) were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The Lipoprint System was used to determine the lipoprotein subfractions. Results All 90 participants completed the final 3-month follow-up at the end of the study. After three months of intervention, blood glucose and HbA1c levels in the PO group were significantly lower than those at the baseline (p < 0.05). On the other hand, in the BO group, the HbA1c, non-HDL, Apo A1 and Lp(a) levels were significantly lower, while the C-peptide levels were significantly higher after intervention compared to the baseline (p < 0.05). In the FO group, the HbA1c and TG levels were significantly lower after the intervention compared to the baseline (p < 0.05). In addition, at the end of the study, there was significant increase in the levels of DPA and DHA in serum and RBCm of the FO group (p < 0.05), while in the BO group, there was significant increase in the levels of EPA, DPA and DHA in RBCm (p < 0.05). Finally, the FO group had the highest levels of large HDL subfractions compared to the BO and PO groups, but had the lowest levels of small HDL subfractions among the three groups. Conclusion For patients with diabetes, plant-derived ω-3 PUFAs are more effective at controlling blood glucose than animal-derived ω-3 PUFAs. However, animal-derived ω-3 PUFAs play a critical role in controlling blood lipids. Particularly, fish oil can effectively increase the beneficial large HDL subfractions and reduce the nonbeneficial small HDL subfractions. Both the animal- and plant-derived ω - 3 PUFAs have practical value in improving glucose and lipids metabolism in T2DM patients with dyslipidemia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0264.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: cardiovascular risk; dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors; glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonists; sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors; type 2 diabetes mellitus
Online: 24 November 2019 (04:26:47 CET)
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is associated with a high risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular (CV) disease. Contributing pathophysiologic factors include endothelial dysfunction caused by excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased activity of nuclear factor kB (NFkB), altered macrophage polarization, and reduced synthesis of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC). Consequently, there can be a potentially rapid progression of the atherosclerotic disease with a higher propensity to unstable plaque, leading to increased cardiovascular mortality. Management is aimed at prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment of hyperglycemia and vascular complications. Innovative therapeutic approaches for T2DM seek to customize the antidiabetic treatment to each patient in order to optimize glucose-lowering effects, minimize hypoglycemia and adverse effects, and prevent cardiovascular events. The newer drugs (Glucagon Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists, GLP-1 RAs; Sodium GLucose coTransporter-2 inhibitors, SGLT2is; DiPeptidyl Peptidase-4 inhibitors, DPP4is) impact body weight, lipid parameters, and blood pressure, as well as endothelial function, inflammatory markers, markers of oxidative stress, and subclinical atherosclerosis. The present review summarizes the results of trials that evaluated the cardiovascular safety of these drugs and found them to be safe from the CV standpoint.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0572.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: glycine soja seed; type 2 diabetes mellitus; antidiabetic; AMPK; Akt; PPAR-γ
Online: 26 August 2020 (09:16:38 CEST)
Anti-diabetic effects of Glycine soja seed extract (GS) on Type 2 diabetes mellitus mouse model and human hepatocytes induced insulin resistance were investigated. 3 weeks old db/db mice were divided into 5 groups (n = 6) including two control groups and 3 GS treated groups with different doses. Oral administration of GS for 6 weeks to diabetic db/db mice reduced blood glucose level significantly in a dose dependent manner by 44.7% (300 mg/kg/day), 30.9% (150 mg/kg/day) and 21.1% (75 mg/kg/day). GS treatment also lowered significantly plasma level of HbA1c, insulin, IGF-1 and leptin, and increased that of adiponectin. GS treatment activated AMPK, and down-regulated GLUT2 in liver tissues of mice while up-regulated GLUT4 in muscle tissues of mice. In in vitro study with insulin resistance induced human hepatocyte, GS treatment increased glucose uptake and increased the activities of Akt and PPAR-γ in response to insulin. Treatment of GS appears to reduce blood glucose level by regulating energy metabolism positively through various metabolic pathways and reducing insulin resistance in Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0069.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Healthcare Disparities; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2; Vascular Diseases; Primary Health Care; Cohort
Online: 3 September 2021 (14:58:59 CEST)
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity, mortality, and hospital admissions. There is variability in clinical practice. The objectives are to analyze the variability in the control of Blood Pressure (BP), HbA1c, and LDL-C in T2D patients and its influence on admissions due to cardiovascular events (CVE) Methods: We analyzed the electronic records in Primary Care Health centers in Navarra (Spain) and hospital admission for CVE. We follow 480637 people from 2012 to 2016. We calculated indicators of control of patients with T2D for each year, percentage with: HbA1c < 7%; HbA1c >= 9%; BP <140/90 mmHg; LDL-C <100 mg/dl. We used logistic and Cox regression. Results: Patients in the best control GP practices cluster are 2.5 times more likely to have HbA1c <7% [OR: 2.46 (95% CI: 2.29-3.64)]. Poor HbA1c control ≥ 9% is more likely in the worst control cluster [OR: 1.73 (95% CI:1.63-1.83)]. The probability of admission for CVE increases with age, being male, low income, obesity, history of CVE, having HbA1c ≥ 9%, and belonging to a GP practice in the cluster of HbA1C ≥ 9% worst control. In contrast, it decreases in patients with HbA1c <7%, BP<140/90 mmHg and LDL <100 mg/dl.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0193.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: aronia; ginseng; mushroom; pancreatectomy; type 2 diabetes; gut microbiome; insulin secretion
Online: 12 June 2018 (13:01:30 CEST)
The combination of freeze-dried aronia, red ginseng, ultraviolet-irradiated shiitake mushroom and natokinase (AGM; 3.4: 4.1: 2.4: 0.1) was examined to evaluate its effects on insulin resistance, insulin secretion and gut microbiome in a non-obese type 2 diabetic animal model. Pancreatectomized (Px) rats were provided high fat diets supplemented with either of 1) 0.5 g AGM (AGM-L), 2) 1 g AGM (AGM-H), 3) 1 g dextrin (control), or 4) 1g dextrin with 120 mg metformin (positive-control) per kg body weight for 12 weeks. AGM (1 g) contained 6.22 mg cyanidin-3-galactose, 2.5 mg ginsenoside Rg3 and 0.6 mg β-glucan. Px rats had decreased bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femur and lean body mass in the hip and leg compared to the normal-control and AGM-L and AGM-H prevented the decrease. Visceral fat mass was lower in the control group than the normal-control group and its decrease was smaller by AGM-L and AGM-H. HOMA-IR was lower in descending order of the control, positive-control, AGM-L, AGM-H and normal-control groups. Glucose tolerance was deteriorated in the control group and it was improved by AGM-L and AGM-H more than in the positive-control group. Glucose tolerance is associated with insulin resistance and insulin secretion. Insulin tolerance indicated insulin resistance was highly impaired in diabetic rats, but it was improved in the ascending order of the positive-control, AGM-L and AGM-H. Insulin secretion capacity, measured by hyperglycemic clamp, was much lower in the control group than the normal-control group and it was improved in the ascending order of the positive-control, AGM-L and AGM-H. Diabetes modulated the composition of gut microbiome and AMG prevented the modulation of gut microbiome. In conclusion, AGM improved glucose metabolism by potentiating insulin secretion and reducing insulin resistance in insulin deficient type 2 diabetic rats. The improvement of diabetic status alleviated body composition changes and prevented changes of gut microbiome composition.
Online: 25 August 2020 (11:47:20 CEST)
Anti-diabetic effects of Glycine soja seed extract (GS) on Type 2 diabetes mellitus mouse model and human hepatocytes induced insulin resistance were investigated. 3 weeks old db/db mice were divided into 5 groups (n = 6) including two control groups and 3 GS treated groups with different doses. Oral administration of GS for 6 weeks to diabetic db/db mice reduced blood glucose level significantly in a dose dependent manner by 44.7% (300 mg/kg/day), 30.9% (150 mg/kg/day) and 21.1% (75 mg/kg/day). GS treatment also lowered significantly plasma level of HbA1c, insulin, IGF-1 and leptin, and increased that of adiponectin. GS treatment activated AMPK, and down-regulated GLUT2 in liver tissues of mice while up-regulated GLUT4 in muscle tissues of mice. In in vitro study with insulin resistance induced human hepatocyte, GS treatment increased glucose uptake and increased the activities of Akt and PPAR-γ in response to insulin. Treatment of GS appears to reduce blood glucose level by regulating energy metabolism positively through various metabolic pathways and reducing insulin resistance in Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0338.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Self-management, type 2 diabetes, immigrants, health systems, chronic diseases, qualitative study, lifestyle change, thematic analysis, socioeconomically disadvantaged, Stockholm
Online: 19 July 2018 (00:44:34 CEST)
Studies comparing provider and patient views and experiences of self-management within primary healthcare are particularly scarce in disadvantaged settings. In this qualitative study, patient and provider perceptions of self-management were investigated in five socio-economically disadvantaged communities in Stockholm. Twelve individual interviews and three group interviews were conducted. Semi-structured interview guides included questions on perceptions of diabetes diagnosis, diabetes care services available at primary health care centers, patient and provider interactions, and self-management support. Data was analysed using thematic analysis. Two overarching themes were identified. These were characterized by inherent dilemmas representing confusions and conflicts that patients and providers experienced in their daily life or practice respectively: adopting and maintaining new routines through practical and appropriate lifestyle choices (patients); and balancing expectations and pre-conceptions of self-management (providers). Patients found it difficult to tailor information and lifestyle advice to fit their daily life. Healthcare providers recognized that patients were in need of support to change behavior, but saw themselves as inadequately equipped to deal with the different cultural and social aspects of self-management. This study highlights patient and provider dilemmas that influence the interaction and collaboration between patients and providers with respect to communication and uptake of self-management advice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0225.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: Coronavirus disease 2019; COVID-19; children; diabetes; type 1 diabetes; type 2 diabetes; recommendations
Online: 15 May 2020 (04:54:43 CEST)
Recent reports suggest that the clinical course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in previously healthy children is usually milder as compared to adults. However, children with comorbid conditions such as diabetes are at increased risk of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as well as morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19. Experience in adults with diabetes shows that they are prone to faster metabolic decompensation, develop diabetes-related complications, and have a poor prognosis when hospitalized with COVID-19. Data on children are limited. The aim of this mini-review is to discuss the possible risks to children and adolescents with diabetes during the current pandemic and the special considerations in management in those affected with COVID-19. The challenges for children who develop new-onset type 1 diabetes during the COVID-19 lockdown, especially in accessing healthcare, are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0153.v3
Online: 22 September 2022 (03:22:16 CEST)
Background: Severe hypoglycemia is defined as low blood glucose levels that requires another person to be treated. Severe hypoglycemia is an emergency and is a complication that can occur in people taking insulin and some anti-diabetic drugs. The aim of our study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with hospitalization. Methods: We performed a retrospective study based on the clinical records of adults with severe hypoglycemia who were admitted consecutively to the Emergency Department (ED) of the Carlo Poma Hospital from January 2021 to December 2021. Results: Overall, 50 patients were identified and most of these were elderly patients with multiple comorbidities. They were treated with oral hypoglycemic drugs such as sulfonylureas or glinides (42%), insulin (46%) or both (6%). Hospitalization rates and in-hospital deaths occurred in 62% and in 4%, respectively. No risk factors were statistically significant correlated with hospitalization. The frailty of the elderly patients and their comorbidities were often the reason of hospitalization, rather than the episode of severe hypoglycemia. Conclusions: In our study, episodes of severe hypoglycemia can be a sign of the frailty of elderly diabetic patients and poor home care, who often require hospitalization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0621.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Type 1 Diabetes; Emotions; Emotional Intelligence; Health Behaviour; Emotions, Diabetes Management.
Online: 26 February 2021 (14:04:29 CET)
The functioning of the parents’ emotional sphere is very important to a child’s mental and physical health. This study focused on investigating the association between mothers’ emotional intelligence (EI) and paediatric type I diabetes (T1DM) disease management in their children. We hypothesized that mothers’ EI is associated with T1DM outcomes. Mothers of children with T1DM aged 6-12 years were surveyed. One hundred and thirty-four mothers, the main caregivers of their diabetic children, provided measures of EI and completed a demographic questionnaire. The primary indicator of diabetes management was haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c; the main form of glycosylated haemoglobin). EI scales and subscales were associated with glycaemic management indices. Logistic regression analysis was applied for the assessment of the association between parents’ EI and their paediatric with T1DM disease management. The analysis demonstrated a statistically significant correlation between T1DM management and mothers’ ability to understand and control own emotions, to transform their own negative emotions into positive and to control own negative emotions. Mothers’ EI scales and subscales of understanding and regulating their own emotions, subscales of transforming their own negative emotions into positive ones and controlling their own negative emotions were statistically reliable predictors of glycaemic control in children with T1DM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0091.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: metformin; pregnancy; gestational diabetes; polycystic ovarian syndrome; type 2 diabetes; obesity
Online: 6 June 2018 (12:09:00 CEST)
Metformin use in pregnancy is increasing worldwide as randomised controlled trial (RCT) evidence is emerging demonstrating its safety and efficacy. The Metformin in Gestational Diabetes (MiG) RCT changed practice in many countries demonstrating that metformin had similar pregnancy outcomes to insulin therapy with less maternal weight gain and a high degree of patient acceptability. A multicentre RCT is currently assessing the addition of metformin to insulin in pregnant women with type 2 diabetes. RCT evidence is also available for the use of metformin for women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and for non-diabetic women with obesity. No evidence of an increase in congenital malformations or miscarriages has been observed even when metformin is started before pregnancy and continued to term. Body composition and metabolic outcomes at two, seven and nine years have now been reported for the offspring of mothers treated in the MiG study. In this review, we will briefly discuss the action of metformin and then consider the evidence from the key clinical trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0263.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: Pregnancy; Diabetes; Screening, Lifestyle
Online: 11 January 2022 (12:24:01 CET)
Basildon and Thurrock University Hospital in the East of England region of the United Kingdom (U.K), witnessed rapidly increasing numbers of pregnant women with diabetes, causing overburdened specialist clinics, poorer patient experience and worsening clinical outcomes. This prompted the multidisciplinary team’s remodelling of care pathways, launching the General ownership of Diabetes (GooD) Pregnancy Network in 2014. Contrary to conventional limitation of care to specialist diabetes antenatal clinics, this novel initiative highlights contemporary necessity to equip and empower all maternity stakeholders to deliver basic care of gestational diabetes (GDM). It strategically connects a Midwife Tele-Clinic “hub” to Educating Gestational diabetics Group Sessions (EGGS) and standard antenatal clinics. Patients were key partners, regularly participating in feedback surveys and promoting public awareness by co-producing local newspaper articles that served up their stories as case studies. Furthermore, the EGGS “faculty” includes a former GDM patient whose video testimony has inspired almost 2000 patients and their families; aiming to foster long term healthy lifestyle changes. Final summative evaluation in November 2019 showed the new culture of wider consciousness has shortened ‘diagnosis to first consultation’ intervals and eliminated overbooked specialist clinics (none since January 2016), without further worsening of clinical outcomes. It also boosted research recruitment and avoided additional running costs to the tune of £66,384 a year.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0483.v1
Online: 29 June 2018 (11:36:18 CEST)
Gasca D herbal formulation is an antidiabetic medicine for the management of diabetes mellitus produced exclusively from natural ingredients. The level of some essential elements (Copper, chromium, Cobalt, Iron, Manganese, Nickel and zinc) and toxic (Cadmium, Arsenic, Mercury, and Lead) heavy metals were determined using microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MP-AES). The aim of this study is to evaluate the levels of essential and toxic heavy metals and also identify bioactive compounds present in Gasca D herbal formulation. The result shows no traces of Lead, Mercury, Zinc, Arsenic and Zinc, Iron was found to have highest concentration 67.16 + 7.5 µg/g and Cadmium lowest concentration 0.4 + 0.03µg/g. GC-MS analysis of Gasca D herbal formulation revealed the presence of 14 biologically active compounds which include N-Formyl-beta-alanine, Paromomycin, 3,4-Altrosan, Benzamide, 1,3,4-Thiadiazol-2-amine, Carbamodithioic acid, Carbonic acid, alpha-D-Glucopyranoside, Ethyl isocyanide, 2-Propanesulfinic acid, Propanamide, 2-Butenenitrile, Dicyclopropyl carbinol, Isoxazolidine, 1,5-Hexadiene 10-Azido-1-decanethiol. Conclusion: The result indicates that the mean levels of toxic metals in Gasca D herbal formulation were below WHO permissible levels. Gasca D herbal formulation also contains various bioactive compounds that can have various medicinal application which can be used for the treatment of various diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0365.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: cannabis; cannabinoid; diabetes; insulin
Online: 16 July 2021 (09:24:11 CEST)
The purpose of the study was to describe and compare the pharmacokinetics of five commercial edible marijuana products, determine the influence of body composition on pharmacokinetics, and, in light of epidemiology suggesting marijuana may offer diabetes protection, explore the influence of edible marijuana on glucose tolerance. Seven regular users of marijuana self-administered five edible products in a randomized crossover design; each product contained 10mg of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). 30-minutes following marijuana ingestion, participants imbibed a 75g glucose beverage. Time-to-peak plasma THC concentration ranged between 35 and 90 minutes; maximal plasma THC concentration (Cmax) ranged between 3.2 and 5.5 ng/mL. Differences between products in plasma THC concentration during the first 20-to-30 minutes were detected (P=0.019). Relations were identified between body composition and pharmacokinetic parameters for some products; however, none of these body composition characteristics were consistently related to pharmacokinetics across all five of the products. Edible marijuana had no effect on oral glucose tolerance compared with a marijuana-free control (Matsuda Index; P>0.395). Commercially available edible marijuana products evoke different plasma THC concentrations shortly after ingestion, but do not appear to influence acute glucose regulation. These data may allow marijuana users to make informed decisions pertaining to rates of edible marijuana ingestion and avoid overdose.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0184.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: type 2 diabetes; lifestyle behaviors; healthcare provider advice; provider-patient interactions; health care setting; brief lifestyle intervention exposure; diabetes prevention; diabetes management
Online: 15 February 2022 (09:20:36 CET)
Growing evidence suggests that healthcare provider advice may increase tobacco cessation, reduce alcohol use, and improve the adoption of desirable lifestyle behaviors among patients. However, how brief interventions and other provider-patient interactions can shape cumulative adoption of multiple modifiable behaviors is less well studied for diabetes prevention and control. Using weighted internet panel survey data from a large socio-demographically diverse urban population in the United States (n=1,003), the present study describes differences in group characteristics among those who had been “ever diagnosed” with prediabetes/diabetes versus those who had not. It also examines the associations between the cumulative adoption of lifestyle behaviors and each of the following: a) lifetime prediabetes/diabetes diagnosis; b) brief lifestyle intervention exposure (i.e., received provider advice/encouragement); and c) recent provider-patient communication about diabetes. There were several group differences in “ever diagnosed” prediabetes/diabetes status by age, employment status, health status, nutrition knowledge, blood pressure/hypertension diagnosis, and diabetes-related health behaviors (p<0.05). Each of the three provider-patient interactions of interest were positively associated with a higher cumulative sum of adopted modifiable lifestyle behaviors for diabetes prevention and management. Results suggest that provider advice/provider-patient interactions of any type can have a salutary impact on whether individuals with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes will engage in recommended lifestyle behavior modifications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0069.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: gestational diabetes mellitus; epigenetics; microbiota
Online: 6 January 2022 (10:30:40 CET)
Gestational diabetes (GDM) is considered a significant and increasing problem worldwide. The growing body of evidence points out that a hostile intrauterine environment in mothers with GDM via epigenetic mechanisms induces "diabetogenic" and "obesogenic" changes in an offspring's DNA. This sets in motion a vicious intergenerational cycle of metabolic diseases gradually deteriorating the health of the human population. One of the most important players in this process seems to be altered microbiota/microbiome. There is a chance that the identification of specific epigenetic marks may provide a key for future diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic solutions/measures in the field of person-alized medicine. Given the reversibility of most epigenetic changes, an opportunity arises to improve the long-term health of the human population/race. In this manuscript, we aim to summarize available data on epigenetic changes among women suffering from GDM and their progeny in association with changes in microbiome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0082.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: obesity, diabetes, cardiomyopathy, echocardiography, ultrasound
Online: 3 May 2018 (16:06:24 CEST)
Cardiomyopathy is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among all complications of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obese patients. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC) is characterized by changes in cardiac morphology with declines in both systolic and diastolic functions. No rodent models fully captured phenotypes of DC. The ZDSD rat, a new generation of T2D rat model with intact leptin signaling features with slow onset of diabetes and obesity, which closely mimics the development of the disease in patients. Age-matched male ZDSD and SD rats were monitored for blood pressure, glucose and cardiac function using echocardiography. Animals were also challenged with 1 mg/kg dobutamine for the assessment of cardiac reserve. ZDSD rats developed hypertension from age of 18 weeks with blood pressure significantly higher than controls. At resting state, ZDSD rats showed biphasic changes in left ventricular posterior wall thickness and cavity volume. Concomitantly, both ejection fraction (EF) and transmitral E/A ratio of LV declined at 34 weeks old. Upon treatment with dobutamine, ZDSD lost cardiac contractility. Therefore, ZDSD rats may serve as a suitable preclinical model to study potential therapeutic approaches to treat cardiomyopathy with presence of metabolic syndromes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0195.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: phytotherapy; hyperglycemia; diabetes; medicinal plants
Online: 31 December 2017 (03:36:25 CET)
Phytotherapy has long been a source of medicinal products and many attempts to use herbal medicine for the treatment of diabetes has been done over the years. Several medicinal plants and their preparations demonstrated to act in key points of glucidic metabolism. The most common mechanisms of action found include the inhibition of α-glucosidase and of AGE formation, the increase of GLUT-4 and PPARs expression and the antioxidant activity.Despite the large amount of literature available, the actual clinical effectiveness of medicinal plants in controlling diabetes related symptoms is still controversial and there is a crucial need for stronger evidence-based data. In this review, an overview of the medicinal plants, which use in the management of diabetes is supported by authoritative monograph, is provided. References to some species which are currently under growing clinical investigation are also reported.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0040.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: diabetes; exercise; cardiomyopathy; heart failure
Online: 3 October 2019 (13:59:22 CEST)
Diabetes mellitus is associated with cardiovascular, ophthalmic, and renal comorbidities. Among these, diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) causes the most severe symptoms and is considered to be a major health problem worldwide. Exercise is widely known as an effective strategy for the prevention and treatment of many chronic diseases. Importantly, the onset of complications arising from diabetes can be delayed or even prevented by exercise. Regular exercise is reported to have positive effects on diabetes mellitus and the development of DCM. The protective effects of exercise include the prevention of cardiac apoptosis, fibrosis, oxidative stress, and microvascular diseases, as well as improvement in cardiac mitochondrial function, and calcium regulation. The present review summarizes the recent findings to describe the potential mechanisms by which exercise may prevent DCM and heart failure.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0453.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: sugars, fructose, fruit juice, diabetes, overweight
Online: 24 September 2018 (11:51:47 CEST)
Much epidemiological research confirms a correlation between a high consumption of sugar sweetened beverages and obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In many of these studies, soft drinks, fruit drinks with added sugars and 100% fruit juices without added sugars were considered as one separate category and the total consumption was calculated cumulatively. Being able to make statements about the effects of individual types of drinks, as present in these clusters, is therefore impossible. However, recent data from well-controlled studies and meta-analyses on consumption of 100% fruit juice show that there is no effect on diabetes risks. Adults and children who choose to drink 100% juice appear to have a healthier lifestyle, consume better quality food and usually have a more favorable body weight. Although 100% fruit juice in relation to soft drinks contains a range of nutrients that are considered to be beneficial for health, the associated positive effects can be nullified by high sugar intake, in case of excessive consumption. That is why a golden rule can be applied: "100% fruit juice, as part of a healthy diet, is a healthy choice provided that you do not consume more juice than present in max. 1-3 fruits at a time. In the case of orange juice, this corresponds to a champagne glass full of juice (100-150ml). In this respect 100% fruit juice should be perceived as a nutritional drink that can be consumed with a meal and not as a thirst quencher.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0355.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: vitamin D; ACE2; diabetes; cardiovascular disease
Online: 20 April 2020 (01:37:43 CEST)
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a new virus which causes respiratory illness. Older adults and people who have previous chronic medical conditions are at higher risk for more serious complications from COVID-19.Hypovitaminosis D is attributed to the increased risk of lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) as well as diabetes, Cardiovascular event and associated comorbidities, which are the main causes of severe clinical problem in COVID-19 patients. Considering the protective role of vitamin D through modulating the innate and adaptive immune system as well as inhibition of Renin Angiotensin System (RAS), vitamin D supplementation might boost the immune system of COVID-19 patients and reduce severity of the disease in vitamin D deficient individuals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0228.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Obesity; Dietary practices; Diabetes; College students
Online: 13 May 2020 (15:26:52 CEST)
Obesity is an issue of public health concern as it contributes to chronic non-communicable diseases despite the fact that it is preventable. Dietary practices and environment have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, overweight and obesity among young people. This study aimed to assess the dietary patterns associated with obesity among Babcock University students. A descriptive cross-sectional study was used to obtain data from 391 participants. Results reveal respondent’s knowledge was 12.06 ± 2.3 translating to an 80% prevalence performance, level of perception was 37.23 ± 9.23 with prevalence of 59.0%, dietary practices was 19.6 ± 5.23 with 59% prevalence. Factors influencing dietary practices revealed mean score of 15.2 ± 4.5 with 72.3% prevalence performance. The factors identified in this study has a great influence on dietary practices of the study participants. In conclusion Babcock University students have an excellent knowledge of dietary practices related to obesity. They also had good dietary practices. The identified factors had a great influence on the study participants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0302.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Earwax; Glucose; Glycated Haemoglobin; Diabetes; diagnosis
Online: 14 October 2020 (10:52:13 CEST)
Increased chronic glucose is associated with pandemic diseases. To date, there is not a practical, as well as accurate sample for reflecting that level. We measured earwax glucose in 37 controls. They provided standard serum samples, Glycated Haemoglobin (HbA1c) and earwax samples on two time-points, one month a part. The specimens measured baseline fasting glucose, a follow-up postprandial glucose level and a between sample chronic glucose, calculated using the average level on the two occasions. The baseline earwax sample was obtained using a clinical method and the follow-up using a novel self-sampling earwax device. The earwax analytic time was significantly faster using the novel device in comparison to the clinical use of the syringe. Earwax accurately reflected glucose at both assessments with stronger correlations than HbA1c. Follow-up postprandial concentrations were more significant than their respective fasting baseline concentrations, reflecting differences in fasting and postprandial glycaemia and more efficient standardisation at follow up. Earwax demonstrated to be more predictable than HbA1c in reflecting systemic fasting, postprandial and long-term glucose levels and immune by confounders. Earwax glucose was approximately 60% more predictable than HbA1c in reflecting glycaemia over a month. The self-sampling device provided a sample that might accurately reflect chronic glycaemia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0079.v1
Online: 9 January 2018 (08:54:18 CET)
We synthesized a small series of five 3-[4-arylmethoxy)phenyl]propanoic acids using an easy and short step synthetic route. All compounds were tested in vitro against a set of four protein targets identified as key elements in diabetes: GPR40, aldose reductase (AKR1B1), PPARγ and GLUT-4. Compound 1 displayed an EC50 value of 0.075 μM against GPR40 and was an AKR1B1 inhibitor, showing IC50 = 7.4 μM. Compounds 2 and 3 behave as AKR1B1 inhibitors, GPR40 agonists and showed an increase of 2 to 4-times in the mRNA expression of PPARγ, as well as the GLUT-4 levels. Docking studies were conducted in order to explain the polypharmacological mode of action and the interaction binding mode of the most active compounds on these targets. Compounds 1-3 were tested in vivo at 100 mg/kg dose, being 2 and 3 orally actives, reducing glucose levels in a non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus mice model. Compounds 2 and 3 showed robust in vitro and in vivo efficacy, and could be considered as promising multitarget antidiabetic drug candidates. This is the first report of a single molecule with these four polypharmacological target action.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: HbA1c; point-of-care; diabetes; glycosylated haemoglobin
Online: 18 February 2021 (10:01:13 CET)
Objectives: This study was performed to estimate diagnostic accuracy of the two commercially available point-of-care tests to identify poor glycemic control defined by HbA1c levels, with HPLC as a reference. Settings: The study was carried at two locations, general medical out-patient department of a teaching medical college in Bhopal (urban), and a primary health care centre in rural area in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India.Participants: All individuals with diabetes mellitus who presented to the health care facility for assessment of glycemic control. We excluded participants who denied a written informed consent. No other exclusions were used. We compared HbA1c estimated from two index tests (Hemocue Hb501, Sweden; SD Biosensor, South Korea) from capillary blood samples with HPLC performed from venous blood, as a reference standard. Primary and secondary outcome measures: Diagnostic properties of index tests such as sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy for identifying poor glycemic control were primary outcome measures. Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) was secondary outcome measure.Results: Out of 114 patients, all received reference standard, 103-Hemocue A1C test, and 110- SD Biosensor test. Overall both the index-tests had similar diagnostic accuracy estimates. The area under the Receiver Operating Curve for SDA1c device was 0.935 (95%CI 0.886-0.983), and for Hemocue device was 0.938 (95%CI 0.893-0.984). The Hemocue device HbA1c value of above 7.0 (positive) correctly predicted poor glycemic control 92% times (81.58% for SD device). There were 4 vs. 11 device failures and 14 vs. 12 failures with SD and Hemocue respectively. Ambient air temperatures were no different for the device test failures.Conclusions: Commercially available point-of-care tests evaluated in this study are comparable and an acceptable alternative to HPLC based measurements for assessment of glycemic control. Tests and device failure rates of both the index tests are similar.
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Diabetes; Islets; Encapsulation; Bioartificial Pancreas; tapered conduit
Online: 7 June 2020 (14:19:28 CEST)
Diabetes is a life-long illness, it requires life-long solution. Today’s treatment is trading one type of pain with another, never truly ride off the illness. When Artificial Pancreas (AP) offered a possibility of cure, it stirred up a great deal of interest in the diabetic community (1). The system was based on artificial intelligence. It can automate the dosing of insulin to reduce high blood sugar levels overnight. The most dangerous time for diabetes. Artificial Pancreas may be able to allow diabetic patients to sleep through the night without waking up to check and manage their blood glucose levels. It was a significant advancement. However, the achievement was limited: 76.4% in range with the system vs. 67.8% without the system. This accomplishment was creditable, but not optimal. If Artificial Pancreas was to be offered as a viable treatment for diabetes, it must be a life-long solution and must be a total solution. Artificial Pancreas has failed in this challenge. We decided to pursue an alternative approach, a self-regulated system: bioartificial pancreas. It has the potential became a complete cure.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0100.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Diabetes; Hyperglycemia; Cancer; AMPK; TET2; Natural products
Online: 11 April 2022 (14:00:31 CEST)
Emerging evidence suggests that sustained diabetes-associated factors such as inflammation, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperglycemia are major contributors to aberrant cell proliferation and subsequent neoplastic transformation. Epidemiological studies have also highlighted that diabetes promoting a sedentary lifestyle, with or without the direct involvement of insulin, is frequently linked to cancer. However, our knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms that correlate hyperglycemia to oncogenic transformations remains limited. In this regard, a recent study has proved that hyperglycemia inactivates AMPK, which results in the destabilization of the TET2 and its tumour-suppressive role ultimately predisposing diabetes mellitus patients to cancer. To the management of hyperglycemia associated with oncogenesis, we need to explore a reverse pharmacology-based ethnopharmacological approach. Botanical-derived natural products are structurally and functionally more diverse with fewer or no side effects on humans. The present review discusses the molecular link between hyperglycemia and cancer progression with the effect of natural products as therapeutic agents on the hyperglycemia-cancer associated signalling pathway.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0114.v1
Online: 7 May 2020 (08:57:14 CEST)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) that has resulted in a global pandemic. The clinical symptoms of the disease vary from mild illness to acute respiratory issues. Older age, diabetes, cardiac diseases predict poor prognosis in COVID-19 patients. Various reports mention the incidence of liver injury with transient elevations in the levels of aminotransferases (liver function enzymes). The clinical characteristics, etiology and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms associated with liver damage in SARS-CoV2 infected patients need to be explored. This review highlights the severity of the hepatic injury in COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0719.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, screening, HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose
Online: 29 September 2020 (15:12:26 CEST)
Background: Diabetes is a common non-communicable disease that is responsible for about 9% of all deaths and 25% reduction in life expectancy and nearly half of the diabetic patients are not aware of their disease. In this regard, diabetes screening to identify un-known diabetic patients is of great importance. Aims: The aims of this study were first to evaluate the performance of two commonly used diabetes screening tests that are currently recommended by the Iranian national screening program for diabetes (NSPD). Methods: The validities of the two diabetes screening tests were measured among 1057 participants older than 30 years. The studied screening tests included Capillary fasting blood glucose (CBG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). The golden standard for measuring the validity of the tests was venous fasting plasma glucose (VPG). Results: According to the results, the sensitivity of CBG and HbA1c tests were 69.01% and 84.5% and the specificity of the tests were 95.7% and 79.3% respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 53.84% and 97.72% for CBG and 22.72% and 98.61% for HbA1c respectively. The recommended cut-points for CBG and HbA1c were 116.5 mg/dl and 7.15% respectively. Using these values as the new cut-points, sensitivity and specificity of CBG and HbA1c changed to 80.30% and 89.10%, and 77.50% and 94.20% respectively. Conclusions: Compared to several other countries, the performance of NSPD is relatively higher in Iran. ROC analysis suggested new cut-points for significantly better performance of NSPD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: antioxidant; anti-inflammatory; cardiovascular; Channa striatus; diabetes
Online: 9 August 2021 (14:59:08 CEST)
Diabetes mellitus remains a major risk factor for developing cardiovascular diseases, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular complications. Given the burden of diabetes-related cardiovascular complications, there is a need to identify strategies, safe and effective therapeutic agents that could effectively prevent and control diabetes. Presently, many patients living with diabetes depends on traditional medicines as an alternative cure. Channa striatus (Haruan) is a freshwater fish traditionally used to treat wounds, inflammations, and pains. Several pharmacological investigations have supported the folkloric claims of C. striatus extracts, including hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and pro-platelet aggregation activities. The therapeutic potentials of C. striatus were demonstrated to be associated with the presence of high content essential amino acids and good fatty acids known to improve cell growth and facilitate wound healing. Therefore, C. striatus bioactive compounds have great potentials to serve as lead candidates in developing novel therapeutic agents for the management of diabetes and related cardiovascular diseases. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the pharmacological properties and therapeutic potentials of C. striatus for the management of diabetes and associated cardiovascular complications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0208.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: oligonol; diabetes; pancreas; antioxidative stress; anti-inflammation
Online: 30 May 2017 (06:29:46 CEST)
Oligonol is a low-molecular-weight polyphenol derived from lychee fruit. This study was conducted to examine whether oligonol has an ameliorative effect on diabetes-induced pancreatic damage via oxidative stress-induced inflammation. Oligonol was orally administered at 10 or 20 mg/kg body weight/day for 10 days to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, and changes in serum glucose, C-peptide, insulin, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels as well as body weight and food and water consumption were assessed. Furthermore, rat pancreases were analyzed for weight, ROS generation, TBARS level, insulin content, and protein expressions of phosphor (p)-p38, p-extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2, p-inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa Bα, nuclear factor-kappa Bp65, cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6. Markers of diabetes were shown to be decreased by oligonol administration and histological damage in the pancreas was also ameliorated. These results indicate that oligonol exerts antidiabetic activities, which may be mediated via antioxidative, stress-related, anti-inflammatory signaling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0488.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: diabetes kidney; oxidative stress; inflammation; resveratrol; insulin signaling
Online: 4 January 2019 (11:43:35 CET)
Background and objectives: Diabetes mellitus is a disease of insulin deficiency or its inability of usage by the target tissues leading to impairment of carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolisms. Resveratrol, having robust anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties, has a high potential to treat or prevent the pathogenesis of diseases. This study was conducted to reveal the relationship between diabetes-induced oxidative stress and tissue inflammation with changes in main enzymatic antioxidants (cat, sod, gpx, and gst) and the components of the insulin signaling pathway (insulin Rβ, irs-1, pi3k, akt, mtor) in kidney tissues. Additionally, the effects of resveratrol on these parameters were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups; (1) control/vehicle; (2) control/20 mg/kg resveratrol; (3) diabetic/vehicle; (4) diabetic/20 mg/kg resveratrol. Gene and protein expressions of antioxidant enzymes and insulin signaling elements were evaluated in renal tissues. Results: Downregulation of antioxidant enzymes’ gene expression in the kidney tissues of diabetic rats was demonstrated and this situation was devoted partially to the reduced gene expression of nfκb. Moreover, the components of renal insulin signaling elements were upregulated at both gene and protein expression levels in diabetic rats, and resveratrol treatment decreased this sensitization towards the control state. Conclusion: Resveratrol partially improved diabetes-induced renal oxidative stress and inflammation due to healing action on renal antioxidant enzymes and insulin signaling pathway components.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0396.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: diabetes; chronic wounds; smart wound dressing; biochemical sensor
Online: 28 May 2018 (10:22:39 CEST)
Given their severity and non-healing nature, diabetic chronic wounds are a significant concern to the 30.3 million Americans diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (2015). Peripheral arterial diseases, neuropathy, and infection contribute to the development of these wounds, which lead to an increased incidence of lower extremity amputations. Early recognition, debridement, offloading, and controlling infection are imperative for timely treatment. However, wound characterization and treatment are highly subjective and based largely on the experience of the treating clinician. Many wound dressings have been designed to address particular clinical presentations, but a prescriptive method is lacking for identifying the particular state of chronic, non-healing wounds. The authors suggest that recent developments in wound dressings and biosensing may allow for the quantitative, real-time representation of the wound environment, including exudate levels, pathogen concentrations, and tissue regeneration. Development of such sensing capability could enable more strategic, personalized care at the onset of ulceration and limit the infection leading to amputation. This review presents an overview of the pathophysiology of diabetic chronic wounds, a brief summary of biomaterial wound dressing treatment options, and biosensor development for biomarker sensing in the wound environment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0516.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Tuberculosis; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; diabetes; hyperglycemia; dyslipidemia; cholesterol; triglycerides
Online: 30 September 2021 (14:01:44 CEST)
Diabetes is a major risk factor for tuberculosis (TB). Diabetes increases the risk of progression from latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) to active pulmonary TB and TB patients with diabetes are at greater risk of more severe disease and adverse TB treatment outcomes compared to TB patients without co-morbidities. Diabetes is a complex disease characterized not only by hyperglycemia but also various forms of dyslipidemia. However, the relative contribution of these underlying metabolic factors to increased susceptibility to TB are poorly understood. This review summarizes our current knowledge on epidemiology and clinical manifestation of TB and diabetes comorbidity. We subsequently dissect the relative contribution of body mass index, hyperglycemia, elevated cholesterol and triglycerides on TB disease severity and treatment outcomes. Lastly, we discuss the impact of selected glucose and cholesterol lowering treatments frequently used in the management of diabetes on TB treatment outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0259.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: diabetes; microbiota; yogurt; milk; dairy; probiotic; prebiotic; synbiotic
Online: 13 January 2021 (17:23:07 CET)
The prevalence of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is increasing worldwide and there are no long-term preventive strategies to stop this growth. Emerging research shows that perturbations in the gut microbiome significantly contribute to the development of T2D, while microbiome modulators may be beneficial for T2D prevention. However, microbiome modulators that are effective, safe, affordable, and able to be integrated daily in the diet are not yet available. Based on our previous pro- and prebiotic studies, we developed a novel synbiotic yogurt comprised of human-origin probiotics and plant-based prebiotics and investigated its impact on diet- and streptozotocin-induced T2D in mice. We compared the effects of our synbiotic yogurt to those of a commercially-available yogurt (control yogurt). Interestingly, we found that feeding of this synbiotic yogurt significantly reduced the development of hyperglycemia (diabetes) in response to high-fat diet feeding and streptozotocin compared to milk-fed controls. Surprisingly, the control yogurt exacerbated diabetes progression. Synbiotic yogurt beneficially modulated the composition of gut microbiota compared to milk; conversely, the control yogurt negatively modulated the gut microbiota by significantly increasing the abundance of detrimental bacteria like Proteobacteria and Enterobacteriaceae. In addition, the synbiotic yogurt protected intact pancreatic islet morphology compared to the milk control, while the commercial yogurt demonstrated worse effects on pancreatic physiology. These results suggest that our newly developed synbiotic yogurt protects against diabetes in mice and can be used as a modality to prevent diabetes progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0083.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: scavenger receptor CD36; inflammation; vascular calcification; diabetes; atherosclerosis
Online: 4 August 2020 (10:37:01 CEST)
Diabetes mellitus entails increased atherosclerotic burden and medial arterial calcification but the precise mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Our aim was to investigate the implication of CD36 in inflammation and calcification processes orchestrated by vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) under hyperglycemic and atherogenic conditions. We examined the expression of CD36, pro-inflammatory cytokines, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers and mineralization-regulating enzymes by RT-PCR in human VSMCs, cultured in medium containing normal (5 mM) or high glucose (22 mM) for 72 h with or without oxLDL (24 h). The uptake of DiI-labelled oxLDL was quantified by flow citometry and fluorimetry and calcification assays were performed in VSMC cultured in osteogenic medium and stained by alizarin red. We observed an induction in the expression of CD36, cytokines, calcification markers and ER stress markers under high glucose that was exacerbated by oxLDL. These results were confirmed in carotid plaques from subjects with diabetes versus non-diabetic subjects. Accordingly, the uptake of DiI-labelled oxLDL was increased after exposure to high glucose. Silencing of CD36 abolished the induction of CD36 and reduced the expression of calcification enzymes and mineralization of VSMC. Our results indicate that CD36 signaling is involved in hyperglycemia and oxLDL-induced vascular calcification in diabetes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0373.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Mediterranean diet; DASH diet; vegetables; fruits; hypertension; diabetes
Online: 25 January 2022 (09:54:12 CET)
The Seven Country study showed that traditional Japanese diet and Mediterranean diets are protective against cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Japanese diet is considered the healthiest because it provides highest longevity and health to Japanese. DASH diet and Mediterranean style diets are also considered the healthy diets, although, it is possible that Indo-Mediterranean style diet may provide better protective effects among patients with CVDs, compared to other diets. The concept of Indo-Mediterranean type of diets was developed, after examining its role in the prevention of CVDs in India, the value of which was confirmed by a landmark study from France; The Lyon Heart Study. These workers found that eating alpha-linolenic acid rich Mediterranean style diet can cause significant decline in CVDs and all-cause mortality. Later on in 2018, PREDIMED Study from Spain also reported that a modified Mediterranean style diet can cause significant decline in CVDs, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cancer. The Indo-Mediterranean diet may be superior to DASH diet and Mediterranean diet because it contains millets, porridge, beans and spices; turmeric, cumin, fenugreek and coriander which may have better anti-inflammatory and cardio-protective effects. These foods are rich sources of nutrients; flavonoids, calcium and iron as well as proteins which are useful in the prevention of under as well as over-nutrition and related diseases. It is known that DASH diet and Mediterranean style diets have similar influence on CVDs. However, Indo-Mediterranean style diet, may be as good as Japanese diet, due to improved food diversity and high content of antioxidants in the diets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0538.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Green space; Arid; Diabetes; Hispanics; Built Environment; Biophilia
Online: 20 November 2020 (11:25:55 CET)
Evolutionary psychology theories propose that contact with green, natural environments may benefit physical health, but little comparable evidence exists for brown, natural environments, such as the desert. In this study, we examined the association between “brownness” and “greenness” with fasting glucose among young residents of El Paso, Texas. We defined brownness as the surface not covered by vegetation or impervious land within Euclidian buffers around participants’ homes. Fasting glucose along with demographic and behavioral data was obtained from the Nurse Engagement and Wellness Study (N = 517). We found that residential proximity to brownness was not associated with fasting glucose when modeled independently. In contrast, we found that residential greenness was associated with decreased levels of fasting glucose, despite the relatively low levels of greenness within the predominantly desert environment of El Paso. A difference between the top and bottom greenness exposure quartiles within a 250 m buffer was associated with a 3.5 mg/dL decrease in fasting glucose levels (95% confidence interval: -6.2, -0.8). Our results suggest that within the understudied context of the desert, green vegetation may be health-promoting to a degree that is similar to other, non-desert locations in the world that have higher baselines levels of green.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0399.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Adherence, Moringa, Plantain, Glycemic control, Ghana
Online: 15 June 2021 (11:40:02 CEST)
Abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an independent risk-factor for cardiovascular diseases. Plant-based dietary-patterns have been shown to positively impact the effects this cardiovascular risk-factor. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of adherence to moringa, plantains, moringa-plantain combined, and other plant based dietary-patterns with glycemic-control among persons with type-2-diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Facility-based cross-sectional-study was conducted among 530 T2DM patients in Ghana. Structured-questionnaires were used to collect demographic, anthropometric, and clinical variables. Adherence to plant-based dietary-patterns were assessed with 24-hour dietary-recall questionnaire. SPSS version-22 was used in data analysis. BMI, HbA1c%, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were significantly correlated with adherence to plant-based dietary-patterns (p-value < 0.05). After adjusting for confounders, adherence to: Plantain diets, standardized regression coefficient β (95%CI): -0.098 (-0.321, -0.022), Yam, β (95%CI): 0.148 (0.066, 0.496), Moringa diets β (95%CI): -0.095 (-0.325,-0.011) and Bean-diets β (95%CI): -0.112 (-0.577-.007) were significantly associated with glycemic control. Also adherence to: Plantain-moriga combined diets β (95%CI): -0.406 (-0.413, -0.049) and Plantain-beans combined diets β (95%CI): -0.128 (-0.188, -0.038) were significantly associated with glycemic control. Adherence to Plantain, Yam, Beans, Plantain-moriga combined diets, and Plantain-beans combined diets could be associated with glycemic control. Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Adherence, Moringa, Plantain, Glycemic control, Ghana.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0296.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Urology Keywords: Autoimmune diabetes; PD-1 inhibitor; Sintilimab; Penile carcinoma
Online: 20 July 2022 (06:09:13 CEST)
Penile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare disease. Treatment options for advanced penile cancer are often limited and prognosis remains poor. We reported a 52-year-old male recurrent and metastatic penile SCC patient with high PD-L1 expression(90%) and TMB(14.4 muts/Mb). He had undergone penectomy, bilateral inguinal lymph node dissection and excision of the abdominal wall mass during two surgeries. Despite cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy and sequential chemotherapy with docetaxel plus cisplatin were then carried out, the carcinoma still had progressed. The patient then obtained progression free survival exceeding 32 months with continuous sintilimab, although new onset of ICI-induced diabetes after 24 cycles of sintilimab and required sustained insulin treatment. He didn’t have positive type 1 diabetes associated autoantibodies, but had susceptible HLA genotype DR3-DQ2 haplotype. This is the first patient with radiation and multichemorefractory penile SCC obtained remarkable anti-tumor effect of partial regression exceeding 32 months during continuous sintilimab.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0061.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: diabetes; saffron; turmeric; food supplements; supplementation; physical exercise
Online: 7 June 2020 (06:01:12 CEST)
Diabetes Mellitus is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in the world and one of its main features is chronic hyperglycemia. Among the therapeutic forms used to control the pathology are pharmacotherapy and the use of other alternatives such as regular exercise, which participates in glycemic control and the ingestion of plant extracts with antioxidant effects in the body. Among the different plants used, curcumin is a possible plant to be used to attenuate the hyperglycemic picture triggered by Diabetes Mellitus. Some studies suggest that this plant is antioxidant and hypoglycemic. The review aimed to know the antioxidant and hypoglycemic potential of curcumin supplementation in DM. The search was performed considering articles published between 2010 to 2019, in English and Portuguese, and a theoretical survey of relevant information was conducted in the main databases of scientific publications: Virtual Health Library and its indexed databases as Pubmed, LILACS, Scielo and Scientific Electronic Library Online. The associated use Turmeric and Physical Exercise demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and hypoglycemic activity caused by Diabetes Mellitus. We may suggest that these are potential therapeutic ways to improve the quality and survival of diabetic patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0431.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Diabetes mellitus; Lamiaceae; glucose uptake; toxicity; insulin resistance
Online: 19 July 2020 (20:01:42 CEST)
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), considered one of the most common metabolic disorders, has dramatically increased and resulted in higher rate of morbidity and mortality around the world, in the past decade. It is well known that insulin resistance in target tissues and a deficiency in insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells are the main characteristic of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was the bio-evaluation of compounds isolated from three selected plant species; namely, Salvia africana-lutea, Leonotis ocymifolia and Plectranthus madagascariensis, for their glucose uptake ability. Methanolic extracts were produced from the arterial part of each plant. Compounds were identified using different spectroscopic techniques. The glucose uptake ability of each compound was then evaluated in mammalian cells using 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate. The cytotoxicity of each compound was established via the MTT assay. Chromatographic purification of the three plant species yielded fifteen pure terpenoids. Compounds 1 (p = 0.0031), 8 (p = 0.0053), and 6 (p = 0.0086), showed a marked increase in glucose uptake, with p values of p=0.0031, p=0.0053 and p=0.0086, respectively. Additionally, 1, 4 and 6 exhibited cytotoxicity toward mammalian tissue with a decrease in cell viability of ~70%, ~68% and ~67%, respectively. The results suggested that several compounds demonstrated a marked increase in glucose uptake while two of the compounds exhibited signs of cytotoxicity. It may, therefore, be suggested that these compounds be considered as potential candidates for novel plant-derived alternative therapies in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0515.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: chronobiology; diabetes; epigenetics; immuno-metabolism; nitric oxide synthase
Online: 19 November 2020 (15:08:41 CET)
Pancreatic β-cell-specific clock knock-out mice develop β cell oxidative-stress and failure, as well as glucose-intolerance. How inflammatory stress affects the cellular clock is under-investigated. Real-time recording of Per2:luciferase reporter activity in murine and human pancreatic islets demonstrated that the proinflammatory cytokine Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) lengthened the circadian period. qPCR-profiling of core clock gene expression in insulin-producing cells suggested that the combination of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) caused pronounced but uncoordinated increases in mRNA levels of multiple core clock genes, in particular of Reverse-erythroblastosis virus α (Rev-erbα), in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The REV-ERBα/β agonist SR9009, used to mimic cytokine-mediated Rev-erbα induction, reduced constitutive and cytokine-induced Brain and muscle arnt-like 1 (Bmal1) mRNA levels in INS-1 cells as expected. SR9009 induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced insulin-1/2 (Ins-1/2) mRNA and accumulated- and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, reduced cell-viability, and increased apoptosis levels, reminiscent of cytokine toxicity. In contrast low (<5,0 μM) concentrations of SR9009 increased Ins-1 mRNA and accumulated insulin-secretion without affecting INS-1 cell viability, mirroring low-concentration IL-1β mediated β-cell stimulation. Inhibiting nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, the lysine deacetylase HDAC3 and the immunoproteasome reduced cytokine-mediated increases in clock gene expression. In conclusion, the cytokine-combination perturbed the intrinsic clocks operative in mouse and human pancreatic islets and induced uncoordinated clock gene expression in INS-1 cells, the latter effect associated with NO, HDAC3 and immunoproteasome activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0205.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: diabetes; vegetarian; diet; nutrition; metabolic syndrome; disparity; child
Online: 17 October 2019 (15:24:37 CEST)
The national rate of obesity in US Hispanic/Latinos exceeds all other major ethnic subgroups and represents an important health disparity. Plant-based diet interventions that emphasize whole plant foods with minimal processing and less refined grains and sugar have shown have shown great promise in control of obesity, but there is a paucity of data translating this treatment effect to disparity populations. The objective of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and scalability of the Healthy Eating Lifestyle Program (HELP) – a hospital-based, family centered, culturally tailored, plant-based diet intervention for Hispanic/Latino pediatric obesity patients and their families. Our evaluation methods included: 1) a quasi-experimental, one group, longitudinal study to measures changes in BMI at 0, 6, and 18 weeks of follow-up, and 2) A stakeholder analysis consisting of six key informant interviews of HELP program staff. We found a significant decrease in body mass index across all adults (-0.2 kg/m2 p=0.0047), that was much stronger in men. For children ages 5-12 years, there was also a significant decrease in BMI Z score from pre- to post- intervention (p=0.04). Program strengths were the cultural tailoring of the plant-based diet choices, and allowing a tiered approached that did not require adherence to strict vegetarianism. Our pilot study findings from HELP raise the possibility that incorporating plant-based diet choices into the treatment of pediatric obesity patients and their families can be an effective addition to a culturally responsive care model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0094.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: diabetes mellitus; hyperglycemia; cardiomyopathy; lipid toxicity; polyphenols; aspalathin
Online: 17 November 2016 (11:19:37 CET)
Aspalathin, a C-glucosyl dihydrochalcone, has previously been shown to protect cardiomyocytes against hyperglycemia-induced shifts in substrate preference and subsequent apoptosis. However, the precise gene regulatory network remains to be elucidated. To unravel the mechanism and provide insight into this supposition, the direct effect of aspalathin in an isolated cell-based system, without the influence of any variables, was tested using an H9c2 cardiomyocytes model. Cardiomyocytes were exposed to high glucose (33 mM) for 48 hours before post-treatment with or without aspalathin. Thereafter, RNA was extracted and RT2 PCR Profiler Arrays were used to profile the expression of 336 genes. Results showed that, 57 genes were differentially regulated in the high glucose or high glucose and aspalathin treated groups. STRING analysis revealed lipid metabolism and molecular transport as the biological processes altered after high glucose treatment, followed by inflammation and apoptosis. Aspalathin was able to modulate key regulators associated with lipid metabolism (Adipoq, Apob, Cd36, Cpt1, Pparγ, Srebf1/2, Scd1 and Vldlr), insulin resistance (Igf1, Akt1, Pde3 and Map2k1), inflammation (Il3, Il6, Jak2, Lepr, Socs3, and Tnf13) and apoptosis (Bcl2 and Chuk). Collectively, our results propose that aspalathin could reverse metabolic abnormalities by activating Adipoq while modulating the expression of Pparγ and Srebf1/2, decreasing inflammation via Il6/Jak2 pathway, which together with an observed increased expression of Bcl2 prevents myocardium apoptosis.